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Full text of "Vi︠e︡stnik Evropy, Volume 147"

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raaBHafl Ronropa sypnua: | 3KcneAKKÍfl sypnaia: 

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BJIACTB. 

GHjIA— HÍMoe JiHuo. 

nPOMETEfi— THxaH-B. 

TE^ECTT) — ByjiKaHi. 

XOFB HHM<trb 0KeaHHA'B. 

OKEAHt. 

10, AO^ HHaxa. 

rEPMECB— MepKypifi, nociaHHHKi óofobl. 



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Bi ropixi CsHeiH. 



BxoAArb BIACTB h CHjIA, abí ÓoraHn; oni se^cyrB ysHHKa IlPOMETEfl. 
3a HHKH FE^ECTl) ci» ^oiotohi h i^íhamh. 

Bjtagtb. 

Mu Bi CrhoIh, Mti Ha spaio seMJíH, — 
jDí^ocTHrjiH MU nycTUHL HenpoxoAHMuxx. 
TenepB, Fe^ecn, HcnojiHH npEroBOpi 
Q^apfl tforoB^: £*& BepmHH^ CRajrb rpaHHTHUxi 
SBtejríteHUMH níbnauR tu npeByft 
IIpecTynHHRa. Binei^ tbo& jyqedapnuft, — 
OroHB yKpaBi, — owh judasmi vb jw^ npHHecB. 
3a TflSRÍft rp&Li ero HaRasyTB 6orH, 
?To6u BJiaAuqecTBO SeBeca owb 

npHSHaJTB H paSlIOÓEJTB HB^OSHUXl CMepXHUXX. 

Te^ecti. 

o, BjacTB! H TU, o, Cn^ia! ao Koni^a 

HcnojTHEJiH Bu npHroBopi SeBeca. 

A SI... jBu! xepsHy jih npesoBaTB 

Ki HarHifB CBajairb BoaiiotíjeHHaro ($paTa?.. 

?t6 A^aTB? PoRi BejinrL nocjiyinHUHi 6uTb. 

6%A& TOMy, STO HeÓpeseTB Beji^HBeifB 

BceBuniHflro... — OeMHxu Myxpufi cuhi! 

HanepeRopi Moeí cbo6oaho& bojií, 

Te6a kb CRajiairB a i^iibk) npeRyio, — 

El nycTUHHOMy, ne^ajiBHOMy rpaHHTy, 

Fa^ rojoca JiOACRoro HBRorAa 

Tu He ycjiuniHinB, rx^, jiy^aME cojiHi^a 

OoauKeHHoe, TBoe escoxHeTi t6jo 

H no^épH^erB. TeMHaa jih hohb 

OrHHMeTB cbítb y sas^yn^aro CB^Ta, 

Hjib BucymHTB sapa pocy nojsEeft, 

TBoa Aynia TOMHTBca Ója^tl bí^ho — 

n He pOTRffiJlCSl TOrB, BOMy AftHO 

Teíía cnacTH. HecHacrnufi, botb — narpa^a 
TBoeĚ jnoÓBH h cocrpaAaHBa vh noxám! 
Tu caiTB ÓujTh 6orbj h, ne ($oacB 6ovovhj 
BosHecB jiiOAeft tu bi nonecTaMi 6e3irlpHuiťB. 
3a TO TenepBy npHBOBaHHu& bi CBajii, 
OfflWbj 6681 CHa, cornyTB bojiíhi ne vh CHJiaxi, 



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CROBAHHUii OPOMETEft. 

BesnoMon^HO croHaiB tu o6pe^ewhy 
BstiBaTB, MOJiHTB, — HO HenpeRJiOHHO cepAAe 
S^pfl 6oTOVh: TaR'B hobhA BJiacrejtEHi 
Bcerxa secroKxI 

Bjáotb. 

Ki HeMy 2Be nex^iHiiiB m 
H c^TyeniB ÓesiuoAHO? BparB Ojranna^ 

nOXETHBmift TBOfi COÓCTBeHHUft OrOHB, 

H Aifl TeCfl HO Bparb se HeHaBHCTHufi? 

Fe^ect-b. 
CBfln^eHHBi ysM Apys6u n poACiBa! 

Bjaotb. 

CBfln^eHHÍe Bai^HÍfl SeBeca. 

JlfiSí Apys<$H JIH HapymHTB hxi xepsHemB? 

Fe^eotx. 
Tbi saJiocTE He Bt^aemB, 6orHHfl! 

Bjaotb. 

Ero saji^TB — HanpacHiift xpy^i. IIoB^pB^ 
y^acrieirB eiiy th ho ncnroseniBl 

Te^ecti. 
O, penecjo npoBijrroe Moe!.. 

Bjiáotb. 

Ho penecio hh wl není xyrB ne bhhobho. 
SartifB ero 6esjuuo npoBJíHHaTB? 

Fe^ecti. 

IlyCTB KTO-HHÓyXB XPyrOfi 6u HBTB Bja^^^l.. 

Bjtactb. 

Th BHÓpajTB caifB ero. Cbo($oxhbi 5orH 

Bo Bcem: oxeh'b jihiiib 3eBCB i^apinrB Ha^i hhmh. 

Fe^ect-b. 
Aa, owh i^tpHn*, — fl BHsy no Bceny! 



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raCTHHBl BBPOmi. 



Bjáotb. 



GniniH Haxtrb npecrynHHKy osobu, 

Fe^bcti. 
Cmotph — A^ pysi fse roroBu Koianfí. 

Bjáctb. 

BOSBMH CROpift, H pyBH B% HHXX BjIOSH, 

n MOJOTOiTB npHsyfi Vh cboljA rpaHHTHofi. 

Fe^ecti. 
HcnojraeHH BeiŠHÍfl tboh. 

Bjáotb. 
En^e yxapB, en^el Bon Tasí, noicpteie, 

^TO&b XHTpOCTbK) He MOPB 0H% ytí&iUlTB. 

rE«ECTX. 

OxHa pyíca npEKOBana ki yxecy. 

Bjiaotb. 

npflsyft TenepB Apyryi) pysy... IlycTB 
THiaHi Mory^by HoSeBCi en^e CHiBHie! 

Fe^bcti. 
fl cfíbjííLjrb Bce, Tro6i yroAHTB tforaMi! 

Bjiaotb. 

TenepB odiOMBOirB ciaiH saocTpeHHoft 
Eny HacBBOSB tbi rpyxB ero npoHse! 

Feobcti. 
O) IIpoMereS, a mikTfy ropBso uaTf! 

BlÁOTB. 

Tu maneniB HaA'B sparom (k>roBi: CMorpii, 
^!ío6'b HO npHnuocB n Haxi co6ofi noiuasaTB! 

Fe«E0T'B. 

YsacHoe tu spHiiiB nepeA'B čoóofil.. 



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GBOBAHHUit nPOBCETEft. 



Bjiagtb. 



Sl spK) 6oTOVh Jíansb npaB6AHyH> Kápy... 
Ho H03J03SH eny na ^pecjia i^inB. 

rEOECT-B. 

Si SHaH) caMi — no6eJi'6BaTB ne Hy»HO. 

BjAGTb. 

HoBejriteaTB a Óyxy! Hy, CROpift 

CnycTHCB TVb Horairb. ÚpOA^HB CHaiaia wb Rom^a. 

Fe^ecti. 
Cnorpn, roTOBO. TpyAi* MOfi neBejiHKi. 

Bjiáctb. 

BoTB Tasí. TenepB npHByt rBOSAflMH Hore, 
H snafi — OTHCTB npHA^rcfl AaxB bo Bceifi. 

Fe^ect-b. 
Tboh cJiOBa ^epTanTB tbohitb noAO^Hu! 

Bjiágtb. 

Tn MOxemB eainb MflrsocepxeiHHiix 6uTBy 
He ocysAaĚ xpyriixi sa TBepxocTB Ayxa. 

Fe^ectx. 
Owb W9h OKOBX He BupBercfl. Visemi 

Bjiáctb (kz IIpoMemeio), 

Hy ^TO-s'B? TenepB rjiyMHCB HaA'B BOJieft SeBcat 
Bopyft oroHB 6oroBi, ^TO&b fb Aftpi HeciH 
HeHTOSHmrB jooffiwhl PasBt jk>ah Moryr^B 
Te6£ noMOHB? A HŠRorAa tu Cjiblii 
GpexH dovovh npopoBOM^B. Tjsib se Euwk 
TBoft npesHÍi x^p^?*- H nycxB HayHHTx ohi, 
EasTB BupBaiBCfl hsi luri^na npcMereia. 

(Bjiacmhy Cum u Fe^ecmb — yxodnim.) 

IIpoMETEft (odum). 
Tedfly despit HeÓecHEifi, Bací, o, B^xpii 

KpEUaTHe^ H p^KH^ H 3eMJfl, 



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10 B^CTEJSKh EiBPOnH. 

Bceo6ii^afl npanaxepb, h sajiOBib 
noAOÓHiift CMtxy myiTB MHororojocEift, — 
Si BdbTb BacB, Bdbrh vb CBEjíibiejiB soBy: 
CKorpHTe — BOTB, ht6 TepnHTB 6orB ora 6oral... 

BHAHTe: TEicfl^eji']kTÍfl, 

IlEiTROfi HcrepsaHHfiift, 

By^y crpaaaTB. 

IlíapB HeCosHTejeft, 

3eBCB, BOdJOSHJTB HS KeHfl 

Iltiin noBopHtifl... 

O, fl crpaxaio otb MyR'B 

HuHiniHHXi, 6yAyiAHX'B. Gnopo jih 

CsopÓH HacrynHTB KOHei^'B?.. 
?TĎ a. CBa8aj['B?! He caiťB jih a. npeABssy 
rpflAyn^ee? HesAftHHaji ne^ajiB 
He noc^TETB MeHji. Kivbj Tepiri^BO 
DepeHecTH a js^oimewh Bce, ^xb Posi 
HasHaHHJii MH%. CyABtfa HeoTBpaTHMa. 
Ho He Mory MOJiqaTB — h paacBasaTB 
Cboh) ne^ajiB a He Mory. Ofobb 
Sl CMepxHiDťB jífi^jTbj H BOTi 8a HTĎ HaBasaHi. 

nOXHTHJTB fl ÓOSeCTBeHHyK) ECRpy, 
CospUJll KB CTBOJI^ CyXOrO TpOCTHHRa, 

H jiioAflicB crajTB cb tíxb nopB ofohb ooÓpaTOirB, 
noMon^HEKOiTBy y^HTejfeiTB BO Bcem. 
TenepB mimf (SoraMii sa npecrynjieHBe, 
Ha B08Ayx'6 npHB^meHHuft bb CRajri! 

Ybu, yBHl.. 
?T0 8a 8ByB'B, HTO sa mejiecTB bo Mwb AOJer&ii? 

9to rojiocB seMHoft hjib HeÓecHufi? 
Kxo-HHÓyAB ne npEmeji jíe bb j^ajesHirB ropaMB, 

?to6b B8rjiflHyTB na nosopB MOft h MyBH? 
?TO-s%, CMorpHTe: a — sajsift, saBOBaHHuft Óofb, 

OjHMnifil^aMB 8a to HeHaBHCTHII&y 

?T0 ÓesiitpHO Jio^efi a jooÓsk)... Ho oiuitb 
9totb myMB... Gjiobho utehu nopxaHyrB, 

CjOBHO B08AyXB OTB 6BH)II^HXCfl Bpiudft 8BeHETB... 

Mwb Bcero, ^b xaBB 6jiH8aTCfl, crpanmo... 
{Ea tcpuAamoú noMcnumh noneJínemCH Xqpz HUM0h Ofceauud^.) 



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CBOBAHHBlfi nPOMETEft. 11 



XOPX. 

(Gmpo^a nepean.) 
B,ÍTby He 6oficfl! Mu Cb jioÓobbh) 
npiuerfijiH K^B aTHiTB CRajiaiTB. 
Mu eABa MOJbCofi ckiohhjih 
CepAi^e crporaro oma. 
Ki HaMi AOHeccfl rpoMii sei*]^ 
B% rjiy6HH7 noABOAHUX^B rpoTOBi, 
H CTUA^KHBOCTB no8a6uRB, 
He jciAwb HaA^TB caH^ajaft, 
Mu npHUHajuiCB bi KOjecHHi^'6 
Ob AJHOBeHBeifB BŠTepRa. 

IIPOMETEft. 

IIocMOTpaTe, o, An^epa 

MHoroA^THOft TeeiH 

H OTi](a OseaBa, 

?t5 myiiflii^HicB hotorom^b 

CXJreKaeTi bch) seiuiK) — 

nocMorpHTe: a sa^b, 

Ha nosopB npHrsosAeHHufi, 

CTopo«HTB 6jAj vbmio 

Ocrpie 8THX'B CBajii!.. 

Xopi. 

{Aumucmpo^ nepeas.) 
Bhahitb, BHAHifBl.. CTpaxi, BaR'B Tyqa, 
SacTHJiaeTB Hamn oto, 
OxflrHeHHUfl ciesaMH; 
Bhahmi, coxHerB na CRajit 
HdHUBaion^ee tíso 
HoAi seji^HUMH i^inflMH. 
HOBUfi ROpMHifi npaBHTB HeÓOMi: 
Ha Ojrann-b SeBCi HacHjiiBeM'B 
CrapoAaBHÍe saROHu 
GBiiTOTaTCTBeHHO noopaji^Bl 

EPOMETEft. 

IlycTB 6u Jiy^me no/CB 3eMJiH> neHA owh QHSBeprB, 
Bi HepHuft TaprapB, npieMjnon^ft MepxBuxi, 
flLiH HHse, noA'B cboau ÁH^a. h Taní 



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12 B«CTHHB'B BBPOim. 

SaAyniHjrE 6u 3% 0R0Bax'B sejriteHiixi, 

^TO&h HH CMepTHUft, HH 6orB HB BH^^aJIH MeHfl 

H Hax^B MyBofi Moe& ne VAjuEJiECh. 
A lenepB a noBtrnen^ aa pa^oers BparaM'B 
Bi BticoT^ BaBi erpyniBa aju BHXpeftl.. 

Xopi. 

{Cmpo^a emapcM.) 
Vnsvb ecTB TaBoft seciosíft 
Hs^ 6jB[aseHHiix'B, bto-(íe eílkl nysoft 
UpoKerefl naciť&fljica? 
Eto Te&b He cocrpa^aeri, 
KpoMt 3eBca?.. Ohx oxhhi, 
JI^epsBiĚy rH^BHuft, HenpeBJíOHHtifi, 
BcbTh ÓOTOVh nopaÓon^aerB 
H AOCTHrnerb caifOBJíacTBjíi 

ECIH BT0-HH6yAB HaCHJBÍbeMl 

CBHirrpí He Biipsen y nero. 

IIpOMETEft. 
IlyCTB fl HUHŠ Bl OKOSaX^B TOMJnOCb, 

IlycTB MeHfl ocBop6iíflH)Ti: en^e 
ByxerB 3eBcy nys^ft AO MeHfl, 

?T06tI sárOBOpB HOBtifi OTBp£ITB, 

?Tb Bjia;^By HESBepraeri cb neÓecB. 

Ho Torxa hh Me^OBafl p^hb, 

Hh yrposH MeHfl ne CMyrflTB 

H ne BUffiXh a Taftmi, nosa 

OffB He CHHMerB cb Menfl ary ujbuhj 

He sanjraTHTB sa necB mo& nosopi! 

X0P'B. 

{Aumuempo^a efnaptM.) 
Th MoryHi B AepsHOBeffB, 
He ycTynHHiB jiioto& CBop6H 
HHBorAa, — HO deperecB: 
CjraniBOM!B p^qB xBOfl CBotioxHa, 
3a TeÓfl BO MH% xpenen^eirB 
CepAAe crpaxoM^B h tocroS. 
FaÍ Bonei^ TBOHM^B crpaAaHBflMi, 
Tfjb npi^&bTRmmfi otb 6ypH?.. 



li- 



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CKOBAHHUfi nPOMETEfi. 13 

B*AB y KpoHOcoBa na^a — 
HenpeuoHHafl Ayma. 

UPOMETBfi. 

3Haio: SeBCb eenpeicjiOHeH^B h ropA^B. 
Ohi saKOHi npesEpaerb. Ho Bce-si 
ByxeriB eiOMjeHa ropxocTB ero. 
Ohi ynpjiMyH) dJio6y cicflrnHn; 

EaSl CODBHHRlk Jffb CODSHHRy, CaiTB 

Bsifixeri nepBuft na Bcrpi^y ro uwbl 

Xopt. 

PaBodiaHH MH^ Bce: orspoft, sa ^to se 
3eBeeb Tetifl, HeBHHnaro, xepsnyj^ 
IIpe^aTB TaRHiťb MyqeHiflirB nodopBtnrB? 
CsaiSH MH%, eciH MosemB roBopurb! 

nPOMETEft. 

Mhí roBopHTB o CBOpÓH Tflseio 

H Tflsejio MOdi^aTb. IIoBCiOAy — MyKal 

Eor^a vb ceuvb ÓoroBi* bo8hhb'b luiTeasi 

H samuaiEi pasAop^B HenpHMHpHMufi, — 

Oahh seiajTH, htoÓu SeBCh i^apHJi'^, 

ÍTod KpoHOCb ÓujTb HHspHHyTB, a Apyríe — 

^ToCi HHBorAa ne npaBHjrb ehh SeBcrb. 

Si ÓUJLh Vb Tb JPIH COOdn^HHBOlfB THiaBOBl, 

Ho Kh MyApocTH ne hopb crjiobhtb AÍTefi 

SeMJiH H He6a. Bi ropAOMi, ahbomi cepAA^ 

Bcb XHTpocTH jiyBaBUfl npesp^Bi, 

Ohh BparoBib cmhphtb Menrajni chjoS. 

Ho HaxB MOfl, Seiofl hjih OeMH^a 

(ExHHafl noAi^ MHOsecTBOMi HMeni), 

Mhí npeApeua, hto aojisho ne nacHJiBeMi, 

A BOBaHH MoryHHX'b no6tAHTB. 

H fl OTBpEUTB npopo^ecTBO THTanairB. 

HOy A6p8sie, He BHeMjfl, mo& covbrh 

OxpHHyiiH. Tor^a ^mnurb a 3eBcy 

nOMOHB Vb 60fh&by H Cb MaTepbK) B^B HeMy 

SL nepemejTB, bi CBOÓOAHOKy — CBo6oAHiifi. 
JIhhib cb nOMon^H) Moeio oh'b HHBBeprB 

H CBpiUTB HaB^Bl lUTb Bl npOnaCTflXli HOASeMHtlX^B 

Ob coK)3HHBaMH ApeBHflro EpoHOca. 



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14 BftCTHBEfB EBPOnEI. 

H BOTB EaBHMi npeASTejiLCTBOiTB sa Bce 
Mhí ornjiaTHjrB Bja^uiKa ojiHMnifti^eBi! 

He XOB^pflTB HH ÓJHSBEMl, HH APyS^M^ "^ 

TasoBi He^yrB THpaHHOBii BceMoryii^HX'^! 
Ho Bti xoT&iB seaTb, sa ^tď SesecB 
KasHHTi MeHfl. S. Bani CRassy, — BHHMa&re: 

Ha OT^iŘ TpOHlk B03C£B'By OH'b pa3A^HJI'B 

JQI^apu BeMJiH H He6a Mes'B ÓoraMH, 
H yTBepAHJii He8fii6jieMyH) BJiacTb. 
Ho Bi jííbjíexíb oÓEjsjbjrb saasHx^B CMeprHBX^B: 
Ohi HHHero eut> Hé jíajTB — h xotéjtl, 
nx'b EcrpeÓHKB, cos^aiB HHoe lueMfl. 
H He Aepsajii hhbto cpe^H fioroBi 
CnacTH jiOAeft. YÓhtei 6osbhmx rpoMOM'B, 
Ohh 6u Bct noFHfijiH 6e9B Měna, 

Ho fl OAHHlk HXlk San^BTHJll H npHHflJTB 

TaKyK) KasHB, qxo crpamno tími, eto cmotphtb, 
CTpanmM TOMy, bto TepnHTB. fí. saj&iii, 
Ho sajocTH ne saciysaji on 6ora. 
JífiL ÓjA^Tb TRe crpa^aHÍfl moh 
Yjihkok), nosopflQ^eH) 3eBca!.. 

Xopi. 

Híti, y Toro vh rpy^H ne cepAAe — BaMOBb, 
Eto HaA'B*To6ofi ho njnaiers, IIpoMeTeft! 
O, JiyHine 61 MyBí tbohxi mu ne BHxajH, — 
Ho, yBHAaBi, He Moseiix ne cbop6^tb! 

nPOM.ET£fi. 

Moft bh;^!^, yBu! He pa^ocxeni ajisl Apyra. 

Xopt. 
Tbi HT0-HH6y;íB ne CA^iJiaji^ jih e^e? 

nPOMET£&. 

En^e fl CMepTHfiiBTB jímt> 8a6BeHBe CMepia. 

XoPTb, 

Ho KaBi MorjH npo CMepTB ohh saóuTb? 

IIpometeí. 
ji nocejiHjii Ha^esAu bi hhxi cji'6nBifl. 



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CROBAHHUft DPQMETEĚ. 15 

XOPl. 

Tb He ÓHUii JIH TBofi BeiHqaftmift a&P^? 

IIPOMETEfi. 

H^tb! fl HM^B AtUTB en^e oroHB HeÓecHuft... 

Xopi. 
OroHB — B-B pyKaxi TaKHxi cosAamft sájiKHXi!.. 

IIPOMETEft. 

H MHoroMy Hay^HTB oh'b jno^efi! 

Xopi. 

TaB'B BOTB, 3a HT5 pasrHŠBaHHUfi EpOHÍOH'B 

Te6fl Ha KasHB o6pevb h ne n^aAHT'B! 

YseJIH H^TB BOHI^a TBOHlfB CTpaAaHBflMX? 
IIPOMETEfi. 

KoHei^'B OAHVB — t6 npHroBop^ SeBeca. 

XOP-B. 

o, ecjH TaK'B — HaAesAH Majio. Bhahhib, 
Tei 6EijrB HenpaBi. CBasaTB, hto tu nenpaBi, 
Mfl* xarocTHO... leCi yciEimaTB ropBKO... 
OcraBHifB se... noAyMaeirB, BaR'B 6utb... 

DPOMETEfi. 

ToMy, Heft ffyx-B ne y^py^eai cípa^anBeirB, 
JlasaTB cobítbi nyipiie JierBO. 
BiXb 8T0 BCe fl SHaJTB H Bce npeABHA^'B, 
Ho caifB Toro xot^^ h caiťB nsÓpajTB 
MoH> cy;^B6y, moói* Óiitb nojiesHUMi* jiiOAflMi- 
A Bce-si ne AyMajTB a, hto, laB-B aecroEO 
HcrepdaHHuft, h Óy^y uparBOSA^Hi 
K^B naroft cneuA nycTEiHHoft, 6e3HaAe»H0&. 
Ho wÍThl.. UoRa ne njia^Te Ha^o HHofi!.. 
HpntijiHSBTecB se, cofiAHre cb KOjecHHAu, 
H JHHIB Bor^a ycJuniHTe npo MyRH 
rpflAynUfl, Tor^a noftMere Bce. 
ysHafire CRop6B mok) h nosaJTifiie! 

fíSLXb BCÍMI SHBfiDTB BBTaiOn^afl CROpÓB 

Oahhxi — TenepB, Apyrnx^B nocTHrnerB saBxpa! 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



16 B^CTHHB^B EBPOniI. 



XOPX. 



Mu H T%Kb XeÓfl 7BAjAeUT>, 
CXOAHITB HJt QBMJaOy nOBHHyBl 

BosAjx^B, CB^Tjiuft nyTB j^Jisi nxHi^ik. 

UoCMOTpH, — HOrOBO JCrKOft 
yS'B BOCHyJIHCB ICH rpsHHTa, 
nOCBOpift XOTHITB JCJIUinaTb 

Hovbcrb rpycTHyio tbok). 
(HoMMemcH 6otz Oneam Ha KpbiAamoMz Hydoeuuktb.) 

Oreahi. 

K^ Te6%, IIpoMeTefi, a npmfqascfl 
?peai líHoro seHeiB h iiopefi. 
^aKOHoiTB BpHjaTUMi no bojA 
Mory 6e» yAn-ii ynpaRMXB. 
i& uy&SLWh TBOHHi cocrpa^aK), — 
Bijs,h TU Kob poAHofi... Jl^a h Tan^B 
GwLhwbUj HŠMi poAHoro no spoBH, 
I& cejfm^wh Te6fl nojnofíEJTB, 
H BOTE Aosasy moíd apT^b^^T} 

,& JlbCTHTB HHBOMy He IipHBHB^B: 

nonpo6yfi, npocH, qero xo^emB, — 
SI CA&iaH) Bce AJifl Te6fl, 
H sHafi — ne Hafir? Te6i Apyra 
B-bpH^fi, q-lifB crapHB^B OneaB^B! 

riPOMETEft. 

H TU npemeiik BsrjflHyrB Ha KasHB moio! 

Ho KaK^B — CRasH — pšmHjicji th noRnnyrB 

Jí^s Gbeoíh, posAftH)ii^e& siejrisOy 

J^jiB CETb creneft, ny^imy bojíwl poahiíX'b 

H BjasHUfl, CBajmcTBui nen^epu? 

Tu roBopEDiB, ^0 nocii%inaj['B sB,Tkwby 

?To6i BupasHTB yqacTÍe CTpaxajiBi^y? 

Cmotph »e — Bora, kto 3eBcy Ha npecrojTB 

IIOMOrB B30&TH, CKOTpH, KaBOK) MyBOft 
MbÍ OTHJaTHJIl COI03HHBI MOft H ÓpaTl! 



fl HcnojiHeHi 






li 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CKOBAHHHÍi nPOMETEfi. 17 

Cmbph ce6fl n eoBue aaROHu 
Cn-bniH npHSHaTB. Snaft, HiaH']^ HOBufi i^apb 
Ha HeÓecaxi. Xotb A&^eBO ao Sesca, 
Ho 6eperHCB: ohi Mosexi ycJiuxaTB 

HaAHeHHHfl, flSBHTeJlBHEIfl pt^H. 

ToFAa TBOfl TenepemHflfl BasHB 

OoBasercfl pe6flqecBoft safiasoft. 

HtT%, jyHme fh^bi HanpacHuft y^epasH, 

HoAyMat, KaB'B oti iiyBí cnacTHCB. Burbuornerb, 

C!oB^TaMH HacByHHJi^B fl Te6^£? 

^l!0'«i'b?.. He B3HII^H, TH BHAHIDB CaiTB, BaB'B HJiaTHlfB 

Mu Aoporo sa AepsBÍfl eiosa. 

3a^irB se, Apyrx, cejohhtb rjasy ne xotoidb 

H noTepnÍTB? Bí^b HOByio fii^y 

HasjeHB jierKO. A eeiH6Br tq paHBme 

GnpocHJTB MeHfl, a. mejrb 6Uy ňpoMerefi, 

BesyirieirB npoTHBHTBCfl TaBony 

Mory^eny h rpoBHOMy i^apio. 

Ho Bce-s'B TenepB noftAy h nocxapaiocB 

HOHOHB dibfiby HaCBOJIBBO XBaTHrb CHJTB. 

A T£i, O, ÓparB Mofi, cinmBoirB bojibho& pi^H 
OcreperncB: tu MyApi n snaemB caifi, 
?T0 3a Hee RapaiOTi AepsHOBeHHUxi. 

IIpometeíI. 
3aBn;(yH) Tetii: tu HeBpe;(HirBy 

A ÓUJTB, BaBl H, HflTeSHHBOMl Bor^a-TO... 

Ho 060 mh4 He xJono^H, h sHaň — 
He yÓ^AHniB tu 3eBca: oh^b ynpflMi. 
GifOTpH, onacHo 6utb co mhoio vh ApyaUJi. 

Obeaht>. 

jI^pyrHifB A&BaTB yir6einB tu cob'6tu, 
A caM*B ce6fl otb TnÓem ee cnaei. 
Ho h HAy — He npeBocjrOBB: si ójfij 
XoAaTaeiTB tbohmi; HaA^iocB, SeBCB . 
Bx yro;^y mh% cb Te6fl obobu cHHMeTi. 

[Ipomete8. 

?To6i mb noMO^B, tu CA']^aTB Bce potobx. 
BjarojiapH) sa Apy^KecKyio peBHOCTB; 
Ho He TpyAHCB, — nejiBaa Měna cnacTH, 

Ta» I.— ABBAPik, 1891 2 



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18 fi^^THllBl^ EBPOUKl. 

H BCfi TBOH yCHJBfl ÓjAJTh TmeTHU. 

OcxaBB MeHfl H AyMafi o ceó'fa. 
FoHHMufi caiíi, a. ae xoqy, qrofii tiujiB 
HeeHHHEie roHHMU sa Měna. 
H 6ea?h Toro yate TepaaeTi Aymy 
Mh'6 ÁTJiaca, poAHoro Cpaxa, CRopÓB, 
noAi»flBinaro Ha paMeeaxi Mory^HX'B 
SeMJiH H He6a xASBÍe crojinu. 
H sajib mhí, sAJih qyji;oBHii^a TH4)0Ha 
CTorjaBaro, npoBJATaro, bo ti>m]& 
ďbHByn^aro b7> nen^epax^B cni^HJiificBHX^b, 
HiispHHyTaro Ch neóa: ohi Boscraji 
Ha B(rbxi 6orOBi h, cbhctomi yÓHBafl, 
OxBpHJiik Ha HHXi 3ÍflH)n^yH) nacxB, 
A H3i o^eb MexajTB oroHb ToproHU, 
OjHHnik rposMi paapyniHXb. Ho bi nero 
y^apEJi SeBCb HeApeMJiion^efi exp^oio 
rpoMonoAo6Hofi, orHeHHoň; MOJiHaxB 
HaAMeHHaro nepynaMH 3acxaBHJT>: 
H BApyPB Tn^OHi bch) CHJiy noxepflji... 
06yrj[eHHufi n bi cepAi^e nopaseHHBífi, 

H HBIH% OHI JieSEXl y BOJIHlk MOpCBUXlk, 

KaKi^ MepxBoe, HeABnsHMoe r&io, 
PasAaBJíeHHuft BopHflMn 3xhbi. Ilumexi 
KysHei^ik re4>ecxx na bucoxí ropu... 
Eor^a se xJUHyn> orneHnua p^Ru 
H31 Bpaxepa h ajt^Hua nospyxi> 
Hjioau nojieft Chiíhjiíh líBtrymeft, — 
Tor^a Th^^ohi Bce njiaMfl Hspurnexi, 
BcK) HeHaBHCTB vb najifln^eM'B yparaH'6, / 
HcneneJieHHU& SeBCOifB, ho shboK!.. 
Tbi SHaeniB caM'B... Henyxeni Moft pascRasi; 
3a6oxBCja[, Apyri^, jihhib o CBoeMi cnaceHB']^. . 
A a... xepnixB roxoBi, noKa SeBecB 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CROBAHHUfi nPOMETEfi. 19 



Okeah-b. 



EaBofi se BpeAi> bi nonuTK^ ocioposHOfi, 
KaKoe 8J0 tu BHiHmB. IIpoMeiefi? 

>OM£TEfi. 

sy H tíesyiibe. 

)reah'b. 

ftb MyApeiíu 
ybflfio. 

POMETEfi. 
JífiTb OTBÍTI. 

)reah'i>. 

ib Bepnyxbca? 

POMETE&. 

)a MeHfl. 

)reah'b. 
UHMnifii^eBi? 

POHETEtt. 

'b ÓeperHCb! 

)REAH'b. 

7b 6yAeTB bí^ho... 

POMETE&. 

, npoHb 64rH! 

)REAH'B« 

Hfl ;(paROHx, 

^Rafl 

ďK, BOJibHiift nyTb, 

i UOJS,% RpOBl BepHyxbCfl. 



{Oneam yAemaemi.) 



2* 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



20 raOTHMKl EBPOIIBI. 

XOPl. 

(Cmpo^a nepeaa.) 
FopbRO fl lua^y o iiysaxi tbohxi, IIpoMerefií 
Gjesu H3i TJiasi> mohxx, hojiheixi 

H^HOCTbK), MH% Ha JiaHHTH 
JlBlOTCfl nOTOROMl O^HJIBHUMl... 
npaBHTB BCeJieHHOfi 

BorB caMOBJíacTHiift, 
Bon> 6e8noii^aAHufi 
K% ApeBHHMi 6oraM'b. 

(01f«me^mpo^a nepean.) 
CxoHOifB H njiaHeirb oRpecxHiifl seiiJin nojiHu: 

JIlOXH CR0p6flrB HaA'B TO6OH), 
HaA'B B^ROBÍHHOH) GVaBOfi 

BpaTBeBi TBTaHOBi norHÓniHXi 
ILia^yTB HapoAu 
Asíh ApeBHefi, 
Bci cocrpajiaiorB 

MyRaMlk TBOHITB. 

(Cmpo^a emopoH.) 
HeycrpaniHMUfl fb ÓHTBaxi, 

ILia^yrB ROHeBHHRH-CRHOBI — 
TaiTB, 6jIH3B 6OJOTB MeOTHACRHXl, 

B'B qysAoft AaieRoS 8eMjr]&, 

{Aumucmpo^a emopoH.) 
Ufiibrh apaBÍficRHxi HapoAOBi, 
ILia^yTB H ropi^Bi RaBRasa, 



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GROBAHHUfi UPOMETEft. 21 

noA'B seMJiefi Bi neiuepaxi nepHuxi 

GojporaeTca Ahax, — 

H TeEyTB, KaKi cjiesu ropn, 

POAHHKH CBfln^eHHIIXl P'|RI.... 
IIPOMETEfi. 

He ;qfMa8Te, ^to si xpaHio ÓesMOJiBBe 
Hsx rop^aro npespinsa! H4to, moS aJTXi 
GosHameiTB MyHHTeibHOfi o6h;ie[ 
BecB norjioii^eH'^. He a jíh AaposaJii 
BejHsyK) no6%j!^ ojiHMnifii^aM^? 
Bu sHaere o nefi. He Óy^y Bairb 
PascRasuBaTB. Ho BuaiymaSTe noB^crb 
O sajKHXi CMepmiixi. 

BescMfiieieHEUMi, Mory[iiecTBeHHEi& pasyii^! 
He ch ropAOCTBK) 06% aToiTB roBopio, 

Ho JUimB SaT^lTB, qXOÓX OfiiaCHHTB npH^HBy 

Moefl j[H)6bh ri HecnacTHinfL. JIioah ^ojiro 

H BHA'Í^, HO He MOrJH nOHflTB, 

H ciymajH, ho ne mofjih ycnumaTB. 

EOAOÓHBie TUHAMI, FB RaROlfB-TO CHŠ, 

Ho npHXora eiyHaSHOcreft ĎJiys^BJín, 

H 6UJ10 BCe B'B HHXl CMyTHO. H AOMOB'B, 

OTBpBrrux'B co;iHi][y, cxpoHTB fle yifijiH 

H31 RHpnHHefi HjiB ÓpeBeHi, ho vh seifji^, 

Eani MypaBBH npoBopHBie, rwbsjíjijiEChj 

Bo TBif% CBípiixi 8eMJflH0R'B H nelepí. 

He vbjsfi^m otjie^ísi shmu 

Orb JIŠTHHX^B AHeft ropfl^HXi, djioaohochbixi, 

Hjib otl BecHEi i^B^Tyn^efi. JI^HRapH 

TsopniíH Bce Cesx pasMKiffljreHBa, cjitno. 

H09 HaRoneiiii, a C^ahbimi yRasajii 

BocxoAi cbíthji, saRarB nxi, nojiHufi TafiHEi, 

FjiyCoByH) nayRy HHcejix, fíyRBi 

Gjoseme h — TBopqecRyio naMaxB, 

BeJHRyB) poAHTOJiBHni^y nysi. 

A Bi nepBBift pasi shbothux'b ahrbxi, bojibhuxi 

nopa^OTHJTB apny, ^1061 CA'l^jiaTB nxi 

Bo BC&x^B TpyAax'B noMon^nHRaMH jfOAflMx: 

OociymHaro Ópas^asrB sanpjirB roha, 

Kpacy A^a rjiasi n ropAOCTB HejovbusL^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



22 B«CTHHB'b BBPOim. 

H Ch RpUJIBjIMH JLHflHUHH HSOfip&ll 

Jleraioiiúfl fb Mop6 kojcchhi^u 

}í^ MOpflROB%. Ho CTOJBRO JlEBEUTb TaÍH'B, 

HcByccTBi, HayBí orspuBinifi x&iBHiťb juújí,:ňwh" 
CnacT0 ce6fl HHvIiťb b ne Mory! 

Xop^B. 

ysu! OtB MyiTBy OTB CBOpÓH 06e3yM'6BX, 

BpoAfl BO UTA% He MOsemB tu nafiiH, — 
KaBi HŠRÍft Bpan HeonuTHufi, — jeKapciBa, 
^jo6t> hci^^tb CBOft co($CTBeHHuft He^yrBi 

IIpOMETEft. 

'EíOfi ee Bce: mmh ao bohi^ AOCjymaBi, 

yBH^BTe, Basi MHOrO fl HITB A&-I^* 

n Bori Moft Aftp^ BeJHRÍft: bi xhh Óujiue 

He B^ajH OHH u^bjíeÓBUTh xpasi, 

JeKapcTBeHHuxi HanHTBOBi, npHTHpaHÍft, 

n ymipajTL fiesnoMOn^HO 6ojibho8. 

Ho fl OTBpiiJi^ cnacHxeaBHue aiaRu, 

CMtmeme JieRapcTBi, mo&b asoft He;^y^^ 

OAo;i']^BaTB. HcRyccTBO opopnitaHift 

ycraHOBBJí H, npaBAy oto jish 

Bi npopoHecRHX^B bh^^^hbaxi ota^jsa, 

fl Binúfl npHM^Tu yRa3aj['B, 

^.^h nyTHHRy Bcrp^^aiOTCfl bx AOpori, 

^Jb BHXHMi Mti Bi nojeri iithi;'b Ch rphbumh 

EorTflMH — 3HaR'B HJIB A06puft, HJIB AypHOfi; 

6o3AyniHHfl co6paHÍfl nepHaTux'B, 

Hxi nHlAy, SH3HB, JIK)tfOBB H HenpíflSHB, 

OxjiHqifl BO BHyrpeHHOCTflxi Teiuuxi, 

H ne^^eHH, .HsejiHH i^bItb sejaHHuft — 

Bcb npHBHaRH, yroAHue ÓorairB; 

H qacTH sepTBX, o^Bepnyrsifl snpoirB, 

n 6eApa HX'B mHpoRÍfl qjoshbi 

HaAi luaMeHeMX na a.Trap^ CBflo^eHHOMi, 

i& BcecoauReHBH) CMepTHux'B Hay^HJii 

n 8HaMeHBflM'B rJiy60RHM'B, CORpOBeHHUMX, 

JlBJífleMEiMi KB niMafon^eBTB orei. 
TaROKB MOft fjBLiph. H RTO CRasaTB noeu^berb^ 
ÍTO AJfl jwoAeft He a oTRpujii py^y, 
SBte^iso, M^Ai"} H cepetfpOy h aiaTo?.. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CBOBAHHUfi nPOMBTEfi. 23 

Ho vh jtByx'B Oíosaxi — ^toCi KpaTOKi Óujtb pascKasi: 
Bce ora mchh — HCKyccTBo, sHanBe, My^pocrt! 

Xopx. 

^OBOIBHO TU SaÓOTHJCfl O iíIOAflXl, 

H o ce(% noAyiiaií: MOsen 6uTb, 

En^e crpflXHyBí nosopfln^fl iJ^^nH, 

Th ÓyAeniB bhobb Moryn^eciBeHi, BaBii Óopb! 

IIPOMETEft. 

BÍTbl Vovb He t5 cyAHJB, HeyHOJHMuft: 
JIhiiib THCflHH crpa^amfi nperepoŠBi, 
Ebt> 9THrB ydi a BEipBycb na CBOÓOAy... 
Mh bc6 — HH^TO iipeAi> BOJieK) cyjíeCi! 

Xopi. 
Ho KTo-arb cy;(e6'B TaHHCXBeHHHfi BJia^uBa? 

[IPOMETEft. 
dpHHÍH H TpofiCTBeHHUfl EapRU. 

Xopi. 
yseiH 3eB(rB cJia(H^& 6orHHB cy^BÓu? 

IIPOMETEft. 

ÍTÍ) cy»AeHO, Toro ohb ne HsĎirHeii. 

Xopt. 
He cys^eHO Xb bo bšbi eny i^apeTb? 

Upometeí. 
A He Mory otbíthtb: ne npocirre. 

Xopi. 
yzacHoe CBpuBaemB tu otb Hacs!.. 

IIPOMETEft. 

OcTSBEirb se... O&b stobte naiťb ne Epena 
Eec^AOBaTB... HacBOJiBBO XBaTBn cui, 
Bi rpyxH Moeft xpaHHTB a 6yAy Tafiny, 
CspiiBaTB, ÓepeHB, wro6u cnacTHCb otl My^B! 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



24 BlbCTHIIBl EBPOnU. 



XoPTb. 



(Cmpo^a nepeas.) 
Ob BOJieft BceBumHflro jyqme ne cnopHTB bo b^rh! 
By^eMi se nao^e 6oraMx yrosj^aiB reBaTOMtfoft, 
JKepTBoft BauaHHofi y bojie% Heo6^flTHaro Mopfl. 
He corýbmsarb A&se eiOBOMiiy 
Boadfi saB^TB vb Hameui cepAA*]^ 
Cbato xpaHfl! 

{Aumucmpo^a nepeaa.) 
CjiaARO Haii^B AHH npoBOAHTB, eeiH B^pmrb mh wl cucTřo, 
OjiaABO HaM'B Aymy nsiaTB HenopoHHofi Ha^es^ott!.. 
FopAuft T]!TaH'B, MU Fj^AHMi Ha TeÓfl Cb coAporaHbeir&: 
He noÓOHJCfl th 6ora, 

CjIEmKOlfB BOSBUCHJrB HHTTOSHBIXl, 

ďLajBHxik jiK)Aefi. 

{Cmpo^a emopaH.) 
?Tb Kb Exi jih)6b0!?.. PasB^b CMepTHEie MOryrb nOMOu? 

PaSB^ He SEBJVb TU, ?T0 HeMOH^BH) 

CsoBaHO jiieMfl hx*b Óšj^Hoe, 
HeAOJroB^HHoe, 
FpesaMi noíoÓHoe?.. 
He nepecrpoHTB hmi Mipa — cosAanBfl doroBii! 

{Aumucmpo^a emopas.) 
Bon Heny y^ara crpaAaHBfl tboh, QpoMeTefi!.. 

n^HH HHUfl MU H']^ROrAa 

n&iH Té&bj HOBOÓpaqnoMy, ' 
n'k:HH Becejua, — 

FeMHU CHaCTJIHBHI^'6, 

U n v**r\A AA^smwA l^/\n«rknHh ^^^^linR/^^PH TRíW^ftl 

íz lo, doHh Enaxa^ OeayMuaH.) 

.0. 

?.. Kto xaMi na cnajiš. 
} O, csasHie, 3a ht5 

OCTHO? 

lany satipejia 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CROBÁHHUfi nPOMETEtt. 25 

ObOA^ npOHSHJTB MeHfl SaJlOMX*.. 

Apryca npHspaRi!.. CnacHTe... 
Orpanrao mh4! BH^uTe, botx oh-l — 
Tucfl^erjiasiift!.. 

Bon OHI — co BSOpOlTB XyBaBUlTb... 

MepTBuĚ BOBcrajii hsi scmje, . 
Bumexb HffB a^a... 
ToHim MeHfl no npnÓpesHUBťB necRaMi, HCxyiajiyH)!.. 

Bbxoxh AOHOCflTCfl 4^JiefiTii naerymBefi, ynujiofi... 
Fhmh^ ycunHTeJBHHft... Fope, 
Fope!.. By^a saópeia a, CBHTajiHita? 
3eBCB, o, sa htí> th iieHfl na crpa^anba o6peBi? 
My^HHiB, npecjii^yenib, nojiHyio yaacoMt, 

ffiajByH) A^By, CesyMHyH)!.. 
PpoMOirB y6efi iienH, bi seiiJio ynpofi, 
BpocB Ha chiAeme ra^aiii MopcBHMi! 
Bose, BHeiuH 

PoÓKOft MOJIB64!.. 

S. ys'L CBHTaJiacB aobojtbho .. 
ToJibBO 6u snaTB mh%, 
Fa* Moft npiioTL!.. 
CjiumumB JIH kajioóu 6'j^AHOfi usrBanHei^u? 

IIPOlMETEfi. 

Eo mhí AOCTHrb TBoft rojloeB, aohb Haaxa. 
JG[ snaio Bce: SeBeci Te6fl juoómjrh... 
H bíhho tq npecJi%Ayei<& Fepoň, 

H, OBOAOITB flBBHliafl, fiteHHIB. 

lo. 

HMfl HasBajTB TU OTi^a Moero. OrBŠ^att mhš: 
Eto »e TU caiíXy o, Hec^acTHufi, 
Ob A'9^B0fi HecqacTHOH) cjiobo npoiiojiBHBniifi? 
SnaemB tu, necjiannufi 6oroirB, Mofi crpamnufi Be^yn, 
^KajioiTB npoHBHBmift moha h Tep3aH)n^ífi. 

PeBHOCTBK) Fepu roHHiiafl, 
BciOAy MenycB h, ne homhh) ce6fl 
H, oÓesyMiBX otb (Íojih, 64ry!.. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



26 fiftCTHEKl EBFOmil. 

MosHO Jih crpaAaTB 
BojiBine, ^iTB fl?.. 
EcJH T£i dHaemB, oiRpofi mhí^: 
^ojiro JIH, 6%XH0fi, 
MyRH Tepnixb? 
MojiBH, fnimb TU MeHfl, o;i[iiHORyH)!.. 

IIPOMETEft. 

Bi npocmxx ciOBaxx, 6e3i Ta&Hi h HeAOMOJiBOsx, 
Cnasy a Bce, o toitb tu xoqemb snaTB, 
KaB^B Ao6puft JipyrBy Óeci^yion^tt cb ApyroMi. 
Ji — IIpoMerefi, a jmjiflwb jífijrb ofohb. 

lo. 

O, 6orB HecHacTHufi, 6jiaro;(ŠTejiB CMepTHuxi!.. 
3a HTb se TU crpa^aemB, IIpoMerefi? 

nPOM£TE&. 
S. TOJIBBO-HTO paSCBaSX 06t> aTOBfB ROHIHJIX. 

lo. ^ 
Ho MHJOCTHBi He ÓyAemB jih bo mh^?.. 

IIPOMETEfi. 

OrepoH) Bce. CBa»H, qero tu xoneniB? 

lo. 
«S 3HaTB xoHy, BTO npnBOBaji'B TeÓfl? 

IlPOMETEfi. 

BeJi^HÍe ÓoroBX, pysa Fe^ecra. 

lo. 

BaSHflTl? 



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CBOBAHHllfi nPOMETEfi. 27 

IIPOMETEfi. 

IIoBipB: letíb ne sHaxB o(h» dxoMX Jiyqme... 

lo. 

mb (Srb HH ÓfiUIO 2T> rpSLJL^meWby He CBpBIBafi! 

IIpOMETEfi. 

S. o^mjBíjrhy H Bce xeó^ OTBpoio 

lo. 
He Me^JH se!.. Ilpomy, Ha^HH cBopM! 

ITpOMETEft. , 

GeftHacL HaHHy... Bok)cb sl one^ajiiTB... 

lo. 
Mh6 lyTOie — snaTt! He 6oficfl, roBopn! 

IIpOMETEfi. 

Til TpeÓyemB: jsjbl CjAerB xas^. BoHMafi se! 

Xopx. 

BibTBy noroAH! Xot^jih mu npocHTB, • 
HejiBSfl JiB H HaiTB H3X jCTB efl ycjmmaTB 
O ropecTHOft cy^BíJi ea paacKasx. 
Tíi efi noToifB i^pa^yoiee OTBpoemB. 

IIPOMETEfi (kZ lo). 

nenojraHTB hxi sejanie — tbo& ao^fb: 
Bixb no OTuy — oh* Te&b po^Haa. 

IIOBiCTBOBaTB O CR0p6H HaM'B JierBO, 

Eor^a MU snaeMi, hto ciesofi yqacTBa 
IIoHTyTB pascBaBx BHHMaioiAie naMi. 

lo. 

£L He Mory BaMi OTBasaxB, o, hhm<{>u! 
YsHaftTe SH8HB ne^ajiBHyK) moh)! 
Bil BHAHTe — a iLsa^y, BcnoMHHaa, 
EaKi Óosífi rpoMi y^apH^i^ RaBx HaB'6R'B 
YrpaiEJia a otfpasib ^ejiOBŠBa... 
HoHHue CHu jrerajíH na^o HHofi, 



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28 BftCTHHKl EBPOnU. 

HoHHue CH£i ffb Moefi A^BH^beS cuajíbwb 

menTUH MH*: — K-b ^eMy th TaKx rop^a 

H A'^BCTBeHHa! Tu Moasiemb 6uTb cynpyrofi 

BejiHRaró i^apa: 3eBeejb npoHseHi 

Orp^ofi jih)6bh, h pa^ocrn EHnpHABi 

Ob TOÓofi, AHTfl, OHI aiasAerb pasA^HTb. 

He OTBeprait tu Jioxe ojHMnifti^a! 

Bx i^Bfeymift AOJPb, bx jiepHeficKÍa nojia, 

CofiAH B% HeMy, cofiAB B'b cra^aifL oti^obcbhmi, 

9T0(h» SeBCOBO aeJiaHbe yTOMXb! — 

Mni no HoqaMi noEoa ho AaBaJiif 

EpbuiaTUfl BHA^HÍfl, noRa 

061 9THXX CHaxi oTi^y fl HO CEasajia. 

Owh MHoro pasi vb AoAOHy nocujiaji^ 

H Bi IlHeÍH, CMHpoHHO Bonpomafl, 

Ras^b coBepmnTb yroAHoe Óoram. 

Ho Bci nocjbi, BepnyBioHCb, npHHOCHJiH 

HeflCHbifl npopoHecTBa omy. 

H JiHmb noTOsťb npHineji'b bt* HeHy dohathíiě, 

IIpflMOft otbítb — BaaÍHÍe ÓoroBx 

HBrHaTb MeHfl hsx oi^ecsaro Aona 

B% CesBicTHHe, .najeBÍe spaa, — 

He TO, SeBOCi rpos^ji^ Becb poAB Hnaxa 

CTp']^ofi rpoMo'Bi najnfln^Hxi HCTpe6HTb. 

POAHTeJIb BHflJTb AeJb^ifiCBHlťb npOpBI^aHbflMl, 

Ho ne xotíjii EsrnaTb CBoe abta, — 

IIpOTBBHJICfl... H 6orb SaCTaBHJTB CHJIO& 

BessajiocTHuft HcnojiHHTb nperoBopi. 
SL oópasi MoK yTpaxHja h pasyifb; 
PoraTaa, npiaBX Te-iHiíH bh^i 

n OBOAOMl rOHHMa Cb OCTpUHl SaJIOMl, 
Bl HeHCTOBCTBŽ A ÓpocHjacb Ó^aTb, 

H no (JperaMi Repxnen THxocTpyftHoS, 
H no xojiMaM'b JlepHeficBHMi. ObíHi SeHJiH 
3a MHoft catAHJi^b, »ecTOROcepAbifi Aprycb, 

0% HeCM^THUMH OHaHH B']^^Hblfi CTpaai^b. 

Ho om> nornCx... H no^i ÓaqeMi, neÓecHHM^b 
Hsx Bpafl Bi Bpafi CBirraTbCfl cyš^eno 
Mni, PBOAOMi TepsaeHott. Tu Bnaenib 
Epome^mee — oTEpoft ae wni Tenepb 
Tpa^yntía crpa^anba. Ho ne AyMafi 



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CROBAHHUň nPOMETEfi. 29 

noKOHTB csyxi MOft jecTbK): HHqero ' 
He MOserE ($iits nocTEJAH']bfi ýkm jitrkbořI 

Xopi. 
IIoAOSAB, noAOSAH, 

JífiS HaifB MUCJÍH coÓpaxB... 

lo, lo — yBH! 
Teofi HesAaHHBifi pascRasx 
Hame cepAne cmytbjtb... 
HacB npoHSEJTB, RaB'B Me^eiiTi, 
TboS BeJiHRÍfi nosopx, 
Ee3iipeA']&jiBHafl CKop6b!.. 
O, cyjb6a, o, cy^bča, 

Mu XPOSHITB iipeA'B TOÓOfi! 

IIPOMETEft. • 

Bu luaqeTe, nyrjiHBUfl C03AaHbfl... 
BHHMafire se, BHHMafixe ao BOHi^a! 

Xopx. 

Mu ciymaejBTB. Orpa^HO sHaxB HecnacTHuirB 
Eíxi rbpecTflBťB HasHa^eHHEifi npe^^^. 

IIPOMETEfi. 

HcnojHHJi fl oxoTHo Bamy npocbCy. 

KaB% caifH 6U sejiajH, otl nea 

ycjrumajíH crpaAajibqecByK) noB^crb. 

Ysnafire ae, ht5 Bt Óy^ymeM^ TepirilTb 

Efl cysAeHO otb Pepu Óesnoma^HOfi, 

A T£i MOH cJiOBa sanenaurlft 

Bi* Ayni%, ^TO&h sHaTb Bonei^i cbohxi CRHiamfi, 

HecwcTHafl!.. 

Ex BocxoAy oópaxflcb, 
Cnepsa npofiAH neBcnaxaHHUfl seMJiH 
H Cregíh ;iocTHrHH. Tam SHByrb 
Ko^eBHHRH B^ BOsaxTi CB ojiereHOfi Rpumefi, 
Ob ROJiecaMH ÓojibmHMH, h y hhx^ 
Bi ROJ^aHaxi cnsTb ry6iiTej[bH£ifl crp-^nu... 
Hrb HpaBi secTORx h crpameHi, — 6eperncb! 
UoTOirb npHAemb ri MAxesHOHy noxoRy, 
Hji(H sa HHifb, HO 6poAa ne nn^H, 
noBa Bbicoxx EaBRasa ne AOCXErnenib, 



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30 BftCTHHKT» EBPOUU. 

Tflíb ncTOQiHTi p^Ka bi licHHHaxi ropi 
CboS JiiOTHifi TH^Bi. Tor^a qepesi BepmHHu, 
^.rb BucflTCfl AO SBfeA'^, cnycTHCb Ha K)rB, 

n TU nOJIEH yBHAHmB aHa30H0R'B, 

BoHxejiBHHi^Ti, He F&A&Bmnxi Myseft. 
(HifB cysACHO yfixn ri crpaH^ AftJieBofi, 
Ha TepMOAOHi, rA'% rposHufi CajibMHAeccB, 
Ci yiecaMH BajiHBx, OTBpuToS nacTbio 
HcnyraHHUxx BCTp']^?aerB MopflBOB'B.) 
H cb paAOCTbK) yKasyTi aMa30HRH 
TeĎi TBofl nyrb. IIpeAJiBepie Óojiotl — 
Tu KHMMepiftCBift MHHemb nepemeeBi 
H, nepuiuuBi cb OTBaroH) npoJHBi, 
UpocJiaBinnbCfl HaKJ^BH nepenpaBoft, 
H vb qecTb TBOH) Boc<))opi nojiyqHTB hma. 
Tor^a TU BCTynnraB b-b Abík)... 

IlTaKi, 
Bu BHAHTe TenepB, hto i^apb OjiHiina 
Ko bcími paBHO secTOBi: owb B07&ji,ejAjii>, 
BeBCMepTHufi Óofb, co CMepTHoft co^eTaTBCfl, — 
H BOTB sa HTí) oÓpymHji-B ctojibko 64^'^ 
Ha pofiKyK), ÓesnoMomnyio A*By. 
JEecTOBaro cynpyra H36pajia 
Tu, (J*AHaa: b4aí> CBaaaHHoe mhok) — 
Jlinnb nepBoe ea^ajio MyBí tbohxi. 

lo. 

Ybu, yBu!.. 

EPOMETEfi. 

Tu cjieBu jiBerab?.. Ho qT5 cb to6ok) Óy^eTi, 
Kor^a TU Bce ysnaemb ao BOHi^a! 

Xopx. 
CBasH, — RaEofi ROHei^'B efl CTpaAaeifi? 

IlPOMETEfi. 

CJiea-B, OT^aflHBH h (JéaI'! 

lo. 
uwb S03hb!.. Sa^Mi a jiyqme b'b nponacTB 

JiaCB CB BepiUHHU STEXl CBaji, — 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GKOBAHHUfi IIPOMETE&. 31 

Jlesasa 6u n MepxBafl b% aojihh'6, 
CBOÓOfflSLSí OTb icyEii. OxpaAHtfi cpasy 
HaMi ynepeTb, ^wb MyqHTbCfl bch) sh3hb!.. 

Upometeů. 

A BaKi 6u TU Mon lepn-ijia MyKH!.. 

Mhí ;^aase Porx h bx cMepra oxKasaji^b. 

(Biuia 6£[ CMepTB saaaHHOio CBoCo^ofi!) 

Ho Moeny crpa^anbio wbrh ROHi^a, 

noEa Cb OjLHMna 3eBCB ee 6yAerE CBeprHyrB... 

. lo. 
ít6 tu csasaji?.. YsejiH 3eBCB na^eri?.. 

IIPOMETEtt. 

Tu Óy^eniB jh ero na^enBio pa^a? 

lo. 
noAynafi caMi: ohi nory^H^ii Meefl. 

IIpOMETEfi. 

TaK^B paAyficfl: cjioBa moh npaBAHBu. 

lo. 

KtO AapCEitt CKHDTpB OTEHMCTB y HOrO? 

IIpometeí. 
Oh'b CKHirrpa caHi jiHinHrB ce6fl ÓesyMbeMi). 

lo. 
Kor^a H EaBii, ee Mosemb jih otbputb? 

IIPOMETEtt. 

Ort 6pa^Haro coiosa oh-b nornCHeTi. 

lo. 

Ci (JorHHeft JIH, co CMepTHOIO — cimukh?.. 
IIpOMETEft. 

He cnpamHBafi: a ne Mory otb^thtb. 

lo. 
fle óy^eTB jih cynpyroft CBeprnyrB Scbcb? 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



32 B^CTHHRl EBPOim. 

IIPOMETEft. 

PoAHTCfl cuFB y HHXi CBJíBHte 3eBca. 

lo. 
H vnóejiis hh^to ne OTBpaTBTB? 

IIpometeí. 
Hhtto, noKa ne (Jyjíy a CBofioieErB. 

lo! 
Ho BTO ax Bpaiy (Jopob-b CBoÓc^y wctb? 

ELpOMETEft. 
nOTOMOBX TBOft: TaRl CVS^^eHO CyABÓOH). 

lo. 
YsejB Te6fl ocbo5oahtb moS cbih'b? 

IIPOMETEfi. 

B'B TpHHaAiiaTOMi BOJi']^HÍ npaBHyBí lo. 

lo, 

IIpopO^eCTBO HeflCHO AJIfl MeHfl. 

ITpOMETEft. 

3a6yAB ero: cyAB(5a TBoa yaacHa!.. 

lo. 

CyjíLÓy npe^pe^B tu caMi mhí ofiimajix. 

IIpOMETEfi. 
OaHO H3l JífiJTb fl AJiífl Te5fl HCnOJlHK). 

lo. 
fl BuÓepy cana. 

IIPOMETEft. 

en^b TBOHxi Hec^acTÍft 
CB060AH: BHÓEpafi. 

Xopi. 
>AHy OBasemB mhjioctb, 
Mu MOJiHifB, ripoBierefi: 



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GBOMHHUfi nPOMETEft. 33 

Eě npe^CBasH Bonei^x efl cxpa^aHÍft, 
A HaiTL — Toro, bto bojih) ^acTB Te6*. 

IIPOMETEfi. 

UpoTHBHTLCfl He 6jjíj Bameft npocb6t: 

OrBpOH) BCe, HTĎ BKL XOTHTe SHaTB, 

Cnepsa wSi — tboS nyiB. B'b CBpesajiflx^b cepAi^a 

3aneHaTj^ft ciOBa moh. Ty^a — 

R'B ciflioii^HMi JiyraifB, vb bocxoaj cojiHUia 

IIpoB;^ ^pesi bojhu — rpaHb naTepHBOB^b, 

H, sa co6oft ocTaBHBi IIoHrb peByn^ift, 

yBHXHmB TU roprOHCBÍfl HOJIfl, 

KHceemj AOJi^b, Txb oÓviTBJorb QapBH, 

TpH crpaniHiix^b jlíbu cb JUBOirb jreÓexHHuirb: 

ElAHHnfi sy&B y hhxi, e^HEufi vjihst,; 

ChXI TeMHUXl A^Bl He OSapflJTL BO B^BH 

Hh cojiHAa Jiyrbj hh xnxifi cbí^ti jiyeti... 
66JIH3H SHByTB BpujiaTUfl FoproHu: 

^O CMepTHy SHafi, HEBTO SHBOfi He MOPb 

BsrjflHyTB Ha Tpexi cecrepi siiŠHHOByApuxi. 
3. roBopio— crpamncB, 6trH otb hhx^b! 
Ho CEopo TU yBHAHmB H0BI1& ysaci: 

BeSSaJIOCTHEIXl rpH4K)H0B'B CB OCrpUlTB BJnOBOMl^ 

KpomoHa nejiaioiiiHxi coCaB^B, 
H ApHMacnOFB bohhuxx, oahoorhxx 
Ha 6epery sojiotohochiixx bojih'b 
njyroHOBofi piBH. Btra OTiy^^y 
E^FH na lOPB, Tjsíb nepnue napo^n 

BspyPB CoJIHeHHUXX-nCTOHHHBOB^ sHByn, 

FaÍ BaTHTCfl noTOBx 8eionificBÍ&! 
EhÓjoccbhxi voph yBHAHiHB TU xpe6eTi^, 
OrryAa Hhjtb CBepraeTi BOAonaAOirB 
IIpospaHHUfl, CBfln^eHHEifl CTpyH. 
no CeperaifB npHAemB tu bi ycTBK) HHJia 
TpexrpaHHOMy, ta* cys^eno tc^í 

H CUHOBBflMl TBOHlťB HOCTpOHTB rOpOA'B... 
EOJIB HT0-HH6yAB Vh CIOBaXl MOHXl TeMHO, 

£L noBTopio: tu bejjchhib — CjramRoirB mhofo 
HeBOJiB^aro locyra y Biena! 

Xopx. 
O ÓyjíymHxi cBHTaHBflxi lo &bmoŘ 
JI,obohto TBoft pascBasi. A ecjia Bce 

Toiii L— flHBiři, 1891. ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



34 tfl^OTHBKl BBPOnU. 

Tu eft npeApeRi, npHnoMHu Hamy npocL6y 
GMHpeHHyH): m sHaemB cani — o ^em. 

IIPOMETEfi. 

o ÓyAyn^eiťB a rohhejii npopHitaHBfl. 
TenepB CRaxy o npoftA^HHOirB nyre, 
H, BU(^iyinaB'B MeHfl, jsEjsjuTh lo, 
%o eft ne Jiryn npopo^ecTea moh. 
Ho o Hanajii crpaHCTBÍfl ne 6y;(y 
Ji roBopHTb, CBaiRy jiodb o bohutí. 
J^ocTHrjia TU seMJiH mojioccobi, ropu 
JíflfflECiúsL ysp^a, Tjíjb SHBers 
Bo xpaici SeBCL, opaByji* 6eciipoTÍ&cRÍfi, 

n TJljb myilflTB TaHHCTBeHHOft JIHCTBOft 

CBfln^eHHue, npopoqecBíe jí,j6ii. 

TÍTb rojiocoMi 6iiJia HapeneHa 

Tu 6y;^yI^eft cynpyroft ojiHMnifti^a. 

He npaBAa-Jb — ^ecrs sasH^^Hafl ji^jiíi seprsi 

Ero j[H)6bh!.. Ofiiaiafl ÓesyMBeifB, 

IIpHMopcBOH) AoporoH) 6%saTB 

Tu ÓpocHJiacB El BaiHBy Pen. CBopo 

B'B HeHCTOBCTBi HaiipaBEsa Ha8aA'B 

Cboh mara. Ti bojhu HasoByrB 

Bo csasy lo MopeifB lonifiCBHMi 

JI|aieKÍe noTOMBH... 

Ho ;i(OBOJiBHo! 
Bu BHAHTe, TTO vh cyMpa^HyH) AaJiB 
& 8a npeA'&ii SBJíeHifi nposp^BaK). 
TenepB b'b Tony, ?t6 npes^e rOBopajTB, 
BepnycB oiiatb h Mofi pascRadi OROHqy: 
EcTB H^EÍft rpaAi* RaHOÓi na ycTBflSB Hejia, 
HocrpoeHHuft Ha OTMejiaxi pisn. 
TaM^B BosBpaTHTB SeBecB Te6i tboS pasyiTB, 
AoTpoHyBmHCB JiacRaion^eft pynoft 

neja. PoAHioB TU cuHa, 

ynee Awra 

3na(|)0M'B. ByjterB »aTBy 

co Bctx'B nojieft, qT6 Hhjtb 

lOH) HanoaerB... 

i^BŠTymHxx ;^o^epefl 

ijiŠHa BT* AprojiHAy 

B, rOHHMUfl CTUAOMl, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



OROBÁHHUfi nPOMBTEft. 35 

He pas^^&iHTL. Ho noxorbK) hojihu, 
DpecjiAyfl coios^b RpoBOCM'6ineHi>fl, 

T§ ÓpOCflTCfl 8a HHMH DO nflTaiTB, 

RaB% coROJEi sa craeft 6ijiax% vopmn^h; 
H MCTflmifi 6orL hxi bpobh 6yAers »asA&Tb, 
SeHjui nejasroBi npHMerB aseHBxoBi, 
Pysofi EevbcTb sasjíaHHUXTi bi nac^ noJHoqHu&y 
Ha Jioacš CHa, n sasxafl h8% ^^bi 
rjTffioKO Bi rpYAB AByocrpoe sejiŠ30 
BoHSHTL cynpyry-fipaxy... O, EHnpH;i[a, 
TaByKX crpacTb hodijih mohbtb BparaMil.. 
JIhiob y OAHoft, jid6obbh) notftaRxeHHoft, 

He XBaTHTB CKTB y6HTb, H UOUIJBLKBThj 

H, ocjiafitBiy ona CBoe (Sescufce 
ďKecTOKOMy y6iftCTBy npeAnonierB. 
IIpoHSBecTH BecB pox^b Aapefi Aproca 
Eft cysAeHO... 

S. KOBHiui MOft pascBasi; 
Oaho iipH($aBJiK): on xoro se Kopea 
FoxHTCfl Bi itip^B iipocjiaBj[eHHEi& repoft, 
^Tó CHHMerB ^:6IIB ci MOHA. Mh'^ npexcRasajia 
001 dTOiTB MaTb, poAHMafl 3eiiiifl, 
EopxHJiHiiia Moryqafl THranoB^; 

Ho Tflíb H BaBl OWb MHt CB060Ay AftCTB — 

O TOMi MOjray H SHaib leú^b ho na^o. 

lo {ez npunadKfb 6e8yMÍH). 

3aiiiiiTE[Te, o, 6oni, a nyBCTByio, bhobb 

OxBaxEJio MHŠ xyniy ÓeayiiBe... 
JBL ropH), xojOA^H)... IIpoHsaeTB Měna 

HenaciiTHaro OBO^a sajio... 
CepAi^e vb crpax*]^ Tpenen^erB. E^jďb&ub fldURi... 

H Bpan^aiDTCfl oto... A apocxB, 

OjIOBHO 6ypfl ÓUJIHHBy, yHOCHTB MBHfl... 

ToHerB pasyMi bx nyqnHt crpa^aHÍfi!.. 
(lo yórbtaemz.) 

Xop^. 

(Cmpo^a.) 

HCTHHHO MyApUMl 6wil> TOTl, 

Eto nocoB^TOBajii nepBuá Bcer^a sasjíio^TB 

8* 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



36 BftCTHHK1> EBPOnU. 

Cl paBHHMH paBHUM^ COiOSl. 

B']^AHufi, npocToft qe^OB^R^b 
J[\)ysi6u He AOJi^eei HCKaxb 
Hh ({ora^ett, hh BejibMOSfB! 

{Aumucmpo^.) 
IlycTb ate, o, nycxb HHKorAa 
FpodHbifl IlapBH MeHfl He yBEAsrb senoft 
Hb OAHoro Hai 6oroBi! 
lo, MU njiaqeirb, AposHirb, 
Bhaa crpaAaHbfl tboh, 
IIonpaHHbifi a^bhhííI cruA^b. 

Mhí He crpanrao 6£iTb senoio 
Ttxiy BTO pasena eairb h (^jdisoki. 
TojibBO nycTb MeHfl bo bíbh 
He HacTHrHerb ojHMnifii^eBi 
EedHOQiaAHaH jiv>6oBhl 
9to 6paHb — rjníb Birh cnaceHbjf^ 
3to nyrb — vjsíb nfera Hcxo^a. 
EcM EHHerb Corb na ffÍBy 
OrpacTH Bsopi neOTBpaTHMufi, 
%6 e6 jíibjíATh? KBLKb HecnacTHOtt 
Orb BcecHJbHaro (MbiuaTb? 

IIpOMETEfi. 

nycTb HKiH% SeBCb HaAMenen^: owh cmepetca 
H BCTynHTx vb ÓpaRi, ?t6 Cb ropnefi bíicotu 
BjiacTHTe^ 6oTOWh HHBpHHeri wh (Ses^Hy. 
Bt> TOTb crpaniHiift ^enb HcnojHnrcfl nax^ hhmi 
On^OBCBoe npoBJATbe, ?t5 na cima 
OópyniHJii KpoHOCb, na^aa Cb neCecb.- 
Ho ynasaTb on btex^ 6ŠA'b cnaceHbe 
Hsi Bdxi 6oroBi Mory jemb s. oahhi. 
A SHaio lafiny! Ilycrb me Seecb na xpoH^ 

IIORa CHAHTl, AOB^pHBDIHCb rpOMaMl 

H mojihíh) B'b pyR^ CBoefi csHMafl. 
Oh^ co cth;íomi na^erb, — Tor;ía hhtto 
He san^HTHTb orb rH^ejiH nosopnoft... 
B^Ab Ha Hero roroBHXcfl Óoei^i 
HeBŽAOMHft, rHraHTb nenoÓ^AHMufi; 
Owh oÓpÍTeTb oroHb CEJibHifi orHfl 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



OBOBAHHUfi nPOMETEft. i7 

EpomoHa, h rpoMi — cnjthabe rpoMa 
HeóecHaro. Oh^b wh n^enRH pas^po^HrB 
Fposy Mopeft, xpesyCeiíx IIoccefiAOHa! 
n ($orB 6oroBi>, npHBBiRmift B'b caMOBJíacTBK), 
Tor^a nofineTBy ^t6 sea^Hrb (5uTb pa60M>! 

Xopx. 

TaKl BOra — TBOH MeHTU, TBOH aReJMtHM... 
IIpOMETEit. 

Jl^^iĚCTBHTejBHOCTb, a He MeiTEi moh! 

Xopx. 
YseJiH 3eBCB npe^x EÍMi»-HH6yAb CMHpaTca? 

IIpometeK. 
H Óyxen ohi crpa^aib CHjrbHM, ^"ími a. 

Xopa>. 
?Tb roBopeniB? O, RaKi Te6'6 ne cxpamHo! 

IIpOMETEá. 

Mhí? OrpamHo?.. H%ti»: bí^s^b cnepiB ne Moft yA$-ii'B! 

Xop-B. 

Ho BaSHB TBOH) SeBOCB yABOHTB MOSeTB... 

IIPOMETEft. 

IlycBaft yABOHTB: a na Bce potobt*! 

Xopx. 
O, tÍJiaro T^iTB, BTO qxHTi ÓoniiiH) PoKa! 

UpometeS. 

Tasí 6yABTe se pa6aMH, npecMUBa&recB, 

H JiBCTiiTe BcbMi> 6oraii'B! A am uena, 

3eBe(rB — hhhto! IlycRafi OHt npaBHrb MÍpoMi, — 

Q[apHTB eny ueji^oJiTO cys^eno... 

?t6 BHsy?.. BoTB rjsamaTafi OJiHMnifii^a. 

JíflJlSKRO 6bITB, B^B npHHeCB OHI OTB ÓOPOBl. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



38 roCTHERl BBPOini. 



Tepmegi. 

Hsi Bctxi BparoBx Seneca, Bopi orsA 
CsflQieHHaro, xo^aiaft suuírhxx CMepTHux^! 
PasofijiawTB oxei^i Moft noBeji'&i'B, 
KaRoft cojon ryÓHxejiBHaro 6paBa 
Th, xBacrafl, AepsHyjii eny npe^penB? 
Ho roBopH flCH^, 5e8i saraAOsi... 
CMorpH, THTaHi, He sacraBJíflfi MeHfl 
BepHyrbCfl bhobb! yrpoBOĚ tu ee Mosemb 
Q^aps Óovovh HaMHJiocTB npesjíOHHTB! 

IIPOMETEft. 

Tboh dOBa — HaAMeHHii h XBaciJiHBu; 

TaRx roBopHTB npHJiHqHO ciyraifB lixi, 

Rto d^CTB exBa jcíAjrh Ha xpoHi OjHMna. 

Bu xy^aere, HOBue Aapn, 

He Moxen CRop6B npoHHEHyrB ki> sairB vb ^eprorn? 

S. BHA&ix ysi naAeHBe Asyx^ BJiaAURx 

CHJBH^e BacB, H onepeAB — sa TpeTBHMx! 

Offb rHtfejni nosopHMmeft nsi bcíxi 

He OTBpaTHTB. A TBi, npHCJiysHiiRT* SeBca, 

Hax&iJicfl, TCO 6jxY fl AposaTB 

HpeAT* 9THBIH HHqiosHBiMB 6oraMH?.. 

Oj fl He najTB en^e xaRi hhsro! Hštb! 

Tu OTB MeHfl He BEiB^^aemB lafinu, 

yfiXH, BepHHCB R^B HOCJiaBmeMy Te6fl!.. 

Fepmecb. 
TaROH) 2se ctpohthboctbh) ÓesyHHofi 

Til RaSHB TBOK) H ICJ^HH sacjiysBJíi. 
IIPOMETEft. 

Ho sHafiy TepnecB, BsaiiiHx mohx^b crpa^anifi 
He BSflji 6ei fl nosopa TBoero: 
Ho^eTH^ft <$iiTB npHROBaHHUMx Kb ppaHATy, 
^íbwh bícthhromi npoBopHUirB y BJia^uRi 
CjiysHTBy RavB T£i! OÓH^a — sa o6HAy! 

Fepmecb. 
Til, Raacercfly cbohmi MyqeHBflM'B paxib? 



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CROBÁHHHfi nPOMETBfi. 39 



IlpOMETEft. 



IlyeKaft cyxB6a nonueirB laKyio pa^ocib 
BparaiTB mohitb, — h tu o^j^hhi hsi hhxi! 

Tepmecl. 
Ho FB ^eiTB se a BHHOBeHx npejTB to6oh)? 

IIPOMETEfi. 

Bc^xi, Bcixi 6oroBi, njiaTfloiEix^b 3a Ao6po 
IIpexaTeiLCTBOirby pafiHO a HenaBEsy!.. 

Fepmecl. 
Orb ropfl TEi pascyxoBi norepjurb... 

IIPOMETEfi. 

Ha HeHaBHCTb Kb Bparairb — Moe ÓesjMBe?.. 

Fepmecb. 
Tu He 6ujrh 6u m vh cnacTÍH Ao6pM. 

IIpoMETEft (cmoHemz). 
YbuI. 

Tepmecb. 
BoTh RpHicb, HeBŽAOMuft jíA^ 3eBca! 

IIpOMETEfi. 

IlycTb noasHBen, — Haywrcfl Bceny. 

Tepmeci. 
Ho vYfifuwh 6uTb TEi caiffb ne Hay^HJicfl! 

IIPOMETEft. 

o, xa! Korxa 61 a Cujtb MyAp^ft, ee craj^b 6u 

H rOBOpHTB Cb TBXMWb pa60Ml, RaSl Til! 

Tepmeci. 
Tu yroxHTb ho xo^enib ojumváŘUY? 

IIpoMETEft (HacMnmAueo). 
MeA eeib sa ht6 Sesecy yrosAftTb!.. 



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40 B1bCTHIiR'B EBPOmi. 

Tepmeci. 
3aT]^'b co MHott TU myTHmb, BaR'B ch pe6eHK0M'b?. 

IIPOMETEfi. 

H'1'rb! TKi rjiyii^ft pe6eHRa, ecjiH uorb 
HaA^TBCfl, HTO Tafley a OTBpoK). 

Hh XHTpOCTBH), HH nUTSEMH, HHH^lťB 

Hsi ycTB MOBX^b He BiipnerB oh'b npHseaHbfl, 
noKa 1^'lneft ne CHUMerB. IlycTB se 3eBCi 
CofluserB Meefl oreeirb pas^n^HX^b Momifi, 
Oóvb&rb CHŽroifB ($^OBpujiBix'B BLiorb, 
PaspyniHTi MÍpí noAseHHUMH rpoMaMH, — 
He noBopiocB, ne nasoBy xoro, 

KtO AOJUSeHl CKHnTpB OTHflTB y RpoHÍOHa! 

Tepmecx. 
IIoAyMafi ae: ynpaMCTeo He cnacerB... 

IIpOMETEfi. 

SI Bce pžniHjii, fl Bce ^asHO npe^BHA^^! 

Tepmecb. 

o, ecJHfiH XOTB ropě HayiHTB 
Te6fl Morjío noBopnocTH pasyifHOĚ! 

UpometeS. 

Yfi^H, ocraBb! ne yÓtsAafi HanpacHO... 
Th AyMajTB, pa(ÍB, hto a na^y bo npaxt, 
ncnyraHHufi yrposott OJinifnifii^a, 
ÍTO 6yfly fl o mmocth BsiiBaTB, 
IIoAHflBi ch MOJLBÓoft Tpeneiii,yii^ifl AJiaHH, 
RaBi »eHn^HHa, ri Bpary!.. H*!!!), HHRorAat.. 

Pepmeci. 

.9 pacToqajTB cjiOBa moh CesusoAHo: 

MojieHÍfl He TporaiorB TeÓa; 

KaR^B lOHufi ROHB, ys^oS HenoRopeHHufi, 

Tu wb flpocTH RycaemB y^Bja. 

HeifyApoe ynpaMCTBo: o, noBŠpB mh4, 

PasBÍercfl, RaR!B npaxi, ropABíHfl t^xi, 

Kto cjia($rB yM0in>, ho A^psoRi h MaieseHi. 



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GfiOBAHHUfi nPOM£T£&. 41 

CMHpHTbCfl TU He xoqemb, tebi yseat, 

RaKofi yA&i^b Te6t roTOBATb 6orii. 

CHa^sma 3eBC'i> bi* ockojibh paso^Berb 

BepmHHBi cRai'B HefiecHuiiH rpoMaiiH: 

HHSBepseHHEift, HC^esnemb tu, teteetb, 

H wb B^jupa,x'b ro\ybj bi» o&bsiniix% rpaHHTHUxii 

SasoxHemBca. CTOJiiTBa npoTeEyrB, 

nOSa TU BHOBb yBHAHIDb CB^Tb EeÓeCEUŘ. 

Torsa Te6a HaqHen TepsaTb opejii, 

KpujaT£ifi něCL 3eBeca, neHacuTHuft. 

H, npBJíeTafl, 6yAerb Bd;K;(ufi Aeeb 

Ohi BupuBaTb KorraMH Kjoqba rkia, — 

HesBaHufi rocTb na nepmecTB'! KpoBaBoiťb, 

IlHTaacb qepHoft nenenbio TBoefi. 

Jlo Toft nopu He s;iii BOHKa crpaAaHbflifb, 

IIoBa Apyroft He npHMerb ifysi tbohx'b 

CrpaAajeiilx-Óorb, n bi ifepTBUMii bi TeMHufi TapTapi, 

Bo rjiyĎHHy AH^a ne coňAerb. 

MoH cJOBa — He TmerHaa yrposa. 

Sesecb ne JLxerh u coBepmHTCfl bojia 

BcecHjbHaro. IIo^yMafi se: noBopnocTb 

He jy^me jih ctpohthbocth TBoefl?.. 

Xopx. 

OH'b upaB^b. Cmhpb, CMHpH, THTaHX Moryqifi, 
Cnofi ropAuft fl,yxi» h 6ory noBopHCb! 
nocjiymaficfl cob^tobi ;io6pux'B: ctu^ho 
ynopcTBOBaTb B-b omBÓK^ Myjípei^y. 

UpOMETEfi. 

Bce, ^Tb MOjiBEjn> Pepifecb, a npeABHAtii a&bho! 

Ho Bpary orb Bpara ne nosopno 
HacTb vb OTBpuToft 6o^h&b. Ilycrb se ne^erb bi Měna 

Bon CHOnaHH ornefi CMepTOHOCHux'L, 
HycTb doHpi HOBOJieCjeTB pacsaTOMi rpoMOBi, 

HycTb TaBoft yparani ohi noAHMera, 
?To6i BeMJia coApoFHyjiacb na b^^huxi Bopnaxi, 

DycTb, óesyifCTBya, vb 6yp'6 cni^maerb 
BoJiHU Mopa cb ornaMH neiíecHux^b cbíthjiii, 

YBJíe^eTb Bi rjiy($HHy Moe tího, 
Bt npeHcnoAHiOH) c6pocffPb, — yCHTb lo K^EUfi, 

Ohi ne MOseTx nena: a óescMepTen^b! 



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42 B^CTHHBl EBPOIQl. 



Tepmeci. 



3to AHRÍfi 6peA'B 6e3yMaa! 
PasB-J^ MorB 6u Mysii pasyMHuS 

He CMHpHTb Bl> TaSHXl CTpaAaHbflX'B 

ByfiHoft ropAOCTH CBoeft. 

Jifkhu^ nojHUfl yqacTbeiťB 

n jiioÓOBbK), yxajiHTecb, 

OTofljHTe, HTOÓH cépAAa 

He uoTpsiCh BaMi rpoxoTi ta^kíB 

OrjiyniHTejikHuxi rpoii ob^ ! 

Xopi. 

Heysejb coB'laTB ROBapeuft 
Mu HcnojiHHMi? CjiymaTbÓojibHO... 
CecTpu, cecrpti, ne noRHHeBfb 
OAflHORaro CTpaAajibi](a, 
ByAeMi> ropě cb hhitb a^htb 
H noRaseiTB, hto H3M'bHy 
HeHaBHAHMx Bcett AynioĚ! 

rEPMECl. 

EciH TaRi, He saÓKiBafiTe 
Bu npeACRasaHHaro mhok), 
He RopHTe OJiHMnifii(a: 

Bu H36paJlH AOÓpOBOJIbHOy 

Bu npeABHA*JiH 6*Ay. 
He BHesanHO, ne ROBapno 
CRopo 6yAeTe, o, hhm$h, 
Bu yjOBJíeHu cítamh 
HeuHRyeifofi cyABÓu. 

HpOHETEft. 

Hflercji CJOBO SeBeca: seiíJia 

rioAO MHOK) TpeneíuerL. 
Lio pACRaxaMH BXO rpoMOBi, 

H fijiecHyjiH nepyHu, 
SHJiacji BHxpflMH qepHafl nuiib, 

HajierkiB h cinH6.iHCB 

[pOTHBHUe BtTpU. Clftoa^HCB B^B 6opB6Í 

BojiHu Mopfl H BoaAyxi... 



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CKOBAHHElfi nPOMET£&. 43 

YsHaH) Te(5fl, 3eBCBl %o(5i nena yacacHyTb, 

Th bosabhpb 8Ty 6ypK). 
O, 3eMJifl, MOfl iiaTs! o, eeÓecHEifi 3eHpT>, 

CBibTh eAHHuĚ, Bceo6iAÍfi, 
OocMorpuTe, RaRÍa cxpa^aRbs lepnjiH) 

JÍ OTb 6ora— HeBMHHHft! 

{Ckoau eMfbcmtb cz UpoMemeeMZ oCpytuueaemcH ei Óesdny.) 

Jí,. MepetkroboríK. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PEÍOPMA 

KJÍACCHqECKHXl) rHMHA3Iíl 

BO *PAHmH 0. 



I. 

Bcbu% J[K)AflM'L CBOfiCTBeHHO — H HC AStpOlfB— Wh TflSeJIHfl dnOXH 

o6mecTBeHHoft shshh oópan^aTs oco6eHHoe BHHMaHie na cboh BHyr- 
peHHÍfl flfkjiSL, saAyMBiBaxBCfl HaA'B hhmh h saTtifi ycrpeMJiflTb bc^ 
CBOH ycpjiifl Jťh coBepmeHÍK) BHyrpeHHKX^ npeo6pa30BaHÍfi. Bon 
noTOMy qacTO, laRxe h uocjA bhÍihhhxii 6tACTBÍfi, o6íiRHOBeHHO 
Hacrynaerb nepÍ0A'B BHyTpeHHHXi* pe4>opMi>. 

^OBasaTaabCTBOMii loiiy cjysHTb bca HCTopífl. KorAa Ilpyccia, 
nocJi'b pasrpoMa 1807 r., 6BiJia npnHysAeHa ycrynHTB nofii^HTejíK' 
nojiOBHHy CBoefi leppHTopiH c% nojioBHHOio HapoAOHacejieHÍfl, ro- 
pojib ^pHApHxi BHJb^eJILM^ III CRasajii, qTO rocyAapcTBO aojsiho 
B03HarpaAHTb AyxoBHUMT. ycHJieHieMi y6uTRH, noHeceHHue vh ^hsh 

nť^AKAMT; ATnninp^iH. ToF/ia HaCTyHHJia, DOA^ pyROBOACTBOMT* IIlTefiHa, 

^p., 9noxa pe4)opM'b — He xojibRO apMÍH, BOopy»eH- 
}CTBa, HO H Bcbxi BHyxpeHHHxi OTHomenifi. jH^ajib- 
i^CTBÍeifb dToro pe^opiiaTopcRaro crpeMjenifl Óujia 
ÚaTHB* BHJibrejíbMa FyMÓojibATa, TaR»e h o npe- 
ÍHux^b saBeAeHifi. HMeHHO TorAa Ilpyccifl cosAajia 
cpeAHHxi yqeÓHuxi 3aBeAeHÍfi, AOBeAnryio ee, Rasx 

0C9'IaCTBÍH, AO C;iHmR0M'b OAHOCTOpOHHHXl, HO, BO 

epKi HaxoxHTCii, no cBoeMy npexMery, bi cbjish ci XByiifl npex- 
iH Toro xe aBTopa: „Pe<|>op]ia reiiBasift bi TepHaBiH^ (1890 r., 
57 crp.), H „Pe(|K>pMa rmiHasilt bi IIlBei^iH" (ceex., 86 CTp.).—Ped. 



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PE^OPMÁ rHMHÁSlft. 45 

BCflROMi cjiywi, diaronpurrHHXii pesyjibTaTOBx. Ob ^aHi^eio, tlocjA 
1870 r., csyHiuocB to se caMoe, h bo ^paHi^in raicse ea^ajiocs 
cb Toro BpeMeHH jiraopaxoqHoe crpeifjieHie ri npecÓpasoBamio ne 
TOJLKO oÓntecTBeHHuxi OTHonreHift, BOopyseHHoft cmra rocy^apcrsa, 
HO H HapoAHaro o^pasoBama. Bii droifB OTHomemn ^paei^yscRÚi 
MHHHCTepCTBa, HeenoTpfl Ha ^acriifl nepeMtaH, conepHHqajiH ci 
najaiaMH bi roroBHOCTH seprsoBaTB rpoiiaAHiíMH cyímaMH ne sa 
Offtb BoeHHUfl i^H. JUfiŘcrBwrejíhEOy pacxoAti ea napoxHoe npo- 
CBtn^eHÍe cocraRiajiH bi 1857 r. tojbro 16.500.000 4>P-9 & bi 
1878 r. OHH BOspociH jsfi 59.200.000 4>P- b bi 1885 r. aocthejiu 
rpoMajiHOtt cymni 172.000.000 4>P- B'b 1888 r. oaho rocyxap- 
ctbo HspacxoAOBajio ao 135.200.000 j^pansoBi ^). 

H caMO oCo^ecTBo npeAcraBOjio iCHoria AOBasaTeibCTBa csoeft sa- 
(kmi o pasBETÍH Bucmaro oCpasoBamiE. ^pamsjshi o6HapyaiuuH wb 
1870 r. namoe HesHaROMCTBO cb reorpa4»ie&^ soropoB) npe- 
HeÓperajH no^ra coBepmenoo vb yqHJui^axx. Mes^y t^*^ yse vh 
1876 r. Bi 25 ropo^axi 6eijih OTRpuru reorpa^^HqecRÚi otfn^ecTBa, 
eocTOfliiqfl vh cbash cb TaRHiii se oCmeCTBOiťB bi» Dapeisš, h vh 
rowb se roAy ohh ycrpOBJíH 26 reorpa^H^ecKrax dBcnexHióft. Feo- 
rpa^HTOCRoe otfn^ecrBO b^ BopAO y^e^BJío bi» tomi se roAy sa* 
iďwTeJiBHyio reorpa4>HqecRyH) BucraBRy; BHXOXflntee se „Revue 
de géographie^ oAjio mosho cpaBHHBaTB cb SHaMeHHTUMH H^Mei^- 
KmiH HBAaHÍflMH IleTepHaHa. 

OópantacBfl sacHMi HenocpeACTBeHHO ri HapoAHOMy ofipasoBaHiio 
BO ^^paHi^ÍH, MU yBHAHMi TO se caifoe: HanaiBHoe o^y^enie noxsepr- 
JOCB Bi 8T0 Bpeiffl rjiyÓOKOMy npeoCpasoBaniK) BCJiÍAcrBie saRona 
16-ro mna 1881 r., ycraHOBHBmaro xapoBoe nepBOHanajiBHoe o6y* 
qeme, h saRona 28-ro Mapra 1882 r., ycraHOBHBmaro oCSasaTejB- 
Hoe nocin^enie HaqajiBHBix'B y^HJiHn^^B. OCpasoBanie senn^HffB Óbtjio 
C08xaHo saROHOiTB 21-ro AeRa6pfl 1880 r., o cpexBsrh sencRHx^B 
yHe6HHX'B BaBeAOHisxx, h saROHOMi 26-ro íiojh 1881 r., o Hop- 
MajBHott nrROjfl, HM^ion^efi wb BH^y npiiroTOBJíeHie y^HTejíBHHi^i 
AU ^THxi BaBexeHiS. O^obb mhofo 6sijio CA^aHO b% sto Bpeiffl 
H Ajfl BHcmaro, yHHBepcHTeTCRaro otfpasOBaHÍfl.' 6i 1871 r. pac- 
XOAU Ha 4^RyjiBTeTii cocraBjfljiH 4.300.000 (|)p., a m 1889 r. 
OHH AOCTHrjiH 11.391.495 ^p. KpoMŠ Toro^ rocyAapcTBO h ropová 
HspacxoAOBajiH bi sto BpeMfl 88 mhji. ^p. na nocrpoftRy hobhxi 
novin^eHÍfi wfl ^RyjiBTeroBx hjh yjiyraienie CTapax-B *). PacxoAH 

') L'UDÍTer8ité. Journal des questions ďeDseignexnent secondaire. 1889, crp. 89. 

*) TaKb Haip., vb napBX'b oripaTO-ÓiiJio, 26-ro xesaópa 1879 r., Société poar l'£ta- 
pes des qoestions ďanseignement secondaire, HsxaDmee cboh npoToioiH vb sypnaji 
L^UniTersité. 



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46 BftOTHHKb EBPOnU. 

rocyAapcTBa na cpej^HÍfl yneOHiifl sasexenifl wh 1876 r. cocraaiaiB 
6.240.200 $p., a bi 1889 r. bosbhcmhce ao 17.177.850 <j[>p. 
Bb npoAOJseHÍe Toro se BpeifeHH HspacxoAOBaHO Hn rocyxap- 
CTBeHHaro sasea^eftcTBa 110.866.666 $p. aa nderpoftsy hobeix's 
7qe($Hux'B saBe^eHÍft, na peMOHTB enfstrb hjih na pasíH^Hiu 
yqeÓHtifl noco^ia. HeiLSfl EOioiiy ocoap^Baib cnpaBeA^BBOCTH uB^BUíy 
BHCBasaHHaro oahhitk wn ^paeiiiyscKiixii iiEHucrpoBi HapoxHu-o 
npocBinteHifly SL. $eppH, mo Tasyio crpaciB 4>paHi^y8CKaro Ht^^c^ 
H ero npexeraBETe^eft kb yMCTBeHHOMy h HpaBCTBeHHOicy Bospos- 
xefliio ^paHi^ÍH ciixyeTB c^HraiL camarb (SÍeciflii^HirB AORasaTan- 
erooiTB efl SHSHeHHOCTH, laRi Raní tojbro HpaBCiBeHHoe h yncrBeH- 
Hoe npeo6padOBaHÍe nocpeACTBOin mRoiii h sayBH Mosers cocraB- 
jflTB A^fl sasAaro aapoxa ocHOBy ero BcecropoHHJiro BOsposxeHÍfl. 
O^eBHAHO, ^TO cpeAH CTOib KHnyqett ^'^TeAHOCTH BO Bdbxi orpa- 
CJUíTb HapoAHaro otipasoBaHÍa h cpexHÍfl yneÓHua BaBexeHÍfl ne mopjih 
ocraTbCfl HerpoHyTHiíHy h ohh aojshu Óujie ooxBeprHyrECfl 
HBBicTHoft pe^opifl. HacROJibRO se 8Ta pej^opMa Basna, mosho 
yftlAHTBCfl xoTfl 6u HSB TOFO, ^TO OHa ROCHyjacb 997 yqeSHíirB 
saBe^eHÍft, bb aoropuxi wb 1887 r. o($yqajiocB 158.238 y^eHH- 

ROBI O- 

He noA^esHTb comh^hík), hto h otfn^ecTBO aaaBO sanHMajiocb cpeA- 
HHMH yHe6HiiMH saBe^eHÚíMH, croib BasHiíMH aia otfpasoBaHÍfl b<b 
ooo6eHHOCTH ero pyROBOAfln^Hxi RJiaccoBi (les classes dirigeantes). 
Bi AORasaTeJbCTBO Tony mosho npHBecTH ipy^u Kypeo, Si. GHiiOHa, 
Bpeaifl, MMbcaHa, CajiOMé, jlanpaAa, ^epnetjfl h MHorHX'b Apy- 
TETh. Bi oco6eHHOCTH $papH, xpoójii paAHRaibHoft pe4>opMBi cpeA-- 
HHZb yqe($H£ix'b saBeAeHÍft, B056yAiU'B crpacTHiift cnopi MesAy npe- 
BepseHi^aiiH cyn^eciByioiitaro nopsAsa Ben^eft h CTopoHHHRaiiH ho- 
Báro HanpaBJíeHifl ^). T^irb ne uenie pe^puh cana noABHra- 
Jiacb oqeHb Tyro. Dpe^BBy laRoro yAHBUTejbHaro na nepsaft 
BBAi^ flBjeHÍfl BHflCHHJii Bpeaib, roBopji, ^qxo HHRorAa HOJibSfl sa- 
(JBiBaTb, qxo ^paHipfl — crpana caMafl ynopnaa ajia bcaroS cepbes* 
Hoft pe(|)opHu, npHAepsHBaioii^aflCfl ch BejiHqaftmHicB ynpflMCTBOicB 



*) Ho Statistíqae de 1'ens. secondaíre eo 1887 r., bi diOMi roxy 6hjo bo ^pae- 
me 100 saseHHiiX'* jrai^eeBi, 246 TaKv-HasHBaeMBxi colléges commanaux, coxepxB- 
MHxi ropoxaMH ci nocodiem orb npaBiTeibCTBa, h 651 HacTHHZi cpexHHzi y^eÓHHxo. 
saBexeHÍt, hsi BOiopiixi 302 cbítcuixi h 849 xyxoBHuxi. Bi nepsHxi 6uao bi tomi 
xe roxy 58.816 ynoH., bo BTopHxi~86.086, bi rpeniixi— 20.174, a bi nociixHHxi— 
50.085 (Statistiqne, crp. LIY h xpO* Bi 1889 r. xoíHiecTBO AEUfiWb yBeJH4HA0Cb 
xo 107, BcrtxcTBÍe npeo(5pa80BaHÍfl BÍROTopHr& EOMMyHajbHHxi KOJijeríft. 

') Ri npoTHBHHKairb $papH mosho npoTOCJiBTfc Vessiot., La question du latin d 
M. Frary. 1886. 



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P£4>0PMA rHMHASifi. 47 

BÍisoBiix'B npeASHÍfi. Hama HCTopifl ycŠAHa Ha noBepxHOcrn peso- 
jnipflMH, HO cyn^HOCTb HpaBCTBeHHoft H yMCTBeHHoft SHdHH HapoAa 
ociajiacb HeHsiď^HHOio vb npoAOJiaceHie AByxi nocjrbAHHxi b^robi. 
Hanni a^^th jsjbjíajíyrb rb se yopasHenifl, ROTopuMH saHBMajrHCB 
yqeHHBH Pojnena; KHHra se, cocraBJíeHHUfl BocciodToirB (Bossaets) 
Aifl AO^^HHa^ ynoTpefijuiiorB h Tenepb xbníi nameft 6ypsya8ÍH^. 

3totb ROHcepBaxHSifB, 6uBmi1k ochoboh) (f^pani^yscRaro ea- 
poAHaro xapaRTepa, BBUiCHflerB nani orqacxH, noqeiiy bo $paH- 
ipH, nepesHBmeft ctojebko nojEHTHqecRHX^ ^epeBopoTOB^ h ne- 
peBepHyBmeft na nepBuft B3rjflA'B BBepx'B ahoitl bcí OTHome- 
HÚi, cpexHÍfl yqeÓHUfl saBe^eHÍii Bii^epsajH bc6 stb 6ypH h co- 
xpaHHJH na ceSib HaH6ojrle q)eAHeB%ROBoro xapaRxepa. Bce, tto 

MOIKHO Vh HHXl CHHiaTB HCAOCiaTfOMli, HpOHCXOAHTÍ HSl CpeAHHXl 

BÍROR&. Bdb 9TH HeAOcraTRH Bcbwb xopomo HBB^krrHu, HO oÓn^ecTBo 
AO naROfi creneHH npHBHRso kb hhiíi b% npoAOJEseme mhopex^ 
ciorkrifij 9T0 ne nošen OTRasaTLcs otb hhxi; pe4)opMaTopain» 
Aase HeAOcraen HHorAa cm'&socth ycrpaHHTb hxi; vh H^Roropiixi 
CEj^SiSTb HysHO 6Uy RaR^B ropAÍeBi ysejTB, paspyÓHTB Menoiii bob- 
HHRaK)ntifl saTpyAHenifl. IIoaTOMy HejBSfl hohatb mhofhxx ocoóen- 
Hoeiefi TenepemHiiro ycrpoftciBa ^paHi](y3CRHxi ROJiJieríft, hxi hoao- 
craTROBi, ecJiH ne otfpaTHTB BEHMaHÍa na to, "ító Óujlo npesA^, — 
Ha HX^B npomeAnree. A npomeAniee dro o^enb orAajiennoe. 

Yse OROJO 1200 r., bo BpeMii B03HHRH0BeHÍfl napHSCRaro yns- 
Bepcarera bobhhrjih laRiRe h nepBUii collegia, hoa^b oqeHB CRpoM- 
HHirB BHAOirb, (iesi npHTflsamft na caMOCTOfliejBHoe cyn^eCTBOBame, 
a T^iTB 6ojAe na to SHa^enie a^a nayRH h otfpasoBaHÚi bo $paH- 
lÚHy Rasoe owb npioÓpi^H bhocjišactbíh. Cna^ajia owb Óíijíh tojibro 
npiiOTaMfl, wb ROToptixi cryAeBTU, oóyqaion^iecfl b^ ynuBepcHTeT^, 
HaxoAHiH noM^H^eHÍe h coAepsaHie, HHorAa sa yHŠpennyH) njiaTy, 
6aiBmeio se wctbk) AapoM'B. Offb BOsneRajn hjih BCjrl^ACTBie Bce-' 
otin^aro TorAa HacTpoeHia o6n^ecTBa coeAHHflTLCfl b'b Ropnopai^iH, 
H2h H8i cocrpaAaHÍfl r'b yqan^eficfl MOJiOAesH, naxoAHBmeficfl BAajH 
OTB CBOHXi, na qys6HHŠ, cpeAH MHorojiiOAHaro ropoAa, 6eB'B bcaroA 
Ban^HTKi H noneqeHifl. Gah*! y^pesA^unrcB ÓJiaroTBopHTejiBHtiHH jih- 
ipuiH, Apyňii — BejBMOsaMH, HHUfl — opo^^eccopaMH yHHBepcHTeTa, se- 
laion^HMH AOCTaBHTB yqan^eficfl mojioacsh noninieHie, b% ROTopoMx 
OHH MorjiH 6ví cnoRoftHO saHHMaTBCfl HayROK). Yse bi XII ct. bos- 
HHRjH AB% TaRÍfl Rouieríis; bhocjiíactbíh se ROjenecTBO hx'b sna- 
HHTejiBHO yBejiHqHJiocB. Bcš OHŠ AOCTa&afljH cryAeHTaiťB noM^n^eme, 
eoAepxanie h nayqHyio noiion^B, ROTopafl cocraBJHJia o6ii3aHHOCTB 
TaRfB-HassBaeMaro provisoťa. 

GHawJia, OAHaROsii, aaBeAemfl bth ne hm^h HHRaRoro caifo* 



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48 tí-BCTHMKt EBPOnW. 

CTOflTejBHaro SHa^eHÚi fb Hay^HOMi otHomeniH. Sa^a^a hxi co- 
CToaia TOJibRO bi AOcrasjíeniH nocoOúi cry^eHrairB, nocbniaiDii^Hm 
yHHBepcHTerB. QodTOMy bi hfixi npoHCXOAHJie :rojibRO pe^eTH^iH 
jieRi^ifi, HHTaeMuxi npo(|)eccopaMH wb yHHBepcHTeT&. Ho h Tor^a yxe 
oÓHapysHJiHCB HŠKOTopufl xapaRTepHCTH^ecKÍfl qepTu ROJiJieríft, co- 
xpaHHBmiflCfl AO HacTOfln^aro BpeHeHH. Tasí Hanp., owb 6iijih aniep- 
HaTaMH, a TasB saRi coctoajih bi BaB^AtiBamB Ay^OBeHcrsa, to h 
Bce y^ea;ieHÍe hxi nptfHiiJio bhai MOHacrupa. TaRHM'B se o($pa- 
soiTB, en^e h TeiiepB, ynpaBjflfon^ift RaseHHUMi jim^eeMi, A^peRTOp^b, 
HasuBaercfl npoBHsopoMx. 

Bójbmee SHaqeme bi HayqHOMi OTHomeHÍH ROJiJieriH npiotfp&iH 
TOJbRO Bi XIV CT., Ror^a Hffb ÓJiaroTBopHTejibHíixTb CA^ajiHCb yqe<5- 
HHMH saBexeHÍflMH. dra nepenŠHa npoHBomjia TaRHirb o6pa80irb, 
iTO yHHBepcHTerb, otb Roroparo owb saBHC&iH, c^Hrajii yA06H£nrb 
nepenecTH b% hhxi npeno^aBanie CBOHX^b npo^eccopoBi. BcJ^bf^crBíB 
Toro OHÍ yse bi XIY ct. CA'&iajiHCb rjiaBHnMH iieHTpaHH o6pa30- 
BaHÍfl BO ^aHi^ÍH. CnepBa TaRoft nopflxoR'b 6uji% saBe^ee^b bi na- 
BapcROtt ROJLierÍH, a TaR'b RaRi h CTjAeHTbr, ne oóirraion^ie B'b dTOt 
ROuiefÍH, xoTÍ^ nojibsoBaTbCfl npenoAaBaeMtiMH bi nefi nayRaifH, 
TO OHH AonycRajiecb r^ cjiymamio bi nefi JieRi^fi sa HSB^CTHyBO 
njraTy. TaRHirb oópasoirb ROJjrerÍH, SuBinifl cna^ajia TOJibRO HHrep- 
HaTaMH, craiH npHHHMaTb h npHXOAiin^Hxi yqeHHROBi, BRcrepHOBfb. 
IIpHMipy HaBapcRofi ROJUierÍH nocjťbAOBajiH BCRopb h Apyriir, TaRS 
^To yse BO Bpeiffl JIioAOBHRa XI BOceiraa^^^aTb ROJiJieríft mwbja 
CBOHxi co6€TBeHHbixi npeno^aBaTejefi h ne Hys^aJiHCb nociuaTb 
CBOHXi yqeHHROBi AJUi CJiymaHifl JIeR^ift bi s^iaHÍe yHHBepcHrera na 
rue du Fouarie. Bcjr^ACTBÍe Toro Bca HayRa, eacROJibRo ona cy- 
lAecTBOBajia bi> 9to Bpeiiii b^ yHEBepccrrerfe, nepeneceHa 6ELiia, ee 
HCRJioqaji 4^HJioco^ÍH H fiorocsoBÍfl, wb ROJTjreríH. RojuerÍH, bi ro- 
TOpuxi npeno^aBajiHCb Bcb HayRH, nasuBajiHCb collegia plani exer- 
dtii; HasBame bto coxpaHHJOCb h Tenepb, TaRi RaR'b ROJueríH, 

B^b ROTOpUXl HaXOAilTCfl BCt RjaCCU, JlfiLme 4>HJI0C0^Ífl, HMeHyiOTCfl 

coUéges du plein exercíce. H bi HayqHOifb OTHomeHÍn huh^oi- 
HÍe iwfiií H ROJueríH mosho c^HTaTb HacjrbxHHRaMH cpejtpevb" 
ROBKixi, TaRx RaRi H B^b T^xi, H Kb ^yTHXi oÓpao^eHO 6bijio 
caMoe ÓOJibinoe BHinfaHÍe na o6yqeHÍe jaTHHCROify flsuRy n 4^hjio* 
coíjfia, Bi TO se caMoe BpeMfl, HMeneo bi* iiapcTBOBaHie Rapjta 
YU, ycraHOBjeHH 6um bi ROJ[JieríflX'b i](eH3opH, HaC^iOAaBinie sa 
npaBBjíbHOCTbH) npenoAaBaHÍfl h coxpaHemeifb bi hhxi nopsARA- 
íí Bia AOJiSHOCTb, (Tb TfeM-b »e HasBanieM-b (censeur des étu* 
des) H o6fl3aHHOCTflMH, coxpaHHJiacb jio HacTOfln^aro BpeMeHH. 
Ila^eHÍe yHHBepcHTeTa h BOo6ii^e bcíxx yqe6Bbix'b saBe^enifi 



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PEMPMÁ rHMHASifi. 49 

BO BpeMfl pejiHiiosHHXi Boiwb XYI CT. npBHyAH^o FeHpHxa lY 
K% HOBOMy ycrpoftcTBy ne tojlbro yHEBepcHTexa, ho h saBHCfln^HXx 
on Hero Boxieríft. 9to npoHsomjio na ocHOBaniH ^enpeTa 18-ro 
ceHTfl6pfl 1600 r., soropiift ci HeBHa^BTejiBHiiHH HSu^HemflMH co-i 
xpaHHJTB o6fl3aTej[BHyK> CHJiy ao BOHi^a XYIII ct. Ri 6oji^e Bas- 
HuiTB pacnopflseHÚíMi aroro A^Rpera mo2kho npiniHCJiHTb to, Ha 
ocHOBaHiH BOToparo vh BOJLseríflTB ÓEum saBe^enu Rjaccu, nero ;iio 
aroro speMenn ne 611J10. Bcjrib^cTBÍe Toro nepexoA^B hsi HHsmaro 
Biacca vb Bucmifi saBHc&irB yse on Bu^epsaHis Hcnsiramfl bi bohi^ 
yTOjra^Haro roAa. Hh oahhi yqeHHB'B ne Ówn^ AonycBaeirL bi cjiy- 
maHÍK) iffEJíoco^uíj nOBa He obobtojtl nojiHaro Bypca rpaifMaTHBH 
B peropBBB. Tlocjs!b xByxroAB^Haro sypca ^mjloco^íe yqeHBBB ao- 
nycsaiHCB vb yHBBepCHTer^ wb BRaaiieHy na óaBBa^aBpa artiam, 
^bjioco^^íh. no HCTeqeHÍH AByxii hjib xpexx iroeiÍAyK)n]^HX'B jrbrb 
OHH MorjH AepsaTB dBsaMeH^ ea jiHi](eHi^iaTa hjih Maracrpa í^víjio- 
co4>ÍH. 

Hs^ Bcero aroro, OAHaBOKi, bhaho, ^to oCy^Hie vb TorAara- 
Hflxi BOJLierúixi HOCHJO Ha ce6% 6ojiie xapaBTepi yHHBepcHTercBaro 
npenoAaBanúi; laBi aas^B npeAMeroHi ero 6íiJin nayBH, neoCxoAHMiiH 
AXfl BHAepsaHÚi OBsaneHa na nepsyio y^enyio crenenB vb yHHBep- 
CBTerb, a BCjr^ACTBÍe Toro oh*! ne 6ujie euxe cpeAHHMB yqeÓHUMH 
saBeAeHÍflMH vb coticTBenHom CMucjrb btofo csoBa. TaBHMB saBeAe- 

HÚIMH Offb CA^JiaJIHCb TOJBBO BaOCa'j&ACTBÍH, H dTO COBepOEOOCB Ta- 
BHITB 06pa80Ml, TTO, Cl OAHOft CTOpOHU, ySEBepCHTOTB CTapajicfl 

orpaHH^HTB oóyneme bi HesaBncan^Bx^ otb nero y^e6HHX'B saBe- 
AeHÍflxi ajieMeHTapHaifB otfpasoBaHiesrB, a Cb Apyroft— caifB hohb- 
SHJTB CBoe o6yHeHÍe, OTRpuBan bi cbobx'b saBeAeniflxt caMKie hhs- 
mie BiaccH, TaB'B-Ha3BiBaeMiie septima h octava, bi> botophxi yqe- 
HBBB ofiy^ajaíHCB tojibbo ^TeHÍK) H nHCBiiy, pasyu^eTCJi, jiaTBHCBOMy. 
DepBafl i^B 6BiJ[a AOCTHrnyi^a nocpeACTBOMi opAonanca 1629 r., 
onpeA^BBmaro, hto tojibbo TaBie yqenHBB mofjih ^bjiatboa bi> hchii- 
TaHÍK) wb yHHBepcHTeri na nojtyneme yqeHuxi creneHefi, Boropiie 
o6ymiBCB, no Bpafineft yrbpby bi npoAOJiseHie Tpex'B jrbvb wb yHB- 
BepcBTert HJiB Bi 8aBeAeHÍJiX'B, ovb eero saBHCflo^Bxi. ' OAHOBpeMeHHo 

CB 3TBMI dTOTB OpAOHaHCB 3anpeill,aj[l BC^M^ IipO^BlTB SaBeABEÍfllfl 

saHBiiaTBca yHHBepcBTeTCBHirB npenoAaBaHÍeMi. BcjiÍACTBÍe Toro 
BC& xaBifl BaBeAeHÍfl mofjih saHBifaTBCfl tojibbo dJieMeerapHnMi o6y- 
^esieMiy H Bi caMOMi jiyHine&rB cjiynai moob hm^tb BJiaccu rpan- 

MaTBBH. 

BxopaB jjjbjíb ÓHJia AOCTHrnyra nocpoACTBOMi pimeHÍfl napH»- 
CKaro napjiaMeHTa no cnopy nesAy yHHBepcHreTOMi h RanuTyjiOMx 
cofiopa „Nótre-Dame de Paris **. Bx cnopi axoMx yHHBepcHreTi 

Tom T.— nShbapb, 1891. 4 



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50 BftCTHHSl EBPOniiA, 

yTseps^aai, ^to RanHryjii npoTHBOsaROHHo co^epaKajii msojiEi, bi> 

ROTOpUXl A^TH yHHJIHCb HC TOJBRO ^TeHÍH) H nHCLMy, HO & rpEM- 

BiaTUBŠ. Ob Apyrofi cropoHii, KanHTyj[% yreeps^an, ^ro yHEsepcH- 
xen HesaBOHHO yqpeAui b% CBOiixa^ ROJueríflx^B caMue HHBinie 
BJiaccd, vb ROTopaxi yneHESH oCyqaiHCB tojibro ^Temio h nHcuiy* 
IlapjiaMeHrB, OAHaBOS'B, Bucsasajicfl b% nojbBy yHaBepcHrera, sanpe* 
n^aji coAepasaxa&flBťB TaKi-HasiiBaeMuxi naiux^B y^ujEn^i (petites 
écoles), saHHMaTSCfl bi hhxi ApyrHiiH nayBaMH sa HCMioqeHieirB 
BiieKeHTapHaro oCpasoBanifl. 

TasHMi oCpasoMi ROJLierÍH, pasBBBaflCB MeA^eHHO h npeo6pa- 
syaiCB, TOJBKO Bx XVII CT. CAiJiajiHCB cpeAHHMH yHeÓHHMH saBe^e- 
HÍflMH. Yse Torxa ohš fiiue y^pess^aeMu laRHirb se oÓpasoMx, 
Basi H KB HacTOfln^ee Bpeiui, h a'^uhcb. RaK'B h xenepB, na B^iaccu 
dJleMeHTapHBie, division élémentaire, rpaMMaTui&H, division de gram- 
maire, h Bucmie^ division supérieure hjh peiopesH h ^]ij[oco4>íh. Ohš 
ynpaBJUíJHCB npoBHSopoATB H i](eH3opoirB. n Tor^a xapaRxepHCTHqe- 
CROH) Hxi qepioK) ÓBuo TOy qTO OH*! cocraBJurJiH saRpuTua BaBeAeHÍfl, 

B% ROTOpSIfl, Bl BHA'Í^ HO^TH HCRHO^emfl, AonycRajiHCB dRcrepHEi. 

To se caifoe HaxoAHicB h no OTHomeHiio r^b BnyrpeHneify hx^b 
ycrpoftcTBy. FjiaBHOH) iitjiBH) hx'b o6y<9eHÍď 6uj[n RiiaccH^ecRia HayRii, 

B^B 0C06eHH0CTH Se JiaTHHCRii fl3UR'B H ^ÍHJlOCOÍffisi. IIpaB^a. ITO 

wb nepioA'B Bospos^enifl HayR'B cípacTHO crajiH saeHMaTBCfl rpe^e- 
CRHMi flBUROMi, HO BCRop^ 8Ta cxpacTB MHHOB&ia, H rpe^ecRíft 
flsuRi saHHMajTB AO uocjrkjí,RyíZ'h BpeMeH'B BTopocreneHHoe uicno wh 
cpaBEeniH cb jiaTHHCRiiH'B. 3aBeAeHÍfl axH conpHRacaJiHCB, cb oaho& 
CTopoHu, CB na^iajBHUMH y^BJíHn^aiiH, TaR'B RaRi AOCiaBjífljiH ajieMeH- 
xapHoe o6pa30BaHÍe. Ob Apyroň se cropoHu, nayRH, wb hhxi 
npenoAaBaeMUfl, npeBumajiH ypoBeHB oóynemfl q)eAHnx:B yqe6HEix'B 
saBeAenifi, npHAaBaa ÓojiBHioe SHa^eHie i^ujiocoi^vs, npenaA^esan^eft, 
co6cT6eHHO roBopa, ri cí^epk yHHBepcHTercRaro, Biicmaro oópaso- 
Banifl. IIodTOHy oh^ Óeijih qacTBK) (|)Hj[oco4)CRaro ^aRyjiBTera, 
cocTOfln^aro cb hhmi bi caiiofi Ttcnoň cbash. Bi> diowb mosho 

y5^AHTBCfl XOTfl 6£I H3l TOFO, ^TO y^^eHERH, OROHHilBniie Roxieriif, 

HH^JiH npaBO AepsaTB dRsaHeni na nepByio yqeHyio creneHB, ao- 
craBjaeMyio yHHBepcHTeroMi — 6aRRajiaBpa ^liJioco^m^ bachelier-ěs- 
arts. n caifEiS dR3aMeH'B npoHCxoAHJTB ne bi Roxierín, a bi ynn- 
EepcHTerl, no nporpaMMŠ, hmx cocraBJíeHHoft. 

TaRÍfl ROJiJieriH B03HHRajin cHa^asa npH napHscROMT. ynEBepcH- 

TOTÍ, BnOCIlÍACTBiH SO H Bl APyrHXl rOpOAaXl, FA* OTRptlTH 

6ujuí yHHBepcHTeTH Bb TaRofi se otb hhxi 3aBHCHM0crH, a no3se 
H B% ropoAaxi, b:b rotophx-b BOBce ne 6ujio ynaBepcHTera. Ycipoft- 
CTBO Hxi 6ujio onpeA'6jieHO BAHRxaMB 1763 h 1770 rr. 



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PE^OPMÁ rHMHASlĚ. 51 

H^isoTopiU! npaBHJia, OTHOCflnpsoi R'b axHMi sojjemuiy npoii3' 
Bejra BjdflHie h na Tenepenraee ycrpoScTBO axHxi y^eCnux^ saee* 
j^emĚ. TaiCB Hanp., no exHiix npaBHJiairb, ajui ynpaBJíeHifl sasAOí 
BOJLieriH 6uM HasHa^eHa uícteso^ kombchccui, bureau, cocTOfln^aji h3*b 

BUCmiIXl XOJISHOCTHUX^b JnS^h, AyZOBH£IX'B fl dBBMíSTeJibWbŘmEJi^ 

rpaasAaHi. Ona AOJisHa tfiijia co^HpaTBCfl ABa pasa kb ii^efii^'^ jím 
BKicjiyniaHifl or^era ynpaBJíflioii^aro saseACHieMi, principál, h npo4>ec- 
copoBx, régents. Oaa se HasHanaja aojishocthbix^b jiiii^-b, roto* 
pmrb npeAOCTaBjeHO 6ujio npaso HasHanaTB yqHxejiefi. 

no T^iTB se npaBHJiairB; upsEi^Hnajii bmšctí Ch BJiaccHUMi yqH- 
TeJieiTb AOJiseH^ 6hijn> 8a HeA^H) AO BaHoRyjii npodRaaMeHOBaxB 
yneHHROBi AJUi Toro, htoÓu y($tAnTBCfl, MoryrB jih ohb (Jiitb nepe- 
BeAeHH vb BKicmift RiaccB. Otb npaBHJia aioro, OAHaRosi, ^^pan- 
i^yscBafl npaRTHRa OTRasajiacB Bnoci^ACTBiH Óesi BCSROft BEA^Mott 
npH^HHu, BCJribACTBie qero yneHHRH nepexoAHJUi vh Bucmifi RJiaccb 
óes^ BCflRaro yAOcroBtpeHÍfl b:b toitb, tto ohh CA^jajiH xpeCyeMue 
ycnixH Bi HHsmeiťB RJiacci. 

UpaBHJia 9TH OTHOCBJIHCB IipeHMyn^eCTBeHHO R^ npOBHHI^iaJIBHfilMl 

ROJuerijurB. Ho h napHSCRift yHBBepcHTeri Tose ho ocrajicfl bi* 6e8- 
A^Sctbíh; HanpoTHBTi, ohi> saÓOTHJicfl o6i> yjiy^meniH ROJiJierífi, otb 
Hero saBHCfln^Hxii. 9to ORasajiocb t^itb ($ojr6e HeoÓxoAHMUiťB, tto, 
BejribACTBie yopasAHeHÍa opAena iesyeroBi (1762 r.) h BaRpíiri^. 
ero yqetfHKix^ saBeAemft, nysEO 6ujo nonojiHHTb ^totb HeAOcra- 

TOR^E H B03BEICnTB 06yqeHÍe Wh yHHBepcHTercRHx^ ROJUeríflX^B. Uo 

8T0My noBOAy nocranoBJíeHie 3-ro Maa 1766 r. o($pa80Bajio yqpeatAe- 
eie, ORasaBineecfl ÓJiaroTBopBiíM^ Bnocjii^ACTBiH, ao caiiaro Hacrofl- 
o^aro BpeBceHH, h coAMciBOBaBinee nocroflHHO yHETejiBCRO& Ropno- 
pai^H BO $paH^iH jpb npio6p£TeHÍK) t&xi Ra^ecTBi h aBTopniera, ro- 
Topse onacTH B08HarpasAaH)TB Apyrie HeAOcraTRii 4^paHi](y8CRHX'B 
ywjHii^i. Ha ocHOBama dxoro nocTaHOBJíemfl bc6 npo(|)eccopa roji* 
Jierifi AOJSHu 6htb HasHa^aeifu nyieMi ROHRypca. Bci MarHCxpu 
(licenciés) HH&ni npaBO npHHSTB y^acrie bi dxoH^B Hc^uiraHÍH. 
nJecTBAecflTB, BUAepsaBniBX^ caMUMX jiyqmHsrB oÓpasoMi HcnuTame^ 
nojiyqajiH SBame docteur-agregé; hsi hhxi se BnociÍACTBÍH Hasna- 
^ajECB npo^eccopa ROJJierifi. 

KaRt BTOTB ROHRypca HM^TB Bi BHAy no6yAHTB y^HTeJieft IVh 
nojiesHOMy conepHH^ecTBy, xaR^ Apyroft ROHRypcB, ycranOBJíeHHíift 
Aaase eme pantrae, hm4ji'b wb BHAy noĎyAHTB ri TOMy se y^enn- 

SOBl. StOTB ROHRypCl» BOSHHRl nO qaCTHOft HHHI](ÍaTHB'l. HapHSCRiá 

BaHOHHRB Le Gendre oxRasaji bx 1744 r. H8B'lcxHyK) cyiiny 
yHHBepcHxexy na BUAaqy narpaA^B oxjiHqasoQ^HMCfl yqenHRaH^ xpexi 
BHcmaxTb RjiaccoB-B. Ilepsafl paa^aqa HarpaAT*, npio6p'fexaeMHXi ny- 

4* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



52 MCTHHSl EBPOnU. 

TeifB KOHKypca, npoHCxoxHJia Vb 1748 r. Bnoojri^ACTBÍH ROJraqecTBO 

OTBaSOBl OTB COCTflSaHÚ! SHa^HT&IBHO JBeJIH^HJlOCB, H Jffh ROHRypcy 

craJDíH AonycKETB h yqeeiiBOB^b hhsoihxi sjíaccoBi. BcJiŠACTBÍe Toro, 
Bi 1755 r. yae yqeHHKH RJiacca VI (Hami xpexiň) MorjiH cocxa- 
saTbCfl Ha BOHBypci. TaKOBO 6elio BOSHHBHOBeHie y^pesAema, npoes- 
BOAfln^aro h ao Hacrojin^iro BpeneHH Moryn^ecTBeHHoe h poKOBOe 
BjmiHie Ha bck) CHcreHy oÓjHema bo 4>P&Hi](y3CBExi cpeAHHX'B yqetf- 
HBixi saBeAeHÍflxi. 

B% y^eÓHOMi OTHomeniH (|[)paHay8cm BOjjieríH ctohjih napanni^ 

Cb npO^HMH CpeAHeBŠBOBUMH CpeAHHMH y^e($HUMH saBeAeHiflHH, TaB'& 

n&Kh vh HHXi jqeHHBH o6y<9ajiRCb npeHMyo^ecTBeHHO jaTHHCBOMy 
HSKiBy H ^Bjioco^^ÍH. TojiLBO vb i^apcTBOBaHÍe FenpExa IV PaMycB 
BBejTbj B^E BHA*! HCSJuo^eHÍfl, rpe^ecBífi askibi bi Collěge de France, 
BOTopafl, BnpoieiTb, ne cocrofljra bx 3aBtAUBaHÍH yHEBepcHTexa. Bno- 
cjA^cibíh dTOTb flsuBi CTajTB npenoAaBaTBCfl h wh Apyrexi KOJiJie- 
ríflx^b. TŠMi ne Menie, jiaTHHCRÍft flsiiB^b BcerAa coxpaHflJii nepBeH- 
CTBO, AO TaBofi creneHH, ^to bx ROJueríiix^b nejiBdfl 6ujio ynoTj^Ó- 
juiTB Apyroro flBBiRa. Fpe^ecRifi asuK% npBnrejii bi nojHoe homtu 
saÓBenie yse vb rohi^ XYIl cr. MaTeiiaTHRa ToaRe crajia npe- 
HOAaBaTbca bx 3T0ň ROMerÍH wb XVI cr., ho yHHBepcH- 
TerB crajix BaHHMaTBCfl eio tojibro bi cjr6AyK)ni(eM'B crojri^TÍH. 
FeHpHxx IV Hopy^jíi BSBecTH m% mROJiBHaro ynoipe^jienifl rhhth^ 
cocraBJíeHHfiifl na BapBapcROft, cpeAneBtooBOfi jaTune, h ynoTpeÓJiflTB 

COHBHeHÚI BJaCCH^eCRHXX aBTOpOBX Vb nOAJHHHHR'1. $paHI](y3CRÍfi 
flSBIRX, OAHaROSX, 6ujrB HCRJ[R)ieHB He TOJIBRO HSX ^HCJia npeAMCTOBl, 

openoAaBaeMuxx b% Rojueriaxx, ho h hsi ynoxpetfjieHifl bi ynenoirB 
iripi BOo6n^e. Tšitb Óojrbe sto MOserB noRasaiBCA crpannuMi, 
^TO 4>P^Hi^y3CRaji cJOBecHOCTB crajia npoi^BtTaTB yse bo BpeMJi 
FenpHxa IV, bx XVII »e ctojAtíh AOCTHoa sojOToft dnoxH CBoero 
pasBHTÚi. B% npenoAaBaHÍH ^ejoco^^íh, npoAOJi^RaBmeMCfl ABa roAa, 
ApECTOxejiB coxpaHEJTB 6e3ycj[OBHoe BjaAH^ecTBO. dxa nayRa npe* 
noAaBajiacB cxojiacTnqecRE, necMOTpfl na ycEJiifl Panyca, PojnuieHa 
E mROJH ^Port-Royal** AaxB eft Apyroe, Jiyqmee HanpaBJíeHie. 
CxpaHEO Tose, hto bi lorAamHExi ROJijreriaxx ne 6£uia BOBce npe- 
HOAaBaena Ecropífl. 

Hs-B BToro BEAHO, ^TO Bx TorAaniHHxx ROJweriflxx rocnoA- 
CTBOBajio ECRJiH)<9ETejiBH0 RjiaccE^iiecRoe o6pa30BaHÍe, ocHOBaHHoe na 
EsynenÍE jiarEHCRaro asBiRa h (|)Ejroco^ÍH. Ie3yETEi tojibro, sejiafl 
conepHE^aTB cb yHEBepCHieTOMi e npsBJíe^ bx cboe saBeAeHÍfl 
tíojiBniee rojie^cctbo yqeHHROBx, erapajiECB bbccte b-b Rpyrx npeno- 
AaBaHÍfl H Apyrie npeAMexH, RaRx Hanp. MysíiRy h awro $exTO- 
BaHÍe, xaHi^u e, kb ^ECJit yBecejienifi, xeaTpajiBHEifl npeACTaBienifl. 



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PE^OPMÁ rHMHAdift. 53 

Geepx^B Toro, nocpeACTBOM'B 6ojr6e JierBaro, SHBoro npenoAaeaHifl., 
crapajiHCb c;^aTb h caMoe RjiaccHHecRoe oóy^eme 6ojrbe saHHMa- 
TeiBHHMi». lesyHTaifx, o^HaRosBi, B^ cyn^HOCTH o6fl8aHBi 4^paHity3- 
CKifl jHH-iBma BpeAHBíMi, HHCTO MexaHHqecRHMi MeTOAOM'b očynenifl, 
KOTopsift y HHXi 6iurh saHMcreoBaHi yHHBepcHTeTom h coxpaHHJiCfl 
AO no(U'6AHHrb BpeMeHi. 

TasHiTL otipasoM^B, vh iipoAOJ[2BeHÍe jsfi^rmu^ CTOJi'lTÍfi pasBHBa- 
iHCb KOAJieÚE, RaK'B cpe^Hifl yqeCeufl saBe^eHÍfl. Hsi BumecRasaH* 
Haro MU MorjH ce&k cocraBHTB noHaiie o hx'b BH^niHeMi h BHy- 
TpeHHeirb ycrpoficiB^. Bx rohi^^ XVIII cro-rfeTÍa peBOJiH)i](ioH- 
HUfl 6ypH cHecm bcí yneÓHiifl saBe^eHifl bo $paHi^ÍH. TorAamnifl 
npaBHTeJiBCT^, paspymafl to, qrb cyn^ecTBOBajo, ne hmíjíh Bpe- 
MCHH cosxaTb HOBEifl y^eÓHiifl saBe^enifl, HecMoipa ea to, hto 
6e3npecTaHHO saHHMSJíacB 9TBWb BonpocoMi h cocraBiAJiH pasjm- 
Hse npoeBTu ycrpoficTBa y^HjiHii^i. B% upoj^OJimeme H^soroparo 
BpeifeHH ^^H^ifl npeAcraBJiiJia crpanHyio BapTHHy crpanti 6eai> 
YiMjmíH'h. TojiLBO Tor^a, Bor^a Hanoieosrs cx^ajcfl BOHeyjOMi, 
saif^^aeTCfl noBoporb K'b JiyqmeMy. Ero Moryn^ecTBeHHafl pyna 
tiiua vh cocTOflEÍE saBecTH nopflAOs^ ne tojbko vb rjiyÓORO 
noTpflceHHHX'B ofintecTBeHHBixi OTHomeHÍflxi, ho h bi napox- 

HOITB OÓpaSOBaHÍH. OeTB OAHHX ÓhUTb Vb COCTOflHÍH BOCBpeCHTb 

ocTaTRH npesHHxi BpeneHi h coejnfmmh hx^b opraHenecROK) 

CBflSBH) Cb yHpeSAeHÍflMH, BHOBb BOSHHRaiOniHMH, DpeACTaBJUlBmHMH 

rapaHTÍH sBSHeHHOCTH. CaMKiirb BasHuirb saROHOirb, EsxaHHtnrb 
HaaojeoHOiTb h OTHOCflm^HMCfl vb o^pasoBamio bo ^panipn, 
6iuFb saROHi lOro napra 1806 r., yHpeAHBmift t.-h. Universitě 
de France ^\ a TaRiRe 3aR0H'b 1-ro Mafl 1802 r., ycrpoHBnríft 
cpefjňsí y^e^HBui saBe^enifl noA'B HasBaníeirb jiHi^eeB*b. Rpyneyio, 
oxHaRosx, onraCRy CA^aj'B 6u totb, rto 6u noAyBcajrb, ^to noA'b 
STHirb HasBameMi cjiš^yerb noHHifaTb RaRoe-TO noBoe y^pesA^nie, 
omqaioniteecfl orb cpexneBiROBiixi ROJnent ^). HanpoTHBi, ciiJia 
HaBBRa, R0HcepBaTfl3Mi>, o ROTopoMi MU ynoMBEaiH Bume, 6ujm 
ClOklb CHJIBHII, ^TO nOA'B HOBCOTb HaSBaHÍeML cRpiiBajiacb npesHflfl, 
crapHHHafl ROJuerífl. IIodTOMy bi jiHi][eflX'b BCi^p^HaeMi TaRoe se 
ycipoficTBO, RaR'b H wb npesHHxi Rojueríflxi; yse saROHi 1802 r. 



*) HsrtcTHO, TTO BO ^paHiUH Dox^ HasBaHieiTB yHHMpcHTera ne noHiMaDn oxhofo 
BHOiaro jHeÓEtao sasexenúi, cocrodioaro hsi coeAnHeHia HtcKOJBuixi (^aKyjbTeron, 
BO Bci saBeHBiui HJH o6mecTBeiiHHfl y^eÓHiui ^^asexenia^ a pasHom oÓpaaoMi acizs 
■penoxaBaTejell sthxi aaBexeHift. 

') HaasaHÍe Koiierifi coxpaHHJH toj&ro KomiyHajBHUii KOJUieriH, coxepxHiiiiii h& 
c^en ropoAOBi. HacTRsa yneÓHaa Basexema, xoxaÓB ne oriH^aiHCB bi npenoxaBaHÍH 
on iSBfiewb m BoijeríĚ, ne Moryrb TaKi HasuBaiBca. 



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54 BftOTHHK^B EBPOnn. 

o6pa30Baii 6.400 craneHAitt (boorses) jí^jisí y^eHHROB^B mneevb, 
BOTopue KB HHXi AOJiSHU 6ujm coAepsaTbCfl h oÓyqaTBca. TasHirB 
o6pa80irB óblbh BoacraHOBJíeHKi npeimie HHiepnaTii. Bnoc^^ACTBiii 
6ujíH BOscTanoBJíeHU h ;!q3yrifl noApoÓHOcrs BHŠniHflro ycrpoficTBa 
BOJLierift. O^Ha tojbko Bouerífl bt> IlapHsi — TaK^B-HasuBaeiiafl 
^CoUěgeLouis-le-Grand" — yiiiji-ijia cpeAH peBOJiroitíoHHHXt nepeso- 
poTOB*B. Ona nojíyqajia paaiB^mufl HasBanifl, sas^ nanp.: „Institut 
desbonrsiers*', ^CoUégederEgalité", „PrytanéeFranQaÍ8",HoyTO- 
leifl ocraB&iHCB rb se caMue, h nayRH npeno^aBajiHCB no npesHeny. 
EojJierifl dra CA^ajiacB otipa3i^OM'B, no BoropoMy ycTpOHBajracb 
ocrajiBHBiii BO Bcefi $paH^ill• Bes^*! coÓHpajiHCB npeseie npo^ccopa, 
cnacmiecfl otb peBOJiBOi^onnaro RpymeHia, h ohh, bi hobeixit 
j^eÓEUTb saBeAeniflxi, o6y^aJiH no npeasHeiiy, no netojsfiM^by vh 
BOTopuMi npHBHBJíH, coxpaHHBniHMCfl uo npe^aHÍK). 

PasyM^ercfl, ^to BCi^ACTBie dxoro noflBHJUiCB rb s&e camie ne^o* 
craxKH, BOTopBie cyni,ecTBOBajiH npes^e. CBepx-B Toro, hobhh , nsMtoen- 
Htifl OTBomenifl npiicoexHHHjiH kb npesHHMi nOBBie, HeasBicTHiie ao- 
cejrb, HeAOcraTBH, b'l KOTopiiMi mosho npmiícjiHTB qpc8M'lpHoe o6pe- 
Menenie y^ennsoBi, ÓuBmee nocjiŠACTBieiTB Bséxenifl b'b nmojiBHyiO 
nporpaifHy hobbixi nayRi, Óes^ OAnospeMennaro orpaHH^eaiff npes^e 
npenoxaBaeMuxi. dro o6cToaTejiBCTBO npenysA^erB naci ocrano- 
BHTBCfl HaA'B HCAOcraTKaMH Tenepemnaro ycrpoftcTBa cpeAHHxi y^eC- 
Huxx saBeAemfi bo $paHi](ÍH, laBi saB^B tojibbo TaseHi oCpasom 
MBE 6yAeM'B B% coctojihíh oic^hbtb pe4>opMy nocjríbAHHXi BpeMen^, 
ysnaxB, nacBOJíBBo ona oTB^^iajia rpefioBaniairB h yAOBjrerBOpaJia 
Bciwh norpeÓHOCTAiTB. 



n. 

OAHinrB Hsi rjraBH']^&mnxi» HeAOcraTBOBi (|)paBi^y3CBHX'B cpefl,- 
HHX*B yHe6HB]x*B saBeAeHÍfi mo»ho c^TaTB njioxoft u neAOcraToq- 
HHft MeTOA'B o6yqeHÍfl, xota 6ujih h Apyrie, na BOTopue BnocJiiA- 
gtbíh oCpaTHiťB BHBMame. Bx caMom a^^, CHcrejia o6y^eHÍfl bo 
4)paHi][y3CBiixrB BOiuieriflxx npenijia, riaBami^B otfpasoiTB, noA'B bjúb-- 
HÍeM'B iesynrcBHX^B y^H.iHn^^B vb npoAOJseníe nocj'6AHHX'B AByxx 
ctojvbríň^ Jffb TaBOMy 4K)pBiaj[H8My, MexannsMy h pyrani, tto bcjAa- 
CTBie Toro cA*JiajrocB no^iir HeB08M0»HBiMi» AOCTnrHyTB cepBesnaix) 
oÓpasoBanifl. Jíjísl Toro, ^o6u bi dT0M'B yÓ^ABTBCfl, nan^ nyacHO 
padCMOTp'lTB H^^ojiBBO noApoCnio nayBH, npenoAaBaeMUfl bo 
^pae]^y8CBHX'B BOJuemxi, h MeroAu ofiyHeHia, npn dTOAť& 
ynoTpeÓjifleMíie. A TaBi Bas^B ao nocviABox^B BpeiieffB Kiac*- 



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PE^OPMA TEBíHASlfi. 55 

CH^ecKÍe fldHBH saHHMajiH caMoe BasHoe m^cto bii iiibojibhohx 
o6y^emfl, Bck xe APTrifl HayRH bjik Haxo^HJiBCB bi. npeHetipemeflin, 
UH jsfiíme BOBce ee npeno^taBaJiHCL, nosTOMy rjaBHoe BHHHaBÍe 
o6paTHirb Ha 66y?eHÍe drawb asiiRaAťB. TaBHHi otfpasoMi, oi^hhb^b 
aroTi MeroA^ no OTHomefliio k^ BJiaccHiecEHMi asiiBaMi h y($i- 
AHBniHCB vb pesyjibTaTaxi, kb BOToptiMX owb npHBejrs, mu Ďy^eHi b% 
eocT0flHÍH oi^^HHTb BCH) CHCTeMy cpe^HAro odpasoBanifl bo <&paHaia. 
JIm Toro naiTB crt^yen nsy^HTB Kas^yH) cocmaenyio, laic^ 
CBasaTBy vootn^ droro oóyqemfl; noA'B bthmi se BupasBeHÍeM^ mu 
noHBMaeMi^ HSsto^Hoe saHflxie y^eHHBOBi, HMŠioii^ee vb bhijs^j ao- 
ernseme hmh oiipeA'&iieHHofi i^^h. Bce sto MomeTb BasaxECfl cJiHin- 
KoiTb cyxHMiy rbwb ne Menie oho neofixo^HMO ajea oi]($hbh Bas- 
jifA cocraBHOft nacTH wh neAarornqecBOMi OTHomemB. 

Ri cocraBHmfB ^acrjiM^B y^eHÍH jaTAHCsaro BsuBa npH- 
Hax^esajB: rpaMvaTBBa, théme latin, nepeBOA^ es 4)paHiiy3CKaro 
Ha jiaTHHCKii BBUB^, version, nepesoAi^ cb jiaTBHCRaro B3UBa na 
Ýpam^esifi, explication des antenrs, qTenie b oti^BACHenie jiaTBH* 
CBHX!B aBTopoBi, vets latins, CTHxoTBopeHiíí, B discours latins, co- 
craBJíeHie JiaTBHCBBxx pi^eft. 

CaMO co5oH) pasyMŠercfl^ hto jaTBHCRaJi rpaHHaTHRa Oujia nep- 
BOH) cryneHBK), cb Roropoft jíOJimewh Óun naiBnaTB Ra»Aufi yneBnE^B 
es Vin (MJiaAmaro) sjíacca, T.-e. c% 9-i4THaro Bospacra, kjisi Toro, 
ito6h AOCTBrnyTB OROH^aTeJiBHOft jsjbjni Bcero niROJiBHaro Tpy^a — 
ocHOBaTejBHaro SHanifl jiaTBHCRaro asuRa. HejiBSfl, oAHaRosi, CRa- 
8aTB, ^TO0u jsfbnh 8Ta MOFja 6uTB AOCTErnyTa nocpejícTBOM^B q)aM- 
MATBEH, ynorpeCjraeMoi ao nocjii;^BX% BpeMeni bo ^pani^yscRBxi 
y^H^BB^ax^B. E^^e b^ 1848 r., FaffB, o;íbb'b B3^ caMuxi jy^nrax^ 
SHaTOBOBTE ^[ypaHiityscBBX^ yHBJíBn^HBnTB nopBAKOBi, yBasuBaJTB na 
TO, ^TO, necMorpa sa H^BoropEui orpUBOHnua nonuTRB bbcctb 6ojS!ke 
pa^ioBaJlBHut MeTOA'B oÓy^eBifl, bo ^pani^yscBHXi mROJaxi^ rocnoA- 
CTBOBaja ci AaBHBx^B BpeMeH'B 6e8cnopflo rpaMMaTHRa L'Homonďa, 
tisiBinafl AO BBB^^Bofi CTenoBB o6pa8i^OBUM% co^BEenieMi, bo bm%ct6 
CB TfaťB eaMHM^B 6e8AyniBUMi, nexanB^ecRBM^ pyBOBOACTBOMnb npB o6y- 
^hík flSBBy. Osa (^ujia co(5paHÍeM'B mojibbx^b npaRTnqecBBXi npieMOBi, 
BM^n^Hxi Wh BJSKJ^ nocpeACTBOMi npBMŠpOBi, o6mcbbtb rpaMMaTB- 
neaáň 4k>pmu, BoropuB yneBBBB Buy^BBaiB naBsycTB, HaniBHajrBBO, 
Hen ypasyiritaiB rpaHMaTBnecBBXi npaBBJí^B. He noAJiesajio, noTOMy, 
€Q]cbAhíh), ^to BCx^ACTBie nocTOflHsaro ynpasBeflifl y^esHRB npio<5- 

pbraiH, Ch nOMOB^BK) 9T0ft rpaMMaTBBB, BSB^CTByH) JIOBROCTB Wh 

ynonpe&iariH rpaMMaTB^ecRBx^ ýopsTB, no 9to npoBcxoABJío b^b 

jmfipOh HXfB AyXOBBOMy paSBHTilO: OBB OTBURaJIB orb CaMOCTOaTCJB- 

Haro Mn&ijiefliH. 



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56 MOTHHK^B EBPOnU. 

TaREM^ se oCpasOMi cmotp&tb he aiorb Bonpocib h Epeub, hh- 
caBmifi vb 1873 roxy. IIo ero mhíhík), caHaa 6ojrBinafl nojibsa on 
Hsy^eHÍfl MepTBaro flsuBa cocroHTb bt* toitb, ^to y^enas^E npH- 
HysA&ercfl Ki MHnueHÍH), BC2rl^ACTBÍe Toro, qio eny yRadHeaiDTCfl 
Apyrifl 4)opMii roBopHTB h AyMaxb, ^ysAua tíitb, s^b ROTopuirB owh 
npHBiiKi Bi cotíCTBeBHOM^b fl3UK'i. Ho isjkjih dxa ne Gy^en Aoenir- 
Hyra, ecJH mu ycrpaHEMi eny bcš npenflTCTBÍfl. O tomi coBep- 
meHHO 8a6£unr cocraBHTein rpaiiMaTHBi, ynorpe^jmeicím fe y^H- 
jiHn^ax^. noA'B npejporoM^ oÓJierqHTB y^eHHBaifb cocraBieme la* 

THHCBHXl ynpaSHiSHiiiy OHH CrapaJlHCb HCKJfO^HTeiBHO o TOlTb, qTo6ii 
0CB060AHTb HX^B OTE BCflBarO, HanpflSeHÍfl MUCJIH. I^ŠIb HXl co- 
CTOflJia BX TOM^, ^IT06iI KaBl MOSHO 161*^6 BBiy^ETB y^CHEBOBl 

npeBpan^aTB HdBŠCTHyio ^paei^ydCRyH) ^pasy bi laTHHCsyio, h na- 
oČopoTB. TaBoe, OAHaBOsi, oóy^eHÍe 6íijio jnuneHO BCflBaro aoctohh- 
CTBa, Tasí saKi BCJi^ACTBie Toro y^eHHBH omuvaasí ovh caMOcroa- 
TesBHaro MumjieHifl. Bi stoitb OTHomema nepBeHCTBO npHHaAJie- 
aajio (JescnopHO rpaMMaTHB'^ L'Homond'a, cociaBjeHHoft eo^e kb 
1780 r., BBeAeHHofi bhobb vl ynoTpe6jeHÍe bo Bpeiia nepBOfi hm- 
nepÍE H peBOMeHAOBaHHoft b^b mBOJBHOMy ynoipeCjemio emfi fb 
1852 r. Ci Toro BpeneHH hosbejihcb mhoiíe Apyrifl rpaMMaTERE, 
HO Bcb owb 6blse ejie coBpan](eHÍaME JIoMOHxa, bie o6pa5oTaflHiiMH 
no npEHflTUMi fliTB Ea^ajiaiTB. Be6 owb mAm vb BE^y tojibbo 
ezbI^cteob ynpasHeHÍe naifaiE jím tofo, HTotiu cx^aTB EaiEm- 
HEM^ caMoe Eesea^ETejiBHoe ycEjde pasyiia. Bo Bcbxi npeo6ja- 
j^aeTB TO se caicoe crpeiuieHie, bc^ cocraBJífliOTB tojbro o5ophhr'l 
npaRTE^ecREXi yRasaeift ^JU nepefio^a. IIooTOMy na RasAoft exi> 
crpaEEi^ BCTp'6^aK)TCfl BupaseHÚ: on exprime (flSB^CTHoe Bupa- 
seHie) de cette fa^n, eje: od rend ainsi, wm: on tourne par... TasiE 
yRasaHÍfl, o^ieBE^Ho, o^eHB y^o^Hs a^e tofo, hto6u nepesecni 
flSBŠCTHyio 4>pftD^y8CRyH> #a8y na JiaTEHCRÍft eburi, ho RasAHft 
coriiacHTCfl Cb tíitb, wro owb ocraBJunon yifi y^eHERa vh coBep- 
meHHOM^B 6e3AMcTBÍE. y^eHERi, BOopyseHHEift rpamcaTEROH) JLo- 
MOHAa, HO HysAaercE bi MfemuenÍE, y nero ecTB roroBui Mexa- 
HEBMx, pa6oTaK)^^fi sa šero. 3to ECRJiH)?HTejiBHoe rocnoxciBO JIo- 
MOH^a EJE ero noApaaBaxejeft ao TaROft creneHE yRopenniocE bo 

^paHIQTBCRflXl niROJiaX^B, HTO QA&iaiOCB HeBOBMOSHHlTB BBeCTE HO* 

BUHy jjiymneuBUB rpaimaTERE, nanp. EH>pHy4)a. EH)pHy4rB yxep* 
asaicfl TOJibRo b-l Bucnmxi Rjiaccaxi, ho e Tor^a ya&e yirb y^ens- 
ROB^B Ao TaRofi creneHE 6hULT> nponEraHi JIomohaoitb, hto otb I>H)p- 
ny^a ohe ne mofje BUHecTE SHaTOreiBHOfi hojibsu. Ohh otfpan^a- 
JECB Ri HOMy TOJBRo B^B cjiy^aš saTpyxHeHÍtt. Ha btom^b ocHOBanÍE 
Bpeajib npEmejTB Rib rpycTHOny yÓ&sxeniio, ^to vb noci^AHee 



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PE^OPMA rmcHASifi. 57 

BpeMfl 3HaHÍe jtaTHECsaro asBiKa bo $paH^iH ne TOJibso He ca%- 
jaio ycntxOB^, ho, nanpoTHB^b, nonflTHJOCB nasax^B. H dxo ne Morio 
6mh HHa^e, xasx saRi MeroA^, ynorpe&ifleMuifi bi ynejHu^axi, 
AOiseHrb 6£U'B noBecTH HeHsfitoHO Kh rHÓejiEi casiaro noHATÍfl o 
rpaMiiaTHBÍ. EpeajiB H^erB bi 8tomx OTHomeniH croib Aft^eso, ^to 
npHQicuBaeTB saipy^Heme, BCTp^qaeMoe j^paei^ydaMH b% Bsy^eHÍE 
HHOGTpaHHHxi flSHBOBi Boo6n^e, 6ojíbmeio ^acTBio, ynorpeÓjeHÍH) 
CKsepearo MeroAa (& 1'usage de métliodes détestables). Kor^a TOibRO 
pasi ywHHRi npBBURi ri tourner la phrase, owb noTepajii na- 
Boerxa cnocofinocTb HafijiOAaTB npaBHJia xpyriixi abubobi, otbuk- 
Hyn orB caMOCTOflTeibHaro minueHÚi. droiiy MeTO^y CJiiAyen 

npHDHCaTB TOTB HeAOeTaTOK'B JIK)6onEITCTBa, Ty jiíhoctb mucjih, 

nopaxaioiuyH) bi MOJO^esH, BOcnHTaHHOft wb jLiiasfisix%. Eny orb- 
xyeTB opmiHcaTb npeHetipeaseHÍe bcabemh rpaMMaTH^ecREMH nsarb- 
AOBamflMH. CROJbRO npo^^eccopOB^ h yqHTejiefi, 88*^ arnxi TUCBVh^ 
fM BOTopuxi JUkTHHCRÍfi JiSHR^b cocTaBjíflerb eseAHeBHoe saHflTie, — 
enpamHBaerb Epeajb, — vb npoAOJUBeflie nocJiitAHBx-B 20 — 30 Ávh 
BHflCHHJio RaRoft-HHÓyAb CDopHutt Boiipocb B8% jiaTHHCRott rpaifiia- 
THRB? A 8T0, no ero mh^hík), npoHCXOAHio orb Toro, ^to rpaM- 
naTHsa, ynorpeÓiaeMafl bo ^paei^iH, HOJUD^ajia BCflRyio HAeio npo- 
rpecca. 

jnipyroD cocraBHOH) qacrbio o6yqeHÍfl áaTHHCROiiy flsuRy 61111, laR^ 
HasHBaeMHft, théme latin, nepeBOA^b Cb 4>pftHity8CRaro asHRa na la- 
TiBCRift, ROTopiurb saHHMajiHCb cb fiojibmiiifb iipserpacrieMi bo ^pae- 
i^BCSHxi^ ROJiieriflXi h noq)eACTBOMi> Roroparo oni ycirbiH BHy- 
nniTb Bi o6asficvBb yÓbRAesie, hto RiaccH^ecRÍa nayRH HaxoAHJniCb 
Bb HBxi vb 6jiecTfln^eirb coctoahíh. IIoBTOMy thémes Tpe6oBajiHcb 
Cb caifaro HHsmaro Rjiacca ao RJiacca peropBRB, bi Roropoirb 
fiím aaMtaeHu jiaTHHCRHMH pi^aiiH. H drorb nepeBOA^b 6ua% saHii- 
ciBOBaffb y iferoAa, ynorpeCjuieiiaro iesyETaiiH, npoTHBi Roroparo 
HanpacHO BOdCTaBajii yse RoUin vb ^Traité des études^, c^BTaa, 
910 saHflrie ero Ónuio npesAeBpeMeHHO ajka A'i^Tefi, HeAOciaTOHHO 
Kb fleiiy noAtOTOBJíeHHuxx. IIoaTOMy oh% Tpe6oBaJl^ coBepmeHHaro 
fcrpaHeHÍfl ero. HecnoTpji ea xo, h yqaTeifl, h yqenjiRH otipaqáJiH 
eaiioe 6ojiibinoe ROnraecTBO BpeiceBH na bth saHaTia. Ecjih, OAHa- 
Rosi, MOXHO 61U10 A'9^Tb MBoria BOspaseHÍfl npoTHBi MOTOAa o6y- 
Hfflifl JUtTHECROft rpaMiiaTHR'^, TO tíitb 6oj6e npeACxaBJuurocb ei% h 
iqMTHffb théme latin. 

IlepBoe BOBpasenie coctoajio bi toitb, ^to ^Taiia** craBHja 
ce66 jiosHyio saAaqy, jiosnyH) p&ib, HMeHHO BS[yqHTb yqenEROBi 
nocaTb na laTHHCROicb hshrí. OTHOCBrejibHO SToro vbT% pasno- 
rnda iiesAy caMiniH ocHOBaTejbHuiíH sHaTORaMH 4)paHi(ydCBn% 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



58 BMTBBKh EBPOIUI. 

uiROJibHuxi nopjiAROBi». FaHx, Hanp., yreepsAft^^) ^ro Bosspime, 
Ha ocHOBaHÍB ROToparo otfyqeHÍe laiEHCBOMy asiiRy Bidbcro cpef,- 
CTBa Rx iipi(>6pÍTeHÍH) o6pa806aHÍfl cxbxsLJiocb nibAhiOy HenpaBBJíBHOy 
qio BosspÍHie 9to jAepaiHBaercfl tojibro BCJitACTBÍe ynopnaro co- 
xpaHeHÍfl npe;iaHÍtt cpeAnestROBiixi iesyHTCRHxi Rojrjierífi, ctot&b- 
niHX^B jaTHHCRiii BsuK% XBBUM^B a8iiiR0ir& y^eHiixi, noveny h y^e- 
H0RH AOJisHU 6ujivi Hsy^aTB ero msL esexneBearo ynoTpe(5jieHÍA 
B oÓpao^aTb caMoe 6ojn>moe ROjraqecTBO BpeHeHH Ha jaTHHCRie ne- 
pesoAu. Bi» HacTOflii](ee apeMa. owaROianb, „iSHa*^ AOJisHa Hirí§T& 
SHa^enie toji»ro nostpRH, HMÍfoqefi bi BH;iy yj^ocroBtpHTBca, Ha- 
CROJiBRo yqeHHRH cjsíkí&jiE ycnixH bi noHEMaHÍn asuRa. TaRHirB 
se o6pa80Mi> BpeajiL roBopurb, hto wb Hacroani^ee BpeMfl caacue 
SHaMeHHTue í^ejiojiovu corjiacHJHCL bi toi^b, qro nepeBOA'B btotb ne 
MOserB npHHeCTH Apyroft naibsu, RaRi tojbro noBŠpRy rpaMMaTH^e- 
CRHXi nosHaHÍft yqeBBRa, a TaKiae ero ycnixoBi vb nOHHHaHÍB aBTO- 

pOBHb. TIO MHŠHÍH) ďL. CHMOHa, j,CJPkjkjeTh CHBTaTB HenOCTHlRHMOIO MB- 

qTOH) sejiaHie BtiyqHTLCfl nacaTb Ha Mepraoiirb asimi, BSB^CTHOirb nairB 

TOJIbRO H31 COqBHeHÍfi, HJH, JiyHOie CRaSaTb, HS^b HX^ OrpiIBROBl., 

Ha asHRi, OTHOcan^eMCfl r% qyasAOfi coBepmenno naMi Ryjibxyp^^ 
OTA^eHHoii oiTb naci crojibRBMH CTOJi'ÍTÍflMH. KoMy B% HacToan^ee 
BpeMfl npHAeTB bi roJiOBy necaTb Ha jiaTEHCROATb a3BiR'6, bm'6cto 
4»paHHydCRaro? A nodroMy 3aq']kM'b yqHTbca HHcaTb Ha aroirb asuR^? 
MesAy rbwb yqeHHKB bi npoAOJiseHie qeT£ipex'b jrbvb saHHMaioTca 
o6uRHOBeHHUMB HepeBOAaMH, HOdi qero TpB ro^a (b% IV, m b II 
Rjiaccaxi) saHBiiaiOTca TaRnb-HasHBaeMUMB thémes ďélégance, bi roto- 
pHxx CTapaH)Tea BupaacaTbca na Hsan^Hofi JiaTUHB. dion, o^HaRoacrE, 
Hdani^Hiift JiaTBHCRifi asEncb xaRi othochtca r% ynoTpefijifleHOMy 
pflMJiaHaMH, RaRi moabi innHi](6epreHa — R^b napBscRHMi mo- 
Aaifb". Hsyqenie BHoerpaHHuxi bsurobi uomerb npecji^AOBaTB^ 
AB^ A^H. IlepBaa BiribeTx vb bhxj ocHoaaTejrbHoe HsyqeHÍe CTpo& 
asuRa, BTopaa — xaRoe ero Hsyqeme, moóu yqeHHR'b Óhjpb bi co- 
cTOflHÍB roBopHTb Ha Heifb. dra nocjrbAHafl njbjíh — tfesnojiesHaa 
Heqra no OTHomeniio Vh jiaTBHCROMy asuRy. ITodroMy h ohi* Tose^ 
xoTH ne TpeÓOBajTb eo^e nojnaro ycrpaneHÍa nepeBOAOBi, aomo- 
rajcfl ycrpaHenia, no RpaMnefi wbp% TaRi-Ha8iiBaeMux'b thémes- 
ďélégance. 

Xoxa jiaTHHCRie nepoBo^u hm^h vb BBAy AOCTBacenie noAo6HOft 
Heocyn^ecTBBMOfi sa^a^n, Tbm ne Mentě ohh sanHuajiH bo <|>paH* 
iiy3CRBX'B Roueríflxi caMOe Óoibmoe ROjraqecTBO apeMenn h rpy^a* 
Ki TOMy npHCoeAHHuocb en](6 h to o6cToaTeJibeTBo, qro „TdMa* 
6wíh npeAMeTOM^b ROHRypca, o RoropoMi 6yAeTb pbn naše. 3A^b 
o6paTBM% TOJibRo BHBMame Ba TO, qn^ xoth aoHRypcB, na nepB&ft 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



PE^OPIIA rflMHABlfi. 59 

BsrjflA'^, Rasajcfl nojiesHiiiMi, xasi KaK'B ob'b nwbjí^ b'i> bbay otjih- 
UTb caMEixi cnoeo^Huixi yieHEKOBi, t^m% ne MeH'6e — oRasaJicfl 
Bpe;(H£iMrB vh CBOHXi nocji^bACTBiflxi. 3to npoHcxoAHJio BCJťb^crBie 
Toro, aTO TaB<B KMVb nojiy^eme npeniH Ha BOHRypcrb sjíesjío sa 
co(k>K) BasHUfl AJífl y^eHHBOBi nocjr&ACTBÍfl, xaBi Basi no bojih- 
HecTBy nojiyqeHHuxi b% HSBtcTHOfi msoid^ npeiiift cyAHJiH o ao- 
CTOHHCTB^ H sacjiyraxx ea npo^eccopoBi, to h yneHHBH, h yne- 
xeJi 8a6oTHjHCb bcímh ceiaicH o loirb, htoóu o^esne^HTb sa C06010 
noO^Ay) yAoaieTBopHTB CBoeny Tn^eeaaBiio h aaso BUHecra hsi 
Toro BŠBOTopuji MaxepiajibHiifl BuroAu- 

IIodTOMy npo^ccopa crapajiHCb ycepAHO o tomi, ^toÓbi cx ca- 
Maro HHBinaro Bjiacca ynpaaiHflTB yqeHHBOB^B bi BBipaaseHÍflx^, bo- 
Topitifl MorJiH HiťB npHroAHTBCfl BnocjiÍACTBÍH. Jí^jiíi TOFO, HTO^u npi« 

y^HTb HXl Bl IipeOAOilÍHÍK) BCflBHXX TpyAHOCT^, OBU He HaHBHaJIH Ch 

nepeeoAOBX jierBHX'B, onecaTejibHaro hjih HcropHHecBaro coAepxanifl, 

HO Cl» CaMUX'B TpyAHUXl, 4^HJ10C04)CBUX'B HJIU AHAaBTH^CBHX'B, Hanp. 

^HOiiOHa, Bocciod, PoMena, BOTopbix'B 6ojibmHHCTBO yqeHBROB^b ne 
ncHHiiajo Aase no-4>P&Hi^y3CBH, h nepeBo;i'b BOTopux'^ npeAcraB- 
juun> saTpyAHeHÍfl h a^a ocHOBaTOJibHO oCpasoBaHHaro ^^^•'^•^o^ 
O^BHAHO) ?T0 vMeHHBH, saHHMaflCb lajCHM^ ofipasoMi oepeBOAaMH 
Cb 8-j%THflro Bospacra, no 6— 8 nacoBi B'b Aenb, bi bohi^^í^ aojubhu 
61UH AOCTHrnyTb HSB^CTHaro vh aTOirb OTHomeniH coBepmracTBa. 
Gj^Ayorb emfi npHÓaBHTb, hto ohu odasanu Úujíis esoAneBno bu* 
yHHBaTb HansycTb otpubbh jiaTHHCRHx^ aBxopoBi, B€Ji'i^CTBÍe nero 
y HHxi ocraBajocb BcerAa 6ib fojiob*! HSBtcTHoe oÓHJiie BupaaKeHifi 
■ BŠBOTopaji jiOBBocTb vb ynoTpe&neHÍH rpaBMaTH^ecBiixi í^opwh. 
IlepeBOAU) BcnpaBJíeHHue y^Hxeieirb bi Bjacdb, yqeHHBH nepenn* 
CBBajH B onflTb BuyqHBaJiH HansycTb. GBepxi xoro, 6ujih TaBi- 
HasuBaeMse cahiers ďexpressions, b% Boropux^ yqeHHBH BanHCu- 
BajiH eamifl H3flnquifl BupaseHifl, j^z toto qxoóu BuyqHTb HX'b na- 
HsycTb H noBTopHTb nepeA'B Ba^AUMi soHBypcoMii. 

Qo MHÍBÍH)raBa, Becb drori MeT0A'B o6yqeBÚí AOBasueajii BeoÓuB- 
HOBeHHyD aBq)m) h snaBie A^a b^ Bbi(5opt cooTB^CTBeBHuxi cpoACTBi^ 
AI& AoeTHseflia npeAnojiosenBott i^&ih, ho 6aji'h omnÓoqeHi, xas^ 
laKb saóbiBaJi^b o rjiaBBott a&ih oÓpadOBanifl, a HMenBO o pasBHTÍH 
caMOCTOjiTeibBaro uumaemiB. TojibRO 6 hjih 7 yqoHHBOBi na 
60 — 70 xTMaiH npH 9Tom> caMOcroflTejibHo; am ocrajibBHXi, rpo- 
MaABaro 6oJbniHBCTBay „lOHa'' (ujia A'^OM'bqHCTO MexaBHqecBHMi, 
AtiQirb pyTHHH, nanflTH. yqoHHBH Ch 8 — 16-jlTHflro BO^cra no* 
CBflHiajiH Ha 8T0 caMoe Óojibnioe BOJHqecrBO niBOJibHaro BpeMOHH; a 
TaBi BaBrb obh yqnjBCb qHcro HexaBHqecra, to peeyibTaTrb HX!b 
ipyAa, T.-e. ESB^naa onuTsocTb b* cocraBJíeHiH nepoBOAOBi, ne ot- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



60 B«CTHHB1» KBPOnU. 

BŠ^aix^OBce ycHjdfliTB. BpeaaB npHsnaBajTB, ?to lasofi MeTOjn» o(y- 
qeHÍfl M,0Ji7sewb 6iijIi> npenecTH Hssto^Hue pesyjibTaTii, hto y^eHHKH 
IV Rjacca BO $paHi(ÍH 611JIH vb cocroamH A^aii* lanie nq>eBo;(u, 
BOTopue 6ujIh HeAOcryiiHBi yqeHHsairB U u. fb repHamn. Tivh 
ne Mee-be, owh roBopujn, ^to tiujio 6bi oÓuBMOwb j^b cairoro ce6fl 

CyjlHTB no dTOMy o A^fiCTBHTeJILHOirB yMCTBeHHOMl paSBHTÍH y^eHHKOBl 

H o HX^B seaBOMCTB^ Ob aHre^HuiTE MÍpoiTB. Bctf pa6oTa yqetfiiBOBi 
coBepmaiacB hhcto MexaHB?ec6H, pjthhok), Óes^B BcsRaro bjúíhúi ea 
Hxx yifCTBeHHoe pasBinie hjh oÓoran^eHÍe hxi sHamfl. 9to Ótui 
TpyA^B nefijiaroAapHiift h rpycTHHft. y^eHasi npÍHCBHBai^B bi ro- 

10BÍ t6 KpOXH JiaTUBH, KOTOpUil npÍ06p&rB BB mBOJríb, HIH TepflJTB 

BpeMfl Ba noHCBB noAXOAfln^aro BupaaKeHÍfl wh cbobx^b cahiers ďex- 
pressions bjih bb ciOBapb. Tasoe nocroflHHoe saBSTÍe yqesHBOBB 
nepeBOAaiffl npoHSBOABJO Ba bbx^b emfi 6oa^ BpeABoe Bjúiflie bo- 
TOMy, w£0 BponaTUBajo bxb npocro omepau/^ieMh bb rpesairB b 
pBHiflflairBi — OTBpan^eflieiTB, o(5uBBOBeBBO 8aM']&qaeMEnrB bb bobují 
mBOJBBaro BpenesB. 

QepeBOAti Ba jiaTBBCBifi bsubi Be bpbbochjib bo $paB^ifl co- 

OTB^TCTBeBBOft BOJirBBlI 6^6 BO AByMB BpB^BBaMB. 

^ IlepBaji cocTOflJia bb toitb, ^to 4>P&B^y3<^Rie cJiOBapH, Booón^e 

CIBBIBOMB O^BJIBBHe B BOApOÓBUe, BOMOraJIB yHeBBBaMB, ($e3B BCfl- 

Baro BaBpflseBÍB mucib, npeo^oi^BaTB saipy^seflia BepeBO^a. Easi 
rpaMMaTBBa, tbbb b ciOBapa— cocraBjreBBi Óujm lasB, htoÓu y^e- 

BBBB 6e3B BCflBBXl yCBlífi MOFJB flCBOlBBTB CBOK) Sa^a^, BB 

cyB^BOCTB BenocflJBByK). Bcb bit&jib vh BB^y yiceBBmBTB, na 
CBOJBBO BO8MOSBO9 x:&iTejiBBoe y^aerie yica. TaBBM^ oÓpasoirB, spo* 
XOJisBTejiBBafl pyTBBa AOxoABJía ao saÓBeBÍfl o toitb^ Tr6 cocraBJíflen 
BCTBBByK) i^B o6yqeBÍfl. Y^eERjsrb^ A^aa sepeBOA^B, Be BysA^JiCB 
Aase vb Towby qTOÓti bpbbombbtb ce6^ noAxoAflB^yio rpamiaTBHe- 
CByH) 4^pMy. AoBOJiBBO 6sio npocMorpfrrB xopomeBBBO ciOBapB — b 
owb BaxoABJTB ee cOBepmeaBO roTOByio. 

ApyroKf, BecpaBBBBBO Óojrite BasBOK), spa^ABOio, no soTopot 

,T9Ma' Be BpBBOCBJía COOTBfa^CTBeBBOi BOJBSBT, 6UJ11> BOBSypCB, O 

BOTopoiTB Mil ynoMflnyjifl Bume, no Ba Boropufi 4>paBi^y8CRÍe ne^a- 
roFB B BBcaTejB ne o6paTBJiB eB^e, BacsojBBO sasercB, AOJUKnaro 

BBBMaBifl, MeSAy T^M^B BBB^B BOBBypCB npOBSBOABTB CaMOe FBÓeiB- 

Boe BJDBBie fla bck) ^paai^scRyio niBo^BnyH) CBcreMy. mwb 6ojAe 
yqeBBBOBB ycnijo nojyqnrB aarpaAy Ba BOBBypcb, t^itb Óojrbe 
tiujio ciaBu AJfl npo^eccopa, npBroroBBBmaro bxb bb Tony, a 
TaBse B A^fl caMoro saBeAeBia, soroparo BOcnBrasBBBB orjBqBjracB. 
IIodTOMy BasAufi npof^eccopB, bbb qBCja BpenoAaion](BX'B BOBsypc- 
BHft npeAMeTB, o6pan^a;iB cb caiiaro BBsmaro BJiacca oeoÓeBBoe bbh- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



PEOOPMA rHlfHASlfl. 61 

jcanie na 6 — 7 ÓOjAe cnocoÓHuxi yqeHHROB^b, OTHOcnreibHO koto- 
piixi HOSHO 6uso noiaraTb, qio ohh Bnoca^bAcrsiH ÚYXjvbWb coctoa- 
HÚr ycnimHO cocrflsaxBCfl. Oetb saHHMascfl HCRJH)?HTejn»HO ariiMB 
yneHiKaMH^ se saCoracs o6i ocraji&Hiixi, o rpoMOAHOifB fiojBiQHH- 

CTBÍ, ROTOpOe, BCflŠACTBie TOrO, 6US0 npHHOCHMO Bl SepTBy ROH- 

KypcHofi jnixopaAR^. noHATHO, RaRoe BJikme oÓcroflxejiBCTBO dTO 
j^ojusHO 6snM npoHBBecTH Ha oOy^eHie y^eHHROBi BOoCni^e, vb oco- 
6eHH0CTH ecAH BcnoMHHiTb, ^To Bo j^P^Hi^yBCRHxi RoiJiemxi y^e- 
HiRH nepexoAHJiH hsi HHsmaro RJiacca wb Bncmift fiesi nepexo;^- 
naro HcnuTamji, 6e8i yAOci!OBÍpeHÍfl vb rou%y ORasajiH ih ohh ao- 
ciaTo^HHe ycnixH? 

Ha ocHOBaHÍH aroro mosho 6u cnpocHTB c% BpeajieM^: ui- 
xyen jol HCRycciBO nucaTb na jiaTHHCROM-b ashrš c^HxaTB ao xaROfi 
cieneHH APftrouťiHHUMi h noiesHLiirb jigifl oÓpasoBanúi MOio^esn, 
HTOÓH CTOHJO ynoTpe($jiflTB ThnisL cpeACTBa A^fl ero npioÓp^Teniji? 
OroiLio jus sepTBOBaxb caMUMH npeRpacHUMH roAaiiH vh shshh y^e- 
HHROBB Ha AOCiaBJíeHie noxBajii sa hx% ucRycciBO vb nperoroB- 
aeHÍH npesAeBpeMeHHuxi xajiaHTOBi bi cocraBJíeHiH thémes la- 
tíns? TaBoft motoa^ npoTHBeHB SApaBOMy CMUCJiy, a CBepx^b Toro 
(esnojeseH^B h a^ih y^oHHROB^, h j^jib oCn^ecTBa, h ji^b rocyAapCTBa. 

Il08TOMy Ha 8T0TL BOnpOCl> CJI^AOBaJIO 6U A&TB OrpBI^tTeJíbHUfi 

otbítb. 61 dTOMi CMUcjrl oTB^THiía Ha Hero h pe^opMa nocj[']bAHflro 
BpeiíeHH. 

Jl^pyrHiTb cpeACTBOMx a^a Esy^enifl JiaTHHCRaro asuRa 6ujío 
versíon, nepeBOA'B cb jiaTHHCRaro asuRa na ^paHi^yscRifi, h expli* 
eation des auteurs, ^Tenie h oC^flCHenie JiaiHHCRHXx aBTopoBi. Bo 
<^paBi^cKHX'B ROJLseríflx^B yeraion npaRTHROBajiocb BOoCn^e cnoco- 
6oirb, sacjysHBaioni^HMi OAoCpenk, ho explication HaxoAHi[oc& bi 
noiBOirB npeHe(5peseHÍH. Ecjih6u bi drnxx yqHjraniaxi a^Actbe- 
TexBHO 8a(5oTHj[HCB o6% HByHeHÍH RjiaccHHecROii ApoBHOCTH, TO Henpe- 
iAhho cJiŠAOBaďO 6£i oxAaxB npeAno^xenie Treniio aBTopoBi. Ho 
Taxi Ra>B'L, no B^ROBony ofiuqaio, version 6ujio ROHRypcHHirB npeA* 
MeroiTB, noTOMy oho h sanAJio naBHoe nrítoro, ^xenie se aBxopoB^B 
emrajocB tojibro AotiaBJEenieifB. 

B^ nepeBOA']^ cb jiaxHHCRaro asuRa na ^paHi^yscRiii y^OHERH 
ofiasanu 6£ijh npesAe Bcero cocxaBHXB 6yRBajibH£ifi nepoBOAi* mot-&* 
mot^ xaB% Hxo ohh vb OAHofi rpa^i noHŠniajiH cJiOBa jiaTHHCRaro 
TeKcra, a bi> Apyrofi — cooxB^xcxBeHHUfl hitb ^pani^yscRifl CJiOBa. Bno- 
cjíactbíh xojibRO OHH o6fl3aHu (ujiH cocxaBHXb xy se 4>P^y Ha 
OT^opnoM^B 4^paHi^y3CROMi fl3UR'6. ^JH HepeBOAOBi, OAHaROse, ne 
ynoTpeÓJuiJiHCB jiaxHHCRÍe asxopu bi hoajhhhhr']^, a xojlro xpe- 

CTOliaTÍH, HSl ROXOpUXl npo4>eCCOp^ AHRXOBaJIl OXpUBRH Ha OAHOft 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



62 BftOTHHKl KBPOnU. 

jieRDim JÍM crĎAyBomefi. H dron oóu^afi Cei^x saHMCXBOBaHi Tauxe 
y ie87BTCRHX'B yqHJiHn^'B, vb KOTopiix^ y^BTeJifl ciapuHCb AOcrasETB 
y^ieHHBaifB BJiaccnHecsoe oÓpasoBasie, ho, ci» xpyroii cropoHs, xo- 
rSuiE orpaxHTB wh otb speAnaro BJiúiHifl fl3iiHecKHX'B noHSTÍt, 

Cb BOTOpUMH OHH MQrJB BCTp^THTBCfl y BJiaCCH^eCBHXl aBTOpOFb. IIO' 

dTOMy wb xpecTOHaxiflxi 6wm noM^i^ni^aeMii tojilko HeBHHHUfl iiSBJíe- 
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Hofi nepeA^RH, mosho 6u Óujio BUAaxb 3a cbob. Bujih, BiipoqeHi, 
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nOJie3HOCTB H A&Se BpeAHOCXb. 



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64 BMTHm EBPOIDil. 

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jnoAH He 6yAyTi b% coctoahíh hohatb ApeBHHX'B noaToei, eciH caMH 
He nonpofiyiorb cociaBJíflTb cthxobi. Bo-Bxopux^, yiBepsAaJiH, hto 
Bi dTOH'B cocTOHTB caMoe Jiy^Hiee cpeACTBO pasBHTb Bi y^eHHBaxi* 
BOo6paseHÍe, BBycB, ^yBcreo dcrerHqecBoft Rpacora; hto TaRHiTB 
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TO TOJiBRo, Tr6 Morjio HMi HpHroAHTBCfl Bi Cy^ym^eiTB, crapajiHCb 

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roBopaiTB, íTO Ha 70—80 y^eHHROBi ABa hjih tph óhuih kb co- 
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PE<&OPMA rHMHABlfi. 65 

jOMi BJiacci 3, 4 y^eHHKa saHHHajiHCB CTHxOTBopeHiem, ocrajiB- 
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H oxoTy vb Tpy^y. 

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npasTHqecBafl nysA^ otiy^axBCfl b^b Tasoiii BanpaBieHiii a^bho me- 
HOBajia. Bi HECTOfln^ee Bpeiifl pasi to^bbo vl roA'B mosho ycJiii- 
maTB jiaTHflCByH) fibnh vb i^&ioft ^pani^iii. JIm Toro OAsaRose, 
^m6u npoHBHecTEi laByio pi^B, nyscHo 6uTb npoýeccopoirB pero- 
pHRH BTB OAHOfi H31 napHSCBHXl BOJiJierífi, HasHa^aeMBiMi a^h 
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pHŘH cocraBJíaTB jiaTHHCBifl H $paHi^y3CBÍfl piqn. 

naCMOTpHirB, BaBOfi BHA'B HM^O Wb mROJBHOfi UpaRlinC^ 8T0 

saHflTÍe, H BaBoe BJíÍHHie oho npoH3BOAMO na oÓpasoBaHie MOJio^exH 
BOo6ii](e. H s^^B TOBse ROHRypcB npoHSBOAHJi^B pimHxeiBHoe bjiía- 
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e^HiuiocB caMOK) BucmeH) no?ecTBH), Roiopofi mosho Cajio aoÓhtbch 
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TOMl I.— flEBAPL, 189L 5 



Digiti^ed by VjOOQ IC 



66 BftCTHHIťb EBPOnU. 

coBi, HanpaBjfljH bc£ cboh ycujiúi, hto6ii npioÓpitcTE oiraT'B vh 
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cocraBjfljH HeyAaHHBifl nepepaÓOTRH h8'b cóopHHRa p^^eii TaRx-HasuB. 
Gendones rhetoricae sivé orationes ex Titi Livii, Salustii, Tacití 
et Qainti Cnrtíi Historiis collectae. 

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6ujio noATBepsAeHO h ApyrHMa nexaroraMH. 

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Hie CB. Eepnapxa, PnuiejBe, JIioAOBHRa XIV, MHpa6o, TioproHJiH 
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RaR^B OHH yHHJHCB TOJBRO CAOBHWb H ^pasaifB, TO pesyjBTarB ne 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PE«OPMA rHKHASlt. 67 

HOPL OTBi^aTb HXX CTapaHÍfllfB. BlltCTO BOSBEIineHHlIX^ IfUCJieft, 

OHH ówni Wh cocToaHÍH noM'6cTBTb B^ CBoefi matiěre TOJibBO oř- 

pSBOHHBfl 4>P^U) ROTOpUXl He nOSSÓUJIH H3'B CBOHTB BHHPB. Hxi 

qecT0JiK>6ie ycTpeMJiflj[oc& bucoro, cocraBjiifl npecRop^noe npoTKBO- 
p%HÍe c% Gíahoctbh) mhcjih, Boropyio ohh oÓHapysHBaiH. Hna^e, 
OAHaKOSx, H 6uTB HB Horjo, Tasi BaR^ ecjiH vh HHsnraxi Rjiac- 
cax'b c^HTaiH yqeHHROBi HecnocoÓHUMH r'b caMOuy npocTOMy pas- 
<7SA6HÍH>, eejH crapajHCb tojbro o AOcraBJíeHiH hmi HSBicTHaro 
onHTa 61 ynorpeÓJieHÍH jaraHCRaro asuRa, — TonejiBSfl Chjio Tpe6o- 

BaTb OTB HHX^ CaMOCTOflTejIBHIIXl MUCJiett BnCCJEŠACTBÍH. HySHO ÓUJÍO 

ixKSepaTB TO, Tr6 6eijio hocšaho — nycnifl ciOBa, ^pasti, peiopH- 
?ecRÍe oÓopoTH. IIodTOMy caMufi nesHaqErejiBHuft Tpy^i^i, Roropiift 
npiynajrB 6u y^eHEROBi jffh caMOcroflTejrBHOMy MHinjeHÍK), 6ujn> 6h, 
no mhíhíh) Bpeajifl, HecpaBHeHHo jy^me, h^i bto 6e8njio;rHoe, 
npoAOjra&HxeJBHoe MUTapcTBO, ^ipesi Roiopoe ohh npoxoAHjiH vb 
HH3inHX'b Rjiaccaxi^. 

MosHO 6ujio 6h[, nosajiyft, non](a;(HTb peropnqecRÍii saHarifl, ecjíH 
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OAHaROsi, HejiBSfl o HHx^ CRasaTB. HHRorAa ne ipeÓOBajiH otb yqeHHRa, 
^to6h owb HanHcajTB hto-j[h6o hsi CBoefi co6cTBeHHOfi fojobh, mroúu 
-CRasa^rB, htí) caMx SHaera, — h BApyra TpeÓyBOTB, ^to6u oh-b BBiCRa- 

SHBaJIl MH^HÍfl H iraCJIH APyrHX^B JHI^, I^apefi, BeJIHRHX^ nOJIRO- 

BOAi^eBi, HHOcrpaHHuxi nooiaHHHROBib, MHHHcrpoBi H T. a. 9to 
o6cT0flTejBCTB0, — roBopHTB EpeajiB, — H cocraBJíflerB CojBraoft ne^o- 
craTOR^ o6pa30Ba^ifl, nnenHO — He^ocraioR-B HCRpennocTH (le défaut 
<le Bíncérité). EaRaa cbasb cyn^eciByerB MesAy yneHHROirB, pasmim- 
jflH>n^H]n> o CBoeMi HCnuTanin na crenenB CaRRajiaBpa, h *JIh)aobh- 
soM^B XIY, npoHdHOCflnyíMi p%?B bi napjaMeHT^, hjih xpyrnirB sna- 
jieHHTBirB HejiOBÍRoirB. y^eHHRi, on ROToparo HHRor^a ne TpetfyiOTB, 
HTOÓH owh 6ujrh caííHiTB C060K), OTOBHAHO, ^ojixewb npioÓpi^cTH 
HaBURi* BBipasaTB TOJBRO yciOBHHfl HyBCTBa. ynpasHeHÍfl 6yAyTi 
jLSB Hero tíitb, h^btb TeaTpi ajisi aRTepa. 9to nepBHH npoflBjreHÍH 
THCTBeHHaro ne^yra, oÓHapysHBaion^arocfl vb noront sa 6jiaro- 

BByHHHMH 4>P&8AMH, Vb HpHBflTÍH Ha Ce6fl ^ySKOft pOJH, Vh BHpaSO" 

híh, cb oÓAynaHHHM^B xjiaAHORpoBieMx, crpacreft. 

noBTOMy EpeajiB h yTBepsA&Jn>, ^to y^enHRaMi cji^i^AOBaJO sa- 
xasaTB Apyrifl, 6ojAe crpomhua, ho 6ojňe nojiesnufl ynpasHemH, 
BSR^B nanp.: onBcamn, pascRaBii h t. h., h ABJRe npocrufl nncBMa, 
KOTopuxi y^eHHRH poTopHRH HHcaTB He yiffejiH. Bck TaRoro poAa 
yopasHenifl 6bijib bo ^^paniiiyscRHXi ROJiJienflX'B coBepmenno sa- 
íihiTa. Oauok) h3'b npH^HHi BToro ABJíeHifl 6ajíOj no mh'6híh) Bpeajui, 
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5* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



68 MGTHHirB EBPOIQI. 

Toro, HTotin saHHifaTbCfl npocTUMH ynpasH^flMH, HanoMimaio- 
o^HMH Ha^ajiBBoe y^Hjnni^e. IIojiarajiH, tto HayRa 6iiJia 6u yHHsena^ 
ecjm6u sasBiiajiHCB TaRHMH pa(k>TaMH vh jnnsfi^Th. 9to 611J10 saiii- 
TOTejBHiiii^ AOKasaTejiBCTBOirB toě cejra, saKOio o^Jia^ajíH BtRoropiie^ 
TaB-B CRasaTB, Haci^AOBaHHue npe^ipascjASH. Tasí BasB jBope- 
HBJíocB yCisA^HÍe, hto jaTHHCRÍi flSHBB o(!jiaropasEBaerB npeno- 
xaion^aro ero, to BCJi^jiCTBie 9Toro ne 6ujio npesHaHO aju y^aiiiaro 
o6ujíMWFb saHHHaTBCfl HcnpaBJíeHieM^B JiaTHHCBHXi ojmÓOKhj HO 06- 
pasoBame yna ifOJio^esH, Jtajffh tó x^ajH Ha^ajíBHiie y^TejrA, npe- 
8HaBajioc& jEBSisTejíbEuwh AJH AOCTOHHCTBa npo^^eccopa. npe;(pa3- 
CYfl.ovh 8X0X1 Hir&i^ 6ojite BasHUii noci^ACXBÍfl, ^itb otinBHOBeBno 
noiarajiH, xaB^s BaB'B ohi Cbiítb hcxohhhboitb noBepxHOCxmirB ox- 
Homemfi neasAy y^eHHBaME h npo((»eccopaMii. TaBi Basi npo^ec* 
copB He Mors yBHaxL Mucieft y^eniiBa, xo ocxaBajCfl 6e3i BCflBaro 
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jaxHHCBaro h rpe^ecBaro abubob^, ho ho oxnomemfo bi npaB- 
cxBeHHOMy BJiiflHÍH) cxofljTB HeqpaBHeHHo HHsce Ha^ajibHaro y^Hxejifl. 
Bcjii^cTBie xoro EpeaiB yxBeps^aexi, too BOJJierÍH mmnumcb ca- 
MOfi jry^Hieft qacxH CBoeft sahara, xocxaBJflfl MOJio^esH xojibbo 06- 
pasoBame, ho ne BOcnnxaHÍe ^). H axo cocxaBJfljo caMHi cepBeBHut 
ynpoBi, Boxopsifi moscho 6ujio CA'ljaxB BopnopanÍH, nojiyHHBnie& 
Wh TOcyAapcxBa npesBanie BOcnnxiiBaxB 6yAyn^ifl noBOJi^HÍfl. 

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npH dxoHB MH^Hia, noHflxifl, BEixeBaioii^ifl ne hbb hxb co^cxBonnaro 
y6%SAeHÍfl. $HBXHBHoe sbhOj npoHBHOCHBmee pt^, 6ujío ao hbbícx- 
HOft cxeneHH MaHeBenoMB; yqeHHBH se h npoýeccopa pasÓHpajH 
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npH 9X0MB o6pan](eHO 6uJio BHHMame rjaBHiiirB otfpasoirB ne na 
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xeiBCXBa, Ha nocxpoftBy p^qn, opaxopcBÍa ynpasHenifl, cjofb. 
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npespacHofi 4)opM% vh jTHxepaxypnuxB npoHSBexeHiflxi. 

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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



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peBOnoiúe, paspymEBinefi Bct y^Hj[Hiii;a, oÓyquH eiiy tojibbo ad* 
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Ha BOTOpHfi ÓhULO OÓpaiI^eHO rJiaBHOe BHHMaHÍe, — H 4>P&H^y3CBHM'By 

soToptiĚ Bce-TaBH HaxoAHJiCfl Bx npeHedpesenÍH. Pasyiffaerca, hto 
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fiiui ynorpedifleicx npH o6y?eHÍH jiaiEHCBOMy. He safiODiCB MHoro 
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HeHHBuin rpenaMH. Bce HanpacHO. CA'ÍJiajiocB oqeBHAHMMX 4^aB' 
TOMB TO, HTO yHHJiHiiia HO 611JIH Bx coctohhíh o6yqaTB rpeqecBOMy 
asHsy. IIo &TOMy noBOAy BpeajiB saAaBajii cetit BonpocB, OTByxa 
opoHcxoAHTX dja HecHocoÓHOCTB HiBOJix Bx o6y^eHÍH ne TOJIBBO rpe- 
qecBOMy, HO H BOo6H^e BCABony HHoerpaHHOMy asBiBy, sa hcbjik)- 
HemeiTB jaTHHCBaro? H na BonpocB dTorB ohi ne naxoAHJii Apyroro 
OTsiTa, BaBx TOJIBBO oúBviESJUb HiBOJiy B7 njioxoBfB MOTOA^ caMBro oóyqe- 



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72 ' raCTHHBl EBPOnU. 

HÍfl. yHHBepcHTerB, oóynaioniifi JiaTHHCsoMy jiSHBy, ne x^fl Toro, 9To6íi 
ero sHaTB, ho j^jisl Toro, hto6u na hcmi imcaTb, ynorpe^juji h cpex* 
CTBa HMiion^ifl Wh BHAy AOCTHseHÍe nocji^AHet toibro líibxBL. 1% 
se caMue nepeBOAH, tí se caMiie cJOsapH, Ha6HTue roroamtii 
BupaseHiflMH, laKafl ase rpaMHaTHBa h HHsaRoro ^remfl asropoRb — 
BOTb cpeACTBa, ynorpeÓJifleMUfl fb Rojueríjixi js^m Hsy^eHui rpeve- 
CRaro flstiBa, orjmaioii^arocfl caMUMi Óojihmjsxb o(SHJiiein>y 6oraT- 
CTBOWb ^pMi. PasyMŠercfl, y^eesEH He tojbro ne duiH fb coeroflHÍH 
ycBOHTB ceGi xots 6u Roe-Kasi rpeqecRÍii asuri, ho ee hofjih Bosce 
coHyBCTBOBaTB ero RpacoiaMi, ctojb npocjiaBJifleM£iMi npo^ccopaifH. 
$paHi(y3CR0My asuRy o(5yHaini npeBifyniecTBeHHO FBdJieMeHTap- 
HOMx OTxiJieHÍH Rouieiitt, division élémentaire. A3hri> stotb jmL 
^paHi^ysoBi HM&ix 6oji^ sHaneHifl, ^iM% bcaríK xpyroft, h t^^b 
He Mentě owb saBBicafli tojbro BiopocreneHHoe iť&cro, ycrynaa 
nepBeHCTBO jaTHHCROMy asuRy. y^eflERH vh npoAOJKseme Bcero 
BpeMeHH AOJSHii ÓHJiH, CBepxi rpauMaTHRB, flsy^aiB nocpexcTBOirb 
TreHÚi aBTopoB'B h $paHi](y3CRyK) RjiaccH^ecRyK) JHTepaTypy. H bto 
Tpe(k)BaHÍe 6ujio crporo codifo^aeiio. Ho HeAocraTROicB droro o6y- 
HeHÍfl 6uA0 TO, HTO Bi HBsniHxi Kiaccax^ yqeHHRH He;^ajiHHH- 
RaRHxi nHCBMeHHuxi ynpasHemft, BCi^ACTBie ^ero, 6ea^ BCflRaro 
npHroTOBJíeflifl ri nHCBiieHHOMy HaioseHÍio cbohxi Miicjefi, opa- 
crynajiH bi Kiacct peropHRH nenocpeACTBenHO ri cocraajeHÍK) 
^paHi^yBCRHXi p&Heft, ROiopiiMi, RaRi ROHRypcHOMy npeAMery, 6iulo 
npHA&Baeifo ÓojiBmoe SHa^eHÍe. Apy^^ ynpeRi, ROTopiit mosho 
6huio CA&iaTB BTOMy oóy^enÍH), cociOBJí^b vb toitb, tto vh ^reHÍR 
aBTopoBi oÓpan^eHO 6u:io BHHMaHÍe tojibro na xaRib-HaBUBaeMyH) 
RjaccHqecRyK) anoxy, MojiBepa, PacHHa h aP- MesAy tíitb ne 
BaHHMajHCB BOBce nu npeAHiecTByioii^HMH, hh nocjrbAyH)n^HMH nnca- 
TOJiflMH, He erapajHCB bhachetb CBasH, cyntecTByion^eft MesAy ^ft* 
THHCRHMi H ^paHi^yscRHMi fl3iiR0Mx, He Esy^ajH dTOFO noci^AH^ro 
flSBiRa, TaRi CRasaTB, HcropE^ecRH. TaRoe o6yqeHÍe poAHOicy usaKj 
Morjo 6u 6uTB oneHB nojiesHuirB, TaRi RaRi ecjH ucro RJiaccH- 
necRoe, bjh, jyqme roBopa, JiaTHHCRoe oÓpasoBanie bi> ROJuerUxi* 
BHpujo oyÓORyK) nponacTB nesAy BucniHiiH h hhshihmh RJiaccaMH 
oÓQ^ecTBa, eciH oho coAMcreoBaso ri B08BHRH0BeHÍK) paBHOAynufl 
BucmBxi RjiaccoBi Kb yMCTBeHHOMy pasBHTÍK) npocToro HapoAa, to 
TaRoe BCTOpHHecRoe Bsy^eníe ^paniiyscRaro jisuRa Óujio 6u vl 

COCTOflHÍB c6jIU8flTB OHJiTB 06a dTH RJiaCCa, 60Jl£e, MOSeTl 6UTB, 

npoHHO, qŠMi TO flBJfljiocB Ha maTROiťB nojHTHqecROiii nonpHH^^b. 
ApyryK) noJBsy orB TaRoro BsyneHia ^^pani^yscRaro BBiiRa Bpea^b 
BHA^jii vh TOMi, HTO 4>P&Hi](y8u, BCJi^ACTBie HOCTOflHHaro ynoTpe6- 
jieflifl wb mROJiaxi jiaTBHCRaro flsuRa, noTepujiH BOOÓn^e cm^octb 



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PEOOPMA rBHHAaift. 73 

wb ynoTpeÓJieHiH CBoero co6cTBeHHaro, KOTopiifi cTajiif CHHiaTb 

MepTBIIlfB; OHH OTElCRaJIH 6u CBOÓOAy Bl 06pa30BaHÍH HOBUXl CJOBly 

o((opoTOBi»9 uocpejíffíBOWh H3y^eHÍfl cBoero asuBa HCTopH^ecBH h 
€&iHseHÍfl Cb HapoAHHMH roBopaifii; ohh ycn'&ui 6a Bospoj^HTB 
flSHKb BHcmHxi KJiaccoffB otintecTBa. 

?T06U nOBOH^ETB (Tb JIHHrBHCmeCKHll% 06pa30BaHÍeMl, HySHO 

emfi CKasaTB h^csoibbo ciobi o&b oCy^emH hobeiui asusaMi. 9th 
I3HBH 6UJIH BBexeHii Bi mBOJíbHyio nporpaMMy tojlbo npH Te^o^ vh 
1842 r. no perjaHeHTy, hmi Hd^asHOMy^ oóy^eme H'6Mei](B0My bjh 
aHTjiftcKOMy asiiBaifi aojsho Oujio dpohcxoahtb no ABa naca b% 

HeX^IO, TOJIBBO 4>AKyj[BTaTHBH0, BH'6 KSaCCHUXl SaHflTÍĚ. BCJL^JI,' 

CTsie 8Toro npeno^aBame exi> ne Morjio npHHecTH ssemnejihnot 
nojB8£i. TojBRO V^ i<^K V^ y^eHHROBi CTOTajiH nojiesHuufB o6y- 
laTBCfl HOBEnrB flsuBaiii, h to óojše HOMHnajuHO, ^i^i ^'i^ficTBH** 
leiBHO. Ho H dTH y^eHHBH ee buhocelih hbi loro naAJiesan^et 
noiBBu, TaRi KaKi yHHBepcHTeri, T.-e. y^HTejiBCBafl Kopnopai^iii, 
CMorptJii CB npeHe6peseHÍeMi na hobuo ashbe^ a noHaTÍJi ero 
eoo6ii^ajHCB h y^eaBsaMi. 

IlepefiAeMi TenepB b'b npeno^aBaHÍio ncropiH h reorpa^^ÍH, ctojtb 
BaxHuxrB A^fl ryMaHHCTflHecBaro o6pa30BaHÍfl MOjro^esB. Ha o($a 8th 
npexMera mrbcTi HasHaneHa 5iisa o^na (AByxwcoBaa) Jiesi^ifl bi 
He^f&no Bi HBBQiBxx KJiaccaxi; wh BHcmflX'B se, Ha^BHafl ch lY-ro, 
no Mfiii jobi^íb. Ha BasABift KJiaccB úwvb HasHaneH^ BSB^bcTHutt 

nepÍOA'B HCTOpÍB, TaKl HTO BypCB HHSmflXl BJaCCOBl He nOBTO- 

pucfl yse VB Bucmflxi. reorpa4)iK> npeno^aBaJia BaRi nonojiHeme 
Ki flSB^CTHOMy nepioAy HcropÍH; nosTOicy oea ne oÓHBicajia bobco 
ifiiocTB OTofi HayBB, BHor^a se BOBce ne npeno^aBajiacB. Hpeno- 
xanasie HcropÍH OTJBHaJOCB tíicb He^ocraTBOMi, hto sypcí hbs- 
niHxi joáccoBi yse ne noBTopajica bi BucmEx^B, BCJi^AC^ie nero 
eitxoBajio ero BecxB bi oxBHaKOBoiťB ofiieii^ vb Bucmaxi b hbs- 
nmxi, HecHOTpji ea to, hto yneHBBB cbxi nocji'6AHHX'B ne ao* 
CTHrjE en^e RaA-aesan^eft yMCTBOHEofi sp^ocTB ei Tasoiiy npeno- 
j^asaHiio. BcjvbjWTBie Toro yneHBBB Óujie cjbdibomi ofipeiceHeHBi 
pa6oTOK>. 3T0My o6peMeHeHÍK> coAMcTBOBajo n to, hto BCTopis 

tflUa BOHBypCHUHl npeAMeTOMl, Ha BOTOpOMl yqOHBKB nBCaJIfl TaB'B- 

HasuBaeMufi questíon de raisonnement na sa^anHyiD TdMy. Bi 
patfoTaxi dTHXi Tpe(5oBa.iECB, BpoH^ BSB^Haro o6ii^aro BBe^e* 
m H ^BJioco^csaro saKJiioqeHifl, MejiBHafiniifl noApo^HociH, oř* 
Hocan^iflCfl B'B HSBto^HOMy HCTopBHecBOMy 4^aBTy. IIo8TOMy yqe- 
BHRH, Haiť&peBaion^iecfl cocTflBaTBCfl na BOBRypc^, 6ujie npBHys* 
xeHu noMHHTB TaRÍfl Aase noApo(5HOCTH, KOTopuxi caiiH y^eaue 



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74 BlbCTHHB^B EBPOmi. 

He sHajiH CB AOCTOBipHocTBK). Ob ipYTOŘ cTopoHu, npo^eccopa 
6uJH o6fl3aHn cooópasaibCfl c^ 8thmh TpeÓOBaQÍflMH, h noTOicy 
FL ummuTh jífiLS&e KJiaccaxi oqh pacnpccxpaHAJiHCb b% ^hjoco^* 
CRHXi H nojuTHqecBHX'B pascys^eHÍiixi), soxopufl óujívl 6u 6oj6e 
yntcTHu Kb yHHBepcHTer^. Ob i^&ibk) npHroroBHXB yqeHHSOBi e:b roh- 
Kypcy, HifB ÓujiH BaAaBaeMEi BasAHfl hatb néjiibjíhj bi bejc^ onuTa^ 
TdMu, iipeBumaH)ii^ifl, o^eBH;iHO, hx% cnoco6HOCTB h SHaHÍfl. Tasi> 
^anp., yHeHiiRaM'B YI h V BJiaccoBi (11 h 12-j'Ithhm%) Óhjb 
saAaBaeMH CJíibKpoinisL Tduu: — npuHHHti na^eHÍfl IlepciH; — AOJiiKHa jia 
6ujia BHyTpeHHflfl Hcropk aioro rocy^apCTBa noBecxH ri* ero na- 
AeHÍK)? — cocTOflHÍe PpeiuH, Abíh h A4>Phrii ao h uocjA AjeRcan^ipa 
BaiHRaro; — cocToame iiipa bo Bpenfl cpasenifl npe MarHesÍH; — 
cpaBHHTB ycJiOBifl AoroBopa KnnoHa cb AoroBopoirB ÁHxajiRflAa^ 
H T. n. Eusfi BB 1873 r, y?eHHRaMi IV RJiacca ónjia sahana Tana: 

o COCXOJIHÍH apMÍH y PHIÍJIAHI bo BpeUfl nyHHHeCRHXl BOftH^B, boch* 

Hafl cjiys6a, cnoco6^ Ha6opa, noBEimeHÍe, AHCi^HnjiHHa, Boopysenie^ 
xaRXHRa; — yRasaxB ueiRAj npE^HnaMH BejiH^ phmjahi rby ROxopEui 
COCXOflJH Vh CBflSH ch apMÍeK)''. 

yqeHURH, sejiaBmie Hanncaxb na noAOÓHyio idicy oxi 6 ao 1 2 

CXpaHHI^X, AOJURHH ÓfilJIH HCXOpíeK) SaHHMaXBCfl Ch HeCJlIXaHHOH> 

dHeprieK), ne oxBiwBnieK) hx'b Bospacxy, h Bcb cboh yCH^ifl aojukhh 
óujiJí ycxpeMHXB ri ccxpanemK) vb naHATH caiiaro fiÓJiBmaro rojih- 
HecxBa 4>aRX0Bi. Bc;i'£ACTBÍe xoro H3'b npeno^aBamfl HCxopÍH buho- 
CHJiH nojiBsy xojiBRo jyHmie yneHERH, npHroxoBJíflion^iecfl Ri roh- 
Rypcy; a^a ocxajiBHiixi, rponaAHaro 6oiiBm0HCXBa, npenoAaBame dra 
6hUL0 noHXH óeBOjiOAHuiťB. BnpoHeM'B, Bce npenoAaBanie h Hir&ia 
FB BHAy TOJiBRO HpHroxoBJíeHie Ri ROHRypcy, a noxony npoHcxo- 
AHJio xaRHiťB o6pa30MB, qxo npo4)eccopi RasAyK) neA^J^K) yRasBi- 
Baji HSB^cxHEift nepioAi hih HCxopHqecRÍfi 4^aRi^, Roxoput yTO- 
HHRH AOJUBBu 611JIH HiicBMeHHO o6pa6oTaxB (rédactíon). BM']tex£ cb. 
x^bťB owb yRasuBajTB hcxohhqrh, bx Roxopuxi (j^aRxu 8xh <5ujih 
jyqme ecero ooHcanu. jlyqmie y^eHHRH cxapajiHCB CA^axB 6ojAe 
otimapnyH) ROMUHJiflipK) h3% hícrojibrhxb rhhpb, xyAmie cxapajHCL 
oxA&iaxBca orb axoro Roe-RaR'B. Ha cji'feAyK)nteMi» ypoR* npo^ec- 
copi» HcnpaBjfljii jiyqmifl pa6ox£[ n saAasajiB arany na óyAyn^yK) ne- 
A'i^K). TaRHHB otípasoMiy npenoAaBaHÍe ucTopÍH orpaHHHHBajiocB npe- 
HMyn^ecxBeHHo HHCBMeHHUME pa6oxaMB. Hsi axoro beaho, ^xo oho 
oxB^Haso 6ojrbe xpeÓOBamflMi yeEBepcExexa, ^'bn'h rEMnaBÍE, xaB'B 
RaR'B coAMcxBOBajio Ri npEroxoBJieHÍK) h^rojibrhxi npesAeBpeMea- 
HBixx y^eHuxi, no6ya;AaeMUx% r'b ^ch^íami HaAeacAOH) no6tAU Ha 
ROHRypci, BO BpeA^B rpoMaAHOMy (ioJiBmHHCXBy yqoHEROBB, ocraB- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



PE^OPM A THMQASlS. 7 5 

jiBniHrB KOJuieriK) cb hojthumi HesHameirB HCTopÍH, ejle A&se 
ci orspan^emeiCB ri Hcropn^ecBUMi HajnairL. 

Hej^BA Tasase cRasaib, hto6u h oóyHeuie MaxeMaTiiso^ecTecTBeH- 
Him HayBairb, Taeb-HasuBaeioui sciences, HaxoAHJHOCb bi y^OB^ie* 

TBOpHTeAHOMl COCIOflEÍn. Bl dlOWb MOa&HO ytí^HTBCfl HSl mROJIB- 

HSDLi nporpaMirb eni^e 1865 r. IIo hhitb, bi npHroTOBHrejLLHOMi 
Riacci T^eHHRH oÓy^ajiHCB qerupeMi AÍftCTBÍairB apiieMeTHRH h 
cicieifi irbpi h vbcovb opaRTH^ecRH. Bi R^accaxi YIII, YU, 
lil H V ÓKUH npaRTHHecRÍfl apseifeTEHecRifl saHATÍfl (exercices 
]Nratiques de calcal) no OAHOMy nacy vb Eexkiio. Tojbro vb IV 
&iacc£ 6euh TeopexH^ecRÚi Hanasa apeoMeraRH (éléments ďarith- 
métíqne) h aa^ajirBHiifl CB^AeHÍfl hbi reoMerpin^ no A^a wca fb 
Hex^bjno. Bi ni RJiaceb — no 4 ^aca apeeMeiHRE h reoMerpis; bo 
n— na^ajsío ajireópu, ujianEMerpúi h ecrecTBeHnafl Hcropifl, ho aia 
oociiAHflfl TOJisRO vb OAHOifb nojiyro^ÍH, xaRxe no 4 naca. B^b 
uaec^ peTopHRH óelio no Asa naca crepeoMerpie h ROCMorpa(i)ÍH; 
HO saio Vb Rjiacct 4>bjioco4)íh Óiijo nasnaHeno no 10 qacoBi b^b 
Bexiaio na naTeiiaTH^ecRifl h ecrecTBenHEiB nayRH. npeno^aBanieic^ 

91IMI, OAHaROSl, MaJO RTO nOJBBOBaJICfl, nOTOlfy HTO BCdH^ACTBÍe 
OfiCTOflTeJBCTBB, O ROTOpUXl 6yfi,eTb pt^B HHSe, HHRTO nO^TH HO 

Aoxojuui AO dToro RJiacca. 

Pasyícbercfl, hto ctojb orpannHennoe npeno^taBanie Maxeiia- 
nso-ecrecTBeHHHXii HayR'B ne 6ujio AOcraTonnuirB npnroTOBJíe- 
Hiem HH A^fl Bii^epsank HcnuTanifl na crenenB (JaRRaiaBpa ěs- 
sdences, hh j^juí nocrynjieHÍfl b% noJiHTexHHHecRyK) mROjy hjib Apy* 
roe Toiiy noxotinoe ynečnoe saBeAenie. IIodiOMy yse vb 1845 r., 
loria npenoxaBanie bto 6eijio ente Óojdte orpaHHHeno, ycrpoenu 6ujin 
oeo6&e sjíaccu, TaRi-naBHBaeiiue — de mathématiques élémentaires 
I spédaleSy vb ROTopuxi ynenaRn MorJiH 6u nafixn cooTBŽTCTBeH- 
Hoe npnroTOBjíeHie. TaRÍe RJiaccu. OAHaROjRi, naxoAHJHCB tojkbro 
n flÍROTopiix'B Roueríflxi. MaieiiaTHRa cnei^ajiBHafl 6um toso 
loesypcHuirB npeAMeroMi. 



HaRoneiCB, naurB ca^AyerB CRasaxB en^e hícrojibro cjiobi o 
fucco^ÍH, 6uBmeB npeAMeroiii npeno^aBanifl bi canoM^ aucmeiTB 
ttteci ^paHi^yscRHxi ROJLierift, h otb ROTopofi RJiaccB btotb no- 
^yvn cBoe HasBanie. Bi 1865 ro^y $hjioco4)íjí npenoAaBajiacB 
n dToiTB Rjaccš Vb mcjA ^erapexi ypoROBi, no ABa naca RasAuft* 

IfepeBiCB ^HJI0C04)ÍH Vh 9T0MI RJiaCCŠ npOHCXOAHJl^B OTTOrO, HTO, 

un Haní HBBto^Ho, Tenepemnia Ro^iJieriH ocnoBUBajHCB na cpeAHe- 
BfaoB<»rB npeAaniH, RorAa onl^ 6ujib ne npHroroBHrejiBHUMH, co6- 



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76 B^cTEsnffb EBPoma. 

CTBeHHO roBOpfl, saBeAeHÍflMH Kb yHHBepcHTeTy, ho otb^ejih 6oxbe 
HaniHifB noHflTÍfliťb o 4>&KyjibTeTaxi, BCJ^ACTBÍe ^ero cann ^ocraB* 
jifljiH ^Hjioco^cKoe oÓpasoBaHÍe. 

IIpeno^aBaHie ^ejiocoí^ísí npoHCxoAUO, Bootín^e roBopa, xaKHiTB 
oÓpasoiTL, ?T0 cnepBa npo^^eccopi AHKTOBajii yqeHHsairB BpaTRoe co- 
Aepsame xoro, o ^ewh flfiJi3ReB% úujFb roBopím* Bnocji'6ACTBÍH, j[,jib Toro, 
qToCu jífikTh HMi ysasaHÍe oTHOCHTaiBHO xoro, na Trb ohh ^oatrbu 
6ujm o6paiiiaTB oco6eHHoe BHHMaHÍe, h t6mi AOcraBHTb hitb ocHOBanie 
AJui o6pa6oTBH caMHMi 8T0& JIeK^ÍH. BnocitACTBÍH npo^eccopi ESJa- 
raii TO se caMoe ciOBecHO, 6ojiie noApoÓeo; y^eHHBH se Morjoi 
A'&iaTb H3% ero ssjíoseHifl iiHCbMeHHiifl 8aM%TKH. Ha cji%AyH)ii^et 
HeA^'6 yqeHHRH oÓJisaHii Óujoi sa ocHOBaHÍH axoro HdJOseHÚi npe* 
roTOBHTB nHCBMeHHoe ^^HJOCo^^CBoe pascysAeme, no onepe^H, na 
ÝpaHi^yscROMi H MTEfLCROWh flSHRŠ (dissertatíon). Ohh MorjinnpH 

dTOMl HOJIBBOBaTBCfl APyrHMH HCTOHHHRaMH, HO BO BCflROlTB CJSY^sA 

ofiflsaHEi 6euh npHAepsHBaTBCfl rjraBH£ix'b ochokb, yRasaHHtixi npo* 
^^eccopoMi. CBepxi Toro, yqeHHRH ofiasaHu 6fiíJuiHHTaTB coHHHeniH 
4^Hj[oco$CRaro co^epsamii, uojs,% pyROBO^CTBOMi npo4>eccopoB%, roto- 
piie oóiflCHfljiH HMi 6o3!be TpyAHsifl nojioseHÍfl. Hai aTHxi cow- 
HOHifl Tb se yneHHRH oóasaHH 6ujih npe^CTaB^ATB OT^eTu. 

Wbvb coMH^Hifl, HTO, BCjAjs,C£me TaRoro Meroxa, úojiíbe npH* 
jiesHue yqeHHRB, npHroTOBJflBniie esenejiiJiBHHfl pascysAeHÚi, xo- 
CTHrasH vb ROHi^i roxa Toro, hto nepepafioTBiBajH Óojrbe cano* 
CTOflTOJBHO rjaBHHJi Ha^aJia ^uoco^^íh, h ocraBjfljiH ROJi^eruo, 
CHa6seHHHe ocHOBaTOJiBHEiMi í^EJíoco^CKuu7» o6pa30BaHÍeMi. Bnpo* 
^ewby H caifo npenoAaBaHÍe cnocoficTBOBajo Tony. Oho Óujio cjio- 
BecHoe, 0631 MexaHHHecRaro BuyTOBaHÚi HansycTB h TaRoro se 
nepenHCHBanifl, RaRi no Apyrnnii npeAMeTaifB. Q^íjib pascys^eHÍft 
yHeBHROBi cocTOflJia ne bi noA^opi nycTsix^B 4>P&3x, RaRi vb Kiaccb 
poTopHRH, HO Bi cepBesHot oópRÓOTR*! HayHHaro MaTopiaja. H caiio 
HTenie aBTopoBi ne orpanH^HBaiocB h']&crojibrhmh OTpuBRaifB, RaRT» 
8T0 ÓBuio ch jaTHHCRHHH H ppeHecRBMH RjaccHRaMH, 6&arb yrj[y6je- 
HÍfl VB HX'B Ayxi H co^epsanie, no nponuRajio necpaBnenno rjy5se 
H cepBesn^e. 

H 8T0 npeno^aBanie, 0AHaR0S'b, Hirkio o6opoTHyK) CTopony. 
Bi npesHHX'B ROJueriaxi BanHMaiHCB 4>HJioco4>íeK> ne RaRi npo- 

nOAeBTHROK) R'B AaJIBHÍsfiniHlfB 4^HJIOC04)CRHMl SaHflTÍfllfB, HO RaR'& 

caMOCTOflTejibHOH) nayROK), a noioicy h bi EOwbŘnmxi> jííSJSfiSTh 
H ROJLieriflxi 4^HJOCo4>ífl, necMOTpa na cyn^ecTBOBanie oco(5ux% 4^h- 
joco^^CRHxi 4>aRyjiBTeT0Bi, coxpaHHia snaHenie, ne BnojTH*! orfišnaK)- 
n^ee cpe^neMy o(5pa30BaHÍK). Úo aToiiy noBOAy ynpeRajH Aase 9to 
npenoAaBanie, roBopa, tto oho 6ujio 6» Óojiie yMÍcTHUMi bi ^aRyjiB- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



PEOOPMA rHMHASlft. 77 

Téraxi, Tfiíb npeno^aBaieJiH nojbsyiDTCfl ÓojiBineK) cbo(Soaok> npeno- 
xasanifl, r^š nporpaMMu óoji^ ofiniHpHti h rocy^apcTBO ne npH- 

HHMaeTB Ha eeÚn OTBÍTCTBeHHOCTH Sa 4>HJOC04>CKÍfl B088p%HÍfl, BUCRa- 

SHBaeifEui cb yHHBepcHTercRofi RaeeApKi- 

H KOHKypCB, CTOJIB Bpej^HUft Bl APTTHXl OTHOmeHÍHXl, npoHB- 

BOXHJii H Ha npenoAaBanie 4>^jroco4>in nary^Hoe BjiflHÍe. BcjiéA- 
CTBÍe BMeHHO soHKypca, OHO ne mofjio orpaHHHHTBCfl dJieMeHTapniiMH 

tOXbW CB^AeHÍHMH, OTB^HaiD^HMH rHMHaSHqeCROMy OÓpaSOBaHÍH), HO 

oÓpaTHJiocB Bi nosHufi Bypci 8Tofi HayBH. [Ipo^^eccópa, BCJt^ACTBÍe 
soEEypca, 6ujns npsHysAeHu saÓOTHTBCfl ne tojibbo o6t> osHaBOM- 
jenÍH CBOuxi yneHEBOBi cho6in,isuE nanajaMB Jiorasn, ncHxojroríH, 

HO B o TOWhj ^OÓU AByX'B, TpeX'B CB BU;iaK>mUMHCfl CHOCOÓHOCmiH 

yqeHHKOB^ no^naTB na ypoBCHB CBoero co6cTBeHHaro ^EJiocofffCBAvo 
o6pa80BaHÍfl^ htoÓu hxi npHroTOBHTB Kh BOHBypcy. Ho yse hsi 
Bcero Toro, nib Bume 6uJio CBasano o npeno^aBaniH pasjíH^HErxi 
npexMeroBx, mosho óeuo npHATH k% jů^ji^emiOj ^ro tojibbo ne- 
MHorie yneHEBE nepexo^BJíH bi Bucmie . luraccn ch 6oxbe sp^HMi 
yHCTBeHHBmi^ pasBHrieifB, tto xase tí, BoropEre ^oÓiiBain Harpaxy 
HS KOHBypci, nojy^ajiH ee 6ojAe npn noMon^H yBasannoft HaiiH 
pyTBHH, naMflTH, niwh caifOCTOflTejiBHaro MiinuieHÚi. To^ho Taiuse 
(SojBmHHCTBO yHeHHBOBi Óujio bhojihí necnocoÓHO B'b caymaHÍH) 
QoxoÓHaro npeno^aBanifl $hjioco4>íh. HecoMH^HHO, hto 4>ti<ioco$- 
esoe o^pasoBame, ^lOJiHceHCTByioniee cocraBJuiTB saBJío^eHie, BÍHeii'B 
Bcero npexmecTByiontaro oÓpaBOBanúi, tojibbo Tor^a ifOserB 6eitb 
niOAOTBopHHMi, BOFAa BTO npeAmecTByio^ee oÓpasoBanie cjysHJO 
upHroTOBJíeHieMi bi neMy. Ho dioro HejBdfl cBasaiB o ^paniiiyscBHxi 
sojuerúixii. 

Bnpo^eiTB; cjiéAyerB en^e oÓpaxHTB BHinfanie h na to, hto npe- 
BOxaBaHie $hjioco4>íh npirxoAHjrocB na no&irlAHift roA'B npeÓiiBanifl 
y^eHHBOB^B Bi mBOjraxi^ Borxa ohh ^ynajH 6oJiie o nperOTOBJíemH 
KB dBsaMeHy na ÓaBBanaBpa h 6huin npEHys^eHu noBTopjiTB npe^- 
Meru, npofiAeHHue hmh paHBme. HodTony HesHaHHTejiBHoe tojbbo 
sojTHqecTBO yHeHHBOBi noc^n^aso BypcB ^^bjioco^íh, a en^e mseb- 
mee saHHMajiocB eio cepBesHO. Ha 60 — 80 yqeHHBOBi e^Ba 10 

— 15 BBfHOCHJH H8X BOJJieríH nOBOpXHOCTHOe SHaROMCTBO CB $H* 

JOco^ieH), a TOJBBO 5 — 6 o6pa6oTfiiBajiH crapaTejiBHO TpedyeMna 
^Kiocoj^CBÍH pascysAeHÍfl ^). HpaBxa, hto MesAy OTJiHqaBniHMHCfl 
fieHBBaMH Ha BOHBypcB cjiyHasHCB H saMŠHaTOJiBHiie TajiaHTu, ch 
0(soBaTejiBHUMH sHaHÍflMn, HO TaBHXi OAHHO^Hux^ ÓJiaronpiflTHiixi 

') Jlaxe TEKÍe jun^a, sasi Aib6epi j^dmohi^ oxhhi hsi npeo6pa30BaTeieft BHcmaro 
olpuoBaBU Bo ^aHiÚH, meMtM nocrynHTB bi HopMaibHoe yvHJiHme, ipH paaa noBTO- 
pisn uaecifc peropHra, ho hh paay ne npcmejii uacca 4>iuoco4>íh. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



78 A^CTuaxh EBPonki. 

pe8yjbTaT0B'B, cocraBJunontHxi bo bcaroitb cjry^a'6 HCRjnoHeHÍer, hh- 
KaBHiTB oCpasoiTB HCJiBSfl c«iHTaTB ;!(OCTaTOHHinrB B03HarpasAeHÍeMi 
sa npeHeÓpeseme bi oópasoBamiD rpoMa^Haro ÓoJtbniHHCTBa yne- 

HHBOBl. 

m. 

Hsi Bcero BumecBasaHHaro mh mofjih ytítxHTbCfl, HacROAKO 
cepbesHH 6uÍH yiipesH, x^aeifue rEMHasHnecBoicy npenoxasamio 
BO ^paeipH yse no noBO^y cairaxi MeroAOKB, opH 9T0Wh yno- 
tpeÓJfleMHXi. CBepxt Toro, o;(HaBos%, cymecTBOBajra e Apyrífl bos- 
paseHÍfl, HaA'b KOToptiMH, paBHBíM^b o6pa30irB, HairB cjrbAyerb ocTa* 

HOBBTBCfl. 

OaHO H81 dTHXl BOSpaseuift COCTOflJIO Vb TOMl, TTO Vh dT01fl» 

npenoAaBaHÍH Bce, "irb ne OTHOCHJOCb bi BJiaccH^ecBOicy oÓpasoBa- 
híh), HaxoAMOCB B% nojHOMi no^TH npeneÓpesemH. Bi 8T0M'b 
voxHO 6uJio j&bAVThcsi npesAe Bcero hsi Toro, vro na npenoxa- 
Banie ne-BjaccHqecBHXi npe^MeroBi Óujio HasHa^eno cavoe orpa- 
HB^eHHoe BOJiHHecTBO BpeneHH. TaBi Hanp., eic^e b% 1865 r. bo 
BC^rB Bjaccaxi 0TA'i^eHÍfl rpamfaTHRH, division de grammaire 
(T,-e. Bi VI, V H IV Bi.), ÓHJto HasHaneHo 87^ ypoROB^, TawB- 
HasuBaeMHxi BiaccHQx^B HJia AByxnacoBiix^ JieBi^ft, na BiaccHnecBÍe 
JÍ3UBH, ojuawh TaBOfi se ypoBi na Hcropiio, V^ na apHOMOTEKy 
H 2 Haca Ha HOBue asubh, ne c^HTafl BpeiieHH ea saKOHi Boadft, 
pHCOBaHÍe, MysuBy h rHMHacTHBy. TaBi BaBi vb uejfjbjuo c^iHTaJOCb 
Bccro 11 BjaccHiix'B ypoBOBi, TO Ha BJiaccH^ecBÍfl naysH tísuio 
Ha3Ha?eH0 Óojiše V^ Bcero niBOJibHaro BpeiieHH. OcraioBi BpeneHH, 
HadHaHeunaroHa;,BJiacc£i^, saHHMajiH Hcropifl, apHOMerHBa h bobei6 
ďSHBH (2V2); Ha ocrajibHiie npeAMeru yse ne^ocraBajio BpenenH. 
Bi TOiTB se roAy B^ division supérieure, T.-e. bi Bjaccaxi III h 
n, 6ujio 7 ypoBOBi BJiaccHqecBHxi asubobi, a vl Biacct peropHBH 
— onflTb 8. npeneópeseme He-BjaccHHecBHira HayBaicH hm&io en^e 
H ApyryK) npEHEHy, HiceHHo Ty, vro Bo $paHi^ÍH coxpaflHjacB Tasi^- 
HasuBaeMafl „BjiaccHafl'' cecreMa. Bcji']&ACTBÍe tofooahvb npo4>eccop^, 
BaBi rjaBHufi, npenoAaBajTb vh esbícthoitb Biacci B&k BJiaccH^e* 
€BÍe flSHBH. dTOTb npo4)eccopi 6ajrb ncBJíoHiiTeJBHiiMi pyBOBOXH- 
Te^eiTB CBoero Bjacca; y^eHHBHse Bcer^a cmotp&ih Ha npeAMeTu, 
HMi npenoAaBaeifiie, Basi na rjiaBHQe. Ha HcropiiD, MaTeMaTHsy, 
A.JSÍ npeno^asamfl BOTopoxi npHxOAHJTB Apyroft y^HTeJb na much 
HJB ABa Bi mEOjy, ohh CMOTpijii BaB'b Ha npe^MeTbi BTopocre- 
neHHne, AO(5a60TOue. Bnpo^eifb, h BJiaccnuft npo4>eccopi», ^oiojiorb, 
BCJT^ACTBie CBoero OAHocTopoHHflro o6pa80BaHÍfl, CMorp&rb cb npe- 



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PE^OPMA rHMHAdlft. 79 

He(5pezeHÍeirb, a HHorAa h B^&x,ne6Bo, na Apyrifl HayBH, c^HraH, 
^rro OH^ OTHHiffaiorB y Hero BpeMfl, ROTopoe c% 6ojiBnieH) nojibsoH) 
Morjo 6u óuTh ynoTpeóJieHO Ha saH^TÍa jiaTfracRHifB hjih rpe^ecsHi^B 
jisBKOMi. BcjiŠACTBÍe TOFO, xoTfl owb H fiiiJii EJiaccHuiTB npo^^ec' 
copoiTB, rkwh He MeH']&e, se tojibbo ne coA^ficTBOBa.rB cbohmi xoBa- 
pen^aiTB r'b AOCTHseHÍio hmk xoponiHx^ pesyjiBTaTOBi, ho, HanpoTHBi, 
MimajTE HMi Bi 9Toin» OTHomenÍH. Acho, hto y^eHHRH, hoj^^b bjiíji- 
meiTB 3THX% Bosspfoift, dToro aHTaroHHSMa, BRopeHfljrn b% ce&k 
rjyÓOKoe yf^iRAeme, ^to Bceny, ne OTHOCflnteicycfl ri 4>B-iiojiorie, 

Bl OCOÓeHHOCTH RjaCCH^éCROft, He CTOHJO Tpyxa H yqHTBCH. 

Ho ecjiH OAHH ynpeRajiH 4>P&Hiiy8CRoe mRO^BHoe o6y?eHÍe, hto 
OHO rpimHJio CBOHMi HCRJifOHHTejiBHO RjíaccH^ecRHirB HanpaBJíe- 
eieiTB, TO ;ípyrie ynpeRajíH ero h wb toitb, oto oho, xase em,e fb 
dTOMii HanpaBJíeHÍH, crpeMHJiocB ri jiosho& i^h. HjW aia cocTOflja 
K TOMT*, HTo6u yqeHHROBi, Ha^HHaa CB vin Rji. Ao peropHRH, 
AOBecTH nocreneHHo, nocpeflCTBOii^ ifaccn nepeBOAOBi, craxoTBope- 
HÍfi, H ;(a»e pineft, Ri Toiiy, ^To6u ohh AynaJiH h nHcajra na 

JaTHHCROMl flSEIR*!. A MeS^y T^Ml 61 RJaCCH^eCROlTB o6yHeHÍH 
OTHH)AB HeJIBBfl BHJl^TB 111^0, a TOJBRO 60^6 Cpe^CTBO AJlíl HSyHeHÍfl 

aHTH^Haro MÍpa. Q^^b dia, BnponeirB, RaR^B mu sairbTfiJH yse 
opesAe, Bi HacTOflHiee BpeMfl Aa»e h HeAOCTHSHMa. 

EcjiHÓu MBi AftSRe corjiacHJiHCB CB rbwbj vro niROJiBHoe o6y- 
^eme MOserB crpeMHTBCH r'b xaROt ufkjníy to rbm ne Menšíte h^ti 
HeAOCTaxRa wb AORasaTe^BCTBaxi, hto $paHi](y8CRÍfl ROJUierÍH, ne- 
CHOTpa Ha TaRÍfl HanpflseHHUfl ycHJiifl, jíjbjíJi 9Tot ne AOCTHrajiH. 
CaifH 4^paHity8CRÍe ne^arore cosnaiOTCfl, hto 4>P^H^73CRifl Roue- 
ríi BOBce He AOcraBjífljiH RjiaccHHecRaro oópasoBanifl, xota Aocraasenie 
ero npHSHaBajiH CBoeio HCRjnoHHxejiBHOK) saAaqeH). Cnorpa na hjioai 
j^ecflTHjrfrrHHXi Tpy^OBi yHeHHROBi a^a npio6p']&TeHÚ! RjiaccH^ecRaro 
o^pasoĎanifl, — roBopnrB JlenopnaHib, — npHnoMHHaeniB 6acHH) o&h 
oÓesBflH^; ROTopafl Bocxsajifl Ja RpacoTy RapTHH'B, bha^hhhxi eio bx 
BOJonetíHOMi ^^onap*!, bi rotopom'b, ri cosajr&HÍfo, ona saÓEura sas^e^B 
CB^HRy. oEE^jrafl oaíhhtb ^'^fiCTBHTejiBHoe aoctohhctbo RjaccH^e- 
csaro o6pa30BaHÍfl kb niROJiaxi^, nysno npHHEMaTB bo BHHManie 

nOCTOflHHUfl HOarÉACTBÍfl, ROTOpUfl OHO OCXaBJUIJO, H UJIOAU, ROTOpBie 
OHO npHHOCHJO. Il0CJI%ACTBÍfl SO STH H HJlOm MOSHO ySHaTB HO 

sojHHecTBy jHi^i, ROTopufl, HOJiy^HBi o6pa30BaHÍe Wh ROJíJieriflxi, 

H OROHHHBX HIROJiy, HOJIOShJIH 6u ApeBHOCTH H SaHHMaiHCB 6ti HMH. 

Bi dTOM'B OTHomenÍH cjri^yerB o6pan^aTB BHHMame npes^e Bcero 
Ha caMHXi npo^^eccopoB^, a noTOifB na yqenHROBi. Ha npo^^ecco- 
poBT. — HTo6u yCiAHTBCfl, CfljbjíB^ncb JIH OHH OHopaMH HayRH, pas- 
BHBajiH JIH OHH 06 AaJiBme? Ha yneHnaoBi — ttoÓu ytí^A^TBOA, co* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



80 B^CTHHB-B EBPOnU. 

XpaHHK)!^ JIH OHH XOTfl H']&CROJ[BKO npHCTpaCTÍfl KB HayBaiTB, BOTO- 

puMH CTOJB AOJiro saHHMajracB npesAe, h saflHMaiOTCfl jh hmh bi 
CBo6oAHoe Bpeiffl AdíJihme? 

OxHOcnraiBHO nepBuxi jleHopnani roBoperB: ^^rb A^aerca 

Ch 8T0K) TOJinOK) npO^^eCCOpOBl, KOTOpiIX^ yHHBepCHTeTl coxepsHTB 

Blb 86 xenapTaMeHTaxx? %6 ohu TBoparB bi CBo6oAHoe BpeMa? 
BaBoe AOCTOHHCTBO Hxi npoHSBeAeHÍft, ecjH Booón^e ohh hto-jih6o 
npoHSBOAJiTB? BaBafl OTTyAa cjrasa jí,asi í^pílbuyscrsíto eapo^a y 
XpyrHxi HapoAOBi? cbojibbo noflBjrflercfl bo $paHi][ÍH xoponiHXi 
8JieMeHTapH£ixi> bhhpb HcnpaBJieHHEixi> Hs^aHÍft? BaByia nojBBy 
HM^iorB THnorpa4)n](iíBH h8% SHamfl h onEira npó^eccopoBi? cbojibbo 

nOflBHJOCB BHHrB HCTHHHO BpHTETqeCBHXX O AP^BHHXl aBTOpaXl, Bl * 

npoAOJiseHie nocjiiaHHxi 40 jAtl? cbojibbo behi^b hcthhho yqe- 
Haro co^epacaHÍfl noABHJOCB y HS^aTejiA Lemaire'a, cb xaBOH) n^ex- 
pocTBH) noBpoBHTejiBCTByeMaro npaBHrejiBCTBOMi pecraspai^ÍH? liwh 
BUflCHHTB ýaBTB, HTO BOF^a BO Bcefi ^paHi^iH opo^aHO 6njio OABa 
30 8B3eMnjiflpoBi Anecdota graeca, BoissoDade'a, um Leo Diaconns, 
Hase'a, mh Strabo, Covay'a, — HanpoTHBi^, Ha^anie; b-b BOTopoirL 
B08JÍÍ jiaTHHCRaro xeBCTa eaxoAHjiCfl 4^paHi](y8CBÍft nepeBOA'B, paso- 
nMOCB MesAy npo^^eccopaifn bi THCflqax'B 8B3eMnjiflpoBi? He^ocxaTOB^b 
y^eHuxi BjraccHBOBi bo $paHi(ie oSeapysEJicfl en^e Úojiie Tor^a, 
Bor^a HarasHHi „Firmin-Dídot^ BS^yMajii BunycTHTB Hosoe HSAaHÍe 
„Thesaurus linguae graecae, StephaDus'a', h jimsí HcnojiHeHifl SToro 
npeAupiflTÍfl ÓujTb npHHysAeH'B o6paTHTBCfl bb ui^MeiiiBHMi ^Hjrojo- 
raMi. KoppeBTypii Aase npHmjiocB nocujiaxB bb AeHnuflrb hje 
npHrjramaTB vh ílapesi H']&Mei^BHXi yHeuaxi. Bce dxo hh a^h 
Boro ne 6ujio ceBperoirB, xora rocyAapciBO coAepsajo tucahe npo* 
4>eccopoBi> jífisí Toro tojbbo, htoóei ohh o^ynasn MOJOAesB jiaTHH- 
CBOMy H rpe^ecBOMy flsuBaMx^. I]oMH']&HÍK)Toro se aBTopa, $paH- 
lUfl Óujia TOK) CTpaHOH) Bi EBponi, Bx BOTopoft yBasenie kb 
ApoBHOCTH uHMÓojňe najo. Ki rpenecBOMy asEiBy mo«ho Óbuo 
npHiflHnTB cpeAHeB^BOByH) noroBopBy: „Graecum est nonlegitur^. 
?T0 se Bacaercfl jaTHHCBaro flsuBa, to Óujio 6ei en^e xopomo, eeiH 
6u HamjiocB b% IlapEsib ab^cth, a bo Bceft ^paui^ÍH hatbcotb jnmT>y 
HHTaiontHXii Ha btoitb asubí cb yAOBOJBCXBÍeirB. ApeBHOcrn BOO($ii](e 

npeACraBJIflJIHCB HOAI^ BHAOMI OTBpaTHTOJIBHUXl mBOJIBHUXl BHHri, 
BOd^ySAaBHIHXl TOJIBBO CByBy, H SaAaTB, A^aeM£IX'B AJIfl TOrO TOIBBO, 

ttoCki AOÓHTBCfl creneHH bachelier-és-lettres. To se caMoe noATBops- 
AajiocB H 6ojs!be hobbimh oHcaTeJAMH. BpeajB, yBasBiBaa neoAHO- 
BpaTHo Ha naAenie cepBesuuxi BJiaccHHecBHxi saujiTÍft bo $paHi^ÍE, 
cnpamHBajTB: noveny ^paui^ifl ycrynajia vh 8tomi OTHomenÍH nepsen- 
CTBO ApyrHMB? yHHBepcHTera OTB^qa^TB na 8TorB Bonpoci rkwhy qxo 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



P£^OPMA riIMHA3lft. 8 1 

ujbsh ero npa o^yneHÍu jiaiHACEOify flsuRy cocrofljia fle vh tomi, 

TTOtiil npHTOTOBHTB (|)HJI(XIIOrOBl, H jaTHECBÍfi fl8EIBl* 6wil> J^JLSl WVO 

TOďBRO cpeACTBoiTB, — HO BX TOM'B, ?To6u nocpeACTBOMi rpaMMaxHHe- 
CUTO Hsyqeeifl dioro jisusa pasBHTB jmi mojioacsh. Xota óbi y?e- 

HHRH, OCiaBHB^ DIBOJiy, H 3a6uJIH JiaTEHCRÍfi flSBIB^, BCe-XaBH OHH 
BHHOCHJH H81 HeTO HSB^CTHyH) HOJIBSy. Ho BpeaJb He y^OBOJbCTBO- 
BaJCfl 8TBM'b 0Tff6T0M'B. OBaSUBaSTCfl npH dTOMX, ^TO H BO $paH- 

ip, RaKi Bi repnanÍH, santHTHiiBH HCBJíioHUTejiBHaro npeodjia^aHifl 
KiaccH^ecKaro' oCpasoBamii ccKuajiHCb na TaBi-HastiBaeMoe ^opnasb- 
Hoe oÓpasoBame nocpeACTBOMi Hsyqemfl ApeBHHxi aburobi. Ho mu 
3HaeMi» yse, mib 3to SHa^iHrB. 9to noxoase, RaR^B BupasHJicfl He- 
jiaBflo ^apH, Ha Toro MysuRajibHaro apTHcra, Roroput wh npo^toj- 
sede AecflTH jItb Hrpa.i'B 6ki raMicu, ne BaHHMaflCB, BnpoqeMi, 
MjzaKOtL). Chmohb, AORasuBafl Heo6xoABMOCTB OTirbHHTB ycrapŠBmifty 
bíboboS MeT0A'B o6yHeHÍfl bo $paHi](iu, BpeAHHft ji^s nayRu h npaB- 
CTBeHHOCTH, roBopHTi, TTO MOTOA^B BTOTB OTBpaxHTejieHB (détestable) 
no AByifB coo6paseHÍflM'B. IlepBoe cocroHrB bi toitb^ hto hmi 
TpeÓyercfl BOceMB ji^^tl na nsy^eme jaTHHCRaro asEiRa, co6cTBeHHO 
lersaro aus. ssyneHifl; Bxopoe — bi toitb, oto vb rohi]^! bthxi bocbmh 

Xbrb HHRTO, HJKH HOHTH HHRTO, HB BHaeTB flSBIRa. 3tO HMeHHO 06- 
CTOflTeJBCTBO, HTO TLOCJli CTOJBRHXl jAvb paÓOTU HHRTO He SHaeTB 

JiaTHHCRaro asuRa, h B085ysAaeTB rtb neny vh oón^eciB^ OTBpaqeHÍe. 
,yAHBHTejiBHO, — roBopHJx Chmohx: — Bx npoAOJiaseHie bocbmh jAtl 
iipHHysA&K)rB y^eHHROBi críiohatb, cnpflraTB, nepeBOAHXB h Aase 
ooeraBjflTB cthxh na o6ohx'b asuRaxi, ho sHaiori jih ohh, ho Rpa8- 

Hei MŠp^, dTH flSHRH Wb R0HI](Í^ 'dTHXl BOCBMH JI^TB? Ha 30. y^B- 

HHROFB B% Riacd, ROTopiio wb HpoAOJiaKeHÍe BOCBMH jAtb saHHMa* 
ucB bcímh 9THMH ynpasHeHÍflMH, ne HafiAercfl u 10, Cubhihxi 
vh cocTOflHÍH nepeBOAHTB BnprHJiifl. Bm']&ci4 cb jaTHHCRHMi H rpe- 
HecRHM'B HSfiiRaMH, Bcb Hpo^ifl HayRH HaxoAHjHCB vh TaROMi se 

CaMOM^ COCTOAHÍH. FpyCTHO CMOTp^TB Ha MOJIOAUXl JliOAefi, OROH- 

WBniHX'B ROJjierÍH h ne hm^bhihxii hohatíh o6'b ecxecTBeHHBixi na- 

JSaXl, H TOJBRO CB OHCHB HOBepXHOCTHBIMH CB^A^HÍAMH H3T» HCTOpÍH H 

reorpaýÍH''. H BpeajiB yiBepiRAaerB, hto y^eHHRH saHHMajincB jia- 

TBLHBK) H^bCROJIBRO HaCOBl B'B A6HB Bl HpOAOJUBeHÍe 8 — 9 AÍTL^ H, 
TÍM^ He MBH^y AOCTHraiH OTOHB HeBHaHHTeJIBBUX^B pesyjiBTaTOBi) 

(ii on si mince résaltat). Jl^ase caMiie Jiynniie, ORan^niBafl mROjy, 
He BBíHOCHJH H31 HBfl BRyca R'B AP^BHeft ciOBecHOCTH. MesAy 
ynennsaMH, ocraBJíflioniHMH ROJuieríio, Aase oahhi na a^catb ne 
(bui* FB coctoahíh HHTaTB jiaxBHCRaro aBTopa, H OAHHi Ha CTO ne 
xortjirB saAaxB cetf^ dxoro xpyAa. OrHOCHieJiBHo rpenecRaro asuRa 
$papfl nojiaraerB, hto ciapHft yHHFP'>^HTerB npeneÓperajTB hmx cb 

To» I.— HHBAPb, 1891. 6 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



82 B%C1HIIB1> BBPOIIH. 

COHJIHBUBťB paBHOAyniieiifB, HOBUfi Se He ÓUJTb Wh COCTOflBÍH BOSBU- 

CHTB ero npenoAftBama. ^pesM^pHoe MHOsecxBO hobuxi Hayirb 
npenaTCTBOBaJio Tony piniHTCJiLHO. BcjitACTBie Toro eny BOBce ae 
oóyqaJiH, h BonpocL stoti 6ujn> píraeH-B yase 4>aK™qecKH. Ybe- 
BepcHierB ;i(0Ba8aji'B cboh) HecnocoGnocTb o6y?aTB rpenecBOMy asusy; 
ocnapHBaxb se btotl ^Bsvh 6wiO 6u ocnapesameMii HeonpoBep- 
SHMaro 4>&BTa. ďLeJiaTB ycrpaHHTb ero — 6ujio 6u n^BiTB npoTHB^ 
Te^eHifl, TaBi RaR'B h^tb nayKH, Koxopoft yqeHHBH ne crap&iHCB 
6U 3a6uTB saBi mosho CBopte. Boo6m.e, no mh^íh) ^papif, 
19 — 20 yqeHHKOBi ne buhocatb no^BSti hsi HayKi, npenoAaBae* 
MUXl EWh Blk msojii. 

nocji'6 npHBeAeHÍfl ctojbbhxii aBTopHTerHuxi ueíbííi mu MoseM-B 
CHHiaib ceófl BnojTHt ocBOÓosAeHHUMH 0Tb npHBexeHiď Apynixi), bo- 
Topufl noATBepsxstJiH 6u to se caMoe, a HMeeno: HecooiFJ^TCTBeHHyK) 
noJBsy, BUHOCQMyK) yneHEBaMH h31» idbojiii, h o^eHL orpaHS^eHHbifl 
no3HaHÍJi Hxi Wh rpenecBoafB h jiaTHHCBOMi asubj^. BnponeirL, 
HHa^e H 6kitb ne Morjio, TaBi> saBi Apyríe He^ocraTBE 4>paHity3CBirxi 
BOJiJieríft^ o BOTOpEixi AaJiBme 6yAeM% fobophtb, HeMHHyeico BejiH 
Bi TOMy ae peayjiBTaiy. HeAOcraxoqHoe, OAnasoai, sHame ApeB- 
HHX'B S8UB0BX, 6iiBmee nocMiÍACTBieMi Djoxofi nporpaiiMEi npeno- 
AaBaHÍfl H njioxoro MeroAa o6y?eHÍfl, mosho 6u eme ao nswkctBoiL 
CTeneHH onpaBAaib, ecsoÓBi OAHOBpeneHHO cb dmicB He BUTeBajiH 
uwh 8Toro en^e Óojscbe BpeAHUfl u Óojte onacHuii nocjitACTBifl. R'b 
noci^ACTBÍfliTB se xaBHM^ MOSHO npesAe Bcero npuqncjíiiTB oxBpa- 
n^eHÍe Booón^e mojioacsh %% sayB^, HCxpe6jieHÍe wh Hefi bcaboí 
HaBiOHHOCXH Bit caMOCxoflxejiBHoily MunureHÍfo h b% yMCXBeHHOicy 
xpyAy. Eme kb 1831 r., Fhbo nocajii, „qxo chht> ero npenc- 
nojHeH'B oxBpan^eHiji bi Ap^Bneny MÍpy, est dégouté de rancien 
monde; qxo nysHo Óujio ynoxpefisxB na nero Bce bjiíhhío, vroóu 
uocjAjsjúíl roAi jiaxHHCBaro h rpe^ecBaro ABUBa wh lOBOJiaxi ho 
onpoTHB%.i% eMy OBOHnaxejiBHO. OneB^AHO, tto-xo Bpoexca wh idrojib* 
HOMX o6y?eHÍH, ^xb He oxB^naexi Hacxoflnteify nojioseHÍK) Ben^et, 
ecxecxBeHHUM^ HaBJOHHOCxAMi o6ntecxBa h yMOBi. (Myneme axo 
CJiHmBOMi cyxo h cjihhibomi MeA^eHHo. CjinniBoirB 6ojibmoe pas- 
cxoflHÍe oxA'^fleTB BOJuerífo oxi yMCXBeHHoft c^^epu A'&fiCTBHTej[B- 
naro nipa. QpaBAy CBasaxB, bca CHcxena namero nncojBnaro o5- 
pasoBanifl ycxpoena no o6pa8i;y namero ap^bhafo oÓn^ecTBa*. 
OxBpan^enie axo, na Boxopoe sajiOBajicfl Fhso, CA&iaJOCB Bnocji']&A~ 
cxbíh ABJíeHieifB ofin^HifL y mojioiosh. ^epne&JiB roBopHxi, tto 
BOo6n^e bcš saayioxcfl na xo, hxo MOJiOAesB pyBOBOAfl^nxi Biac- 
coBi hh^ími He HHxepecyexcfl, hxo Bcb yMcxBoanuB yAOBOJBCXBÍfl 
ocxaBJífliDxi ee xojoahoh) h paBHOAyniHoio, qxo ona xepaexx Bce 



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PE«0PMA rmfHÁdifi. 83 

Ůoiie H 6ojr&e Bsyci Kb ^Temio h x^se bi pasroBOpy. Ho HHane 
<toTs He Morjio, TaBi Bairb HHiepeaTu, MeTOA'B oóy^emsíf j^peccn* 
paesa, Ha BOiopyK) 6ujia npHcysAeHa MOJiOAeasB, BBsaMeHHUfl xpe- 
'6oBaHifl Ba CTeneHB óaBsajiaBpa, — Bce bto, bmí^ctí BSBioe, no cjio- 
HurL CHMOHa, cnocoÓCTBOBajio b^b Tony, hto6bi niBOJibHoe o6yHeHÍe 
jd^&CTBOBajo npHTyiLSflioniHBrL, ho ne pasBHBafon^HMi o6pa30M'B: 
,Mojio;(esB, ho bbaa HenocpeACTBeHHoft hojbsh ot'b o^pasoBaniji, 
j^ocraBJuieMaro eft vb niBOjr^, npoaaTUBajiacB bi neMy OTBpaa^e- 
HÍeHi, TopouHJiacB BaBpuTB CBOH jiaTHHCBÍfl H rpe^ecBÍfl bhhfh h 
iiocBop6e saÓuTB ly Bpoxy sHanifl, BOTopyio hsi hhxi BUHocHJia. 

nOTOMl JI'lHHBUIfB He XOTÍJIOCB HaHHHaTB CBH3H0Ba OÓpaSOBaHÍJI , 

tfojfe OTff6?aH)a^aro hxi noTpefiHOCTjiBi^B; Óojiie TpyAOJuoÓHBue, xo- 
TkiB 6h BOSHarpaAHTB noTepannoe BpeMB, ho eseAHeBHUB BaHATÍs 
MtinajiH HiTB BT) STOiTB*"... „Bi caMOiťB A^Jit, rOBopflTi, ^To qio^- 
fiflro o(5pa80BaHÍB HejiBBfl oictHHBaTB no ero HenocpeACTBennoft no- 
leaHOCTH, HTO i^B ero coctohti ho bx nperoroBJíemH MOJO^esH 

Bl HBB^CTHfilMl C^e^ia;IBHlIM^ 3aHflTÍflM'B, HO TOJBBO Bl CHaÓSeHÍE 

es otin^HiTB o6pa30BaHÍeM%, BOTopoe tojibbo BnocjrÍACTBÍH npEnecei^B 

CBOif nJIOAH. ^MCTBHTeJHbHOCTB, OAHBBOSl, OÓpaH^aerB Bl> HHqTO 

9Ck dTH osH^anifl. Besi npeysejiHqeHifl vb BpacBaxi, aobojibho 

lIOFOBOpHTB H^bCBOJIBBO MHHyTl) Cb 60JIBniHHCTB0M'B MOOIOAUXl JIlOAefty 

iipHHaAJeacantHxi bi HamniťB Jífimmirb ceMeftcTeaic^, hto6u ec- 
iiyraTBCfl Tofi yMCTBennoft nycTOTii, Toro He^ocraTBa BCflBaro yM- 
CTBeHHaro B036yaiAeHÍfl, xapaBTepBsyion^aro bth xBaxi^aTHJi^THie 
ii03rH*. ...„HícBOJiBBo jAti^ cnycra, ne ocTaneTca hh cjAjifik toto 
HayqHaro jibbb, BOTopufi Cujtb AOCxaaieHi hm^ bi oibojií. dxoro 
4)jiHoro yae Óujio óu AOcraTOHHO ajíb 6e8ane.iJifli;ioHHaro ocy»* 
jifiEAíí CHCTeMu oÓpasoBaHÍH, BeAylAeft b% no^o^HuirB pesyjBTaTaMi. 
Bi caMOiťB k^jAj CBop6e mosho npocTUTB y^BJíHii^aMi xo, tto ohh 
ne AocTBBJífliOTi yqeHHBaMi hsb^thlixi no^osHxejiBHUx^B CB^xenifi, 
rtlf^ TÓHBaHÍe b% hhxi caMOCTOBxeJiBHaro MumjieHifl, oxotu bi 
Tpy^y, HayB^, bthxx Heo6xoAHHUx% yoioBÍft Bcnsaro nporpecca^... 
KaBoe TRB BJiiflHÍe BJiaccn^ecRaa CHCTena npOHSBOiHjra bo $paHi;ÍH 

n aBOHOMHHeCBOlTB OTHOmeHÍU? n Ha 9T0T1» BOnpOCl HeJIBBfl AaxB 

yiOBjeTBopuTe^BHaro otbí^tb. ,0b BaBofi 6u to^bh apinifl hh cmotp&tb 
HadTOTB npeAMen, — rOBOparB *papH, — BaatAwft AOJateHx npHSHaTB, 
vro 6j[arococTOflHÍe bcaboS crpanu sasacHrB bi sna^HTeJiBHOft creneHH 
^rn> Toro, BaBAMi o6pa30M'B pacnpeA^enu bi neft pasíHqHUfl sa- 
HiTÍfl, BTO HMi nocBfln^aerb ce5fl u BaBoe BJiianie npoHSBOAHTi 
iBROiBHoe oópasoBanie na óy^yn^in sanaTifl mojioabíx^ jno^eft. HysHO, 
TTotiu Ba»Aoe mícto, BaaBAaa ao^ishoctb, o6n^ecTBeHHafl hjih qacr- 

Htfl, 6UM SaHJiTU JIIOABMH COOTB^TCTBeHHO npHrOTOBJeHHHMH, HtOÚU 

6* 



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84 mcTHEXi EBPomi. 

KB usB^CTHiiixii 8aHflTÍflX'B He 6ujio H86uTBa, a Bi ApyrHTB — HeAO- 
craTBa JiioAeft. yHHHToaceHie p&BEOwbási bi btout, OTHomeBÍH ao- 
BasuBaeTB oÓn^ecTBeHHyK) 6ojríteHb — nnepipo^iio, cb OAHofi, h aipo- 
4»ÍH), eb Apyrofi CTopoHii. Ecjih cjiHinROMi MHoro MOJOAUxi jiOAeft 
oópan^aeicfl bi BSB^CTHOMy saHATÍH), Tor^a ohh ne Óy^yn vb co* 

CTOflHÍH HafiXH Wb HCMl COOTB^TCTBeHHarO MiCTa, TOr^a OHH 6yAyTB 

c6btu cb nvTH, — a Tasie jna^H, hbbíctho, cocraBjaiorb canoe 6ojb- 
moe 6%ACTBÍe ajía oÓn^eciBa. 3to sjíacci caMufi onacHufi, — uacc^ 
He^OBOJiBHuxi, HOCTOflHHafl npHHBHa ÓesnopjiAKOBi B Ofin^eCTBeHHUXI^ 
ciiyTB. Hbi dxoro bbaho, nacROJibRO Basao a^b rocyAapcTBa b o6- 
n^ecTBa, htoÓu ne 6iuio btbxi déclassés^ vtoóu iiojiOAoe noBOJiŠHie 

OdpaiBJIOCB &!» UpOAyBTBBHBIMl SaHBTÍflMl. MeSAy T&Ml BCBJKiO^H- 

TeiBHO RJiaccBqecBoe oÓpasoB^tHÍe ne npBroTOBJíaerB ero b^b bt«m% 
8aHflTÍBMii. BojiBHiBHCTBo bacheliers-ěs-lettres CTpeMHJiocB na rocy- 
AapcTBeBHyio cjiys6y, ho xotb 6u rocyAapcTBeBHuxi* AOJisHOcreft 
6uJio 6ojiBme, ^iu% bb^a^i^ sa He6i, to b xorAa ne 611.10 6u jsx^h 

AOBOJIBHO. Ha Baa&AyK) AOJI^HOCTB npBXOABJIOCB no 10 BaHABAaTOKB^ 

TaBi HTO BOo6n].e bo $paHi](ÍB 2 MBjjiioHa Ji¥>ji,dk xot&oi 6ei sbt& 
Ha CHOTI* rocyAapcTBa. HejLBsii, OAnaBOsi, yABBJBTBCfl ÓaBBajiaBpaMi*. 

^eCflTB JVbTb OHB OBLIB HpBHySAGHBI BOCXBn^TBCfl BpaCOTaMB npO* 

moAmaro, BOToparo ne noBHiiasB, oÓynaTBCB BSiiity, na BoropoMs 
noHTB HBTaxB HO yiT&sB, nojiynaTB obpasoBaHÍe ho TaBoe, b^b Ba- 
BOMi HysAftJincB, corjiacHO cbobmi 6yAyn;BMi saHATÍBicB, ho o6pa- 
BOBanie, ocHOBannoe na B8BtoHBix'B TeopeTBqecBBX'B HaHaj[ax'B h 
ycrap^BmeMii npeAaniB ^). Kx HOMy se APF^ny BJiaccBBB ($ii.ib cno- 
C06HB1 vh otfn^ecTB'! hoboi^b, bi snoxy ToproBJíB b opoMunureH- 
HOCTB, CB CTOJiB cyxBM^ B HeupaBTBHHUMi oÓpasoBaBÍeifB? Ohh 
5uJB npBHysAeHU o6paTBTBCfl bi TaBi-naBBiBaeMBiifB jBÓepajiB^* 

HBIMl SBaHÍBM!), TpeÓyiOH^BMl flSB^CTHOfi JIOBKOCTB HOpa BJIB CJOBa, 

A^ajBCB sypnajiBCTaMB bjib aABOBaTaMB. n3'B dToro npoBCxoABJO 
HepenoJiHOHie draxi sBaHÍft MaccoH) mojioabixi jiíoacS, Boropae na 
ApyroifB noopB^*! mopjib Óbi nafiTB ce6i 6ojiie cooTB^TCTBeHHoe 
saHBTie. CnpaBOAJiBBO jib 9to, — sasjíioTOeTB $papB, — no OTHome- 
híh) Bi cejiBCBOMy xosflficTB^, npoMumjieHHOCTB B ToproBJíiy na- 
npaBJíflTB TaBBM'B oÓpasoMi i^BŽrB MOJOAeacB tojibbo bi ÓiopoBpaTÍH 
B aABOBaTyjri? HeiBSB cBasaTB, htoÓu raší canoro rocyAapcTBa 

6UJ10 BB^rOAHUMl BJIB HOJieBHUJIfB HanpaBJIflTB CTOJIBBO TUCflTB MO- 
JIOAOSB Bl HBHOBHBqBeft BapBOp^, B% BOTOpOft OHa MOSOPB BHOPAa 

HafixH ropBBÍH padO^apoBaHÍfl, bm'&cto tofo hto6u npeAOcraBBTb e§ 

^) noHTH cioBO Bi cioBO noBTopHji TO 26 c&Moe repHaHcut BMDepaTopi Bufc- 
rejBMi II n CBoefi nociixnet pina o uaccaiqiaMdb. 



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PE<>0P1fA rHMHASifi. 85 

xpjrúi SBaHÍfl, vh ROTopEix'B OHa MOsen AOCTHrHyrb 6jiaronojiyHÍfl, 
XOBOJBCTBa, 6yAy^H HaA^esan^Hiii oÓpasoM^ npHroTOBJíeHHOio Kh 

SH3HH. Yse COpOR'B jAtL TOMy, aKaJOBajmCB BO $paHI^ÍH Ha TO, ^TO 

V^ MOJo;iesH nojiy^ajiH oÓpasoBanie BUOAwb m^ ees ÓesnojiesHoe^ O- 
Mbi yBiíAHirB HHse, tto OTHomeme 9to, bi cyo^HocTH, CA^ajiocB 
TenepL en^e xyse, a noTony h busb&io HacroflTejibHoe Tpe6oBaHÍe 
— Bx caMOMi KopH^ npeoÓpasoBaTb mROJBHufi sjíaccHi^EsifB h bo 
^H^ÍH, Kam TO Ha6;[ioj^aeTCfl OAHOBpeMeHHO h b% PepnamH, h bi 
maeiÚH. 

Aht. OkojbckiS. 



*) IL ďAQlterocbe. Reformě dea étades dassiques, Par. 1847, CTp. 14^15. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



nEPBHE mArH 



nOB-ÉCTB. 



TjiaBa I. 



Bi aBrycri M^fecai^']^, wb hojiobhhí ceMHAecflTuxi toaobi, na hb- 
ROJiaeBCROfi craHAÍE, hsi Barona xpeTBaro Rjacca ToponjHBO Bumejrh^ 
sacnaHHHfi, CMynojiHGtHfi; M'£mROBaTufi HOJiOAofi ^ejOFlRi cb He5ojnk- 
mofi mejiROBHCTofi Óopo^Rofi, b^ HeRasHcroHi dkpoMi HaR^^epjiaH^^ 
H, mypa CBOH ÓojBinie, jiyqHcnie qepHHe r^iasa, na ceRyn^y npi- 
ocraHOBHJCfl, jud^odutho osHpaacB BORpyn, h saiiMi ^mwrejihwa 
ABHHyjiCfl vb TOJiny naccaacnpoBi, iipEi6uBnrax'B bm'%ctI Ch hhmi vrh 
neiepÓyprB ci yrpeHHHiTB MOCROBCRHM'b n&bsj^owb. 

H ROcnoMi, H MaHepii, h H'£cROJibRO pacrepflHHiifi bha'b — oÓjh- 
^ME ^poBHH^iaJIa. Oh^ 6ujn> cpejinaro pocra. njie^Hcn, ujiorew^ 
o^eflB HeAypeHi> co6oft, h wl CBoeft norepioft »coM6pepo", h3%* 

nOA'B ROTOpofi BIl6HBaJIHCB CSaBHHfl qepHUfl RyApH, CHJIBHO CMaXH- 
BaJIl Ha HTEJIBflHI^a, XOTfl HH OAHOrO HTaJIBflHI^a B'B miCjA CBOHXl^ 

iipeAROfi'B He c^HTajii h 6um> RopeHHoro pyccRaro npoBCXosAeHÍji. 

SsajiH ero IlaBJíOMi CípeneroBUMi. 

MojoAoft qejiOB%Ri» MeA^esHO noABBrajicfl bi icHorojiiOAHofi tojuA^ 
H Ha ero mnpoRoifB, pyMflHOM'B jmuíby AmnaBmeMi BAopoBOH) cbí^- 
secTBH) paHHeft mojioaocth, OTpaauunocB qjBCTBO pa^ocrn h CMy* 
n^eHifl. EMy 611.10 h Becejio, h syrRO, ^to ohi, naROHeqi, b^b Ile* 
Tep6ypr^, RyAa crpeMHJCfl, noJiHufi HaAesA'^ ycrpOHTB cbok) cyxBÓy* 
n noRa rJiada ero MamHHajiBHO ocraHaBJíHBajiBCB na cnHnax^B h sa- 
TUJiRaxi rlcHHBHiHxcfl nepeA'B hhhi Jiio^efi, wb rojiOB^ namero no- 
jOAoro HeJOB^Ra npoHOCHjniCB Bce vb se mhcjih, ROTopua ne ocTas* 
jifljiH ero BO Bce BpeMfl AJninnaro nyremecTBifl Hdi» CaMapu, OTRyxm, 



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niFBUE niArH. 87 

poBHO AecflTB ;íHeft lony easa^^^ crapyniKa-MaTb h noApocTKH-cecrpH 
npoBOssajH CBoero JioÓHMi^a IlaMHRa co cjiesaMH h cb ea^emAaMH, 
TTO DaBJíHRi CRopo Hopa^yeTB Hxi bíctamh o nojy^eBiH M^cra. 

...,Pa3yM*eTca, oex csopo no^yqarB iribcro. Fa* ae h xjio- 
noraiB, KaBi ne bi IleTepÓypr*? Tpe6oBaHÍfl bíab y nero CKpoM- 
Hbifl, Me?Tu He daHOCHHBUfl. y Hero, ciaBa Bory, ahiuoh^, bi 

npOíaiOM'B HHBaSHXl „HCTOpift" — H BAOÓaBOBX, peBOMeHAaxeJIBHIIfl 

nHCBHa!*"... 

H CípeneroBi eamynajii 6oroboK Bapifaei. n^u jin ara co* 
RpoBEn^a. 

...„nHCbMa TOro-HHÓyaB Aa CTOiOTi! CefiTOCi bhaho, hto ne cb 
B^a qe.iOBitBrB. H, eaKOHei^i, 9Ta ABOiopo^Has TeiyniBa. Bajien- 
THoa MapBOBHa!.. B'b ciyqai Bpa&HOcrn, mossho h bi nefi o6pa- 
THTBCfl, — nycTB noxJionoTOrB*'... 

BipoflTHO, noA'B BJiiflHÍeirB xaBHxi yiiniHTeJiBHiixi Muejieft, mo- 
jOAofi HejiOB']bB'B Aftse ycBopHJi^ mara h OTBaacHO nporajiBHBajicfl 
BnepeA'B, cjobho saBenaji HerepiriHieirB nocBopite npeA'BflBHTB Ile- 
Tep6ypry peBOMeHAaTeJiBHUfl nnCBMa bm']^ct^ co CBoefi oco6ofi, 
npeHcnojiHeHHOft Ao6puMH Haií^peHidMH iipiuosHTB Byxa-HnÓyAB ho- 
JiOAUfl cajm H saBoeBaxB ce&b RycoRt. xjťbéa. 

CxpeneroB^ 6huii> noHxn yae y Asepefi, taí ocoÓohho t6chh- 
lacB ny6jiEiRa, BaBi BApyrB ocraHOBEJOi cb bhaom^b ^ejiOBŠBa, ne 
TO nopaxceHHaro BHOsanHoň mucjibk), ho to oÓpoHHBmaro 6yEa»- 
HHRTB CB AeHBraifH. He oco6eHHO oópan^aa BEHMame na tojihbb, 
OHB noBepHyjii rojOBy n HCBajrB rjasaiiH rofo-to vb tojhií, eanH* 
paBinefi csaAH. 

— HamjiH M'lcTo A^a HafijiioAeHift, Henero CRasaTb! Jlfi iipo- 
xoAHTe »e RyAa-HH(5yAB, nnjiocTHBBifi rocyAapBt — nporoBopHJii HaA'B 
caMuiTB ero yxoMi RaRoft-TO noisHJiofi rocnoAHHx rbwb npHAHp^H- 
BUMi, pasApasHTejiBHiiMi TOHOM^, RaRHifB yM^iOTB TOBOpHTB nerep- 
Sypsi^u, H ocoÓeHHO ^hhobhhrh. 

9MH.90CTflB£ifi rocyAapB^ crpeicEiTejiBHO ÓpocMca b'b cropoHy n 
iyrB-6HJio He cmH^i ct» hopb MaJieHBRyio, ToacreHBRyH) crapymRy 
CB orpoMHuifB OyReTOMx i^B^TOBi Bi OAHOft pyR'b H RyApflBOtt co- 
6aqoHBofi Bi RpacHotl nonoHŠ — na Apyrofi. IIojiy^HBi, HecMOTpa 
Ha cauBifl AOÓpocoB^CTHus HSBHHeHifl, 6pH)3rjiH6oe crapymenBe: ,,He- 
B!b2Ra!^, OrpeneTOB^ Bu6pajicfl, naROHei^i, nsi tojihu h, pacRpac- 
HiBmificfl H CROH^yseHHbiit, crapaacB oAHaRo coxpaHBTB bba'b noji- 
Htfiniaro paBHOAymifl, BHTflnyjii BnepeA'B roJOBy, BPJiflAUBaflCB vh 
npoxoAfln;HX'B naccasHpoBi. 

BApyPB paAOCTHafl y^iuÓRa pasjHJiacB mBpoRoK bojihoA no ero 
Amy, sacB^THjacB líbwb-no a^tcremi fb oasaxi h Ao6poAynrao 



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88 BftCTHHBl EBPOim. 

pacTflHyja porB, OTRpusafl pflA*^ CBepBaK>ii;QX'b 6&ib3hoio syÓOBi. 
n B'B TO se HrHOBeme mojoaoS qejíOBtR^ rpoMBO, cjiflmttOM'b Aase 
rpoMRO ^fl HHHHaro HerepCypra, ephrhjji, Maxaji fl TOJiny in.9flnoft: 

— PBMMa MHxa&jiOBHa! PHMiia Mnaft^OBHa! 
npoxoAHBmíft MHMO BIICOBÍ&, xy^oft, {^paHTOBaTuft MOJiOAOfi ^e- 

jOBÍKi, wb nojocaTOMi xiHeHonojroMt naiBTO-xajrart ch mhofo^h- 
CJieHHiiMH nejfepHHBaMH, jí^^me BBAporHyji^ oti> btofo HeosHAasnaro 
OBpHBa. Oh'b cBfipHJTB CTpeneTOBa ÓucrpuMi uhcwimjiEBUwb Bsr^fl- 
jiowh Hepe3'B MOHOBJíB, ycMŠxHyjicfl H A060AH0 rpoMBo nporoBO- 
pHJi^, o6paii^aflCb b^ CBoeMy cnyTHBsy: 

— FojiocHCTa CBflTafl npoBHei^ia. B'6pH0, HOBuft n^B^ifi. Te- 
HopB di forza! 

„IIpoBnHi^ifl^, He AyMaBmaa nocrynaTS vh „nÍBqie'', xota h 
BcnuxHyja, ho ne o6paTHJia BHHMaHifl Ha Hacirloifty, ToponacL Ha 
Bcrpi^y R'B crpoftHOft, neÓojiLmoro pocra uosojLofí senn^HH^, ro- 
Topaa njuiByn^eft, rpaii^iosHoft noxo^Rofi, H'lcRo;rBRO yAHBjeHHafl n 
CBOH^yseHHafl; tem bi ifOJiOAOMy qejiOB^Ry. 

„BojiHyflCb H cninia", CrpeneroBT* crajii HSBHHaTBca, mo ocirib- 
jHJicfl TaBi 6e3i^epeM0HH0 OBjHBnyTb PHHify MnxafijiOBHy. Ho ohi> 
ne BHAajTB Apyroro Hcxo^a, nTo6u ne OBasarBca fl ea* mhšhíh ne- 
6&Refi. B'B caifOMi jiíbjA^ bm^ctí ixajiH AecaTB AHeft, ona TaB'B 
ApyatecRH otfxoAHJiacB cb hhm'b, uosHaROBCHBHiHCB Ha napoxojťb, TaB'b 
oČaaaTeiBHO OTBiHajra na ero ÓesBoneiHiie pascnpocu o Ilerep- 
6ypr6, a owb ^ase ne noÓiiaroAapHjrB ee, ne npocTMca. ?tď Morjia 
ona o HeMi noAyMaxB? ^'bjio bi tohi, ^to ohi npocnajTB nerep- 
6yprB, BUCBOHHJTB H8i BaroHa BaBi nojioyMHuft h... 

— ^a BH ne HSBHHaftrecB. IIpaBO, a nn^ero He no^ynajial — 
ocraHOBHJia CTpeneroBa PnMMa MHxaftjOBna, rja^a cb neBOJiBHoff 
yjuÓBofl na dToro nanBHaro crennaBa, BB^yHaBoiaro HBJíHBaTB ^yn- 
CTBa npHsnaTejiBHOCTo na njax^opirl. 

Ho, B^ Ba?ecTB% „CBaToS ^poBHH^iH^, GTpeneTOBi ne npHHajTB 
Bi cooópasenie, ^to ero Aoposnaa cnyrHHi^a Topomrrca, h ne cpasy 
ocTaHOBHjica vb CBOHXi HSjtíaHÍaxi. EMy BnepBue AOBejocB nosná- 
BOMUTBca CB ncTeptfyprcBoft cjymaxejiBHHiíeft Me^HiíBHCBHx^ Byp- 
coBi, OBaH^EBaion^efi y?eHBe. BocxHc^eHHHft ea npocroToft h CBpoM- 
HOCTBK), xpoHyTufi 3a6oTjitiBocrBK), CB BaBOH) 9Ta A^BymRa, caMa 
yTOMJieHHaa, BOSHjacB na napoxoA^ cb saxBopaBniHHi pe6eHB0irB 
najiyÓHOft naccasepEH, CTpeneTOB*B npoHHBca vh jsfbhjmKi noTre- 
TejBEoft BOcropseHHOCTBH), crapaacB osasuBaTB ett BcaBÍa yasyni, 
H noTOMy cmuTSLJiTy xenepB CBOHM^ ^CBaTuiTB ^íOJTOM-B* eme pasi 
3acBHA']^TejiBcrB0BaTB, ?T0 OHT He HeBŠsa, BaBi AOJsna Óujia 6u 
HOAyMaTB PBMMa MHxafijOBHa, h sai^Mi yse BOCBJHBHyjrB, nt- 



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/ IIEP6EIE mArn. 89 

CKOJLBO yiripflfl, ra BH^y nyÓJiHBH, CBoft 3By^H£ifi Tenop^ di 
forza: 

— Otb Bcero cepAi^a sejiaH) BaiťB CA'^aTBCfl sHaHeHHTUMi 

J(OETOpOMX, 6UTh CqaCTJIHBOfi, SAOpOBOft, BeCe^Oft... Hy, OAHHMl CjIO- 

BOiTBy Bcero, Bcero xopomaro! — cb HCRpeHHHMi nyBCTBOBfB npHÓaBEjrB 
CrpeneroB^, ne sHafl, ^ero en^e nosejiaTb, ho o?eBH;i;HO tOTOBuft 
nasaiaT& Pmniš MsxafijiOBHŠ xotb Bopony, bcjibÓu ona saxoT&ia ee. 
PHMMa MHxafijiOBHa ^axe H^CROJibRO CBOH^ysajiacL oti» TaKOtt 
ropflqHOCTH nossejiaHifi CBoero AoposHaro cnyTHHBa. 

— CnacHÓo, cnacH(Jo Bani! — ToponjraBO OTBiqajia OHa, thxhm^, 

HeO($UBH0BeHH0 MflrBHirB, rOJIOCOlTB Cb BOHTpaiLTOBHMB HOTaMB. — 

SBLenaH) h Bairb ycnixoFB b% IlHrepi! S^opoBLA BaM^, BaseTCfl, 
sejiaTB Henero? y BacB ero aobojibho! — iiphb^tho yjiiiÓHyjiacB ona, 
nporarHBafl MajieHBByK) pyny vb xeMHoS mseACROfi nepuTR^. O^HaKo, 
aottAeirre! 

Ohe nomjiB bm^cií r'b BuxoAy. ^opbrofi CípeneTOBi cnpocBJi'B: 

— A BacB TaRB H He Bcrp^feTHJH? Bh, Ra»eTca, ajíajra Roro- 
TO, PHMMa MnxaftjvoBHa? 

DpH 9T0M^ HeoxHAaHHOM^ Bonpoc^ PflMMa MHxaftjiOBHa Bcrpe- 
neeyjiacB, cjierRa noRpacHijia, h lyóa ea, noAepHyraa tcmebimb 
nyniBOM^, cy^opoatHO BSAporayjia. 

— BipHO Moa TejerpaMMa onos^ajia! — npopoHHja ona h4- 
CBOJbRO CJiOBi, HaRjiOHflfl CBOH> MajieHBRyH), RpacHBO nocaseHHyK) 
raaoBy. 

— Jía ^^h BH ee Bqepa nociajiH! — npoAOJWRajTB CrpencTOBi, 
He saM^THfimift BOJiHenifl Petmmbi MBxafijiOBHU. 

— TaM HTO-a^? Bce paBHO, Morjia onos^aTB! — HeTepníJHBO 
nporoBopHja A^BymRa, npnÓaBJíflfl máry. 

MoďOAofi ^ejiovbíffb Aora^ajicfl BaMOJiqaTB. 
Ohh Bomjiií Bi 6ojiBniifl c£hh y BuxoAa Cb AeÓapRa^epa h cm%- 
maoíHCB CB TOJinofi. 

TaMi, Bi OTRHAaHÍH Óaraaca, mjia o6Ei?Hafl myMJHBafl cyera. 

IIOMHHyTHO paSAaBaZIHCB ÓeBHOROfiHUe ORPHRB, TOpOnJHBBIfl, OTpU- 
BHCTUfl BOCRJIHI](aHÍfl, TO rH'6BHUfl, TO HCHyraHHUfl, BCÍX'B BTHXl 

BO.iHyion^Hxcfl naccasepoBi, wb ocoÓeHHOCTH AaM'B, fiesTOJiROBO Me- 
TasmDXCfl H cntoHBniBxi csobho na nossapi. 

JoBRO JiaBHpya wb tojihí h npoca no6epe%Cfl, TO-H-;(fcio cho- 
Baju RopenacTue nocHJiBn^HRH cb Óojibhihmh neMO^anaMH h cyn^y- 
KaMH Ha Mory^HXi* nje^ax^, a BUcrpoHBniiecfl bi psjí,T> OTejibHBie 
iiiBeii^apu, raiaHTHO npHnoAHHMaa cboh ^ypasRH, BURpHRHBajiH wb 
ynopi> npoxoAfln^HMi HasBaHÍB pocthhhhi^i, BuxBajiHBaji hx'b yxoó- 
cna. 



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90 B^CTHHKl EBPOnU. 

naccasHpoBi ci araMT) nofe^OMi npitxajio MHOssecTBO. Oco- 
6eHH0 óujio MHoro oti^obi h MaMeeeR^ cb noApocTRaMH h mojo* 
Aux% JiiOAefi H CapumeHi, Ha']^82caH)ii(HX'B wh croJHi^y so BpeMeHH 
npieMH£iX'B 8R3aHeH0B'B. Bca 8Ta, Rax^unyBinafl hbi pasHuxi yrjoei^ 
PoccÍB, MOJiOAafl, myMJiHBaa nyÓJiuRa, Ci> pyifflHUMH, cbÍshmh 
n^eicaMH, p'63R0 BUA'i^flBiiiBMHCfl cpejku HCTOQ^eBHux^, di^ABO-se- 
jieHBixi* neTep6yprcKHX'B jiHi^'B, npi'6xaBinafl b% nerepóypn, nojHEfl 
HaAe3RA'B npofipaTkOi bi TtcHua AsepH pa3Huxi> xpanOBi HayRH^ 
rjiflA'I^a (5oApo h Becejio, ne npe^BHAfl eii^e hh rpflAyi];HX'B 6íai» b 
pasonapoBaHÍfi Hsi-sa RaRofi-HHÓyAL oaho& „TpofiRH^, hh CRopoft 
noTepH CB^saro i^Btia JiHi^a, SAopoBba h nacro canoft na^esjíu 
Ao6HTBCfl Bucmaro oÓpasoBaHÍa h RycRa xjr66a... 

Ha aTOMi He6o;ii>nioirB npocTpancTB^ csy^afinaro c6opHn;a shbhs 
npoflBJífljiacb vb CBOHXi oĎuqnuxi nopa3HTejiBH£ix'B ROHrpacraxi, 
ne ofipan^aa na ce(5fl HHHBero ocofiennaro BHHMaHÍfl. Tyn cílena 
ya^ocTHaro CBa^aHÍfl c^acTJtHBuxi mojioabix'b cynpyroBi, Beceise, 
yjiu6RH H CM^xi, a pflAOMi — neqajiBHEifl jHi^a, rjiy6oRÍ& Tpaypí^ 
MOJiqajiHBafl CRop6B h thxo JiBioniiflCfl CJiesu npn Bcrp^^. HeH3- 
(y&SHaa Ha BORsajíš no^Tennafl crapyniRa, tojibro-hto norepABoiaji 
caR'B-BOfls:B, Tfifb jesajiH AeHBrn, h Roxopafl cb o6e3yM%BniHirB ots 
ysaca jbi^oitb 6e3noHon^HO Menercfl bo sdb cropoHu, yAHBjaflCB Bce* 
o6n^eMy pasHOAyniiH), Rone^HO, 6iijia TyrB, Aonojinafl o^u^HyK) Rap- 
THHy, TaRaRe RaR^ h botb btotb, HenoM'i^pHo TOJiCTufi h HeyRJiio* 
2sífi Ryn?HHa cb oÓJivmbewh saxojiycTHaro ^MeAB^Afl*. HeosHAaHHO 
nonaBmaro b^ TOJiay, RoropBifi, ciiy^enHO osnpaacB BORpyrB Ty- 
uuiňT> BBópoMi, en^e pa3i np(»n^aeTCfl cb noARpameHHOfi, necrpoft^ 
BepTjflBofi A&Mofi HOAepsaHHaro BHAa, CBoeft cjiyqafiHoft snaROMOft 
MesAy nerepfiyproMi h MocrboS, pa8BJ[eRaBme& 6oraTaro CHÓHp- 
CRaro „MSABÍ^Afl" wb yeAHHeHÍH OTA^^Bnaro Ryns. 

3Ta pa3HOO(5pa3Hafl TOJina BOJHyerca, myMHTB h cyeTHTCfl. Y 
MHoriixx Ha JiHi^axi 03a6o?eHHOcrB, HeTepn'6HÍe h to BupaaRenie 
6e3npHqHHHaro Tynoro Hcnyra, ROTopoe oóuRHOBeHHO ÓUBaerB Ha 

^HSiOHOMÍflXl pyCCRHXl JÍJOJífiň BO BCflRHXl ny6jIHqHUX'B M^^TaXl H 

Ha BCflRHXi cóopHu^axi*. 

PHMMa MexafijiOBHa noc^iajia HOCBJíBniHRa sa cbohhi 6ara2ReM'B^ 
a caMa oronuia ri ORny. Ppycrnafl crofljia ona cpeAH 8Toro myna^ 
Ópocafl HO BpeMeHaMi fb TOJiny ÓesnoRofinue BsrjiflAU, cjiobho hoa- 
3KB Aaa Roro-TO. 

Bcfl efl Hetio;[Bmafl, crpodnafl ^arypRa ABunasa HSfl^ecTBOirB h 
sacrbHHBBofi HpocTOTofi Hajo AyMaH)n^HX'B o ce(5t senn^HHi. Ea xy- 
Aon^aBoe, h']^cro;ibro yroMJieHHoe Jivmf) cb rycTUMH nepniiMH 6po- 



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nEPBhiE mArH. 91 

BflMH, KpaCHBHlTB HOCOMli H TOHRO Oqep^eHHUME JIHHÍflMH Vy&b 

H noA^opoAKa He 6pocajiocB cpasy vh rjiasa, ho ^'^^BťB 6ojňe 
Bu Bi Hero BrjiHAUBSJíHCB, Awb MEJLie H npHBJíenaTeJiBHie ciaHO- 
Biuacb ero Kpacora. ^to-to crporo-iítJiOMyApeeHoe, caMooTBepaeH- 
Hoe B BpoTRoe, HanoMHBaioii^ee ^iHi^a MOHaxHHB, KaBBMH inicajiH 
mx^h crapHe Macrepa, 6ujio bi jáavKRThy BpacHBuxi qepTax'B a'6~ 
BymBH B oco6eHHO bi BupameHÍH eji 6ojibinHX'B ÓapxaTHuxi ^ep- 
Hiix'B rjias^, nojiynpHRpuTuxi* ajihhhumh rycniMH picHBiiiaMii. TpyAHO 
6£UiO onpeA'^HTb na bha'b, crojbko efli jvbrn mofjo Óhtb h AsaAi^aTB- 
nflTb, Morjio ÓuTB H BHa^HTeJEBO 6ojíhine. 

H Bi> R0CTH)MÍfí efl 6ujio qio-TO MOHacTupcRoe, crporoe, ho bx 
TO se BpeMfl HOJiHoe BRyca h HBfln^Hoft npocroTBi. TeMHoe, Harjiyxo 
sacrerHyToe najbTO hjiotho oxBaTUBano ea raÓRift, H'lsHEifi crani; 
^epnafl RameifiipoBafl loÓRa 0CTaB.ifl;ia otrputumb MajieHBRÍfl nora 
Wh CoTHHRaxx Ha ABOfiBofi noAouiB^; (^ocH^aiHuit 4^yjiflp'B ORy- 
TUBSJTb efl uieK), a Rpyoaa mjiflna hs^ qepHOfi cojiomu, cb qep- 
Hofl jeHTOfi BORpyn, noRpuBana pocRomnue qepHue bojiocu, cyAH 
no TflataiuifB rycruMi Rocam, co6paHHBiMi> csbah. 

— ^To-XT. Bu He HaHHMaere ROMHaTti? — CRasajia PiiMMa Mh- 
xatJOBHa, HSMi^Tnwh CHOBa noAwii ce6fl Cxpenerosa, po6RO nocHaT- 
pHBaBmaro na CTOflBniHX'B HeBAajeR'6 MHoroqHCJ[eHHBix'B npeAcra- 
BHTejiefi MeOjiBpoBaHHux^ ROMHaTi*, ROTopue, cjioBHO coÓaRH, 6po- 
eajiBCb na naccasepoBT, BuxBanBa cboh yAOÓBue, npeBOcxoAHue h 
AenieBiie HOMepa. 

— ^a He SBaH), Rony hsx dTBx^ pasGoftHHROBi Bpyqnxb cboh) 
CJAhóf. 

— Bce paBBO. IIoRa ocraBOBHiecb rAi-BHÓyAB, a botom-b npin- 
n^HTe KOMflaTy otb hhjbi^obI) RaR'B a BaM'B roBOpHJia. A Bam^B 
(jarasi*? 

— R exDfi ne bssj^. 

— TaRT* fiepBTe. Bi Toň sajii BUAaiorB. Botb b moK ícmo- 
A^h*b! — o6paAOBaJiacb PuMMa MnxafijiOBBa, sairJ&THBii BocHJibB^BRa. — 
En;e pa3i Bpon^afiTe, HaBejii CeprteBHqi! 

— HeysTo mRx h ROBeci^ BameMy BaaROMCTBy, PHMMa Mb- 

XaftJOBBa? — BeOSBAaBBO BOCRJIHRByJIl MOJIOAOfi MeJI0B'6R'B. 

H. He BusAaBi oiB^xa, npBÓaBH^^: 

— IlpOCTHTe MOK) BaaoftjIflBOCTB, BOSBOJIBTe RaRl-BHÓyAB Ba- 
BÍCTHTB BaCB. MOSBO? y MeBfl Wkjkh B^bCh BB AyniB BBaROMblXl! — 

npHfiaBHj^ OBI, RaRx 6u bi onpaBAaBÍe CBoefi BpocBÓu. 

PHMMa MHxafijOBBa MrBOBeBÍe ROiieÓairacB. Ho, BsrjiflByBí na 
esoBJ^yaceHHoe jihi^o dpenerOBa, ROTopufi, RasajiocB, caMi Hcny- 
rajcfl CBoefi xpaÓpocTB, ToponjHBO nporoBopHja: 



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92 B^GTHHR^ EBPOim. 

— 3axo;^HTe, saxo^axe, nomajiyficra. Ho tojieko a Bací ^ojsea 
npeAynpeAHTb, ^to ssMofi y mcha SRsaMeHu, h a 6jxy o^esh sa-^ 
Hflia! — cepi>e3H0 h BHyniBTejibHO npafiaBHja ^'i^ByniBa. 

— O, a BaMt He noirifeniaH)! — BOCMHKeyjii Mojo^oft qe-iOBÍKi, 
BHAHMO o6paAOBaHH£i&. — Si RaRi-HB6yAB 3a($iry ri BaiTB aa ^er- 
BepTB TOca, Bcero na ^eTBeprs qaca, ec-ia noSBOjrare. A rojh ne 
BÍ)-BpeMa, BH TOJBRO 3aHRHHTecB: „CrpeneTOBi, HC^esHHTe!** — h a 
HC^esHy. 

PflMMa MaxafijiOBHa neBOJiBHO yjmÓHyjacB, anymafl dra ciosa 
H rjiaAa sa 9to SHseepaAOCTHoe, RpacHBoe jihi^o, otb ROTOparo 
TaRi H vbsjío CBteecTbK) HenoTpa^eHHux'B cpjii h RaRofi-To naHB- 
EOŤf BOCTopseHHOCTBH) AOB^p^HBofi AyniH, nojiHoft HaAesAi> H sas- 
Aymefi cqacTBa. Ona CRaaaja OrpeneroBy CBOft aApecB, npnfiaBHBi, 
qxo no BOCRpeceHBaiTB Be^epoifi ÓBiBaen CBOÓOAHa. 

n OrpeneTOBi nopuBHcro 6jiaro;iapHJi%, tohho eHy CA^JiajiH ne- 
jiiTia&myK) ycayry. 

PjiaBa II. 

— A a-TO BacB Bes^i nmy, PaMMa MHxaftjOBHa! — cobcšm-s 
neoaiBAAHHO pas^ajiHCB orojio hhxx sByRH MarRaro, H'laiHaro tiapH* 
TOHa, H B£icoRÍfi, HJiOTHEifi, npeACTaBBTejibHBifi Focno^HHi JL^vh sa 
TpamaTb, rjiaARÍ&9 ?hctii& h CBtoifi, RaRi h ÓesyRopasHeHHufi ero 
jribTHÍ& ROCTH)Bíx, ^ípysecRH npoTariiBaji-B A^ByraKÍ pyRy. 

Ohi Me-uBROiTB BsrjiaByjíi Ha oromeíraaro mojioaofo ^leJOB^Ra 
H npoAOJisajii: 

— íyTB Cbtjio, ÓJiaro^apa HSBOsqHRy, ne onos^tajTB. OTBpaxír- 
lejBHO Besi. Aa RaRi »e bu nonpaBHJiHCB, PaHHa MHxaftjiOBea! 
OoBCŽMi paci^BÍJiH, npaBo! RyMucB oa&HBiiJii BacB! — roBopmii oh*b 
rbwb me MarRBMi, jiacROBUMi tohobtb, BrjiaAUBaacB cb yj£i6Roft 
vb Jinup AiByoiRH H THXO BHnycRaa ea B3;i;parHBaBniyK) pyRy. — Aa- 
Baftxe-Ra Bama aoch^xh! — H owh npeHajii vidi> pyRi Phmmbi Mh- 
xaftjiOBHH caRi-Boaa&T. h sohxhr-b. — ^eMOjaHx oahhi? A RaROfi, 6pa- 
xeiíB, y Te6a HyMepi? — oCpaxHJica ohi r-b HOCHJiBn^HRy. — JíeBaxHafl- 
i](axufi? Otjih^ho! Hy, RaRi bu npoBOAHJiH BpeMa bi cxenH? 3y6* 
pHJiH H xaiTB? — npoAOjatajix ohi, mcrobo yjiii6aacB. — A B']&Hei^Raa 
He Mor^a npi^xaxB. S. noRasBiBajii efi BMopa Bamy xejierpaMMy. 
CeroxHa y hetxi vb 6ojibhhi;'6 onepai^ia, h ona, pasyiftexca, ne Horjia 
jiHHiHXB ce6a xaRoro y^OBOJiBCXBia. 

IlepByK) MHHyxy PHMiia Mexa&iOBHa, RasaiooB, ne cjuxajia, 
^x6 efi roBopaxi, o qeiTB cnpaniHBaioxi. CMyn^eHHaa, rjiaA'i^a oea 
Ha dxoro rocnoAHHa AOJirHirB, HeoxpuBaiontiiMca B3rjíaA0ifB, h apRaa 



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OEPBUE mAra. 93 

vpacBa THxo s&anBaaa ea mesH^ a 6ojibinie rjiasa saropaJiHCs ÓJie- 
CROiťB c^acrifl. 

CMyn^enie AJiiujioch hšckojibeo ceKyHAX. Ona BjípypB BaKt-TO 
BCfl ymjia wh ce6fl, orsejia nasa h nocn^mHJia OTir&qaTB aa bo- 
upocu. 

^Ofla HyBCTByerb ce6fl ouih^ho, FyiiiiCB ee nonpaBHJix; pa6o- 
Taja HajiOy ÓojiBine iHTajia'' , — roBopHja PHMMa MaxafijiOBHa, uobh- 
AHMOMy, cnoBofiHO, HO rA'6-TO AftJieRO bi* rpyAH Aposajia HOTBa, 
o6jiHHaBniafl xynieBHoe BOJineHÍe. 

CrpeneroBi, croflBinifi bi cropOH^, 6]jj['b HeBOJibHUM'B CB0A'lTe- 
jeiTB nepBaro MOMeHra srofi bctp^hh, h ero nopasBjra nepeM^Ha, 
npoHCineAinafl ci PhmmoK MHxafijiOBHofi. TaROH) ohi ee ne BHAajnb* 
Oea TOHHO npeoÓpasHjiacB: noMOjiOA'&na, noxopom&ia, ojRHBHjacB. 
n TOJBRO TenepB, bi nepBuft paax, eami liOJOAOfi HeJiOB^Ri sa- 
M^BJii, ?T0 ero AoposHafl cnyxHBi^a oneHB HeAypaa co(k)fi n BOBce 
Be crapafl A'6Ba, RaRi oea ce6a HaauBajia h RaROH) cnepBa Rasa* 
jacB CrpeneroBy. 

„Oea nojiosHxejBHO RpacBBa!'' — MucieHHO noBiopajii mojioaoS 

HeJI0BÍ^R'B, JlIDÓyflCB PhMMO& MHXafilOBHOfi. 

EMy Aase crajo oÓhaho, hto dioxi ^JiaroyxafonUfi, npeAcra- 

BHTeJBHUft ÓJOHAHUl, C^ CB^IJIO-pyCOft BUXOJieHHOfi 6opOAOfi H TO- 

jiy6£iMH rjiasaMB, noBHAHMOMy, ne raRir 6hijn> oÓpaAOBaei BCip^nefi, 
RaR'B o6paAOBaHa ÓBiJia PHMMa MHxafijiOBHa. EMy RasajocB, hto bo 
BsrjflA^ 6aoHAHHa, mafrom^b h jiacROBOMi, cobcími ho úujio loro 
Tpenera paAOciflaro CHacTBfl, ROxopBifi oxBaiHjcB Bce cy^eciBO a^* 
ByioBH FB nepBufi MOMeerB CBHAaHÚi. 

„H Ha HBBOSHHRa asajiOBajicfl. H HyMepi ne safiuji^ cnpocHXB 
y H0CHJiBn],HRa! KaROĚ aRRyparaHĚl** — noHCMy-TO BcnoMHH^iTb Cxpe- 
neroBi h CA&iajii MBicJiennyH) oi^:bHRy, AaJieRO ne ÓJLaronpiflTHyH) 
AJifl (SjOHAHBa, ciapaflCB HaA&iHTB ero bc^mh orpm^aTejiBHiiMH Ra- 
HecTBaMH. 

„TaR^B BOTB ROMy nocujiajia osa lejierpaMMy n Roro TaR^B 
sAaia! A oh^b nyTB ne onosAajii!'' — noAyMajTB mojoaoB HejiOBÍR'B, 
o6BseHHu& sa A^BymRy h nojioaiHTejiBHO ne BdJiK)6HBinifi RpacHBaro 

(ílOHAHHa. 

Ohi oóepnyjicfl, ntoóu emfi pasi BsrjiflHyTB na hbxi. Ho nx'B 
yse He 6ujio. 

„^yAHafl A^BymRa!^ — BOcropseHHO upomenrajii MOJOAOfi ne^o- 
BtsB, ^yBCTByfl ce6fl Teneps en^e 6ojňe oahhorhmx cpeAH myMHoft 
TOJHH,— H sanHcaJi^B efl aApeci bb cbok) sanHCByio RHHSRy. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



94 B«CTHHBl BBPOnH. 



rjtasa m. 



— BaMi Tpeóyercfl KOMHaia, rocnoAUHi? 

Ob 8THMU CJOBEAdH, npOB3HeCeHHUMB nOHTH IHOnOTOlfB, Rl Cxpe- 

neroBy oÓparajiCA HEseHBRÍfi, 6^o6pucu[tt crapaTORi bi ji^THefi 
Ro.30MflHROBofi nap^, npBRjiaj^uBaji ABa najibi^a r% EosupERy ýy- 
pasRH, Ha OROJiumi ROTopoii RpacoBaJiacb iftAHaa 6jiflxa cb eax- 

DHCBK): „MefijIHpOBaHHiJfl ROMHaTBl". 

Ob TaHHCTBeHHUM^ BHAOMl, CIOBHO COÓHpajiCB coo6n^HTb He* 

o(5BiRHOBeHHO BassHufi ceRpeTi, 9T0TB crapHqoRi, HanoMBHaBmiĚ 
r^aARO BuÓpuTBiMi nTH^BHMi jiHi^OM^ H Bceft CBoefi noBa^Roft npeai- 
Hflro ABopoBaro, BBiApecepoBaHHaro croJHi^eft, npoAOJisa.ii rbiťB 

se R0H4)HAeHI^ÍaJIBHBIM'B TOHOMi: 

— Mory OTpeROMeHAOBaTB BaiTB, rocno^HHi, y ceósi npeoxJiHq- 
Hufi HOMepoRi... CaMi» xosflHHi... IIpHXOsy caHOJiHqHO Bcrp^qaTB 
nyremecTBeHHBROB^B.. HnarB HnRHTHq-B JlyRa^eBi! — OTpeROMeHAO- 
Bajcfl OHI, CHOBa npHRjiaAUBaflCB noA'B RosupeR^ b orjiflAUBaii najieHB- 
RHMH H)pRHMH FJiaBRaMH H caMOFO CxpeueTOBa, n py?HO& ero 6a- 
rasRí, cb BEAOWb onBiTHaro i^tHEiTejia h jno^eK, h vixt> uMyn^ecTBa. 

H, HO AoaRHAaflCB cooacifl; oh'b yse npoTarHBajix pyRy sa qe- 

MOAaHOMl. 

— A FA* BamH HyMepa? 

— MoH HyMepa? — nepecnpocHJi oh^ tohomx yAHBjíeHia, qro 
He snaiOT^ ero noMepOBi.— PyRofl noAaxB, na JÍHroBRi, 6jih3b Hes- 
CRaro... He bsbojihto 3HaTB-CB? Bi nepBBifi pa3x nocibn^aeTe Hamy 

CTO-SHIíy? 

— Bi nepBufi. 

Btotl otb^tb npoHBBejTB, noBHA^MOMy, Ha rocnoAHHa JlyRa^eBa 
BecBMa npiflTHoe BneqaTjinie, h ohi cb (55jBninirB 02RHBj[eHÍeM'B 
npoAO.isajii: 

— TaRTb AOJOKy Banx, rocnoAUHi,, moh HyMepa, ttoÓi ne co- 
BpaTB, 8TaR'B Hiaraxi bo cra otb BORsajia, ce&qacB sa MOCTOM'b. 
HsBOBHHRi — H Bi> RapMaH^-CB! A Mtox) xoporaee, ÓoflRoe mícto... 
HeBCRÍfi — HJiiOHyTB! KoHRH — RyAa yroAHOCB!.. HoaMuiyfiTe homo- 
AanqQR^B? 

— y Bací, ÓBiTB MO»erB, Aoporie nyMepa, a mh* 6u hoao- 
poryH) ROMHary! — Bce en^e ne pimajica CípeneroBi, nanyranHut 
pascRasaMH o AoporoBHaH*]^ b^b ctojhi^í. 

— SanÍMi AoporyK)!.. ^oporaxi nyMepoBi, npHSHaTBCfl, rocno- 
AHHa, fl H ne A^P^y^ no hphhhhí, hto moc rapHH, npjiMO CRa- 
^TB, ccMefiHoe, Ďoji^&e jkAsi CRpoMHaro h oópasoBaHHaro nyreme- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



DEPBUE nurn. 95 

CTBeHHHBa, a ne to ?to6u a-ih RaRHXi-HHÓyAB RanHTajiHcroBi .. 
CeMBAecjirB-uflTb Bontesx bi> cyTBH, c% canoBapoirB, a esuejia no- 
irfecflqHO, Tasí OHeoB A^^e cxoaho cofiAeMca... IIpenpiflTHuft ecri 
7 MeHfl AJiA BacB HyMepoB'B, rocnoAHHi! 

H, BSflBi H3i pyBí CTpeneTOBa ^eMOAan^, HnarB H(IRHT(lq^ 

npeAJIOSRJIl HATH. 

— A Óaraat? Y Měna eme cyHAysi ecxb! 

— EcTb? — npiaTHO yAHBHJica crapHKt.— A a, HssHHHTe, no- 
jarajTB .. MHorie nyremecTBeHHiiRH, cayqaiOTai, npHÓtiBaiOTi h 6e3i 
OHEro, Ha ďerBt*CB:.. Barasi nocji^ cji'&AyerB... Ho ecjra OAHOBpe- 
MeHHO, TO OHo Aaso H jiyHme-ci. DosaJiyfiTe rbhtóki... JIoahhmi 

VOMeHTOMl... TyTB y moha EOCSUÍbmflKl* eCTB SHaROMUft, TaRl OHI 

Haní 3a oojiTHHy RaROfi yroAHO cyHAyR'B CBOJOReTi! — TaHHCTBeHHO 
roBopHJii^ HnarB HaRHTHqi. — A H3B03qHR'B Mem>me pyÓJifl HeB03b* 
uevh. Sa^cb HapoAi! PaAu o(5oJiBaHHTB npi^^ssaro ^eJiOB^Ra! — ne- 
roAyion^HMi tohomi npHÓaBHJTB CTapBR'B, coofipaacafl, hto noTBep- 
TaR-B oeraneTCfl vb Rapnant. — V HaCT bx HerepCyprife, rocnoAHHi, 
eaAO oqeHB cx pascyAROMi! 

depeši H^CROJibRO MBHyTi HnarB HHRHTiiqi Bepnyjicfl bi co* 
npoBOSAeHÍH HOCBjbniBRa, b ohb BrpoeMx BumjiH cb BORsaja. 

HerepfiyprB Bcrptieji HOBaro CBoero rocra npHB^TJHBO: flpKHirB 
cojfleqHiiMi asrycTOBCRBifB yTpoMi*. Ono Bece.10 CBepRajo na Rynoji-b 
3HaMeHB:i, hcrphjiocb bi ORHax'B, oÓJHsajio fiiecROMx nj[on^aAb, 
0SHB.ieHHyK> pa3'B'b3A0Mi dRHnasefi, ABHa&enieMX rohori h TOJinoft 
MyauiROBi H 6a6i, npHfiuBniHxi cb qo^aoni, h cjiobho OTBib^aio 
<ÍOApoMy paAOCTHOMy Haerpoeniio, oxBaTHBmeMy mojoaofo qeJiOBiRa 

npH BflA^ CŤOJIHI^BI. 

MesAy i^^^Mi jnoÓonbiTHiifi HnaTi Hhrhthhx pascnpamHBajrB 
GrpeneTOBa: na AOJiro jih ohi> npi']bxaji'B, A^a yqemB hjih TaRi, no 
CBOiBWb A'i^&M'B, H ROFAa ysHajix, ^TO MOJiOAofi qejTOB^Ri npi%xa:rB 
HCRaTb iť^cra, to sairiTHJii: 

— MoH Hyícepa, rocnOAHH'B, HacqerB M'kn'ÓBT» cqacTJiHBue... 
HeAEBHO en^e oahhx naiopi hsx CMOJieHCRa o^chb OAOÓpflJii: acHJH, 

rOBOpHTB, Wb rOCTHHHHI^'6, H BCO HO BbIXOAHJIO wbCTAy a 0TB BBCB, 

FOBOpHTi, cpasy BimiJio... TpeTBaro ahb tojibro vb TamReHTi 
ytxaii... A caMH, rocnoABHi, HSAajieRa? 

— H3^ CaMapbi. 

— CpoACTBeHHHRH 8AÍCB? — AonpamHBajii HnarB HnRHTHqi. 

— TcTRa ecTB... 

— 9to xopomo, esejiH TereHiRa, — Bce poAnaa RpoBB, ne oahh 
Óy^exe. A to Apyrofi npiiAerB, h RaRi nepcTB... CMOTpHmB, otb 
CKyRH H yxa^erB AOHBrH no TpaRTHpaifx Aa no TeaTpani... 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



96 BftCTHBBX EBPOnU. 

Ohh nepemjiH moctb nepesi JbroBRy h, cbopotabi eslaíbo no 
Ha6epeacHoft, CKopo npHiiLiH kl HeÓoiBmoBfy, noROCHBmeMfCfl AByxi- 
dTdSHOMy AepeBflHHOMy AOHy, KasaBmcHycA coBcbwb MajieHBRHM'B a 
MHsepHUMii uesLAj AByMfli CAaBHBmHMH ero, BpacHBEiifn AonaMH-Be- 
jiHBaHaMn. 

— Cro^a-CB! 

KorAa, noAHflBniHCB aa iLion^aARy Bioporo dTaaut; CxpeneiOB^, 
Bca']^A'B sa HnaTOifB HHBHTHqein», Bomejii bi nsMtisraHHUfl AsepE 
H oqyiHJicfl vb ysROMí, nojiyTeMHOiii Roppa^opi, ero cpasy o^AaJio 
rbwb TflaKejuifB, npoRHCJiiiMi sanaxoMi, ROTopuí cocraBjíflerB cne- 
iV3(|)HqecRyK> oco(5eHHOCTB Aemesuxi MefijrapoBaHHuxi* ROMnarB. 

— O^HaRO, bohb! — saiiiTHJix mojo^oř ^ejiOBiRi, ocraHaBJín- 

BaflCB 61 HepŠniHTeJIBHOCTH. 

— He HBBOJiBTe fiesnoROHTBca, rocno^HH-B... 3to cb yjai^H Óy^TO 
OBasBiBaeTB, a to y HacB BOSAyxi BOJiBHufi! — ycnoROHBajTB cTapiiR'^ 
n uoeuíkmujrh Bsecrn nofiícaHHaro SHJBi^a Kb o^Hy h3% ROMHars, 

Bl ROBI]^Í ROppHAOpa. 

— He npaB^a jh, BecejieaBRift nyMepoRx, rocno^HHi? — ne Cea^B 
TopjRecTeeHHOCTH BOCRJiHRHyji^ HnarB Hbrhth?'b, CMaxHBafl no nyra 

TOJCTUfi CSOfi nUJlE CB RpHBOHOrarO CTOJa H OTBOpflfl ORHO. 

„BeceieHBRÍfi nyMepoRi'' ORasaica Rpome^nofi, rpasnofi rok- 
HaTott BT> OAHO ORHO, BuxoAflii^ee Ha ABopi, CB pasHORajiHÓepHoft, 
auuRoň MeÓejBK), nonaBmefi do^a, o^esHAHO, hbi anpaRCHHCRHX^b 
Tpy^^o6'B. 

Ha CrpeneioBa, HURorAa ho SHBaBmaro b'b Me6;[HpoBaHHHx*E 
ROMHaiaxi H npHBURmaro r'b ceMefcaoMy yioxy, 9Ta Mpainaa, sa- 
TXJiafl BOHypa npousBeja HeÓjraronpiflTHoe Bne^aiJiime. 3aMÍTHBX 
BTO, rocnoAHHi JyRaneBi npeAJOSHJx Apyryro KOMnaiy — ^nacroa- 
n^ifi cajOH^B'', 3a ROTopyio HHRaRx nejiBdfl bsatb MeHBme pyÓJia b-b 
cyTRH, HO CxpeneTOBii otrjiohhjii npoAJioxceHie. 

MeasAy T^Mi HnarB Hhbhthhi* bhaamo sejiaJTB npEJiy^HTS 
SHjBi^a, crapaacB onapoBaiB ero CBoeK npeAynpeAHTeJiBHOCTbH). Oh^ 
noMOPB HOCHJiBmHRy BHecTH „cyHAy^ORT*", HOAaji-B cobíti, RyAa »npH- 
jrHHH-J^e^ ero nocraBHTB, sar^flHyjii, ecxB jih b'b pyROMOfiHHR']^ BOAa, 
noxjonajii pyRofi no cÓHTOMy vb Ó^nwb xioj^flRy, nporoBopHBx: 
„qecTBift bojoct!" — opeA-JoaHJi-B pacnopflAHTBca nac^erB íaro hjh 
RO(|)e H RcraTH nopeROMeHAOBajii* cboh oóša^* 

— 3a TpHAi^aTB KonšeR^ y Měna o&b^b hbi Tpexi 6jíh)a^, h 
no coB^j^CTH Mory CRaBaxB, qro npoBHsia y Měna qecTHafl, ne to hto 
wb BjííkmEiiix% TpaRTBpax'B, vxb CAepyTB cb BaCL a^hbih h noAa- 
AyrB BaMi, cb nosBOJieHifl CRasaiB, AOXJiyio Roumy noA'B coycoirB 
TOMÍirB. A y MeHfl h%tb saBCAema, ttoÓu oÓnaHUBaTB ^ejiOBŠRa. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nSPBUE IPATH, 97 

a, cyxapB, JuoÍJiH) he necTB... KoMera — xaEi EorjieTa! H np^ico 
ocM^ÁiocB AOJOSHTB BaMi: MHoro Bu A^HerB coxpaHHTe Bi BameifB 
nopTy^^ejr&, ecflH Hafinexe ROiraaTy noiťicfl^HO m co CTaiOH'B. E 6u 
xemeBO Bam ycrynHJTB... 

— jtY&hAmesbuOy co6aBa^ 76šaht&ibhó noen!*" — paBjíajica 
BApyPB Hsi-sa coc^AHeft ABepH neft-TO CHuznifi, nbflHufi roioci, co- 
npoBOSAaeMufi sapasHreiBEO BecejiiiirB, pacsaTHCiuirB cm^xomi. 

HiiarB Hhrhthhi 6e3noBofiHO noBeJi'B njie^aMH h, bosbhchfb 
rojocx, npeAiosHJTB CxpeneTOBy cefi^acB se noxaxB caMOBap^HB^B, 
KaKB TOTB se rojocB Hsnb cocij^Heft BOMHaTii iipoxoj([sajrB: 

— ÁThy HnarB, HnarB, npaKTH^ecKÍft 4»hjioco4»'b HnarBl 3aTBHH 
CBofi ^HTaBTB BpacHopl^fl H He BpH BaBi CHBuft MepHHi!.. He- 
c^acrmifi iiyTHHB'B, nonaBinifi bi cík) oÓirreiB, nojinyio RjonaMH, — 
BTO 6u TH HH Óujii, — He BŠpB ero EOT^eraiTB, ecjiH ne xo^eniB 
BMbrh Baxappa sejiyARa!.. AmhhbI 

H cuoBa pas^ajica orjiymFrejiBHiifi xoxotb, sai^Mi saniJienajiH 
Ty^l^iH, H Hepesi minyTy Bce cmojibjio. 

6^ OTB^TB Ha BonpocHxejíBHuft, yjiHÓaionúficfl B3rjíHA'B Orpe- 
neroBa, CHyn^ennuĚ HnarB Hhbhthhi nporoBopHJTB TaHHCTBeHHUMrB 
nionoTOM'B, yBopHSHeHHO BHBafl rojiOBoft: 

— 3an5eMi crpa^aiorB-ci!.. He nsBOJiBTe CMyn^aiBCfl... Ohi 

Vb XPJT0V1> Hyiiepi CTOHTB... C^B HBffHa B^B COC^AHÍfi BaÓpajTCfl; fl 

ABepH-TO Ha BJiiDH'B sanpy. A noAnre, otfpasoBaHHiifi rocnoAHHi, 
Hsi xopomefi 4^aHHjdH, a ao Banoft to^bh, MoasHO CBasaiB, Aomejii... 

Ho TO^BO OHI CMHpHHft, O^eHB CMHpHU& rOCHO^HHl... a TO 6u fl 

He AepsajTBy noroMy y MeHfl, TaB'B csasaTB, rapnfl ceMeftnoe. Fo- 
enoAHHit FajiaHHHi noHTH-Tro HH^ero h ne BymaeitB — BaBaa íjísl 
npH Tasofi HHSBoft ciaÓocTH? eMy 6u cyxapnBi noseBaTB, tojíbbo 
E Bcero, a ohx — Baiappi! A OTBaaaxB — onaiB »e sajiBO. Fo^b y 
Haci sEBen... H fochoaehb-to xopomift; tojíbbo BaBi Ha^Hercay 
Herc dra ÚojrbsEhy Eenpeií^HEO BOJiÍHi(a OTnycBaerB Hac^exi 6yAT0 
BOuerB... DlyTJiHBaro spaBa ^ejOBÍBi. A ne 6yAB y nero 9toS 
caMofi ciaÓocTE, nomjia 6u cobc^icb Apyraa, TaBi CBasaTB, aÓOEE- 
poBBa SH3HH... KaBoe 6u m^cto mopb HOJiyHHTB! OópasoBanie — 
nepBHfi coprB, TOBapEQ(H-TO ero Bce npn ÓojiBnraxi irlcraxi, mho- 
ňe KB renepaJBCBBXi SBanlaxi... H'6BOTop£ie, BOTopue ne rny- 
nnuoTCE, HaB^HiaiOTB Esp^AKa, a oaeh'b njiaTETB sa nero... TaBi 
yxTB BH ne ESBOJiBTe, cyAapB, 6e8noBOHTBCfl... Hosebeto y naci 
Aa nonpofiyfire naniE oC^au, xorAa e ysnaere: BaxappB ejie h^tb. 
OrpeneroBi ofiin^ajii noAynaTB. 

— To-TO HOAynaftTe, a yjBx e BairB, rocnoABHx, e BOMnaTBy 
no6ojiBnie aami, e Me6eJiB nojty^me nocraBJíio, e ecJiE nac^erB qero 

ToMi L-^&EBAn, 1891 7 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



98 B^CTHIOrB EBPOmi. 

lipoqaro, sascer^a Mory cayaHTB! — noA^epBHyji HaarB HHRHTBq'^^ 
noAMHrHBafl rjasROiTB. — JI HerepÓyprB ^OBOJibHO otíih^ho sHaio, vxb 
H KaKi MOJOAOMy qej!OB*Ky nojiyniiTB y^OBOJBcreie, itoÓh Ójaro- 
póAHO H HeAoporo... A 8a'ÁifB, nosBOJiBTe otfesnoROHTB RacaTejiBHO 
Bamero AOsyMeHra... HuHBqe Ha dnovb cnerb Becbifa, mosho esa* 
saTB, TpeÓOBaxejiBHO... 

HojyqHBi nacnopTB h nosejaBx OrpeneroBy npúiTHaro hobo- 
ceJBfl, HnaTB Hhrhthtb ymen, ne coBcbwh yBÍ^peHHuft: noů^bwjrh 
jra owh sHJiBi^a CBOHMi» BpacHop^qieBfB. 

„H HaAO ÓEiJO dTOMy nbflHHi^ no HyMepain» maxaTECfl!^ 



rjiasa IV. 
3anepeB% Asepn nycroro coci^AHflro Hynepa Ha Mioqi, HnarB 

HHKHTHq'B THXO HanpaBHJICfl Bl KyXHH). BomeTB OHI TyAa CJIOBHO 

BpaAyqHCB, GoflsjniBO BsrjrHAUBaa na CTOflBmyio y njETEi, nepejii 
saBHnaBmHMi Bo^^efiHHROirL, cynpyry, BHCORyH), Ae6eJiyK>, necra- 
pyK) en^e xenn^Hny, bt> rpflSHOBaxoBTB CHm^eBOMi Ranoxš, ujotho 
oÓjeraBmeMi ^opMU BHynrareJBHuxi pasM^poBi. Ea piixioe, hs- 
sejiTa-6&[oe jhi^o cb BecHyniRaMH coxpanajio en^e cjvbj,u Óujofi 
RpacoTH. Ona ÓEua, no Rpa&nefi vrkpbf jAtl na HATHa^i^aTB mo- 
jose Mysa n RasajiacB cobcímx BesHRaHmeft nepe^i* MaieHBReirB, 
TH^eAyniHmťB HnaTOirB HHRHTH^eMii. 

— Koro npHBej-B? — OTpuBHcro cnpocHja ona. 

— MojiOAoro rocnoAHHa. Hsi CaMapu Hpi^xairB iricra HCRaTB. 
n c^ Óaraseifi! Ha^o nojiaraTB, SHjiei^i Óy^erB aRRypaTHuft h 
AOJiroBpeMeHHiifi, — npHÓaBHJTB HnarB HHRHTHq'B saAaÓpHBaion^HirB 

rOJIOCROMl. 

— ^OJiroBpeMeHHHfl!? — nepe^pasHEJia ateHa, oÓpaníaacB e-b 
My»y. 

Bi es ÓojiBmflxx rojiyÓEixi, Cb p^rhitb ÓjecROirB^ rjiasax^ 
sacB^THJiocB rjiyóoqafimee npespinie r^ Hnaiy HHRHrnqy. 

— JtojroBpeMeHHBift!? — cnoBa noBxopHja ona. — ŤIpocTOETB 
cyTRH, ía H njQOHeTB bi tbok) noAJiyK) xapio. 

— HHRaRi ne njnonerB, Anna ĚBanoBHa! — ocToposno Bospa- 
BHJTB HnaTB HaRHTHqi, npotfnpajiCB ri ORny: — owh nepBuft pasi 
BTb nerepóypri n Boofín^e... 

— ÍTÍ) BOo6me? — onaTB nepe^pasmijia cynpyra, nepeÓHBas 
p*qB. — Hy, qero th MaseniB cbohitb asBiRoirB? 

— UpocTOBaTuft, AOJisHO 6htb, rocnoAHffB. Bi po;í4 Cyj^ro 
nHsona. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HEPBUE mArH. 99 

— Th-to y Hacx coboji! Axx, BaBoft cokojtb, nocMorpare, 
nosajyficra! — BOCSJHBHyja ÁHHa HeaHOBHa, 6pocafl na Myisa yHHqro- 
saion^iĚ BsrjiflA'^* — Ty^a se, Basi^ jtíoah, Bs^ynajii sasecTH rapHH, 
A cryjia i^iiaro hhta* hšti, aesA* o^na nepsocTB. KaKoft AypaK^ 
CTanen. »htb bx TaKHX'B TpymoÓaxx! — npoAOJrataja ona Ch nocxe- 
neHHO saBHnaBinefi sjoctbh), noAroTOBjflflCB, noBH^HMOMy, bi ^aiB- 
HÍfimHM*B, 6oji']&e cepBesHUBfb, c^exaMi. 

HnarB Hhbhthhi cb BHHOBaTBiifB bh^omi ctosji^ y ORHa, ro- 
^TOBufi BEicjiymaťB hotobh ÓpaHH^ jihdib 6u tojbbo ÁHHa HBaHOBHa 
He Aomjia fb CBoeirB vb^b^ ao ;BejiaHÍfl sa^aTB HnaTy HuRHTH^y 
BcrpCiiKy. 

OffB npHBUBi Bi noAOÓHUMii ci^eHaiTB. Oa*! noBiopajiHCB noHTH 
BasAEift ABHB, uocjrk BOBBpan^eHífl ci BOBsaira, oco6eHHO ecJiH HnarB 
Hhbetthtb B03Bpaii;aiai ÓedB nyxemecTBeHHHBa, He ycoi^Bnia sana- 

HHTB BOrO*HH6yAB CBOHBťB BpaCBOp%HÍeM'B, CHJia BOTOparO Bl 3Ha- 

^HTejBHoft M^pt noAorpÍBajiacb crpaxoMi nepeA'B cynpyrofi. 

OÓHBHOBeHHO, HnaTB Hhbhthhi He tojbbo BtiCJiyraHBaJiB ynpeRH 
5paHB, HO H nepeBOCHJi^ óojvke BpasyMHxeJiBHiifl BBymenifl CBoefi 
:aHeprH?HOfi cynpyrH co cT0Hn;H3M0M'B ^HJiocoj^a, b^ no?TirrejibHOM'B 
vojiHaBÍH, npiy^eHHufi bx HaHep:6 obpan^eHÍfl Ahbu HBáHOBHu 
?yTB JH He Ch nepBux'B ^é AHefi MOAOBaro M%cfln;a. ďLeHaT'B 6ujs% 
Hnairb Hhbhth^i Bcero jítl naiB, h xoxa ohx ateHHJca b^ no- 
SH.iuxx jitiaxi, HO — HaAO opasky csasaTB — BpaSne jerBOMHCJieHHO, 
yBJe^BHHuft pocBomHUMH 4>opMaM0 5uBnie& bjio^hhi^ii oahofo BeT- 
xaro aAMHpaja h ne npnHflBi bx coo5pax3HÍe ApyrHX'B ea Ba?ecTB'B. 

Canaa axoBBTaa h oxóopHaa 6paHb cunajiacB na rojiOBy Hnaia 
HHBHTHHa, a rn^Bi Ahhei HBaHOBHu Bce en^e ne HCTon^asca, h 
HnarB Hhbhthtb yse roTOBHjica bi pa3p'finiaK)n^eMy aBBop^y, b'b 
BHA'& (f^HHajBHofi BCTpenBH, BaBi Ha Hoport ByXHH noaBHjiacB MO* 
jiOAaa A'6BymBa, xopomeHBBaa 6jiOHAHHBa (tb c^puHH 6o&bhmh rjias- 
BaKH H BSAepnyTUM^ hochbom^, npnAftBaBniHM'B ea CBŠseMy jH^HBy 
aaAopnoe Biipasenie. 

— MaMCHBBa! Bu onaiB na bck) EBapiapy CBaHAaaHTe! — npo- 
FOBopiua c% ynpeBOMT. AÍByraBa. 

IIpH dByBaxi BToro CB-lsaro, 3BOHBaro rojocBa Anna HBaHOBHa 
sricBOJiBBO cifyTHJiacB H TOTHaci me noHH3Hja xonib, a HnarB Hh- 
XHTH^i* ÓJiaroAapHUMi BsrjiaAOMi moTpÍjn> na cboh) cnacHxejiBHHi^y. 

— Hahtb, HnaTB Hhbhth^^b, wl BOMHaiy. S. BaiTB ceftTOCi 
npHHecy Boj^e. Bijifi bbi Cb yxpa HHnero ne hhjihI — npoAOJisBajia 
A'&ByniRa. 

HaarB Hbbhthmi, pasynieTca, ne sacTaBHJii ce6a sa^tb. IIoa^b 
oxpaHofi naA^epai^u ohi xoponjiHBO Bumejii m-b ByxHH wb bom- 

7* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



] 00 BftOTHHBX EBPOUH. 

Haxy, saHHMaeMyK) cynpyroft h es, xoHKofi, h, npioTBopHBi ABepa^ 
cjiiimaj!i'B, BaRi A'&ByinRa ynpesajia MaiB sa ea oCpan^eme ci Hna* 

TOMl HHEHTH^eMl. 

— A eme ^y»aa! — noBTopaJX pacrporanHHft crapHM, y^HB- 
jiflflCb B^ TO 2Be BpeMfly hto ea cbít£ ecrs jik>ah, EOTopue ne 
ÓOflTCfl Ahhu nBaHOBHU H MoryTB efi npoTHBop^qHTB. 



TjiaBa V. 

OrpeneroBi pinraji ae xepflTB sojiotofo BpeifeHH h bi^ toti^ 
se A6HB pasBesm nHCBua. Ohi buejjii hsi 6yMaasHHRa h 6epesHO> 
paaiosHJii Ha ctojiš dXH nHCBHa, otb EOTopuxi saBHc^a ero cy^B^a^ 
H cnHcajTB FB sanncHyio ehesej aApecu. I]J'&i£ix'b hatb DHceiťB k 
Bi HBXi HflTB OTjnrauxi peEOMeHAai^ifi! H Bce ei Óojíie hjih ne* 
ffle BjiflTejiBHEurB jiBi^airB! Ero npeBOCxoAHiejiBCTBy HHBOJiaK) Iler- 
poBH^y ÍHpKOBy... Ero npeBOCxoAHTejiBCTBy Ba^HMy KEpoen^y He- 
ycTpoeBy... Ero bhcoropoaíh) AnaTOJiiH) BHETopoBH^y KnpBJiEOBy.., 
Ero BHCOKo6jiaropoAÍH) BpHcry Bor^anoBH^y ^OHi-rpHHCeR-B.-. 

TOJIBEO BOTB dTOTX MaJieHBSifi EOHBepTB, (fesi BCflEEXl TnTyJOBTL^ 

Cb HaAHHCBK): „HBany HnEOJiaeBHqy IIopy^HeBy*, — a^pecoBani co- 
Bcbwb He BjiíflTejiBHOMy JHi^y — jiHrepaiopy. Ho vbjí,h h sHaBOMCTBO 
jiHTepaTopoMi Toate ^ero-HH6yAB ab, ct5htb!.. 

9th peEOMeHAaTejBHUfl nHCBiia Aocrajia ot^ pasnux^B sHaEO- 
mATb MaiB CxpeneroBa, cnapasafl CBoero JiioCHMi^a b^ nerepÓyprB. 
Ci HHCBMaMH Bce »e jyHme! Tojibeo íepROBy, fiuBmeMy TOBapeníy 
H npiflTeJK) noEofiHaro ea nysa, ona Hanncajia cana. 

^a H ne b^ oahhxi tojibeo sthxx nHCBMax'B bBasuBajacB sa- 
60TJIHBOCTB H&sHofi MaTepn! 

Korxa MOJiOAofi ^eJiOBŽEi, nacRopo nanuBmHCB ^M), crajii pas- 
ÓHpaxB cyHAyEi, ttoÓh ^ocraTB noByio ^pa^nyio napy, cniHTyio- 
jiy^mHMi caifapcEHMx nopTHUMx, dra saCoTJiBBOCTB h jioÓobb tobo- 
pHJiH o ceó*! Eaa^Aofi aEEypaTHO cjiosennofi BeniBio, EasAHMi Ma- 

JOHBEHMX ClOpnpHSOMl, npHrOTOBJeHHlIH'B CUHy. 

n BEiniBTUfl nojioTeHi](a, h &kjibe Cb EpynHEiMH M'lTEaHH, 
H Ty^JiH, H iiaJieHBEifi 6K)BapB ci no^TOBofi 6yMarofi h EOHBep- 
TaHH, OAHHMi CdiOBOMi, HOHTH Eas^uft npeAMexx, Eas^afl (íe3A'&iisa 
HanoMHHajiH CTpeneTOBy patíoTy nšanoft jioCameft pysii h Tpora- 
TeJBHyio, HHCTO atencEyio, npeAycMOTpHTeJBHOCTB. 

Otb BCÍTh BTHX-B Bcn^efl, npioÓpÍTaBniHxi TenepB, bi paanyB-b^ 
oco6eHHoe SHaneHle h npejiecTB, na nero naxnýjio cJiaBHiiirB sana- 
xoMi^ poAHoro FH^Aft) CBHTaro sencEoft pyEofi. HeBOJBHO npeno- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nEPBins mirH. 101 

jraHJCfl H TOTT» naMJiTHii& HeA&BHÍĚ Beiepx, HaBaHyH'^ orviQjífiL^ 
sor^a MaTb, orohhbbi nos^BO yóopsy cyn^yKa, rpycTHaa h npe- 
^Hxmafl, co cÓHBDDiHMCfl Ha 6os'B Heni^oMx, oÓHasHBniHMi efl pano 
noetA'&B]ine bojocei, npnc&ia ei paCTBopeneoMy OEsy h jsflAVEWb 
wbwiEuwb mTJigjí,ouT> TJLíijsíbjíB, Ha cfiiHa. H3i MaJieHBRaro ca^HRa 
TaHyjo j^yniHCTUMi apoMaiOMi h sbíbau saropajHCB vh neói. 06a 

OHH CHA&IH MOJIHa, He HaXOAfl CIOFB, CTapaflCb CRpEITB APyri 0Tb 

j^pyra tafoctb paaiyBH. HaBOHei^'B, ona ne Ba^epsaia. G-h nopu- 
BHCTofi crpacTHOCTbK) HpHiEUuia OHa ByApflByH) roJOBy CEina bi CBoefi 
rpy^B; HOJi^a noRpnBaa ee noi^yflMH h cieBaMH. 

Ona crapajiacB yjiaÓaTBCfl, rjiOTafl cjesu, Bor^a, OTopsaBniHCB 
OTb cuna, nporoBopHJia: 

— Tefii nojiesHO, IlaBJíHR^B, noaniB o^HOMy, a to bí^b th 
Bce 6ujn> obojio Mens. Hh pasy mei n To6oft ne paasyHaiHCB. 

IIOXHBB-Ba, pOAHOfi, 6681 CBOefi HaiiyHH. 

— OoflTB BM-ficT* 6yAeBrB, MaMama. JÍ^Sl tojbko nojiyqnrB míctoI 
Bi OTBŠTB ona yjiii6HyjiacB CBoefi xBXOfi, EpoTBofi yjiaÓRofi, 

ocB^THBine& es 6jrlAHoe, 6oj[BHoe jisr^o ^apytoii^uri BupaseHÍeirB 
XO($poTu, B CRasaja: . 

— npe»;íe cani ycrpoflca, Moft MBjraft, a TaMx*^Tl) Bon 
jtacTB. A, Bnpo^eMi, yB^pena, ^to th CRopo nojiyHHniB wbcio. 
IlHCBMa noMoryTB. BojBme Bcero b Ha^^iocB na ^HpROBa. Ohi 
jěk>6eai> TBoero on^a b npesAe 6£iji'b nopflAO^HuifB HOJOB^ROifB. 
£cJH CJiys6a ne sacymBJía ero, ohb B^pno npBMen ynacTÍe. H y 
BajieHTBHu MapROBHH no6£iBafi. npBsnaTBca, ne npaBHTCfl ona mhI: 
€MHmKOMi> saHBMaercfl co6ofi b cbobm^ 6oraTCTBOirB— ny, jifi, pa36B* 
paTB neqero. H, naRonei^i, ne RjraHBTBCfl se tbi noft^eniB. Bnpo* 
^eHi, yBHABmB, RaRX npBMerB ABOiopOAnas TexRa, b, pa3yM'£eTCB^ 
BTopofi pa3i ne nofl^eniB, eciB npieMx 6yAeTB cyxofl! — rop;ío npB- 
daBHJia OrpeneroBa. 

— HaA^iocBl— yjiH6Hyjica chhi. 

Ofla nosaja pyRy cuna. IIotom^b, nocjrl MHHyTHaro MOJi^aHÚi, 
wroBopoxa ApornyBniBMi otb BOJiHeflÍB rojiocoM'B: 

— Cobítob^ mbš He^ero Te64 ^aBaiB. Th cjiaBnaft b necTBuft 
vjOB^Ri H HBRorAa ne c^tjiaeniL HB^ero xypHoro. fí. sflaio Te6fl. 
Ho oťJi o^HOiťB fl Te6a nonporay... Tu ne cepABCB tojibro, roJiy6- 

naBJíBRi RpInRO noi^&iOBajix pyRy MaxepB b jiacROBO ycmšx- 

EJJICSÍ. 

H dTa ycMŠmRa, b btotb H^Huft noi^'&/iyfi, RasajiocB, tobopbjb: 
JPasBi na Te6fl mosho cepABTbCB?' 
H 3aT^Mi cnpocB^x: 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



^02 raCTHHKl EBPOim. 

— o leiTB TU (JesnoROHmBCfl^ Mana? 

— By^B ocTopomeHi, po^HOŘ MOft, bi .'IleTepíJyprife. Ocrepe- 
raficfl SHaEOHCTBx. Tu bíab snaemb, KaEÍfl HHHBHe speMena?.. Hsi* 
sa cjEy^a&Hoft Bcrp^^H, Hsi-sa RaEoft-HHÓyxB EHHrn mosho 6e3- 
i^^jBHO norH^HyTB. Eepeni ce6fl... no6eperH iieHfl. ^afi ueí ciOBof 

MojioAOfi ^eJOB^sx ycnoEOHJTB ee. Easercfl, oh'b ne no^aBajTS 
noBOAa A^fl TaRHxi onacemĚ. Ohh o&b drom ne pasi roBopHJiH. 
Ona vkAh sHaerB, hto ohi ae smerB 6ypB; ohi jnoómrh irapi w 
THmBHy. H, HaBOHei^, passi ohi ne noMHVTB, ^to ea aeiTB je- 
atarB otiflsaHHOCTH? PasB^ ee ero aíjio xenepB paCoiaTB, qroGu 
HaTB, OTAaBmafl bch) cboh) shshb eny h cecrpairB, Morjia, HaBOHei^rb^ 
OTAOXHyTB OTB 3a6oTB? JI,0B0JBH0 eft 6%raTB no ypoKaiTB. H fiesrs 
Toro ona Ha^opsajia sAopoBBe. 

Tasí roBopejii BSBOJHOBaHeiifi cawh. H c^acTJiHBafl, rop^aa 
CiiHOiTB MaTB yTHpaia HaBepTUBaBiniflCfl ciesu. 



OrpeneroBi juoÓbat, ubltl ho oCosamfl. Oaa cb paHHflro a^t- 
CTBa 6ujia ero n'bcTyHOM'B, BOcnBTaTejBHHqeft, ApyroirB, on soto- 
páro He 6hjio cesperoBi. Ohx bhpocb orojo iiaTepHHCROĚ vyÚKB, 
DpHBURmifi El jacs'6. npHBBiEmifi jih)6htb 3Ty jfioózj'^. TojiBRa 
H)Home& nOHflji ohi, ^tď CA'&iiaja STa seHI^HHa paAH a'^^} h 
vb BOCTopseHHOfi jih)6bh ero npHCoeABHfljiocB CjiaroroB^finoe yBa- 
senie. Ohi cneraji ce6fl e» HeonjiaTHiuťB AOJiSHHSOirB b SAaJS 
TOJBEO OEOH^aHifl Eypca, mo6u ch^tb cb nefl nenocBJíBHoe ÓpeuB 
AajiBH^fimBxi saÓOTB. 

A BUHecTH eft npBmjocB ne Majio, EorAa, nocjrik CMepTB nysa^ 
OHa ocrajiacB 6es% bcaebxi cpeACTBi, Cb xpeMfl najeHBEBMB a^tbmb. 
Bx 9Ty TaatRyH) nopy OrpeneroBa o^HapyxHja laRyio aHeprÍH), 
EOTopyK), sasajocB, TpyABO 6bijio oasHAaTB otb óiiBmefi BHCTBTyrEB^ 
DpBBBRmefi Ri cooRofiHofi^ o5e3neHeHBOfi sbshb, noA'B RpsuoirE- 
Myxa, saHflTofi a^tbiib Aa nysuRoS, Roropyio osa crpacTHO JHOÓBJía. 

Osa He norepfljacB, ne yna^a AyxoirB noA*^ HeoaRBAaHHuirs 
yAapoifB, a xpa6po npHHfljia 6HTBy sbshh b ne pasAajia A^^ft na 
RaseHHBiirB yneÓHiiirB saBeAeHiairB, RaRi npeAJarajiB poAHue. Bi^ 

OTBÍTB Ha pOACTBeHHIie COfiOJťibSHOBaHifl B COB^TQ, HOA^B MflrRHMH 

ciOBanE ROTopBixi ciuHiajacB 6ofl3HB sa RapMavB, OrpeneroBa 
OTB^^aja, ^TO ne pascraHercB cx a^tbbb b nocrapaercfl caMa 
noAHflTB Hxi, He pascqBTHBafl HB na nv> homoh^b. 

Stotb otbít-b yABBBJí B oCpaAOBaji Óoraruxi poAHuxi ea 
Mysa. 9 CaMa? Ha tto-si naÁ^^ercfl dTa xenn^Bna, TaR^ p'63RO 
OTRjiOHBBniafl npeAiozeme noxjionoTaTB o Kbrsíii>?'' P^tnnuB, ^ro 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



nEPBBíE nuni. 103 

y Hea najio poACTBeHHuxi» ^bctbi», h ^to b^pho oct&ihcb tlocjií 
noBofiHaro AeHBrn — ne Aftpom owh jí,ojivoe speMa 8aHHMaji'B bhahoc 
iriteTO wb IIpoBHH^iE^, na BoropoirL nasHTBCfl Óhjio JierBO, a sa- 
6hjih o Heft E ea a^taxi. 

OrpeneroBa spyro HSM^HHJia shshb. Ona npoAajia bch) npeas- 
HiOH) o^craHOBBy, jioma^eft, SBnnasH, bcí cboh i^HHBifl Ben^H h 
xoporífl luaTBjí, nepeÓpajiacB bi» ab^ naJieHBBifl BouHaTu bi» oahj 

HSl AanHHX'B yJIHI^l Hy K^ H8yiLieHÍK> ^pOBHH^iaJB[BHa^O 6o-HOHAay 

o(S:BflBajia B% irbemoi raserfe, hto A&eri ypoKH iiysuBE, anrjiift- 
CBaro H ýpaHi](y8CKaro asiiBOBib. YpoBH CRopo nanuiHCB h cb Bas- 
AHiťB ro^OMi npeCaBJífljiHCB. PaÓOTajia ona, ne noBsaAaa pyBí, 
yHHJiacB caiia, noBTopsa saftu, ^to6u penempOBaTB cb DaBJíHBOirB, 
TOiBBO-^TO nocxynHBiiiHM^ Bi rHMHa3ÍK)) m saHHMaTBca (TB a'6boh- 
KaifH.. PajiH OTHxi jiioiiHMiixi cyn^ecTBi, MOJOAaa en^e meHn^HHa 

COBCilTB OTBaBaiaCB 0T1> JIHHHOfi SH3HH H ($631 BOJieÓaHÍa OTK^TEJia 

OTBasoifB Ha npe^JioseHÍe, CA^anHoe ^a ro^a cnycra oahhitb 

ÓOraTHlťB HOMibiqHBOlťB, BOTOpufi eft HpaBHJICa. ^l!06u He OTHBMaTB 

OTx A'^Teft Bcefi CEJiu npHBasaHHOCTH, OHa npeAnoHJia shshb ot- 
mejBHHipi, SH3HB, HOJiHyio saÓOTi H jiHmeHÍfi, oCesneHeHHOfi h 
cooBoftHofi SH3HH HOBaro saiiyscTBa, H Hecia fipeiia Tpy^a n 
rop^ejiHBHMi qyBCTBOMi caMOOTBepseHHOft MaTepH. Bca shshb 
npoxoAHJia Blb HasofijHBBixi MejiOHax'B. Pano yTpoM'B npuxoAHJiocB 
ToproBaTBca Ha Casapl, BuraABiBaa BonšftBH, AHeni 6iraTB no ypo- 
saifi, H nosAHÍe Be^epa. Bor^a ji^im cn&iH b'b CBom^i qncTEixi, 
yK)TH£ix'B nocreJBRaxi, npocHsiHBaTB sa ho^heboS 6^Ba hjih eito- 
naHBeiťB ^jiob'b... A xpeBorH bo Bpena Óojtísee Boro-HH6yAB h3'b 
XŽTefi? . BescoHHua hohh, opoBeAeHHua y HSrojiOBBa, h crpaxi 
vh Tepeme AHa, BorAa hphxoahjiocb ocraBJíaTB hxi Ha noneqeHÍe 
HflHH, a caMOfi, CBpuBaa AynieBHyio MyBy, cjrymaTB yneHHqecBÍa 
raMMH? 

Ho Bci dTH 3a6oTu, BC^ dTH Mejio^H SH8HH HO npHrHyjH ea 
vb ÓyAHHHHofi nomjocTH, Aynia ne norep^Jia otsubhhbocth, yiťB — 
cnocoÓHOCTH OTBJíeBaTBca 0Tb sHxeficBofi npo3C[. IIodTHHecBaa CTpynBa 
crpacTHoft MyBUBaHTniH sHJia b'b neft, h OHa naxoAHJia Bpeaa Tře- 
HÍeii'B ocB^saxB CBoft ywh. 

KorAa IlaBJíHBi obohhhjix BypcB rHMHa3ÍH, ohhbc^ nepetxajii 
BX Ka3aHB. He A&poMi se iiaTB laBi* peBÉHBO Óeperjia AeHBrH, bu- 
pyqeHHHa otb npoAasH Beu^efi nocjii CMepxH Mysa, jiejAsi mhcib 
ci&b o6pa30BaHÍH A^reft. 3thxx A^HerB XBaTHTB na nposHTOB^B, 
noBa IlaBJíHBi h a'í^bohbh 6yAyTB yquTBca bi KasanH, Aa h caica 
osa He 6yAerB cha'6tb caoaui pyBH, — HafiAerB h b% Kasann ypoBH. 

no OBOHqaHÍH naBJHBOiTB Bypca, CípeneroBB! onaxB BepnyjiECB 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



104 raOTHHBlk BBPOim. 

vh C&Mapy, Bi BOTopofi npuBuua Maib. Ho cuti es 6wai bbo* 
neujb noAopBaHu, xpoHniecBÍft He^yrB noATa^HBajTB ee Hesairi^THO. 
Efi He ÓfiLio H iiflTHAecflTH ji^TB, a ona BasajacB cobcžitb crapyxoft. 
Ho HTO sa 6ÍA&?! 3aT0 cubi> nojiy?HjrB BHcmee o^pasoBanie b re- 
nepB Ha cbohxi» Horaxi, Aonepn KOHnaiOTB sypcí roMHasiB, bcí ohh 
BAopoBue, CB^ie, Ao6pue, xopomie. JIioÓyflCB cb ropAOCTBH) Bti- 
Be^OBHiiMH nroHi^aMH, ona satiiiBajía o cboostb ne^yri h BrattHŠ 
jHBOBajia, wso eji nepseHeiti ÓJiaronojiy^HO MEHOBan no^BO^Hiie 
KaMHH H MejH pyccKofi cryAeH^ecBofi sbshh b Morb BosraHTB BypcB. 
He HanpacHO aie ona noíxaja bií^tš cb ceihomi vl RasaHEl Oea 
H xaiťB irlcTOBajia CEina, peBHHBO, BaR'B sopsas Hac^A^a, o6eperaii 
ero on onacHOcreft H)Hoine€BHX'b yBjeHemft, otb noAOspHrejiBHurB 

SHaBOMCTBl... 

TenepB, cjiasa Bory, iieHBme onacenií... OcrpoTa nopuBOBi 
H)HOCTB npomjia! 

napoxoA'B THxo OTomejTB OTB npHcraHH, h MaTB, BCfl Vh cie- 
saxi, AOJiro en^e Maxajia luiaTBOifB yšsasaBmeBiy cuny. 

HapoxoA^B yse cRpiiJiCB, a ona Bce en^e xaAHO BCBiaTpaBaJiacB 
Vh pa3CTBJiaH>nUftcB abimoki, h cepAi^e efl tocbjibbo cssBifajocB. 

„ÍTO-TO nomjierB cyABÓa Aoporoiiy HaBJíHBy na nepBHXi no- 
paxi ero caMOcroBTejiBHofi sbshh?^ 



rjEasa VI. 

yiiHjieHHiit HaxjBíHyBmHirB BOcnoMBEanieirB, mojioaoS ^eio- 
bíbi TopoiuBBO OKaH^HBajrB CBOfi TyajerB, nojrauft 6oApofi B^pu, 
^TO AOcraHeTB cetSik bo ^rro 6u hh crajio m^cto h CBopo 6yAerB 

Hlf^TB B03M0SH0CTB yCnOKOHTB SaBaiTB A^eft CBOeft MHJlOft, JIOÓBMOft 

MaTepH. Eft HeB03iiosHO ÓbraTB no ypoBaiii!.. Efi HaAO jeqHTBCfl, 
OTAOXHyTB! Owh BOSBMerB BCflEyH) paÓOTy, jihiob 6u ona AAsajia 
8apa6oTOR'B, Boroparo BejiBBfl cruAHTBCfl! 

GiflBiniĚ OTBarofi mojoaocth, cstsifi h BpacBBufi vh CBoet 
HOBofl ^paHBofi napi, cb nATsio pesoMeHAaxejiBHUHH nHCBuaMH h 
nflTHAecflTBH) py6jflMH Vh Bapifani^, CTpeneTOB'B ys^B Ónurh voTOVh 
HATB Ha saBoeBaHÍe iri^cra, BaB'B bi* ABepn thxo nocry^aJH. 

— BofiAHTe! 

Ha noporfa noBasajacB xopomeHBEafl (i&iOBypafl rojOBsa xo* 
BflfiCBOfi AO^epH. 

— HsBHHHTe! — nporoBopHJia ona, bxoaa bx. BOMHaxy, cjiersa 
CMynKeHHafl npn bea^ BpacBBaro MOJiOAoro qejiOB^Ba. — S, ao^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IIBPBIIE mATH. 105 

zKbmnei xoaafiEH... Mwb na^o cRaaaTB BaM^ XBa cioBa! — npnóa- 
Biua Al^ByniKa, noHHsafl rojocB h onpaBJíflfl npfljincy CBŠxjiopycuxi 
BOJOCB, cnycKaBmHxcfl Ha jo&b m&irhmh ROje^saMH. 

— ÍTÍ> npHRasexe? — cnpamHBajrB OrpeneroBi, HeAoyirifeBaa 
dTOMy TaHHCTBeHHOMy BcrynjieHiH). 

— Bh b§ab npiŠ3»ift? 

- ;i;a. 

— S,j BHAHTe JHy Hapo^íHO samjuk ki> saHi, vroóii CRasaTB, 
w> djĚÍbcb HysHO ÓHTB ocToposHuiTB! — npo^iojuiiajia OHa Bce rkn 

26 TaHHCTBeHHUMl mOnOTOHX, OrJIflAHBaflCB Ha ABepH. — noHH- 

Maere? — SHaHHxejibHO noA^epsHyjia ona. — Taní npEMHie 9to bo 
BHBMaHie H 6yABTe Ha-croposi... Eepesenaro h Bon 6epeserb. 
n sor^a Cy^ere yxoAHTB co ABopa, xopomeHbso sanHpafiTe B&b 
C80H BeiBfly ^To6u He CMyn^aTB JIIotfonHTHHXl. 

CrpeneroBi yAHBJíeHHO BucJiyniajrB 9TorB ToponjDiBiift, TaHH- 
CTBeHHut mojKyrbj ropa^o noÓJiaroAapH.ii A'&BymBy h npoMOJiBHjii: 

— no c^aerBK), y mcha p%mHTe;i^HO HH^ero eítb TaRoro, 
irb 6bi h^sho npflTaTB. 

— H cjiaBa Bory! fl, snaHHTL, HanpacHO HcnyrajracL sa Bací! — 
OTB^HaJia, spacH^, A'&BymBa. — QosajiyfiCTa, tojibbo HHBOMy hh CJOBa! 
— npHÓaBHja ona h, jiacBOBO BHBHyBí rojioBofi, noBepnyjiacB, ^to^ei 

yXOAHTB. 

— HsBHHHTe, en^e OAny MHHyTy!^--0CTaH0BHJi'L ee Cípene- 
TOBi. — CKaaurre, kto ae saÍcb Tasie jiofionHTHHe, mbi bbi ro- 
BopHTe?.. IIpHCJiyra, hto-jih? 

— Majio JH BTo! BcflBie shjbi^íi sa^ XHByrBl — yuoH^HBO 
(nviTHJia A'i^BymRa, bhahmo m&kvM bxoahtb bi Aa^H^finnfl aoApo6- 

HOCTH. 

— Ho OT^ero bbi moha couh HysHuirB upeAynpeAHXB o&b 
8toirB? 

A^yniBa nosajra EJte^anH, to^ho yAHBJHflCB droMy Bonpocy. 
„H Wh caMom a^^ ma&owbl'^ — BcnoMHHJia ona oi^^lHBy Huaia 

HBBiITHHa. 

— S. TOJBKO-TPO ysHaJia, — HnarB Hhbhthhi, bowhmi iioft, 
cias&ii, — HTO BBI nepBiifi pasi wh neTep6ypr&. Hy, a h noAyMajut, 
^To BH, uom&rh 6HTB9 He snaere, hto vb Me&iHpoBaHHuxi bom- 
Baraxi naAO ocreperaTBca. Jífi, botb en^e ^t6: ne saBOAHTe sna- 

KOMCTBa Ch OAHHlfB 8A'Í&mHHH'B SHJtBI^OMl. 

— He CB FajiaHHHEiMi jih? 

— Axi*, ^t6 bh! Ohb xopomifi. Hí^tb, bh ocreperafixecB 
roenoAHHa E^paxoBa... Ero bcš 3A'í&cb nopyHHBOiTB soByn. TaBoft 
npoTHBHHft, HOJiHHĚ MysqHHa, Boodpasaen, hto BpacaBei^! — cb 



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106 BftOTHHKL EBPOIOI. 

^pcTBOM'B OTBpan^eHÍfl npHfiaBHJia ona. — A sai^irL, ao CBHAamflL. 
HaA'i^K)CB, pasroBopi* ocraHercfl nes^y naMH, a to mh^ Aocra- 
Heica!— yjrtifiaflCB, nporoBopiua A*ByniKa. 
I OrpeneroBi WLn cjiobo, ?to HHSOMy ne CRaasen, h cnpocHj'^^ 
Kaši sBaxB A'&ByinBy. 

— Hma Moe Hexopomee, — ycMŠxnyjiacB ona: — Oecna! 

— A no OT^ecTBy? 

— ApceHBeBHa... Tojibko bc6 Měna 6ojiBrae OeHHHKoft soByTB. 

— En^e paaib 6oJiBmoe, AymeBHoe BaifB cnacHÓo, MEjas Geona 
ApceHBeBHa, sa Bame Ao6poe HaMÍpeme!— cb ropa^nocTBio npo- 
MOJiBHJii CrpeneroBi h Rp6nR0 nosHifaji ea iiajieHBKyic pyKy, 
jiacBOBO rjiflAfl KB 6oĚBÍe, CMŠK)n^iecfl c^ptie r^asBE A'ÍByniBH. 

— He sa ^TO, ne sa ^to! — Becejo OTB^najia OeHHHBa. — 
TojiBEO CMOTpHxe,— raenHyja ona, — He cifeataŘxe on nacB ceroAHfl. 
XoTB H^BOJ[BKO AHcfi A& nposHBBTe; a TO ueí fiyxen nepe^^ 
HnaxoifB HHBHTHHeHi CTUAHO... Ohii, (StAHiift, erapajECfl, CTapajcfl 
saMaHHTB SHJiBi^a, a s ero cnyrEBaio... ^"l^a-TO y eslcl ho Bas- 
HUfl! — yciiixHyjiacB Oenn^Ba. — Eme paax npon^afiTe... H to sa- 
6ojiTaj[acB! 

Ob 9THMH CJiosaMH OenHiBa nojífibxAJíh bi ABepaifi, Ch ce- 
ByHAy npHCsymaJiacB, ÓHcrpo pacnaxHyjia ABepa h, 0CTaH0BHBinHC& 
no Ty CTopoHy nopora, rpoMBO cnpocHja Cb njiyTOBCBoft yjuÓRoft 
majiOBJíHBaro pe6eHBa, y^aino coBepmHBmaro majiocTB: 

— Oďía^tb CyAere ceroAna AOMa? 

— He 6yAy! — TaBi »e rpoMEO otbíthjtb CTpeneroBi, HeB0Jn»HO 
jjiu6dach XHTpoMy ManeBpy Oenn^BH. 

Ona saTBopHja ABepn, h CTpeneroBi TOT^aci se nocitAOsajx^ 
efl coB^Ty: sanepB cyH^yBx na bjiiohi h BumejrB h3i CBoefi iipaq- 
Hofi BaMopBH, H^CBOJiBBO CMyn^eHHuft nepBUMH neTepfiyprcBHHB 
CK)pnpH3aMH H TponyTBift noBe^eoieMi dToft crpannofi A'ÍByniBH, bei- 
BasaBmefi TaByio saÓOTJiHBOCTB o coBepmenno nesHaBOMOifi HejOB^E']^. 

„li AEUfl y nea BaBoe yMnenBBoe, fiofiBoe!*" — noAynajx ohx. 

Kor^a OHI npoxoAHJi no BoppHAopy, hsi oahofo nyícepa bei- 
rjiflnyjio nojinoe, pynafloe jhi^o ch nepnuMB 6aBeH6apAauH h 6ojb- 
niHMH rjasaMH. 

— Mapea!.. CaMOBapBÍ — pus^ajica rpoiiBift, Cb cnnoTOio, rojocx* 
,,Bhaho^ 8T0 H ecTB nopyMEi!" — p'feniHj['B OrpeneTOBi, ycn^Bniift 

MeJBBOMl BBFJIflHyTB Ha BUCyHyBmyiOCfl ^HSÍOHOMÍK). „^ŠfiCTBBTeJIBHO, 

npoTHBHHŘ MyiBTOHa!" — HeBOJiBHO noATBepAHJTB OHI GeHHHBHHy arre- 
CTai^K), cnycBaflCB no jrbcuEvmib. 

Oh^b BumejTB na yjun^y n crajTB paabtb HSBOSHHBa na BacHJiBeB^ 
CEÍft OcrpoBi. HsBOs^HBi oG^n^aďB sa hojithhhbbi „mefoitb Aocra- 



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nEPBHE IIIArH.' 107 

bhtb'' ($apHHa na CBoefi „aMepHRaHCSoft mBe;^B'6''. Xy^aa ^anepE- 
KancBafl mseABa", cb yrpioiiiiMi bhaomi oxHaflHHOfi bjahe, Hacro- 
pOsHFB yniH, CJiymajia ksatbu BSBOs^HRa h, cjiobho 6a noHBiiafl, 
RaEofi npeACTOHTB efi ^aJibHifi Bonei^i, CesHa^eacHO Maxnyjia xbo- 

CTOITB, 3aM'£T0B^, HTO Ct^OBl C^l Ha APOSBH. 



TjiaBa VII. 

I. 

Buji Ha HCxoAt AB^HaAuaTufi ?ac^, Ror^a, nocjii yÓiflcxBeHHO 
nepeHHofi isjLUj hsbos^hrI; nycTHBmift sa wbcKOJihJío caaceni ao 
xkra HasHaneHÍfl, cboh) Ksa^y Bcsa^, „noxBaTHJTL'' namero mojo- 
xoro HeJDtOBÍRa k^ ÓojBrnoiiy, MHorodTasnoiiy Aony, bi. gahoA hsi 
xajibHHxi JiHHÍfi BacHJiBeBCBaro OcrpoBa. 

— 3A'i^cb KHBeTB ^Ihprob^? 

nosHJOft, noAcrpHseHHufi, puseycufi mBefii^api, CHA^Bniift na 
latfypeTKi obojio nacresi pacBpuTHXi ABepeft noAxšsAa, ÓpocHjii 
Ki-noA^b OHKOBi ne ocoÓenHO 6jiarocBJiOHHuft BsrjuiA'^ na mojo- 
xoro HesoBÍtea, OTopBaBmaro ero orb rasexu, h nocji^ xoro, BaB'B 
CrpeneroBOb noBTopHH BonpocB, ne cn'inia otbíthjii, BHymnTejibHO 
nonpaBjflfl mojoaofo neJOBi^Ba: 

— FeHepajii HeBOJiafi ETerpoBETb íepsoBi BsaprapyiOTb sjííbcb. 
H, He M^Hflfl CBoeft jišhrboA nosbr, nocii 6£rjiaro ocMOxpa ne- 

sasHCTOfi c^poĚ „BpujaTBH^ OrpeneroBa, ÓpaBufi ynxepi npH* 
(SaBfljTb: 

— BaHi, Moserb fiuTb, BaBoro-HHÓyAb Apyroro rocnoAnna 
lapsoBa HysHO. He reHepajia? 

— Mh* HMeHHO renepana Hy»Ho! — ycMŠXHyjcfl CrpeneTOBi. 

— Crynaflie HaBepxi. Bi xperbeMi axasi, ceflbMOft Hynepi. 

— Owb AOMa? 

— FeHepajiii ne betxoahjih en^e, a npHHHMaioxi hjih eítl, ne 
sHaD! — cHOBa noAnycxHJis maHJibBy niBeĚi^api, npHHHMaflCb sa 
opepBaHHoe ^xenie. 

GxpenexoBx Bsfiisajrb naBepxi. OcxaHOBHBmBCb y ^Bepefi, na 
xoTopHxi 6jiecx&ia BU^Hn^eHHafl iriAHafl Aon^e^Ba c^ 4^aMHJiiefi, 
BurpaBHpoBaHHoft BpynHofi ciflBflHCBofi Bfl3bH)> OH'B uepQBejTb Ayx^b, 
onpaBHJCfl H He 6e3i HÍBOxoparo BOJHeHÍa xhxo Ha^aBEJii* nyroBBy 
aieBxpHHecBaro SBOHsa. 

DpoiiLao, no Bpafinefi M4p4, MHHyxH ABÍ-xpn — hhbxo ne oxbo- 
fin. CpeAH XHmEHu, i^tpHBinefi na npoxjiaAHO& ji^hhi^, Hsi-sa 



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108 raCTHHRl EBPOim. 

ABepe& BBapTupu aohochjibcb cja6ue sByra poajfl. CípeneTOBit 
BusijsfiLjn> emfi MHHyTy^ Apyryio, n HaAaBHjnb nyroBsy CHJiBH'6e. Ho* 
cuamajHCb HeroponjiHBue, MarEÍe marH, n^ejsHyjii KpiOKi sanopa, 
H nj^erojieBaTafl ropHEHHas, MOJio^afl, pyManafl h CBJksaa, bx najieab- 
ROiTL TOiiu^ H ocjii^nBTejibHO &bjiOWb ^apiyE*!, otbí&thb'b, hto „Hb* 
KOJiafi IleTpoBH^i AOMa n npHHHMaerB^, Bnycrajia mojoaopo ^e^OB^Ka. 

— Cío^a, sa MHOft noaajiyftTe!— cb npHBiiJiHBoft $aMHjibap- 
HOCTBK) CBasaja ona, nocjiib Toro, RaB'B CrpeneTOBi, ntcsojiBBO 
CMyn^eHHHft ea npexcraBHiejiBHBíMi) bhaoitb, He AonycTUT* CHaTb 
CB ce6fl HaEHAKy h cam ee noB^HJii. 

Ona npoBaia ero bi rocTHHyio, nojieyio pasHOi^B^xHOfi Marsoft 
He6ejH, pacrenifi h i^bštobx, h, ocraHaaiHBaflCB y nopTBepu, yBasajia 
CBoefi &bJio% (MHiDEOMi BuxojreHHOft jinz ropHH^Hofi, pysoft Ha pac- 
BpuTUfl ABepH ABJíhEei BOMHaxu, nporoBoppBi rbái se ýaMHJiBflp- 

HBIlťB TOHOMX: 

— HHROjrafi DerpoBETB fb saÓHHeT^, Hrpaen na ^oprenBJí- 
Hax'B. HAHTe npaico vh saÓHHeTB!.* H^HTe, HAHxe, ae CofiTecb! 
flfiKji9iAUB9íTh He HysHo! — upH^aBEJia ona c% jjiuójíoí noo^peHifl, 

8aM'ÍTHB'B HepimHTeJIBHOCTB MOJOAOFO ^eJOB^Ba. 

H CB dTQHH ciOBaMH ymjia. 

CípeneTOB-B Boraejix bi croJOByK), OT^iJiaBrayH) EafiHHerB otb 
rocTHHoft, ne snaa, hath jh A&JrIe, e.ih H'lirB. Oahh^ npHÓopi 

CHpOTJtUBO CTOflJIl Ha HaEpBITOMl, XOpOmO CepBHpOBaHHOM^ CTOJI^ 

Ch pascraB^eHEOft xojOAHofi sasycEOft h h'£ceoj[behmh 6yTBLSEaMH. 

H 8A'Í^CB, EaRl H Wb rOCTHHOfi, BCe daJO HHCXOTOft, nopflAKOMi, Bce 

roBopnjio o EOH4)op'rt, ho cpasy se nyBCTBOBajiocB SHJiHH^e xojio* 
CTflBa. He 6bijio tofo BH^a aomobhtocte, EOTopuĚ HepaaiyHeHi c% 
npBcyrcTBÍeifB seHn^EHu e A'^Tefi. 

Hami MOjroAoft ^ejroB^E^ ne p'£mEJiCfl hate bi Ea6flHerB, evb 
rjyÓHHBi EOToparo jhejhicb Mon^Eue cypoBue ssysE largo Aecaroft 
6eTX0BeHCE0& coHaTu, xoporao BHasoMofi CxpeneroBy no Hrpi Ma- 
TepE, E ne iiajio EsyMJieHHiili, ^to saciajii Ba^snaro nereptfyprcBaro 
HHHOBHEBa sa MysBTEajiBHBíMfl saHflTiflME, OHI ociaHOBEJicfl y pacspu- 
Tux'B ABepe&y cb peEOMeHAaxejiBHBíMi HECBMOifB Ha-roTOB^. Cjymafl 
OTHexjiBBoe, MacrepcKoe EcnoJiHeHie, ohi nocicaTpEBajii na niEposyK), 
cierEa HaEJOHeHHyiD, CHEHy HetiojBmoro njiOTHaro rocnoAsna bi 
xeMHO-CEHefi Eyprysofi maReTE'i, na EopoTEO ocrpEsenHyK), EptoRO 
HOcaseHHyK), Epyrjiyio rojiOBy cb ^epnuME, ^yiB noAepHyTUMH cepeÓ- 

PECTUMI OTJEBOMX, BOJIOCaHE, Ha BpaCHOBaTUfi, MflCECTUfi SaTUJTOK^ 

noAHEpaBniificfl TyrBMi croflHBiťB bopothe^bohi 6e3yBopE3HeHHO& 
6&iBdHii, crapaacB BOOÓpasBXB ce6i: Easoe aojiibho 6iixb jihi^o y 
dxoTO My8UBaHxa-6H)poEpaxa, xasi xopomo Erpaion^aro BexxoBena* 



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nEPBKíE mATH. 109 

„HaB^pHoe BtipasHxewiBHoe h HHrejrjiHreHTfloe. H Han^pHoe ohi 
mhí CBopo ycrponrb iťicro, Kor^a a orsposeHEO o^kb^chh) eny ecš 
oĎCToaie-iBCTBa!* — pbmvun* MOio^oft ^ejiOBŠK'B h, HaCpasniHCB xpa6- 
pocTH, nepecrynHJii nopoPL BaÓHHeTa. 

Hrpa npOAOJsajacb. ^hpbobi, yBjeneHHHfi MysuBofi, ne 060- 
pa^eajicfl, n CxpeneroBi, bi 0SH;(aHÍH uouísfi coHaTu, ^K)6onBiT- 
HuiffB B3opoMi> orjflAUBajFB Ba6HHeTL, coBcbwh Henoxosifi Ha rh 
CBATHran^a óiopoRpaTOBi, BOTopufl npeAcraBJífljrB ce&b iiojioao& nejio- 
bIbi no pasjíBHHBMx onHcaaiflMi h no TOify oópasi^y, Boroputt 
OHI BHA'&i%, 6uBmH o^nasAU vh BaÓnnerb ryÓepnaTopa. 

TeMHHe, BHymHTejiBHue niBaýti, saHHMaBmie 6bJibniyH) ?acTB 

KOMHaTHy 6UJIE UOAEU BHHřB; 6lO€TU BoJIBTepa, PyCCO, FyMÓOJIBATa^ 

meBcmipa h Fere, h^cbojbbo BapTEíH'B, ÓojiBmoft msa^i, nanoj- 
HeHHHĚ ApeteocTJiMH — ropmeHBaMH, BasanH, h'6ahumh h 6poH80* 
BBMH opyAÍflMB, cTapHHHoe opysie H BOJiJieBi^ifl nojiorenei^x ApeB* 
Hflro ysopa, pasB^^meHnaa na crbwby 6oj[Bnio& nHCBMenniifi ctoji'b 
no q>eAHH%, orroManBa, hí^cbojibbo Bpecaii, oCbtuxi TeHHmrB 
ca^BflHOM^, H poajiB Bi AftJiBHeMi yrjiy — xaBOBO 6hjio yfipancTBO 
9Tot CojBmoft BOHHaTu, CB^TJiofi, HeoÓuBHOBeHHo aBBypaxHO npn- 
(paHHofi H noxoAHBmefi CBOp^ na BaÓnneTB BaBoro-HnÓy^B y^e- 
Haro ABJíeTTaHTa hjih AOBTopa, q^Mi na m^cto aAMHHHcrpaTHBHiixi 
TpjAÓwh Bpynnaro HHHOBHHBa. 



n. 

— ÍTO ae BH? TaBx bíjíb jíOJiro npoacAere! — mennyjia na^^B 
caMuiTB yxoiTB CrpeneroBa nosBHBrnaaca csa^n qerojieBaTafl rop- 

HHHHafl. 

CB 9THMH cjiOBaiíH OHa nponua, mejecra njaiBeirB n noBH- 
JHBaa TypHiopoMi^ Ri poflJiH) n, aojtoshbi o mojioaomi HejiOBfbiffbj 
HCHeaia bi 6oBOBOft ;^BepB'£ Mes^y 6H6jiioTe^HHkH mBa^^ann. 

Hrpa oÓopBajiacB. ^npBOBi no^HAJca cb M^CTa h Ji'6HnB0fi, ne- 
cnfoneoft noxoABofi, cjiobho 6u néxoTa, nanpasHJicfl bx nHCBMen- 
HOMy cTOJiy, cjrerBa Mopn^acB h BCMaTpHBaacB npHm^ypeHHBiirB Bsrjirfl- 
AoiTB BTB HesnaBOMaro MOJiOAoro ^ejiOB^Ba. 

Ohi ocranoBH^Cfl nepeA'B ctojiomi, b^sjihbo HaBj[OHHB'B rojiosy 
n otbítb na hor-ioh-b CxpeneTOBa, h, cpasy y^a;^UBaa npocHTeja, 
npHHflji* cocpeAOToieHHO-cepBesHHtt, o4)<|^H^iaJIBHufi BEKb Ey Bas^B 6bi 
nperoTOBJíflflCB BucJiymaTB Bnepe^^B H3B%CTHBra h ne oco($eHHO HHre- 
pecHUfl caoBa, qyiB-^yrB cbjtohhji-b na Cob-b Bpyrjyio TeirnyH) ro- 
iOBy, noAaBHiHCB neMHoro BnepeA'B cbohmi njiOTHBnurB BopnycoarB. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



110 BfiCTHHBl EBPOnn. 

JIhi^o ^iipROBa ASuieBO ne onpaBxoo osHAamfi Crpenerosa; Epyr- 
joe, oaARo BuópHToe, Cesi óopoAu h ycoBx, xota b nojom&Boe, 
HO BHa^HTaabHO noHomeHHoe, ci piixjiofi nojiHOTOfi h sanTHBHoft 
ii](eRX, Cb iflmRaMH hoa^b He6ojiLniHMH RapHHH r^asaMH, oho Ch 
nepBaro BSTJiajífi, KasajiocB csmuwl saypflAHUMi* juiJíflWb. 

„KaKi ecTb TOHOBHHBi!" — iipoMejibKHyjio B% rojiOBi Crpene- 
TOBa, pasoHapoBaHHaro vh cbohxi osHAaniHxi. 

H'bCROJ[BKO SaCTJaHHUfi, B01ipOCHTeiIBHO'CRy^aH)II^Í&, cepBesHEift 

BsrjflA^) ROTopuiťB ^apROBi* CJOBHO npHfjamajťB MOJO^oro neio- 
B'£Ra nocRopM hbjiosbte cboh) npocB6y n sarlMi ocTaBHTB ero bi 
noRO%, CMyTHJi% CípeneTOBa. 

— KaHAH^arB yHHBopcHTera... npi'ixajr'B HSiCaMapu... Hmí^h) 
Rx BaifB nHCBMO orB Maiepal — cnimHJii RaRi mosho CRopift npo- 
roBopHTB OrpeneroBx, HcnuTUBafl HenpiflXHoe BOJHenie npocHTejifl. 

H, 0T($apa6aHHBi 8th cjiOBa. ohx nopuBHcriiMi, p']teRHMi MfiE- 
oenieM^B, to^ho jsejiafl nocRopie H36aBHTBCA orB cr^CHaio^efi ero 
o6y3H, npoTflHyji, no^ofl^a Ri crojy, pyRy cb nncBMOirB. 

— Bama (jfSLUvuiis? — thxo h Me^JieHHO, JioÓesHOxojOAHiíM^B 
TOHOMi c^pocHJI^ ^HpROBi, HyTB-HyTB yjiu6aflCB rjiaBaMH h noBep- 

TKBaa npBHflTUň ROHBeprB B^ ROpOXRHXl, TOJCTUXl, ^bjíia^h 

najiíBitaxx, 

— CxpeneTOBi! — rpoMEO otbíthjtb MOJO^ott ^ejiOBiRi h CHOea 
BcnuxHyjix, BCnoMHHBi, m(í paHBme saÓEiJTB nasBaiB ceós, h craJTB 
CMOTp^TB Ha 9TH Me^tJeHHO nepeBopa^HBaH)n^ie ROHBepTB najBi^ii cb 

RaRHMl-TO HenpíflSHeHHUMX HyBCTBOlTB. 

— CrpeneroBx? — npoTanyji^ íapROBi, BCMaipHBaacB wb npo- 
CHTejfl npHnoMHHaioii^HiťB hto-to BsrjiflAOMi. — Bu ae cuh^ jih no- 
Rofinaro Cepr&i AjieRcaHApoBH^a? 

— Jía-CT>. 

— OneHB pa^i! OíeHB pa^x cb BaiiH nosnaROMHiBca! — B^pyrB 

SarOBOpHJIl ^lipROBl, OSHBHBHIHMCa. npHBtTJHBBIlťB, COBC^Ml He 
04M|)HIíÍaJIBHHM'B TOHOMX, HpOTflrHBafl ^epeSl CTOJI^B CBOK) 64jiyK), 

nyxjjyH) pyRy, h fb xy ate MHHyiy cb ero »ejiTaro, Óesfiopo^aro 
jHi^a HC^esjío o4)$Hi](iajiBHO-CRyHaK)n^ee Bupaseme, nponajia cepBes- 
Hafl sacTJiaHHOCTB B8rwiflA&9 H MajieHBRÍe sapie rjiasa ero sacsfon- 

JHCB yURUWh, JiaCROBlIMl ÓJeCROlťB. 

To^BO caMi o6paAOBaBQiHCB, qxo mosiho ocraBBTB pojiB aBrypa 
H 6uTB odsiRHOBeHHUBTB qej[0B'£R0Mi9 ^spROBi npoAOJixaj['B: 

— Mh b^ab ci Geprí^eMi AjieRcaHApoBHHeM^ ósub Óojbhihmh 
ApyBBHMH... EaR'B 7&e\ BM'6cr6 fb mKOJrk hlub... b noTOJurB BHicrb 
ciy^RBJíB... Ca^BTecB... KypBxe, noHULiyňcra... nanBpocBí bobjií 6aci>! 
— jioóesHO npe^JioaKBJíi ^bprobi, onycRaflCB bi Rpecao. — A bbi 



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UEPBHE mAra. 111 

Ha on^a noxosH... T^ se rjiaaa! — mafro yjiuÓByjiCfl oh'b, vjisijs,sí 
na pyMflHoe, CBtaee jmino hojioxofo ^ejiOB^Ea. — JI^aeHO bohhhjih 
Kypci? 

— Bx HHHŠraHeM-B ro^y. 

— Do BaBM)My ^aKyjibTeTy? 

— Ho MaxeMaTHHecKOMy. 

3aTÍirB rocnoAHHib ^iipROBi ocBÍbno^\sjicsL o s]i.oi^obiA Maiepci. 
ToHi noKaaajicfl dpenerosy jiacEOBHM^, a ohx otbítojtb, tto bao- 
poBBe MaiepE cobcími njioxo. 

— ÍTř) CB Bameft MaxyniKofi? — ynacrjiHBO cnpocHJii ^apsoB^. 
MojiOAofi ^ejiOB^Bi saBOJiHOBajicfl. 

— HenocBJíBHue xpy^u n saÓOTu o Haci cobc^mi pascrpOHJiH 
efl SAopoBBe... B'ÍAB Hama MaTB cana, 6ed*B nysofi noMOn^H, Bupo- 
CTHja AByxi cecrepi h MeHfl; a ^^ero dxo eft ctohjio!.. Oea no 
itiraiTB AHflMi 6irajia no ypoBaMi, OTBasHBajia ce&b bo scewb 
paxH nacB... ny n nonjiaTBJacB 3a CBoe caMOOTBepsenie! — ropa^o 

H CE CepCTeMl, CJIOBHO OÓBHHflfl KOFO-TO Sa 9T0, SaBOHHMl Ope- 

nexoBX. 

— Kasxse^ saR^se... csHmajrB... dneprHHHafl senupna Bama 
MaryniRa! — npoMOJBHJix bi otb^tb ^upROBi, coiyBCTBenno Bsrjifl* 
XHBafl na MOjioAoro^^ejiOBŠRa. 

— 9to CBaiaff seHo^Hna! — Bospasnjix mojioaoě qejioB*RfB, roto- 
poMy noRasajiocB, ^to b^ csoBaxi ^iipROBa ne Óujlo AOcraTOino 
(^aroroB^finaro ^jBCTBa rx TaRofi senn^Ent, RaR^b ero MaxB. 

^npROBi eABa BairlTHO yjniCnyjicfl h, ne cn'inia, aRRypaxno 

BSp^BX ROHBeprb RpaCHBJBIMl HOSOMl HBl CIOHOBOfi ROCTH, CTaJTl 
^HiaTB nHCBMO. 

Ho lApt TOrO, RaR^B ÍHpROBX TOTaJ-L 8T0 nnCBMO, Vb ROTO- 

poM^ MaTB, BcnoMHHafl npesHH)H) Apys6y ^npROBa cb noRofinsiiTB 
vyseiTB, Bi Tenjiuxx Bupaseniflxi npociua ero noMOHB ctiny 
ycrpoHTBCfl H BOotfn;e ne ocTaeHTB ero coBtTaifH, jihi^o ero npoBOC- 
xoAHTejBCTBa CTanoBHJocB cepBOSH^ H osaÓOHeHHie. 

FjiiAa TenepB na 9to rja^RO BH6pHToe, xojienoe, cepBesnoe 
H, Kasajiocb, 6e3CTpacTHoe jhiío, CípenoTOBi no^BCTBOBajii ropBRoe 
^yBCTBO o6hau. jt3smÍMi» oni nycTHJicfl wb hhthmhocth cb dTHMi 
neTepCyprcRHM-B „qHHOBnnROMi.", pacnpocTpanaacB o MaTopn? EaRoe 
eiiy Atjo jsfl ero MaTepn? Ilpocraa jiío6e3HOCTB co croponu íap- 
ROBE, H offB pacRHCB!'' H Ta, HyTB sairtTHaji, yjiHĎRa ero npeBOC- 

XOAHTeJbCTBa, ROTOpOK) OHI OTB'lTHJrB Ha pŠSROO BOCRjlHI^aHÍe 

OrpeneroBa, noRadajiacB TenepB MOJiOAOMy qejiOBl^Ry cnncxoAHTejiBHO- 
oÓHjíHoft yjiBifiRoft CHTaro h AOBOJiBHaro ^eJiOBiRa, CJiymaiontaro 
x:&rcRÍfl saJio6u. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



112 raCfTHHBfB EBPOmi. 

/I,03aAa Ha CBoe „peÓfl^ecTBo'' h HeBOJiBHoe HenpiasHeHHoe ^jb- 
CTBO Ki 9T0My „ MysHRaHTy-reHepajiy " oxBaxejio mojioxofo neJiOB^Ka, 
H OHI laRi se JierROB'lpHO, RaEi npes^e, Ha^^Jicfl, osHAajt Tenepb, 
^TO eiiy HenpeMŠHHO orsasyrB m> upocb6i h MŠcra ne xa^yrB. 

Oboh^hb:b vřeme necbiia, ^HpsoBi aRRypaTHO CJiosHjťb ero, 
nojiosHJib noA^ npeccb-nanBe, H'fecROJiBRO ceR)fHA'b npHCTaibHO h 
HOJ^a CHorp&rb Ha MOJOAoro qejiOB^Ra e, saRypHBb nanHpocy, npo- 
roBopHJii: 

— SI oneHb xoT&irb 6u BaHi noicoHb, ho, ri* coaRaJi^HÍio, ceft- 
HECb ne Mory npexJioacHTb MŠcxa^ jsfiB sací no^oxfl^aro... BipbTe, 
HTO dTO ne oóii^naa OTroBopRa, a npaBxa! — npHfiaBHJTB ?HpROB'b 
BHa^HTejrbHO. — Bani npe^eica noxosAaTb h, 6uTh MOsen, no- 
AOSAaTb H^ROJibRo H^cfli^eFb... Ho ^Ah 9T0 Bacb ne ycTpanBaerb?.. 
BaMi HysHH saHATÍfl ceftqacb se? 

MojOAOfi ^ejiOB^Rb OTB^^aji yxBopAHTejibHO. 

— To-TO H ecTb! — Bi pasAyMbš dpohojibhjii ero npeBOCxow 

TeJIbCTBO. 

H, noiioJiiaB^b, npoAOJisajrb: 

~ Ilomaiyft, npHTOCJrHXb sacb h jaTb ipncra pytíjieft bi> roffb 
fl 6u Morb H Tenepb se, ho Bairb HeBsiro^HO patfoTaxb sa xaRoe 
sa^iOBaHBe... IIpHAexca, noBxopaio, sxaxb... y nacb Bce hojho, h 
MHOsecxBO RaHAHAaxoBi, — o ROxopiix'b xjiono^yrb jiH)AH Óojrke Bjás- 
xejDiBHBie, ^jbwh Banrb noRopnufi ciyra, — s^yxb, h o^enB fjojivo 
SAyxb HHorAa BaRani^fi. 

3x0 o6bflCHeHÍe, HecMOxpa na ero ocHOBaxejiBHOCXB h jnoóes- 
HOCXB, Majio OAHaRO yximHjio MOJiOAoro nejiOBÍRa. 

„Hy, H nycxb ce(5t SAyxb, a a s^axb ne Mory!" — neBOAHO 
nponecjiocb y nero bi fojiobí^, h owb CA'&iiajrB ABHseme, ^xoÓbi 

HOAHflXBCfl, HSBBHBXBCfl Sa. HpH^HHeHHOe ÓeSHOROftCXBO H "ixaTb 

Aajnme HCRaxB BaRaH^ift. 

— KyAa se bu? — JuoÓesEO ocxaHOBHJTB ero í npROBb. — Emh 
ne ocoÓOHHO cn^maxe, nosaBxpaRaeiTB bm^x6 h RcxaxH noxojRyeiTB^ 
RaR^ Baifi 6bixb... 

TpOHyXIlfi XaRHMl BHHMaHÍeMb H qyBCXBOBaBÍnifi BMŠCX^ Cb X^ITB 

CEibH^fimift annexaxb, CxpeoexoBi> oxoxho BBipasHjrb corjacie hohxh^ 
xejibHEíirb HaRiOHenieirb CBoefi Ry^paBoft roJOBU h bi xy se MHHyTy 
jierROMHCJieHHO h AepsRo noAynajrb: ,»6E[Xb Mosexi, h M^cxe^Ro bh- 
ropHXb! KaRaa-HH6yAb BaRaniiia Aa HafiA^xca!'' 

— ^aBHO BH Bi IIexep6ypr4? — cnpocejib ÍHpROB^b, Bce Bpeica 
sopRo HaÓJiiOAaBmift sa mojioaum^ ^eJOB^ROMi*. 

— CeroAHa xoJbRO-HXO npitaajrb. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



nEPBHE mAni. 113 

— GeroAHfl?.. PeTHBO ace bh npHHflJECb sa xjronoTu, — cb 

yjHtfsOtt SíjňmJLl> ^EpSOSl. — OciaHOBUHCB TKÍ? 

GrpeneTOFB CBasan. OsasajocEy ^To ero npesocxoAHTejiBCTBO 
maerB „dry TpynioÓy". TairB tbmb&tl o^hhi ero HecnacTHiift to- 
BapHn('B... 

-- GoBcftirB nponajTB, a uon 6uTb ^eiOB^soirB! — npHtfaBHjrb 

%q»KOBl. 

Ob MEHyry noMasHaB!B h Mopn^a J061, cjiobho o ^eMx-TO co- 
ofipasafl, ero npeBOCxoAHrejBCTBO CHOBa cnpocE^TB: 

— Bu, BOHe^HO, xoTHTe sfjbcb ycrpoHTBca? 

— XoIÍJOCB 6u B^iCbj HO eCIH SX^CB HeiBBfl, fl H 0TB CJiySÓH 
BB npOBHHipH HO UpOHB. 

— He upoMB? — nepecnpocvji ^BpsoFB. 

Kb tohí Bonpoca SBynajo yAHBJíeiii^. TeuEusL rycrsfl 6poBH 
^KOBa CABHHyjHCB, JLEUfi BTO cx^bjuuocB cepBesH^. 

— Bce paBHO Tfíb hh paÓoiaTB! 

— Bei TaB!B xyMaere? — nporflHyjTB ero npeBOCxoAHrejiBCTBO h, 
npicraiBHO BsrjuiHyBí na dpenerosa, CBasaiTB uocjii He6aiBniott 
raysH: — Mšcro vh iipobhhaíh a moitb 6u ycTpoHTB. 

CrpeneroBi npodflJTB. Ero npeBOCxoAHTejBCTBO, Hanpomi, en^e 
doňe Haxifypiuica h npHHflji npexHÍfi bhx^ aAMHHHcrpaTHBHaro 
awTpa. 

— Ho xoJUKesB BacB npexynpexHTB^ — npoAOJsajTB omb, OOTe- 
KaHHBaa sasAoe cjiobo, — hto bth Micra fb hpobhhi^íh ne coBdbii... 

^iipKOBi Ha cexyHAy ocraHOBHaca, cjiobho 6u npiHCBHBaa noA* 
xoxsniee Biipaseme. 

— He COBCilfB... JAOÓBUSll — npOMOJIBEJIl OHI, HyTB-^yTB Mop- 

opcB H onycsafl rjiasa, saR^ 6u stbitb Aonojnaa sna^eme ne 
WBcbwh onpeA^eHHaro dnexera. 

OrpeneroBi, o^eBHAHO ne nonaBniift bhojthí cmícjia saiitqaHia 
^ipKOBa, HacTopo2SHJii ymHy osH^afl o6uiCHeHÍfl. 

— Ho ecjH, BnpoTOiTB, BH nojaraere, hto ne m^cto KpacHTB 
^eiOB^buk) a ^cjob^b m'6cto, h ecm c^Hiaore ceóa chocoÓhumi 
lenoíHaTB tď, nrb BaiTB. noRasercfl, ÓuTb iioserB^ ne cobc^itb 
jffiŮBhon, TO HOjyHHTB TaBoe mícto, npH h6botophxi ycjOBÍflxi^ 
BosifosHO. XoTHxe Tasoro irbcra? — npBCaBHJTB, noHHisafl rojioCT^ 
QipsoBi^ CB BaROft-TO CTpaHHoft yjiEiÓRoft BO BsrjflA^ cierBa npH- 
ntypeHHuxi rjiadB, cexpanafl wh to se Bpena 6e8CTpacTHyio cepbes- 

H0C1% 4^1f8ÍOBOMÍH. 

— o HeyAOÓHfiixi iflcraxi a bobcc ne AyMajrBl— pfaRo boc- 
RaKHyj'B MoaoAoft ^ejiOB^Bi, RpacHtfl RaBi HaROBi i^B^rB <yrb 
ozBaTHEOiaro ero BOJHenia. 

ToVfc I.-^HBAPB, 1891. 8 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



114 racnfsss rapcfnii. 

„Hy, lenepB HSKaRoro wbem owb ae xacn^ n qoprs cb HHirb!'^ — 
npoM&iBRHyjfO vb rojiOB^ CrpeneTOsa, Ror^a kb crtAyH)ii^yK) se 
cesyHAy oh^b coo6pa8iurBy hto OTB§TKrB ae cobcíkb xHiuoifaTOTecKH. 
Ho, B^ HeMajiOMy vsjujiems} HeomiiHaro IIpoBHHI^aJUl, aro 
p^Boe BOCKJHi^aHÍe He tojbro ne pascepAHJio ero npeBOCxoxv- 
TeiBCTBa, HO HanpoTHBi, noBHAHMOxy, HifeHHO OHO H cornaio cb ero 
jiHEia o^$HD(iajiBHyH) cepBe3H0CTB H pasrjiaxHJio ero HaxicypeHHGiH 

6pOBH. 

— Hy, bot:b BKXHie jh,— saroBopiiA ^hpbobib cb secaiHirB 
CM^xoirB, jacsoBO tjsika sa BSBOJinoBanHaro mojeoaofo ^ezoBi^Ka: — 
Tasifl HeyxoÓHHfl Micra BairB ho HpaBATCfl... En^e 6uU. Ma, OBa- 
suBaercfl, ne noHAJin xpyr^ Apyra, h bhiiliio icaie&BBoe qoi pro qno... 

OffB nycTEUTB ABíMKOiTB pasii-ApyroĚ H sauŠTBJTB: 

— H sHaere áe Hrb, mo& hhihí IlaBerB CepiieBHTB! EcihCbi 
BII H corjiacEJiHCB npHfiflTB noAotfHoe m'Icto, a 6u Bam ero se 
AajTB, paAH naMflXH Bamero otub,, soroparo sl npHBUKB ysasaTB! — 
nporoBopiurs oh^ cepBesHO h jiacKOBO. — Ha Mtoaxi, o BoiopHx^B 
SL FOBopHJTB, ecTB oco6eií copiTB jiK>Aeft, Bupa6omHHizft cylAecTByH)- 
SUBM^ na HHrB cnpocoirB. H ohh, pasyirbeTCJiy Heo6xoAiiMH, ho 
vajio JLH irb Bi npHpoA^ HeoÓxoAHiio!.. Tam Bysira bojobbh 
HepBH, noMSEBine pasBHTÚi h... h ocoóaro poAa HyaseeiBol — noA* 
TOpsHyjTB ^lHpBOfi'B. — A y BacB, BaBi sasercfl, h HepBU ^yBCTBH- 
TenHHe, n, BipoATHO, nysecTBO ne to... ^a v hto BaifB sa oxoxa 
HCBaxB uicra y HacB, Aa h BOo6ii(e HCBaTB cjiystfEi? — coBepmeHHO 
HeosHAaHHO npHtfaBHJTB ero npeBOCxoABraiBCTBO. 

H Óesi Toro yAHBJíeHHEifi ehtemboS ompoBOBHOcrBK) Óecšxa 
^lapsoBB) HanrB MOJiOAOtt nedioB^Bi coBcbvh Ónjtb asyícieBi bocjša- 
BflirB BODpocoiTB, B vh HepByH) MBHyTy pimflTejiBBO He Bamejiea, 

mťb OTB^TBTB. 

„Ynt^b ne CMiercfl jh ofl'B naAO MHoft?^ — npocroAyniHO HOAyiiaji'B 
CrpeneroBi. 

Ho ero npeBOcxoABTejBCTBO, BasajocB, hbcbojbbo ne cirlflJiCH. 

— Hjni BII HecTOJnotiHBii h, aa^BHafl sbbbb, Meiraere o 6ie- 
CTBQ^efi BapBepi? HaA^berecB co BpeifeaeirB, nosaiyfi, CA^axBCB 
MBABcrpoiTB? — npoAOJi2BaJi MesAy t&tb, cl myiJiBBOfi apoBÍefl vh 
rojioci, moTh cBenrBBi-reHepaJTB, nocMaTpBBaa na omaiiBmaro 
BCsaTaifl M^cra BacBr6mjiHB0-CBBCX0ABTejBBiiMi bstibaoitb, BaBHirB 
CMOTpBTB Ha HepaByMHuxi A^xeĚ.— TaBi a, hbitb hb bto CBasy^ 
KturbiuDŘ HaBejTB CeprleBEHi, qro bbmx cb BaMB MBHHcrpaMB ne 
{ÍHTB, Aa dTO B BOBce He Tasí npBBjeBaTejiBHO, bbb^ RaaceTCB... 
3aM^TBTe, ^TO HoroBopsa o ýejiBAMapniaii b cojiAaT^ sna^iBTeiBHo 
ycrap^a, b tto BapBepa, soiopyK) bb xoTBre BSÓparB, ne bkb 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HBPBBE HUFE. 115 

npiflTHUKB H o&bnsfijomfa!h... JI,a h BiiABHHyTBCfl hsi tojuhi, npn 
BceiTB saiamH, xaieso ne tsri npocro. KpaH*! jiD^eft cji^noro 
ciy^aa, npHHHMaTb Boroputt vh pasc^erB HeiBSJi, Ójěbctsus^ BapBepa 
j^biaiOTB Hju jnoAH Ch 6aiBiiniMH CBAsaioiy eih, bi bba^ HCBjnoHeHÍfl, 
iH>AH, BUAaK)iipecfl no cnoco^HOCTflMi, yniioiipe bi to se BpeHs ne 
BHAABaTbCfl HesaBACHMOcrBK) MH^HÍfi. H ysi BO BCflBOiTL cjtyia^b 
Bcerxa Haxo 6iitb roroBuiťB ko BCflBmrb cnyHa&HOCTfliťb... Jt^yMaere 
BH, TTO Moaceie yAoaserBopHTb xasHirb ycnoBÍAMi? 

— <& He MeHiajTL HHSorAa o ÓJiecran^efi xapBepš. A npocro 

XOT&ll CiySHTb, HTOÓU HM^TB KyCOS!B XJ[£(>a H npHHOCHTB ^OJÍH) 

DO1L80, HcnojHSfl ^ocTHO CBOH o6fiBaHHOCTH! — CKOH^^yseHHO uporo- 
BOpKffL OrpeneTOKB. 

— 9t0 KbMA&Tb HeCTB BamBM^ HaMŠp^BdiDffL, HO fjbJlOy BHXHTe XB, 

n itnrBy ^to h npHHOCHTB noiBsy ae mvh iierKo, RaBi brm^b Ka- 
xercfl, Hy wb KOEnDcI kohi^obi, nep^A^ cnynaeTCfl, hto npHBOCHTB 
BpejTB HeqMLBHeHHO jernel — ycMixHyjica ^hprobi. — BnpoHeMi h 
otfflsaHHOCTH BaniH no cjrfsJÓib ropasAO npon^e: HcnoxHflTB xb, ht5 
npHKasyTB ne pascysAafl, npHHOGHTB jih sto nojBsy hjih BpeA'B, 
yMHO HJH nynOi to-octb, cocrasjuiTB ÓyiiarH, BOTOpuH nopywTis 
Bani CTOJioHanajiBHHBfB HJIH Ha9aj[BHHB'B OTA^eHífl, H, pasyiÁoTCfl, 
He BHpaasaTB CBoero HeyAOBOJiBCTBÍH, ecsH nopy^eme BaM'B ho 
HpaBHTCfl... Tasoro ^HHOBHHBa MH HasuBaeifB HcnojiHHTejiBHinrB 

HHHOBHHBOlťB H TaBOrO MU UOChITB. Owh yXOÓeHl AJfl Ha(7B, TaiPB 

saKTB cb wswh nirb HHBaKHTB HeAopasyiiŠHifi!.. Kopové roBOpa, 
nocrynas na cjiys6y, Bani, vojiOAOfi nejiOBŠB^B, naxo npHnpjiTaT^ 
lyxa-HHÓyAB nox&iBine cboh yG^A^HÚr h sapanie npnroTOBHTBCfl 
vb oÓeBjaqeeiK). 

^bipBOB^ Ha MHHyry ociaHOBHJCH H iipoAOJUBaji'B: 

— n sarlMiy ecjiH bii ciByiiieTe nojiaAHTB co cbohmi Ha-* 
ULiBCTBOiťB H ÓyAexe hsboahtb Óyiiary Ch AOcraTO^ofi JiHTepaTyp- 
HocTBio, TO co BpeMeHeiTB, BOFAa cjiystSa CA&raerB BacrB Hacrofl- 
mjatb ^HHOBHHBOiTB, HecnocoÓHiDťB hh na ^Tb, KpoMÍ cocraBJíe- 

His AOBJíaAOBl H SaiIHCOBl, npH CailBIXl CTOCTJIHBilXl yCJIOBiflXl^ 

M^eio BHi^e-AHpesTopa ÓyAeiii b^hi^om^b Bamefi BapBepii. Botb 
Baii!B ŮQxbe hjih Menše bípoathbiě c^LysetfHufi ropocBoni. Bjiocth- 

BQirO Vb HOMl Majio! — npHtíaBHJTB ^HpSOFB. 

Jl^o6poAynifloe jihi^o OrpeneTOBa, BHHMaTejiBHO cjryniaBinaro 8th 
HecoioiŠHHO HcicpeHHÍH npHSHaHifl ^ejiOB^Ra, saHHMaDn^aro bhahuS 
csjTseÓEuŘ nocTB, — BBipasajio co6oě HecBpBiBaeMoe nsyM^enie. h 
Cb rojLcmrb^ nojiypacBpuTiixrB ry(b mojioaofo nejiOBŠBa qyrB-ÓEiJia 
le oopsajicfl BonpocB, AasHO yse HOCHBmificfl bi fojiobš: 

,Ho EaB% se bh cann cjiysHTe?'' 

8* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



116 BftOTHHKB BBPOmi. 

OffB, OAoaROy He sa^aii laisoro ii^esoTjniBaro Bonpoca, sfr- 
pojiTHO npHHjiBi SI CBŠAemio TOJiBBO*HTO npeno^aHEiie coíAtu 
ciyseÓHOft MopajH, h tojibko ctujuiiibo norymixE rjasa h ctui, 
Óes^B BCflJKOĚ Hmo(5HOCTH, pasrjasHBETb o6iiuaroMi ^pasa tojbko- 
HTO KynieHHufi nfuamxfíb. 

Ho %fpsoBi otfflsaTeiBHO npHmejrB vh Heny na noMOiqB. 

— Bací, soHeuo, yxHBJífleix, 9to a roBopiD laBÍfl HeyrtinH- 
TeiBHiifl Bensfi?.. ^yroicy, pasyMieioi, a ne csasan 6vi droro, 
HO xpys<^ k:b BameMy omiy h npocBÓii Bameft MaTymRH BHHyaa- 
AaK)rB MeHfl npeAynpeAHTL o toitb, htď BacB osHjiaerE... Uo Kpaft- 
Hefi vbfiby BUL He oroBopniecB neBŠAemeiTB, — yjiitfHyjcfl ^EpifiORB, 
— ecjH Bnocji^ACTBÍH BaMi npHAercfl x^axB Tb, ^tď bii caus Óyxere 
cuTaTB ÓesnojiesHfiíMi hjh CescMHCieHHHjťB^Kasi npHXOAHXCfl A^aTB 

MHOrHlťB TOJBRO HOTOMy, TTO XOpOmO niaTfllTB H ^TO JXTb O08AH0 
vbBOTb npHBU^EH... 

— Ho paSB^ BOSMOSHO AOfiTH AO laBOrO I](HHH3Ma? PasBi 

MOSHO A^aTB TĎ, HTÓ cwTaemB GesnojoBHinrB hjh ÓescMHCieHHHirB? 
— BSBOJHOBaHHO BocEJHSHyjii CípeneiOBi, oxBa^eHHHfi Heroj^OBa- 
HÍeiťB MOJiOAOCTH, HO HOHHMaBmefi eme bomhpomhcoobi, h coBcim 

BaÓUBHlift 0(h OCTOpOSHOCTH. — BÍjS,h dTO... OTO... 

OffB He OCMŠJHJICfl, OAHaSOy AOBOHUTB ^paSU, CnOXBaTBLICfl, 

nepeROHJ^ysHJCfl h yMOiBi. 

Jl^aBHO, OqOHB XaBHO, He DpHXOAHJlOCB ^fipBOBy cnnDaTB Ta- 
SHXl iOHOmeCKH-CBJ^iaHXXy HaHBHUXIb pi^efi. Hj BtpOJITHO, ^TO-TO 

6e3B08BpaTH0 MHHyBHiee, MOio^oe n CBizee bchomhhjocb eicy caMOicy, 
noTOMy w£0 ch jna^a ^HpsoBa ncie&ia ero xapaKTepnafl epoHE^e- 
CBafl ycMŠmBa, h ohb CMOTpi^'B na BSBOJiHOBannoe, csoHJ^yaseHHoe 
joLUfl MOJiOAOFO ^ejiOBisa Ch MEtKOŘy co^yBCTBeHHoft yjiH6Koft, Rasi 
6yxT0 npHrjtamafl ero npoAOisaTB. 

— ÍTO-aBib BH ne soroBapHBaexe, HaBen CepriteBHTB?.. PaoB 
nakasá, roBopore ao KOHiia!... — noAsaAopHBajTB ^epsoBi. — Bíxb sl 
noBa ne Bami HaiajBHHB'B! — nomyTHJix ^epsoBi. 

CrpeneroBi, coBcbwb osaAaHeHHsift othitb tohoitb, emfi 6ojrbe 
CMynucH. 

— TaBi no Bameny oto — Biipasnccfl noMfli^e — netfjutroBHAHO? 

— E^^e 6u\ 

— n AOftXH AO TaBOrO „I^HHBSlia'' HeB08M03BHO? 

^bipBOBx Touo napouo noA^epsnyn cjobo: „i^HHHSHa'. 

— Mhí Basercfl... 

— BaifB Basercfl?..— nepecnpociijrB ^HpBosi: — a iiesAy T&m 
Boe 8T0 6iiBaeTB, h cb jioabmh ne cobcíitb yzi AypHUMH, a 
TOJBBO csaÓtniH h... 6oflii(HMHCfl norepflTB CBoe naiosenie... H ohe. 



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nEPBUE jnAra. 117 

sasi BUj a sartHi... iraio-no^Maiy BOH^ajiH TÍbn, hto npiiBii* 
laiH, yrtmafl eeósL mhcjbh), hto na hxi M^craxi mofjib 6htl 
jiOAH en^e xyse. He aa^yxBTe npn tomi, "ito jioah e3bšcthiix'b 
gpgBHHesi CBopo yrtmasoTCH 6oj^ hjih Mesrite noAxoAflooiHMH oď 
iCHenijnfH, n oco6eHHO vh Taxie roAU, Korxa yse hosaho h TpyAHO 
láiESTb XH8HB. A BH, MOJOAOfi ^ejioffltRrB, eu^e Ha pacnyTBH. Y 
Baeb B!brh eusfi upEBmeiffh, wbvh norpeÓHOCiH k% HSBtcTHoft 06- 
ciaHOBKi, ií% BOM^pTy, js,% odesneHeHHOMy nosoio, chobomi— bu 
mfi MOioxu. IIoTOMy-TO fl H coB^Tyio, npes^e ^rbu^h BstfpaTB 
sapBepy^ xopomeHbBo noAynaTb. PasBi y BacB hštb HEsaBoro 
ipyroro npHBBamii? 

— E% COSaJlŠHÍK), HESaSOro! — npOMOIBHJl MOJIOAOfi H6JI0B%RX, 

Bce en^e HaxoAHBmificfl vb noAaBJíeHHOMi coctcahíe noA'B Bnenai- 
JÍmeiťB pŠTOfi ^apsoBa. 

— Rb xaROMi cjiy^a'!, nn^aTe ee&k nacTHoft cjyacóu. IIo Kpaft- 
HeB ufbpbj 6yAere xorb jyHme BOsearpasAeHBi... IIoiipo6yfiTe... 
Giys6y ocraBbTe, naR^b nocJiiAHift peccypci, a ecjin HysHO 6yAerb 
Bce-rara ciysHXb, eaysHre vh TaRHXx ynpesAeHÍflx^b, vjííb Bairb 
fle npHAercfl im^Tb a^o Henoq)eACTB6HHO cb jisoAbMH, ch Ta% 
efAb6oK>... Hanpniribpb, vh ŮBMsfby ^to-jih... SL oxotho noxjionoqy 
« Bacby HO HpeAynpesAaH): ne pyqaiocb sa CRopuft ycnix^b. Á 
BeAOcraToqHo BiuiTeieHi jsm droro, h BOo6nie y MeHfl Majio CBAseB 
Vb eiyaseCHOMi mpb. Jífik h sesA^ RaHAHAaiOBi tíojibmey wbwh 
lácTb. Beb HAyTb vl ^hhobhhrb. 

GrpeneTOEb He ycn^i^i en^e no6jiaroAapHTb sa o6^ii^aHÍe, RaRi 
iBHBnuuiCfl Vb Ra6HHeTb ropHHTOafl AOJiosHJia, ^to saBxpasb roxoB^b. 

— IIoftAeifTe-Ra, naBeii Cepr4eBHTb,-^Becb osnaniflCb, npo- 

ItNBOpiUl ^HpROBl H 6HCTpO HOAHflJSCE Cl RpeCJa. — Jlfik BU He 

THBBaire noRa. En^e BpeMfl ecrb, qTO-BH<$yAb b npBAyMaeMi jí,m 
Bacb! — jiacROBO ycnoRaBBaji^b ?bprob'b o^edRypasennaro MOJiOAoro ne- 
lOB&Ba. — IIpoxoABTe, npoxoABTe! — JUDÓesHO noATOjRHyjii ?HpROB'by 
nponyesafl CrpeneroBa BnepeA^ vh ABepjixi* erojiOBofi. — Mbjioctb 
vpworh. BoARy nbere? 

— H*n. 

— TaRi saRycBTe... noauuyficra, 6effh i^epeMOHÍfil 
^HpKOBi BsnuuTb piOMRy ajiama h npBHaiCfl saRycuBaTb ci^ 

MMKBwth anneiHTOirb. SaRycRa ÓBuia npeBOCxoAHafl b pasnoo^pas- 
Hafly CBBA'6TeibCTB0BaBniafl o npH^u^ns^ xosflBHa xopomo b tohro 
icrh. Offb nporjiOTHjaix BTopyio piaicRy h, c&m» npo6yfl Bcb copni 
8a»ycorb, npeAJiarai^ rocrio to Tb, to Apyroe. 

— PeROMeHAyK) HRpy... npeBOCxoAnaa! — rosopBJíi OH'b, na- 



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118 BMTHHinb BBPOnH. 

BJEaAHBafl ce6b nojiHyio lapejo^sy spynnofi CBŠseft HBpu h no- 
cimafl ee seieHiíM^b jysoirb. — y naeb vh nerepóyprt, vh Mmjay 
itmuTh jiaBRaxi, ona, nosajiyft, jyHme^ wbwh y brcb na Bojirit — 
npoAonuLii ^HpBOBi, symaa Hspy ch BUfíMiswb HaciasAeHÍeM%. — 
Hy, xenepB noAaBaftre, ARCioinal — npisasaJTb oh% n^rojeBaicA 
ARCH>in'&, jíflSMfíiBmeŘcs, y ABepn. 

— Ilpomy caAHTBCfl! — Becejo csasaai owby yicasiiBafl rocrs) 
pyBOft Ha cryjii. 

n, onycTHBmHCB caKi na Ay<^BiiÍ9 ci pisHofi cnHHBoio, ciyji^by 
^HpROBi He cn&na pacnpaBHJTB caji^^erBy, saTKHyjui ee sa Bopor- 
HHBi py6aiiiKH, ocToposHO npHABBHyj['B Ki ce<$^ ropflTfK) TapejRj 

H HpHHflJTB HŠCROJIBBO COCpeXOTOHeHHIlfi, CepBeSHHĚ BHXl, CJIOBHO 

611 cípHroTOBJuiflCB He npocTO saBTpasaTB, a CBeimiaTB KyATL 
HpeBoyroAÍfl. 

ÁBCioma ne sacraBEia ceósi sa&tb h topohjihbo BHecja Ójmjifi 
nox% MexajjiHqeciuiiťB KOJinasoirB. 

IlďOTOJiAHufl oroneBi safijiHCTaji^ fb MaieHBSHx% BapmcB m- 
dax'B ^bipBOBa npn bhx^ passapnoĚ, BpacHBO rapHHpoBaHHoft, 
^pejH, orB ROTopoR mejiB tohríř napB^ h oh'b jsfiúne tfibsMJth 
HeBOJBHoe ABHsenie ry6aMH, noTflrHBaa hocomi BRycHHfi saoaxi 
Tpio^ejiBHaro coyca. ToponjHBO npeAJiosHBii CxpeneroBy bsotb nep- 
BOMy, ^HpROBi HaioiRHjrB Ri 066% Ha xapejRy pu6E] h, oÚMisvb 
ee coei, CTSLjn> íctb, ^yxB-^XB npH^MORHBafl, Heo6uRHOBeHHO Bsycaio 
h aRRypaTHO, Hsp^ARa oGpan^uiCB r'b CrpeneroBy cb OTpiiBHcrmcH, 

ROpOTRHMH BOnpOCaMH. 

— ÍTo-aB Bu He HBere sHHa? IleiTe (J&ioe bhho! — ho^th 
npHRa8aj['B ohi, saii^THBi^, ^ro OrpeneroBi Óepercfl sa 6yTEUBy es 
RpacHinrB bhhoitb. 

MosoAoR HejOBŠRB bhahko saxpyAHJLicfly ne snafl, kb RasyK) 
piOMRy HaiHBaTB, H ^HpROBB caiTB HajiHJTB eMy Wh seienyio pH>MRy, 
bhobb nanojiHHBi eotoitb h cbok). 

— Bhho Ao6poe! — RaRB 6u npo cetffl npoMOJiBHJix ohi, cnaRya 
He<$ojiBmHMH FJOTRaMH dOiOTHCTyio BJiary cb HaciasAenieiťB rypHana. 

JIocjlí p£i6h ÁRCionia no^ajia co^heiR, AHiuuqificá poct6h^. 

^PROFB &rB RpOBaBUft pOCTÓH^B H OCTpUfl DHRyjIH CB HpeSHHirB 

anneTHTOiťB, sannsafl ^yxB-^yxB xeEiOBaxuMi ÓyproncRHMB BÍojexoirb 
H8B MaieHBRaro craRan^HRa, Roxopuft xo-h-a^o HanaiHiirfi, He 
AOJiHBafl, no oÓhnsLJO jno6Hxejiefi, ao RpaesB. ByxujRa CRopo yéueaia^ 
^^peBoyroAHHRi!'' — Mucienno ORpecxHJx ^EpROsa MOJiOAOfi ne- 
jiOBŠRBy 6pocafl BsrjiflAu na osHBHBmeecfl, nyxB-qyxB sapyifflHHB- 
meecfl jhi^o xosflHHa, na ero noAepnyxiie MacJUflHHCXKiMi diecROirE^ 



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nEPBHE niÁrH. 119 

eiysHBiniecfl oasa. ?to-to sHBornoe, rpytío-TjfBeTBeHHoe 6uio 
lenepB vb stoitb BpyrjioiťB, otfpiosrmeifB, nojHOHi* Aniiíb, 

Heyauur pmh npesa e ohx eoBHaTeAHO totobi a^^etb „6e3- 
nojiesHoe h tfescMucjeHHoe?' — cnpamiiBajrL CrpeneroB^b, crapaflcs 
yflCHHTb ceói axoro crpaHHaro neJOB^Ka, BOs^ysAumaro bi Heifib 
cftimfl pasHopoAHHfl ^Beisa. 

H dra CBtoafl, jrpmvoxASif n^erojBCBH OA^iafl ÁBCfoma, ^ep- 
xaBmafl cetfa eiHniRoirB nenpBHysAeHHO nňsi otiEnHOBeHHOfi rop- 

HHlHOft, H 8T0T&, HaueBaBUnfi Ha ^TO*TO IHTlIMHOe, TOH% JiaCBOBOfi 

^^aiiEJiBflpHOCTH, ch RaKuirb roBopKTE ch Heft ^HpBOBB, — Boe noKa- 
sajiocB TenepB hšcbojbko CTpaHHUMX h noAOspsrejiBHEiirB Hameiiy 
MOioxoHy npoBHHipajsy. 

— TenepB sycovesi poK4K)pa! — npeAiosHJ['B ^HpBosi. 

Ho OrpeneroB^y HHKorxa ne ijí,MnBŘ aroro CEipa h HcnyraB-^ 
miftcfl evo BH^a, OTBasajica. 

— HanpacHO... Ha^pacHo! — nporoBopHjTB ^HpBOBx ne 6eB% 
cosasinLi b% ^Bapsapy^^ ne noHHifaionteMy en^e HHBaHTHOft npe- 
lecTE pos^opa. — 3to apeBOCxoAHafi ctipi! — npH6aB0ji ^bipROBB, 

OrpISHBaS JIOMOTB. 

OffB sarbiíB chaítb c^ ceóa caji4)eTBy, qyrB-qyrB oroxBHnyjicfl 
OTB CTOJa, BBAOXHyBl CB AOBMBHimB BHAOlfB HacuA^BHiarocfl He- 
JOBisa, H sfl^ypHJTB CHrapy. ÁBCiania Mes^y tímb, y6paBB co 
ooia, npHHeeia ab^ MajieHBBiii ^arnsH ro^ h rpaj^HH^HBx cb 

BOHBflBOMl. 

— dro xopomo au min](eBi^eHÍfl! — 8aM%TEi'B ^rpsoBB, HaiH- 
tai ce(% KpoxoTHyH) pioicsy fíne champagne bb ^amRy. — CoBiTyio... 

Ho CrpeneiORB h otb btofo yuoHBJícfl. 

— Hy, TenepB pascBasiiBafiTe, bto y sacB ecTB bb Herep^yprt?.. 
Sasercfl, poAnne Bamero ncmofinaro oi^a sa^b? 

— TojBBo OAHa ABOiopoAHafl TeTRa... BapEHi^Rafl... 

— BapHHipuui? BAOBa HSB^Haro Óorana BapHHifBaro? 

— Ona caMafl. 

— TaEB ona Moaen Obitb BaMB ohohb nojiesea, Bama aboio- 
poAHaa xeryiDRa. Y hoa 6ojihmsí sHaBOKCTBa h cbash. Hpn tomb 
Buna Teiymsa o^enB xopomeHBBaa a^Hn^HHa. 

— JI HHBorAa ee ne BHAajii. 

— TaBi nocBopie nosnaBOiiBTecB cb neft. Osa, noBTopaio, 
xoseTB (Shtb oqeHB nojiesna. ďLeHn^HHU, Aft en^e xopomeHBRÍfl, mo- 
fyn QA^axB, Bojm daxoTATB, CoJsAe ifbm rto-jih6o! — npoMOiBHJBEB 
^HpsoBB. — OcoÓeHHo laBafl, RaRB BajieHTHHa MapROBHa. Osa BairB 
poAHfl no MatyniKi? 



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120 BftOTHHRl EBPOmi. 

— Eassercfl... 

-^ A BII ;^ase tohho h ne cnpaBUHCB?— yiuÓHjicfl ^bpbokb. 
H, noMOjraaBi cb MHHyry, cnpocEjrb: 

— Hy, a SHaBOMiie ispefís. MOJOAesH dfibch ecrs? 

— Hh Aymn... 

— n HH B^B BOMy BECb He peBOMeHAOBUH? 

— Wbrb. 

~ n ne HH^vre noAo6Hiix'b masoucnvhj a rjiaBHoe, hb no- 
cfi^afire HHBaBHXi RpysBOBx, a to, Toro h cjiíiah, snyraerecB b% 
Basyio-HHÓyAB HcropiD h... Bonei^i hbb^cthhě. ÍIIyTHTB ho Cy^yrBl — 
CB ycM^msoft npH6aBHjrB ^HpsoBi. 

CTpeneT0B'B HeBOJiBHO bchomhhjtb, ^to Bi nepBuft se ffish 
npifexa ero yse bo BTopofi pasi npexynpesxftH>n o(SrB ocropos- 
HOCTHy xoTB OHB, BasajtocB, H He HO^aBaji jffh TOMy hh majAř- 
maro noBO^a. 

— HaX^IOCB, BU B^AB He Bffh ÓeSHOBOfiHUXX dJeifeHTOBl? — 

nojiymyTA, nOdiycepBesHO AonpanraBajiB ^ipBOBi. 
CrpeneTOKB OTBi^ajTB, hto hštb. 

— To-TO... HejBSJi se, bi canoirB xkrb^ CBOJBBO^HHÓyxb 
BApaBOMHCJiflD^eMy nejiOBŠBy BHraTB rb HeJÍnEix'B HeHramaxi. H 
vjíib se? y nacB, b'b Poccíh, bb ooiOMenHOin i^apcTB^, vii ceMB- 
AecflTB HHJuáoHOBi AO CHX'B Hopi asHByTB B% pofík AHsapeR, a 
ocrajBHEie BJiaccii HHAHJ^^epeHTHu bo Bceiiy, ht6 ne Bacaerca hx^b 
jnraHO... CnORa noBTopflio BaiTB: (eperarecB snaROMCTBi... IIpH 
Bameft BBcnaHCHBHOCTH, bii h ne saniTHre, BaBi hoaaaahtocb bjíh- 
hík) pasHuxi cyMacfipoAHHxi p^^eft. Me^raiTe npo cetiii, eeiH 
BaiťB STO HpaBHTCfl, O ^eiťB yroAHO, ho tojibbo ÓyABxe MyApH, BaB'E 

8MÍft, H HHCTH, BaBl FOiyÓB... 3tO HCHUTaHHafl MopajiBl.. — BecejLO 

sacH&ijíCfl ^HpKOBi. — TasB, BpoMÍ xeTymBH, y BacB sa^cb HHKoro? 

— PimHTeJIBHO HHKoro! 

— n Bu npi'&xajiH ciDAa HCsaTB M^bcra, naA^CB na TeryniBy 
H na peBOMeHAaxejiBHoe hhcbho bo ueí? 

— y MeHfl ecTB en^e peBOMenA&TejiBHUfl nncBiia! — tíucrpo 
BO^SHJii CxpeneroBi, saAirrtift 9tem% AonpocoirB. 

— Hy, ne o^ichb-to na HHx^b HaA^&recB... IlHCBMa bth ao* 
CTHraiorB CBoefi i^^jih tojibbo TorAa, BorAa peBOMOHAyiontift HyseH*^ 
TOMy JHi^y, KOTopoify neineTrB. B% npoTHBHOMi CJiy^ai, HHCBMa 
pByr^B H roBopjiTB pesoMeHAOBaHHHifB otimeiifl j^pasii co6ojií3ho- 
BaHÚr... Kt^ KOMy y bbci HHCBMa? 

CrpeneroBB csasan. 

— E z% HeycTpooBy? — ycMixnyjicfl saBX-TO crpanno íap- 
BOFB. — Otx Boro, ecjiH ne ceBperi? 



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HEPBUE mÁrH. 121 

MoJlOAOfi HeJIOB%B'B COOÓJUHULlt^ HTO 0TB A&UHflFO CFO pOACTBeHHHBa. 

— ?TO-arB, pasBesHTe cboh iracBMa. Bo bcaroiix cay^ai, no* 
aHaROMBTBCfl Gb pasHHMH jiHi^aMH He CesnojeBHO A<ifl SHTeftCKaro 
onHTa. Ho ecro ycnixa ne ^yxero, HaB^^afirecB bo uwb: V Mens 
KB osBAaHÍH Jiyqmaro nafixercfl jím BacB patíora, — neÓOJiBinafl, 
upaBAa, HO Bce se Jiy^me, ^mi HH^ero. «S, BSAnre jih, a^bho co- 
ÓHpaiocB npHBecTH fb nopa^OBi cbok> 6H6jiioTeBy h cocraBHXB Ba* 

TaiOPB MOHICB BOJLieBI^ifllťB. 

„Yx,% ne HapoHHO jíh ajia Měna ohi cotohbctb paóory?** — no- 
leify-TO npenLio Ha ym CípeneiOBy. 

— Bh HeTBO oHmere? 

— Kasercfl... 

— TaB'B BcraTH mh^ nysHO 6blio 6u h nepenHcaiB OAHy moh) 
paCory. 

MojOAoft ^ejiOB^Bi jK>6onBiTHO B3rjiflHyj['B Ha ^bipBOBa. „He- 
yzejiH arorB MysuBanrB-reHepajix h jHTepaTypofi saHHMaercfl?^ 

— a Boe-HTo DHHiy HO apxeojoriH wh qacH ^ocyra! — CBpoMHO 
npoMajBHJi'B OHI. — OAHaBo, BTopoft ^acB. nopa h orfitiBaTB no- 
bhhhoctb! — npH<$aBHjr&, ycMixnyBniHCB, ^EpBOBX h jšhhbo nox- 
HflJíCfl CB MŠcxa. 

OrpeneroBi crajn-óiuo OTBJíaHHBaiBCfl, ho ^hpbobi ociaHO- 
bhto ero. 

— no;(OSAHTe MHHyTEy... S. Bací noABesy... Bh OTCiOAa By^a? 

PaSBOSHTB CBOH HHCBMa? — Cl JiaCBOBOfi HiyTBOfi CnpOCHJTB ^HpBOFB. 

— Jla. 

— Ki HeycrpoeBy hobaho. Ohi, h BHaio, npHHHMaen otb 10-th 
AO 12-TH. Jlyqme Bcero Bani ixaTB b'b rpHH6eBy. Ohi chahtb y 
ce6fl vb 6bmjA h Bcer^a npHHHMaeTi! — saM^THJii ^npBOBi, yxoAfl 

Vh BaÓHHeTB. 

MHHyTB ^epesi abš oh'b Bumejn> vb BHipiyHAHpš, co CB^AOft, 
CB HeóojfBHiHMi HopT^ojieMi Bi pyBaxi. 

— "SAeMTe, MOJiOAOĚ ^ojobíbi! 

Ohh cnycTHJiHCB no jiícthhi^. MaJienBBafl, xopomeHBBaa Ba- 
persa, saupAsennafl napoio mBOACBHXi BpšnBHX'B JomaAOBi, croHja 
y noA'BfeAa. PEimeycuft niBeiliiiapi fiujii TyrB se, BHTflnyBniHCB bi 
crpyHBy h roTOBufi noAcaAHTB renepajia. 

— y SeifjieA^^HecBaro 6aHBa ocraHOBHniBca!— ^CBasajErB ínp- 
BOFB By^epy h, npnrjiacHBi mojoaofo nejiOB^Ba caAHXBCH, c&tb bi 
Bapery. 

depeši ^exBepTB ^aca Bapeia ocraHOBHJiacB y noA^B^Aft (Janna, 
H CrpeneTORB Bumejix hsi BapeTu. 

Tom L— Ahbap^ 1891. 9 



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122 nOTHHKl EBPOUH. 

— JíflŘ BoFB Baicb ycntxa, MHJiHtt nasejB GepríteBHTE! — 

JiaCROBO npOMOďBEJTB ?HpBOB'B, nOSHMafl pjRy MOJOAOrO HeiOB^Ra. — 

He saÓyABTe se Moero npe^JOseHia, eciH, kl comsLJvbmíOj ne 
Haft^ere HH^ero jy^maro. Bi mecTB hscobx, xpoM^ cyÓÓorb, a 
Bcer^a Aona. IIpHXOAHTe npflMO Krb o&bjs:f. Ufwffbrb Bameft MaTymBÍ^ 

OTB MeHfl!.. 

Kapeta uoBaTEiac^, h MOJiOAOft HeJiovbsrb Bomeji wh iHHposifl 
XBepn BHymirrejBHaro uoivbsA^ SeTájLejí/bsb^ecnAro 6aHBa. 

K. Gtahk)bobhh'b. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



OTHXOTBOPEHia 



COHETI). 

(Hsi Ajb«PKAA MDccd.) 

JSfiTBy ecmOh Aftse Óujiub crpaAaHBii 
OnflTB vb MoeifB cepAA*]^ npocHyxBCfl Morjv, 
H cb npesHeft tocrok) h CHJioft — sejiaHBfl, 
SftRi oceHH nosAHefi i^b^th, paci^BiJiH, 

H eciafii — HeBHHHa, HHcra h npespacea — 
Měna tu, Moft Apyn, saxoT^a nj^HHib, — 
Pas^HToe cepAAe h6 6bjiocb 6u crpacTHO, 
Te($fl a He mopb h »He cif&irB 6u jik)6htb. 

Ho 3BaH> Hy ApyrB MOfi, O^BHHOft HpeAOK) 

Ilpmero H B% Te($i MHrB BOJimeÓHiifi judÓbh, — 
Ohi CHacTBeiTB ocbštht:b bcI rpesii tboh, 

Hh^toxhuitb BecB MÍpx 6yAeinB SBaTB tei ci tocroh). 
Torjia a. icaRi Ónarb. CBoe cepAi^e or^aMi 

[!»... H ropBBHMX cnesaiTB. 



9* 

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160 B^GTHHBX EBPOIQI. 



HA POíHHi. 

Sl npHtíjHsascfl bhobb b'b hojiahi mohitb poahhmx, 

A ÓpocHjTB noBOA&9 Moft ROHB npHÓaBHJx máry... 

BoHi — i^epsoBB 5^afl cb EpecroMi cbohmi cbateiicb^ 

BoTi — Óš^Hoe cejo lOTHica no OBpary. 

BHHsy cmwbevh npyA'B. HaA'B pjeabk) cohhhxi boa'b 

Beua o^iflTÍfl npocrepjia oahhoro, 

GRJiOHflCB HaA^B npyAOMii caA'B 3a6ponieHHEitt i^BiierB^ 

H poo^a BAajieB^ saAynaJiacB rjiy6oBo. 

IIpocTopi H TumHHa. B'h jsjmi — onflXB noRofi; 

OrHxaen thíbekiě cnopi My^HTejiBHiixx coMH'ÍHÍ&y 

BocnoMHHaHÍfl — Tasí nojmu crapneofi 

H A'&TCTBa qHcraro satíuTBixi BAOXHOBeHÍfi, 

?T0, Baserca, cefinacB si bi pou^y y6^ry, 

H Bi> mejiecÁ Ay<$OB^ npH^yAJiHByH) CBasKy 

YcAuniY CHOBa a, h Jiary na Jiyry, 

H Bcrpi^y B^Tepsa sa^yM^BByio jiacsy. 

noTOMi — B^ CTapHHHufi AOMi, TenepB AftBHO nycTOft^ 

BofiAy fl paAOCTHBifi h, Bcrpi^HeHEuft jho^obbh), 

yCHy fl THXHlfB CHOITB, H rpéSU Ha^O MHOft, 
CnJieTaflCB B'B XOpOBOA^, HpHHHXHyrB EI HSrOJOBBK)... 
BOSMOSHOCTB CHaCTÍfl fl cepAAeM'B B^OBB nOCTHrB 

H ^BCTBa pa36yAHJii AasHO bx Aynri Htnufl. 

IlyCTB 8T0 TOJBKO MHrB — sa BTOTb CB^MIlft MHITb 

CnacH6o Bam, doja moh poxHUfl! 

BjI. jlAAHSEHGBlft. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



3ArP0BHAH TOCK 

UocBamAETCH rp. JI. H. ToáOTOMy. 



Tu paaiioÓHJii AjinoS cypoBoň 
Kpacy seMHoro 6uTÍfl, 
H crporo My^pcTByemB, rOToauft 
Ob ce6a coBJíeqB ero okobu, — 
Ho He xaKOFb ^ajiéKo si. 

Si SHSHb JlJOÓJllO JII060BbI0 CTpaCTHOfi, 

JlíOÓOBBK), MOateTi 6htl, cji'tnofi, 

H OTAaiocB efi eace^acHO 

}í BecB H TŽJiOMX, H Aynioft. 

Mh% crpamHo CMepTH uipmÓJiuTReuhe, 

H crpamHO 6ojisnie noiOMy, 

ÍTO, KaKi Hu fibiocB, Bce He noSMy 

il,yina MQefi HC^esHOBeHBfl. 

He crpaHHo jih aio? A Mesi% tIm^ 

Eto CRamerB Mwb, hto mucjh) jiosho? 

SarpoÓHuft MÍpí* npeA^B eaMH — h'£m'b. 

Bce HeHBB^CTHoe, — BOSMoatno. 

O, eCilH^l 3HaTB, "ITO 1^'klHROMl), 

Hctjiíbx b^ MorHjií, a Hcqesny; 
ÍTO Aymy CMepxB bi nycxyio Óes^ey 

H B^ TBliy He BU6pOCHTB »HBBeMl»! 
IleTOJIBHO 3HaTB, 1T0 BCCB a CrHHV 

H 6yAy ^yatfli poiHOtt cpe^i, — 
Ho yMepeiB jthoib BnoJosHny 
H Bce se 6utb, ho 6bitb UBvjííb', 

Tou* !•— JiHBAPb, 1891. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



162 B'bCTHHK'& EBPOaU. 

MeTraTb o npomaoiťB noHanpacHv; 
jlwóvLTbj H noMHHTb, II cxpa^aib; 
To njaMeeiTb, to noiyxaxb, 
H SAaTb: Ror^a ai^b coBcbwh noracuy? 
O, crpauiBo!.. 

„Bupasy Mofi cípax^ 
H 3aM0rsrjibHyH) Hcro^íy" — 
TaKx a cKasa-it ce6* — „b-b cxHxax^, 
H noceamy hx^b Jlsay ToJcroMy*. 
H Bort Te&k — vÍBb Mepieci^a! 
Eiue ÓjrfeAHtft OHa — hítb cnopa — 
HfkuTi npH3paKX FaMJieTa-oTua 
H H^wb CTaxya KOMae.^opa: 
He pasrjiflAHnib ee no«iTH. 
Ho xoTb Meacb A^^iOM^b, i^ia aaóaeu, 
A Bce 7&e TEi, Mott Apyn>, npoqiH 
MhoK nepejioseHHbift bt* ORTaBu 
Teaepb, na rpycTH03ťB ciciohí .tíii>, 
MeHfl Qpecj!']&AyioiUÍ& 6peA'b. 



0} ecjH opaBAa, <ito bi* hohh, 
Kor;[a dokoíitcíi ZBBue 
H ci HeÓa jyHHHe Jiy<iH 
Csojba^Ti Ha KanHH rpoóOBue, — 
O, ecjH opaB^a, hio Torxa 
IlycTÍi>n> THxiji MorHJU... 

llyDKHHl. 



I. 



HeHacTHa homf oceHHfla <$br:ia, 
CM']&HHBaiaa Aenb e^puŘ u yHbuult. 
ILiy6ujiacb B'b Bos^yxt cupaa Mrja, 
II BUwia 6ypfl, cb ĎtoeHOK) cujioe 
Hocacb no xeMHoft y.iHi;t ce.ia. 

6jIH31 I^epRBU T0.1bRO HaA'B o;iHoft MOrHJlOft, 

Mesx rbwb RaRi MpaR^b noBCio^y 6u.ii rj[y6oR'b, 
Bce BcnEixuBa.i'b u 6ira.ii oroeeRi. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SArPOBUAfl TOCRA. 1G3 



II. 



Bl* MOrHJl']^ TOfi XpeBOSHO TOCKOBEJa 

•Co CBixa wb TtMy ynieAinaa Aynia. 
Ysíb MHoro jrbn ch xofi ho4ki MaHOsajio, 
EaKi OH^ Ha rpyAb CRJiOQHJCfl, He A^ina, 
n cepAue Bi HeMi ea b^rh saMOJiqajio; 
Ho SHSHb eny 6ujia xaRi xopouia, 
TaKi CMbHo OflT> Jiio6yijrb ee Ror^a-xo, 
^TO Wh HCMi eme óojivívb ea yipaia. 



III. 



ItpecrB-Há-RpecTx pyRH ea rpy^M cjioatHBX, 
Ho Bce Wh 6opB64 cb cyji,b6oio HeMHHyqefi, 
-Ohi TOCROBaJi^ ao abami, Ror^a 6BijrB srhbi, 
Cor^a Wh Eewh RpoBb xeRJia cxpyefi Riinyqefi, 
Kor^a, BO i;b4x4 jiíxi, ohi 6u;ix cqacxjiHBi, 
H HH OAHOft ne OMpa^oncb xyqeB 
T6 He6eca, ciflBmifl na^^B HHAfB 
Bo AHH, Ror^a, JiK)6fl, oh^ 6ujvh jhoóhmi. 



IV. 



Bcer^a sa qejiOB^qHUfl naqajia 
Ohi qecxflo bbjii ynopnyio CopsĎy; 
nnírruifHiJY'^ í».ii'fejioRi XHSHB ero HC SHaJia.. 

jieatá xenepb bb rpo6y, 

fipocHJii HAeajia, 
atecxoRyio cjABÓy 

y3ax'B CMepxH MOJiqajnfBOb, 

Ayxi ero BOJ[bHo.iio6HBBifi. 



)OSAeHHKiMx OAapeni, 
sycB pasBBJiB u noHUMaHbe. 
fa, nopoK) rpesH.!!* ohi* 

RHCXH, XO BaflHbfl; 



11* 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1C4 B1lCTHHKl» EBPOnil. 

To nepeAi> humi Me.ibRSJíH, RaRi CKBOSb cohi^ 
Bcb aoA^ecTBa BejivLKisi co3AaHLfl... 
íy^ecL OHI BUA'fe^'í» MHoro, h psajcá 
Onaib BsrjiflByTL Ha 9th qy^eca. 



VI. 



H My3UKH eMy HeAOCxaBajio. 
Ho nefi rpyCTfl, ohi domhiiji jí,o chxi nopx^ 
KaKi cepA^e b-b neui> Eor^a-xo saMapajio 
H fla 9CTpa;^y ycTpeMJifl.ica B3op%, 
Kor^a, Wh sH^y saMOJíRHyBmaro sajia, 
IIepeA'B čojibniHMi opRecxpoMi ;i;HpH3Rep'B 
Haqajio BOSBimajiT* pyRoft noA^flTOft 
GiiM({)OHÍH EeTxoBena ;i;eBflTOH. 



VIL 



H3i reflieBi no93ÍH — UleRcnHpi, 
Cxpacrefi jiíoacrhxi BceB'6AyiAÍS HcropnRx, 
EuBaji'B cb HHMi ^an^e. Ho xoxb B3rj[flA'B na mí^b- 
Bhjii FaMjexa ero VAjúoKh h ropeRi: 
„Btixb, HJb He 6HXb?.. ^epBefi MOniJibHiixi nnpx... 
HpHBirb MejianxojiHqecKift: poor Yorick!*... 
TauT* MoatHO — Aywajix ohi— -xaHjipnxb, atHBa^ 
A ue JieTRh bt> cooC^ecxBt lepBa. 



VIII. 

H Haqa;i'L ohx, bi rpo6y, na x^ se xeMU 
C.iaraxb cxhxh. npeA'b Bonieifi iiepxBei^a 
Bc*]^ BonjiH FaiiJieTa a&HBOro — wkuu. 
CRop6flMH neseMHLiMH óesx ROHi^a, 
Ha ňsuKk seMHOMi* CBoefi noamu, 
3anojioHHXb ohx uovb 6u bcí cepwa, — 
TaRB nšcHb ero xocRoft ciiepxejbHOft A^mex^. 
Ho qyjiHbix-L cxpo^-b ea hhrxo ne cJiHranxi. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



3ArP0BHAa TOCBA. 165 



IX. 



Mfljše 6hijn> euy bcíxi bhaobi cb^th. 
H rpesHJiHCb eny — to ca^i, BecHoS; 
To sHoftHoe, CBepRaiOD^ee jríbTo; 
To BHAx saA7MHHB[)i& FJíynie jrlcHott, 

Ysi KpaCBaMH OCeHHHlfH 0A'Í^T0ft; 

To 6yAT0 vb xeiLiOMi jijowk hsi OBea 
£My CErbrOBi BHAH'bjiacB ne^ieHa. 



X. 



Ohi no ceMB% rpycTHJii, jik)6iimo& atoHO, 
Bb Ty HO^B, EOTopofl HaHErb Mofi pascRasi. 
„S^opoBa JIH? CnacTJiHBa Jih?^... H MflTe2RH0 
Ero Aynia, TOCRya, si nefi psajiacB, 
XoTfl Me^rroft ne jBCTHJiacB Óesna^esHofi 
Ee yBH;í4TB. Ho na btotb paai 

,/v»« ««m, ^i^,j HBCTBeHHO ycjiHniajii, 

TaJIl H H8l HOrHJIEI BElHieJIX. 



.n, 



XI. 

ipesHOHi Bi AOMy noAXOAfl, 
py pascJiBímaTB na poflJii 

rjyxoft A^peBBCBi h aokw. 

HBecy Ty, htó HcnoJiHajiH, 

sa ifysuifioft cjAjí^si. 

andante SByBH sapu^aJiH: 
" ^) — BOCMHKHyjix OHB. — Moe 
xoBena trio!^ 

XII. 

Bi Ri creRJiy obobhoS pana, 

B cuimasi^ vb CBOfi aomi poAHoft. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



J 6C B«crrHHK'& EBPonu, 

BeJÍ^B ROHHaTU CB pOflJOeMl — TOTB TRB CEMUfi;; 

drpaiOTB sne na hcmi, rx ORHy cnHHoft, 

^fI A^ByniRH HJIB, MOHeTL CTaTkCfl, A&MBI, 

A cjiymaeTB MysHHHa MOJiOAofi. 
SaH^HX ase saÍcb nysíe jiioah aia? 
n rA% :bt> ero seHa? H ta*]^ se a^th? 



xm. 

Mexx T^HX RaRx OHI, nenajibHufiy y orh& 
Chotp&tb, eiiy BH^i^HÍe abhjiocb... 
Ilpe^x HHMx Bx ABepaxx — ona! ero Kena! 
Ho, BoKe MOft,' HTb ci» neio coBepran.iocB? 
Ys-B B-B BOJiocaxx ÓÍJiierB c*AHHa... 
O, RaRfB cocrap&iacB! EaRi HsniiHHJiacBl 

He HSM^HHJIBCB JIHEíTB TJiasa O^HH, 

H, RaseTCfl, sanjiaRaHEi ohh. 



XIV. 

Ha lOHUxx MysBiRaBTinx ona CHaqajia 
FjrflAiJia H-faEHO, CTOfl y Asepeft, 
IIoRyAa TeMDx nrpHBaro 4>^Haj[a, 

PtSBflCB, RX ROHUy CTpCMHJICfl BCC CROpMj 

A npH ROHi^% Hxx xaRi noi^tjiOBajia, 
RaRX TOjiBRO MaTB i^ijyeTx AO^epefi. 
T'b otfepHyjíHCB, h npn nepBOHX BsrJiflA^ 
Ohx hxx ysHajix. Botx MaHH, a botx Ha^aí 



XV. 

Ero ywy lenepB pasxacHeHH 

n AO^epefi pocRomHEifi bhax paci^B^xa, 

n RpacoTa noÓJieRinafl steHu. 

SeaTB, ysx a^bho HcqesHyjix ohx co cwkTSíy 

.^arriAřkiTue ^BHO y«X BH^HTX CHH; 
, DOJHH COÓKITift, jAtB. 

cx T^xx nopx cpeAB SHiejrefi seHJiif^ 
rnx ero, t)njiaRaBX, norpeÓJH. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SArPOBlIAH TOCKA. 



XVI. 



Bl> TOTb MHrB, ROFAa OHI BUmejrB H3'B rpoÓHHi^u 

H »B8HÍK) noB^flJio eny, 

EesBtcTHu 6uJiH BpeiieHM rpaeiii^u 

Bjiya^aBraeMy bti Meixaxx ero yMy. 

Ohi, bi mjyb BBflCb h8i> bíjsj^^ CBoefi TeMHHi^Kí, 

He noHHMajii, KorAa yBHA^Jit tlmj 

H Ha HacaxT> i^epROBHUxx ceiib npoÓHJio — 

6'B HCXOA^ Jih HOqb, HJIb TOJIbRO HaCTyHRJia. 



XVII. 

Ho oceHb OHI no npHSHaRaMi ysnajii: 

H no B^TBjiMT. RviaAÓHmeHCRoK ÓepesEi, 

H no TOiiy, RaR'b Bi^Tepi* ĎymeBajii, 

To saJioCbr RH^afl, to yrposu; 

Á CBOAi* HeÓecb Óesi ynojiRy pon^iJix 

Cboh HeH3CflRaeHUfl cjie3u... 

O BpeHeHH ysnajii ohi jrenib noTOMi>, 

KaRx yBHAajix Becb ocB'bniieHHU& aohx. 



XVIII. 

A B^ AOMt ysR-h HACTb ^peAoft oduiHoft 
ToTB BenepoBi jik)6hmu& hmi o6pflAi>9 
Bi ROTopoMi caMx ynacTriOBajii oni jih^ho 
Jli^Tb AecflTb, HO»eTi» 6yTb, TOiiy Ha3aA'B: 
Bcfe, CJiÍAya noipeÓHocxH npHBUHHoft, 
BoRpy rb CTOJia HaRpuTaro chaati, 
H nocpcAH — «eHa y caMOBapa, 
nopofi sacjOHeHa RJiyÓaiiH napa. 

XIX. 
KyAa CMOTp^Tb? H jiioÓOBaTbCJi rími? 

Ha ROHl H3X HHXl OCTaUOBUTb BHHMaHbe? 

Ohx TaRi BX7> Bc£x'b JnoÓH^ii! TaRi paAi* hmx b 
H, paAOCTHuii, oh^ CAep?KHBa*ii puAanwi,.. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



168 BftCTHHBrb EBPOnU. 

Ha HHX'B rAaji^áy ohi BcnoiiHHjrB, Mesxy T^ifB, 
%o BusBaHi Óuji-b seHOK) Ha CBHAaHBe. 
Ona — jm^OMi oCpamena ki neMy — 
Bi oBOHHyH) Bce BCHaipHBaJiacB Tbicy. 

XX. 

Gb^ímu MaHfl OTB Hea HanpaBo; 
Bjihs^ MaHH — HesHaBOMei^i mojioao&; 
HasÍBO — HaAfl. Bet nepřu erB npaBa 
OcraJiHCb rk se. Ob Ao6poft opocroTOft 
JI^epsajacB Mana; Ha^fl se, jyícaBO 
neperjflHyBmHCB cb crapmeio cecrpoft, 
£fl coc^Aft, Rasercfl, ApasHEJia; 

IIpHHeiťB CMiflJIHCB O&k O^eHB MHJIO. 

XXI. 
Oj Basi ÓJiHBRa TenepB ero ceMba! 

VkAVb OWh XOT&TB 6£1 Cl Hett 6UTB CHOBa Bll'ICTt! 

Bo&TH, cBasaTB: „He ÓoftTecB. 3to — a. 
Xoqy 8a ctojtb npectob Ha npesHem Mtcrt 
H cJnymaTB BacB. O, Aa&re mhÍ, xpysBfl, 
IIoApoÓHiifl o Bamefi SH3HH b^cth!^... 

n, BCe BX OBHO CHOTpfl, OH^ BCTp^THJirB BdOpi 

IŘeEUj rjflA^Bmefi na Hero fb ynopi. 

XXII. 

TorAa, bch> BiacTB yxpaTHBi HaAi co6ok), 
Ohi nocryHajii bi obho. Bcbo^hjib Bxpyri 
Bcb ch irbcTb... ^ena cb npocrepTOK) pyROK) 
K-B oKHy... Ha JiEi^axi Aonepeft — HcnyrB... 
Hsi BapayjBH tok) se nopoio 
Hocjuimajicfl aocbh nyrynnoft SBysi, 

H BTOpHTB e&, npOTflSHO saBUBafl, 

CcÓasa nanajia cToposeBaji. 

xxin 

SSrena, onnysniHCB, iít> Máni noAomja 
H B^B lOHoml^, CTOflBmeMy ci nefi pflAOM'B, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



3ArP0BHAfl TOCKA. 16 li 

H aa pyRH ivb okhv ux^ no^Be^ia. 

Oea, rifl^á kb okho, MOJinjia BsrjiflAOMT^, 

H Ta MOJiLÓa eMy ^cea Óujia: 

EjarocJOBHTb hxi> bi nyxb ri aeMHUMi uTpa;^aMi. 

Oh1» nOHHHaJll*, BTpOeM'B yBHA']^B^ HXX, 

^TO lOHoraa ÓHJix Aoqepa ateHHxi. 



XXIV. 

H oHT> 6;iarocjiOBHjii>. OcTajiocB xattHofi 

Jl-aa BCÉXT* 6jarocJ!OBeHÍe ero. 

.íKena, npHAfl bi* 9RCTa3% HeoÓuqafiHuK, 

He BHA'&ďa, RasajiocB, HHRoro; 

oGBLeHHXi »e roBopHJii>: „to cxyKt cJiyHaĚHuíí; 

BuBaiorL cTyKH Majio-JiB ort ^ero! 

H nTHna na avúth JieTETb nejybfljío, 

CTyqHTB cyxoK) bítroíI**. 



XXY. 

flTTb BOKpyrL CTOJia. 

ii. Ho HaAfl BCRop'b 
mHO npepBajra. 
TO Bx oCmeiďL pasroBopt 
Rs^e npHHfljia, 

iROK) Wb flCHOM^ BSOp']^, 

Jix c^ AyniH Tí!He.iHft THeii 

BraHX-B SaÓOTT). 



XXVI. 

íe rjiaA't-TB, ho ÓojiM 
npHB%THux'B rjiasi. 
cer^ioft BOJiH 
íro, qTo6^ bi 3toti> ^ac 

fBHAiJIl* BX HOBOft flOJli, 

e^Rii HBMH nopBajiacb. 
BHJicfl OHI H31 rpoCa, 
ifi ;^OJI^B CBepuJMjiH o6a. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



170 B«CTH(fK^ BBPOnU. 



XXVII. 



Mexi* tIími seJiaHbeMii KHXb ohi 6ujii> tomhmi, 
KaKx — Becb bi aBapy — 6o;ibHoft tohmtcs KaKAoB. 
Ohi HafijiiOAaJi^B, Raxi ;RB3Bb Teic^a npe^i* hbmi, 
H xa^HO HHrb en jiobbjii ohi Ka»cAufi. 
ToTTb sHaert ^•feHy paAOCTam seMHUMx, 
Kto CTajii HM^ HysAi*, ti3BÍ&AaBX uxi* OAHaxAU. 
HeciacTHte cyAi>6a He MOserB 6uTb, 
KaKx MepiBei^a, KOTopuft xonexi* »nTb. 

XXVIII. 

IlycTb Kb HeMi aaceerb Bctxx Bucraaxi AyMi TpeBora; 
Bijí^h su3Hb nojina hhuxi, BceAHeBHbix'B Hap'b 
TaMi, sa Hepxoft AOManjHaro nopora. 
EMy Tenepb Aíímh Hys^Hi mHSHH Aapi*, 
A aiHSflb caiia nycTb ^acri xota HCMHoro: 
Tenjio, noKoft, poajib jia, caMonapT.. 
OmmyTca na 9tomi cbítí fijiara 
Jl^jifl RasA^ro HrBOBenifl h mara. 

XXIX. 

Oh^ HacjiasKAajiCfl &b srsbík) laRofi! 
BesyMi^aMH ona soBeica — CKyKa; 
Ho Htrb oipaA^ ójaateHirfefi, KaK^ noKoft 
H THoíHHa. EcTb paft bx ^Opif^ei'' FjiioKa. 
KaRi TOTi, Morjia 6x n STorb paft seuHofi 
HsoOpasuTb npospaHHOCTb xa me SByRa. 
Ohtb Jiyqmaro He xonerb HHqero; 
Ho paft atHBuxi — y»e ne ASň nero. 

XXX. 

A ecJiaCi ^awe cb hhmi* CBeprawjocb hjj^o — 
OflT) OKHJíx 6u — b4ab 6ujio 6x wa ceMbH 
j[I,o6pa, noTRajiyft, MeH-fee, ^íut> xy^a. 

IIpHBUqRH 6b[ Bdi 6pOCHJIH CBOH, 

H 9X0X1 6hxt», yioxHuft xaRi* noRy^a, 
Ob B03JK)6.9eHHofi comeji 6u rojích. 
OaMa jRena, xoxb ne CRasana 6^ rpoMRO, 
IIo;iyMajia 6i»: „RaRaa bx atH3HH jioifKa!" 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SAirOBHAa TOCKA. 171 

XXXI. 

H OH'B, B3rj[flHyBi» Bi nooitAHÍfi pasi na bc^xi, 

y&TH OTL HHXl p^mUJlCBj TOCTb HeSBaHUft. 

Ohi noKCJiajii hmx ciaciba h yrifexi, 
HcnojiHeHi caMX ne^aJiH HecKasauHoň... 

H BX 9T0TI HHrB paS^aJICH Bl> AOMÍ CM^Xl*, 

Ero BOJibHyBí cjiyqafiHOcriK) CTpaHHofi. 
Ohi nOBepHyjii sa caAt, h sa yrjiOM^ 
HcqesTi Ha bíri po^Hofi u HHjiuit ^omi. 

XXXII. 
Ohi m&ii, bo ibm*!, no BcnaxaHHOMy uojik). 
KpyroMx TOCBJíBBoil nicHefi Biiepx buji'b, 
RaRi 6u ero onjiaKHBaa aojih), 
M HewiRÍft ao;kab neiiojiqHO MopocHJii>. 

H CB HHMH OH^ CTOHaJIl H HJiaBaJIX BBOJIK). 

OniiTB jiesaxB bi seMJ!*]^, cpe^H hofhjix! 

OoflTB Tocsa, KOTopofi OHI HaBasaHx 

3a TO, HTO crpacTHO bi> óbitík) npEiBasani!.. 

XXXIII. 

H TaB'B BSUBaJIl OHI R^ mjií MÍpOBOfi: 

„Aynia 6e3i» r&aa iiy^HTCfl, Óojihnan; 

H ecjiH ccTB sa rpoÓOMi Mipi^ HHott, 

H xaMi nacB TSiji^erb, yHepnmxx, shshb HHafl, — 

O, npeRpaTH raacejiuft HCRyci uofi! 

JíflSí HH'b TOTB MÍpí yBHA'bTb, OSHBafl! 

yax He »Hjei;x na 9tomi 6epery, — 
3aqÍMi Ha totx BcrynaTB a ne Mory?"... 

XXXIV. 
TaRi HO^B npomjia. Ha He6t sači-itiio; 
TyMaHHaa flCH']kB BH^HŠJiacB MyxB. 
XoT^a JiB BO.ifi Bx nem, hjib He xoíšjia, 
Ho OHX Bi BjaA^Híuy cbo& HanpaBHJii nyTB; 
Bt HeMB MucjiH racJiH; rojiosa cjí9í6^a... 
Ohi npomenTaji^ bi Ópe^y: „cqacrjiHBa Óy^Bl" 
H, noTepflB% CBOH) HO^nyio CHJiy, 
IIoRopHO JierB noA'B naMATHHBi bx MorHjy. 

ÁJIEKG^fi ,%EMqy«HHROBl. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CPEJÍHEBMOBOB MIPOBOSSPMIE 

Ero 

B03HHEH0BEHIE h HHEAJIT) 



I. 

IIoAotfHO TOMy, BaBi HaA'i> BasAUMi Hsi cpeAHeBÍB0Bux'B ropo- 
AOBi BucoBO noAHHHaeTCfl ero MaccHBEuii co6opx ci CBOefi na- 
npasjíeHHOfi bi He6y ocrpoBOHO^HOft CameeK), — TaBi naiCB Bceio 
cpeAHeBÍBOBOH) SHSHbH) líapHii o^HO o6mee, BejiHHecTBeHHoe coopy- 
meme neJioBifeqecBaro Ayxa. Oho xenepb y»e oÓBerraajio, HecMorpa 
Ha HeoAHOBpaTHBifl pecraBpauid, — qHCio ero hobjiohhhbobi, OAHaso, 
eme oqeHb bojihbo, xora bmíctí Cb rbwb BoapocraerB h hhcao xtyB, 
ROTopuMi OHO H^maeTB H BOTopue xoT^JH 6a ero chocth, qroÓH no- 
craBHTB Ha ero mícto Hio-HHÓyAb Apyroe no CBoeiíy Bsycy h norpetí- 
Eocrawb — Basapny^ ({)a6pHBy hjiet ^^aJiaHcrepift. Ho BpoM*! hobjlohhh- 
BOFB, coÓHpaion^Hxcfl MaccaMH OBOJio dToro coopysenifl, H BpoH^ 
BparoBx, Herepn-kďUBO osHAaiom^Hx^ ero naAeHÍfl, vb Heny esero^HO 
TflHyxcfl AJiHHHOfi BepenHi^eft JnoóosHaTejfLHiie nyTemecTBeHHHKH, 
<iToÓ£i BsrjiflHyTB na nero, pasB^^aTb, BaBi oho crpoHJiocb, no^HBaTB 

nOA'b ero MOry^HMH, XyCBJIO OCB^OieHHKÍMH CBO^aMH, nOXHBHTBCfl 

oOmHpHHlfb ero pasM^paMX h neÓuBaJioft Bucovb. ÓAnaBO, Basx 
npH noc^H^eniH roxnqecBaro xpana nejibsfl orpaHHHHTbOi oahhm'& 
TexHHqecBHMx HJH dcreTHHecBHHX HHiepecoMi^^ — HeBOJibHO oTxaeniBCfl 
qyBCTBj H Boo6paseHÍH), BcnoMHHaemb o i^xi Tuca^axrb ójaro^e- 

CTHBUXl TpySeHHB06'b, BOTOpue Ha CBOHX'b Hiie^aX^b CHOCHJH BaifHH 

AJifl xpaMa, H o i^^JioifL pflA^ noBOJi^HÍfi, a^a BOiopuxi OHI cjiy- 

7B,EAT> I^eHTpOHX H BUpaSHTeJieifB BCeft AyXOBHOfi aKHSHH, yT^miiTe* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CPEAHEB^KOBOE MIP0B033P1&H1E 173 

zewh Bi ropi, HCToqHHROMi čjiaropoAHaro dHxysíasMa n HpaBCTBeH- 
Haro repoHSMa, — Tas^ h npH hjsjíjí coopyKeHÍfl, KOTopoe mu pas- 
yMÍeM'B, TpyAHo ocTaBaxbCfl paBHOAyniHUMx Ha^Jno^aTeJieMi u cyxHii^ 
HscJiÍAOBaTejieMi ciapHHu, u6o HHsaEofi Apyrofi naMATHHR^ He ro- 
BopHTb TaK'B BpacHop^HHBO O BeJH^ÍH ^eJOB^qecKaro saMucjui e o 
Mon^H qejOB^qecKO& bojih, o ÓjaropoACXBi h b'b to se spěna o 

HH3MeHH0CTH qeflOB^qeCBOfi HaxypU, o BUCOROIIX HpaBCTBeHHOlťL 

mAT^ewb H sajfROiťB naAeeiif, — hh b'l Basoiii ApyroM'B ciy^ai ne 
XOCTHrHyrB laBOil BucoBitt npeA:bJ'B h ee noipaqeHa xaBaa CHJia 
HeJOB^qecBaro udeaAUSMa. 3tott> BejiHRÍfi HCTopHHecRÍft naMflTtí^R'B 
flasuBaerca „cpeAHeBÍROBUMT>" RaTOJiHqecTBOMi^ viJivi nancnoio meo- 
Kpamieů. 

KpoMt xaRoro CBoero HCTepnqecRaro hjih HpaBCTBeHBO-RyjibTyp* 
Haro HHTepeca, cyABÓa cpeAHeB']&ROBoft TooRpaiÍH saHaHHBBa en^e 
noTOMy, qTO OHa saRJiioqaeTx bi» ce&k jiioGonuTHyio ncHxojiorHqecRyH) 
npo6jeMMy. IIoaoÓho TOny, RaRi bucoríK roTHqecRifi cboai* A^psHTCfl 
Ha CBOHxx jLByx^ ROJiOHHaxi, A^ORO OTCTOflm.Hxi Apyn 0TB Apyra 

Bl CBOHXl OCHOBaHÍflXX H CMURaiOmHXCfl Ha BUCOT^ CBOHMH saocTpeH- 

HUMH BepxymRaMH, — TaR'B h b^roboo coopyseHÍe nancROfi TOORpa- 

tíh BBipOCJIO CTOJb MOmHO Bl BUCOXy H Bl OfíxeM*, 6jarOíapfl ABJMl 

ocHOBBUMi npHHAHnaMx, Apyr% j^pyra HCRjiioqaBmHMx h OAHoaROBO 
ciysHBiuHMX o6wi,eíí uihjívi. 3to — npHHi^Hn^ acROTHsiia, hjih oipe^enifl 
on Hipa, H npHBi^Hn^ BceMÍpeofi BJiacin, hjih BJia^unecTBa HaA'b 

MipOMl. ÁoCiaTOqHO nOHMOHOBaTb 8TH npHHI^HnU, qXOÓKí yCMOTp'&Tb 

Hxi npoTHBonojiosHOCXb, H AOCxaxoqHO canaro 6'lrjiaro saaROMCXBa 
Cb HCTopiefi nancTBa, qxoóbi yC^AHXbCfl b^ hxi nocxoAHHOifb Bsan- 
MOA'lficxBÍH. Ha caMOMi }KbJí'kj noxb sHaneHeMi, na ROxopoMi 6ujio 
BanecaHO npesp^eie Kh HÍpy, nancxBO aocthfjio cbohxi BOJiHqaž- 
iHHxi no6'£A'B Ha^i MÍpoM^: bo hma acRexnqecRaro H^eajiHSMa, nanu 
npeoÓpasHJiH i^epROBb h AajiH eá xy oprannsax^iio, Roxopaa nooiy- 
s&sa npoqHUM'b ocHOBanieiirb jí^jisi HX'b BceMÍpnaro Horyn^ecTBa; 
MOHaxH, ynepmie ji^jia MÍpa, npo6ysAajiHCb ri whsbe^ qxoóu npoBO- 
AHTb wb i^epRBH H Bi uipi H^eio BceMÍpHoft nancRoft BJiacxH, OTCxan* 
Baxb efl HHxepecu, coAMcxBOBaxb efl yRp'&njieHÍH) h pacmHpeHÍio; 
noRHAaa CBOH HOHacxypH, ohh caiiH, b^ RaqecxBŠ npejiaTOBi h 
nani, saBOOBusajH Mip'b bo hma haoh eAHHOBJíacxia. 

TaRoe oqeBHAHoe npoxHBopi^qie hb mofjio ycROJibseyxb orb bhh- 
naflifl HCTopHROBi, x^ifb ÓojAe^ qxo oho npoACxaBJíflJio ewl npeRpac- 
Hoe epoACTBo a^a jipRaro ocF&iiieHifl dnoxH h xaepAyK) xoqRy onopu 
PH RpHTHRH B BpHroBopa HaA'B oxAajieBBoft exapHBofi. PaBCMaxpHBaa 

Cb BTOft TOqRH Sp&BÍH A'^TeJIbBOCXb CaMUXl BOJIHRHXX HJIH ÓJieCXH- 

n^Hx^b nanii, HCxopHRi jopro Morb npHAaxb CBOOMy HasoseHÍK) sa- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



174 BftCTHHB^B EBPOnH. 

MaHHHByK) ÓofiBOCTb H CBOHM'B xapaRTepHCTRRaHi Dopasaioiuyio 
oe.ii>e4)HocTB; b^ ocoÓeHHOCTH BuroAHa ORaauBaJiacB ara To^aa sp^- 
eifl ez noACMUfCTb — j^jih hctophkobx, KOTopue ea hohbí cpe^HeB*- 
BOBO& HCTopÍ9 BejiH ÓopBÓy Ch npHBi^HnaMii H npHTfl3aHÍflMH cospe- 
MeHHaro KaxojiHííHaMa. IloBTOMy Bcero apqe BHcrynaerL h Bcero 
nocjÍAOBaTewiBHte opoBe^ena 9Ta ToqRa apinia na cpe^HÍe BÍita b^ 
esBicTHOM-B coqHHeeÍH ÓeJiBrificKaro ncropHKa Jlopana ^), KOxopBifi 

nOCBflTHJTB CBOK) BK[AaK)myK)Cfl Ha^HTaHHOCTB, CBO& TaJiaHTB H CBOfD 
TpyAOByK) KH3HB, r.iaBHUMl o6pa30Mi, TOMy, HT06u cnacTH CBOe 

OTeqecTBO otb yrpoaLaBoiaro eny nopa6oiueHÍfl KJiepHRajiHaMOJťB. 

Ho, CB APyroft CTOpOHH, He TOJIBKO KaTOJHqeCKÍe HCTOpHKH-anOJIO- 

rcTU ^), HO H Ha paay cb hhmh Apyrie, bobco ne HMioniie b^ BH;iy 
npocjraBJíeHie cpe^HeBÍKOBoro KaT0;iHi^H3Ma, — cmuih yKasHBaTB na to. 
qxo Meacay MonaraecBHMX acKeTHSMOMi h saBoeBaiejiBHoft nojiHTHKoft 
nani hítb HHKaKoro npoTHBopí^ia. KaRx acReTH^ecRÍfi n^eajiHBMT*, 
TaRi H CTpeMjrenie Kb jiipoBOMy BjajítinecTBy nanx BuieRaíorB h31 
OAHoro HCTOHHHRa, H3X o6maro cpe^HeBiROBoro BiipoBoaspinifl, b^ 
ocHOBaHÍH ROToparo jieatarB n^ea „6o»ecRaro i^apciBa". Bcero 
C03HaTejiBH*e h acníe nocrasjíeHT) Bonpocx o npoTHBopiniH Meat^y 
ynoMaHyTHMH npHBííHnaMH, h Bcero RaieropB^nie paspiraeHB offB 
6x oipHi^axe^BHOM^B CMucjii^ B^ BuoieAHieMi Tpti roAa TOMy HaBaAi* 
saH^l^aTejBHOMx coqHHeHin dfiRena: „HcTopia h CHCTeMa cpe^HeBŠ- 
BOBoro MipoBOBspiHÍa" ^). 

ABTopi uocTSiBviJVh ce&b nibjíhio AORasaTB, qro o6a crpeMJenia, — 
voLKh CTpeujieHie rx orpei^aHÍio ifipa, TaRx h ri 3aB.iaA'6Hiio MÍpoMx, — 
vh OAHHaROBOft creneHH BBicTynaion^ia bt> cpeAHeBiROBOft i^epRBH, 
:KOTa H npeACTaB^aiOTca coBepmeHHO hpothbohojoskhumh h bhojhí 
jtpyrB Apyra HCRJiioqaiomHMH, ojínaRO no cymecTBy CBoeMy h jsíkiai 
— e^HHii; HT0 nepexojíx otb OTepamennaro orB Mipa, acRera^ecRaro 
ynenia xpucTÍancTBa bx otfpan^eHHoft na MÍpx BaBoeBaTejiBHofi nojR* 
THR'6 nancTBa ókejtb jorHqecRB HeoÓxoAUMUMx npoi^eccoMx; qro, 
BCJi^ACTBie 3Toro, npHTasaHÍa cpeAneBtROBOft iepapxia na BjacTB 
viwkjiví CBoe ocHOBanie ne wh npoe3BOJii ota']^bhuxx JiHHHOcrefi, a 
BX caMOft jiorHRife pejHrio3Hoft CHCTeMU RaTOJHqecTBa. Kx coxa- 
jiíhík), yqeHHft h npoHimaTejiBHhitt aBTopx tojbro naMÍTH^x cbok) 
sahany, ho ne ocymecxBHJx ee. JI^Ba^i^aTB aítl paCoTaa na^x Heio 
H coÓpaBx rpoMaAHufi Maxepiajix jtJia pasptmeHÍa ea, ohi óujis 



*) Laurent: Ktudes sur Thistoire de l^humanité, 12 t. h 2 t. npBÓ. 

^) CiOAa oTHOCBTOi coíHHenie HaH6oiiie eay^iHaro hsi RaTOJHHecsBxi HcropBKOVb 
^nncRona, hotomi RapAHnajia: Hefele, Conciliengeschichte. 

^) H. v. Eicken: Geschichte und System der mittelalterlichen Weltanschanung. 
Cotta, 1887, 822 exp. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CPB;ínBB*KOBOE MIP0B033P*BIE. 175 

oxeaqeBt hm^, h ero mhcjib norjiomeHa Apyroio sa^a^eio- OcTaBHB^ 
cotfcTBeHHO Bi CTopoH'6 BonpocB O npoTHBOp^^ÍH HJH corjiacÍH AByx^ 

OCHUBBUXX npHBUHQOBl CpeAHeB^ROBOS T60RpaTÍH, dfiRCBl Jífiň^h 

HEMi Bi BefiuBaJiofi no.ifloxi H wb apROH^ H3Jio;RenÍH Hcropiio 
passumiíi H BaxiiMi padAootcems cpeAHeB']&ROBoro MÍpoco3epi;aBÍfl. 
6i aTOifi> HMeHHO 3aR.iH)qaeTCfl naaqeBÍe RBHra. He ii^ea npoTHBO- 
ncuosflOCTu Mexjiy „acRerHáMOM^ ii iepapxíeS^ npoxoAurB Rpacflot^. 
HHTbH) qepeai dTy Reery, a u30($paaceBÍe Apyroro, Be ^leufke nopa- 
3HTe.ii>Baro Roarpacra. Mu CTaflOBHMCfl spuieJi^iMB ROJOccajibHoti 
(SopbÓBi, ROTopyK) BeAyTB Bi MÍpi Bo6opBHR» acReTHSMa H iepapxÍH. 
m6hi o6n^HMH CB.iaMB ycTaaoBHTb fla;!^ bbmi TopxecTBO TeoRpaiÍH 
H noAHHHHTb cpeAneB^ROBOMy MÍpoB033p'lBÍK) hcb oÓjacTH qejiOBt«ie- 
CKaro jyxa h treseví: rocy^apcTBO, oÓmecTBeenoe ycrpoftcTBO, ceMbio, 
npaBO, 9K0B0MHqecRyK) aasBb, JiHTepaiypy h nayRy, a Cb ApyroR 
CTopoBbi, Hbi BHAHiťb Bce Óoji']^ ycHJiHBaioaieecJi npofnueodrbůcmeie 
iripflB^ Ay^ft HOBaro BpeMesH rocnoACTBy reoRpaTMqecRoiif CHcreMbr. 
TaRHMi o6pa30MT> H H3JiOHceBÍe dfiResa npuBHMaerb BeBOJibBO h, 
HysHO CRanaTb, cjihoiromx qacro o6JlE^E^eJ^hBuíí xapaRxep-^ h npe- 
diHsaeTCfl R'b npoxBBonojio^RBofi TesAesi^ia JIopaBa, Roxoparo 3&ReH'B 
BnpoqeM^B ee 3Baeii>, RaR^b CBoero npeAmecTBeBBHRa. 

Bo BCflROM^ csyqa']^, npo6.ieMMa hmx acbo nocxasjeBa h cti 
efl pasptmeflifl vb Towb hjih ApyroMi* CMuaii^ ÓyAerB BaBHCŠTb ae 
TOjbRO oi^^HRa OTA'&abflb]x% HCTopHHecRHXi jijbfmeAei cpeAH MOHa- 
lOBi H nanx, bo h bca ORpacRa cpeABeB^ROBoft HcropÍH ci caifoft 
BHAaion^eBcfl efl cropoBbi. 

OAHaRO, HaxoABMCfl JiE MU A'6ficTBHTejibflo B^ 9T0M'B cjiyqai^ Be* 
peA^ AHJieMMO& II npHflysAeBU npHSBaTb hjh ocBOBBoe BpoTHBopiqie 
BO Bcix^B saflBJíefliflxi u crpeHJieBiflxi noÓopBHROBi TeoRpaTnqecRott 
opraflH3aAÍH uipa, bjib me, BaoÓopoxi, mbi ao^itrbu AOsycxHXb, qxo 
Hpe3i Bc6 Hxi) HAeH, cxpeMje.BÍfl h A'^ttcxBÍfl BpoxoAflxi no^Boe 
eAHBCXBO H cxporaa nocjiiAOBaxejiBBOCXb? 

[Ipoi^ecci* HcxopHqecRoft »h3bh oóuRHOBeHBO Mfloro cjioiRwbe 
OT&TeqeHHuxi 4^opMy.i'B, noA'B RoxopuH HCxopBRi xe;!aji'B 6u ero 
noABecxH. H bx a^bsom^ cjiyqa'6 aa BOBpoci o npoxHBopiqÍH 
Hejb3a orpaHHqnxbca npocTUM^ oxbSxomx: ^Aa" uau „bíxi"; cnpa- 
Be4JiHBo, qxo MexAy acRexasMOMx n iepapxieft, MOBamecxBOMX h 
naucxBOMi irbvb npuBi^HBÍa;ibflaro npoxHBopfaqia, h6o h xo, h Apy- 
roe BuxeRaerb h3t» oahopo o6maro HCxoqBHRa — bs^ BAen „6owe- 
csaro i^apcxBa" Ba seMJii; ho bi xo se Bpeiffl HecoMir6BBO, qxo 
qepesi bch) cpeAReBikROByio ;RU3Bb A^^cxBBxeJibBO npoxoAHxi ro- 
peBHot HJH npHHE^HiiiaJibflufi pa3Aadi. 9xotb pa3JiaA'B, OAnaRO, 06- 
yciOBJHBaexcfl ne npoxHBopiqieM^ MexAy npHHUBnaMH oxpeqeaifl 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



176 B^CTHHKI. EBPOnu. 

OTi MÍpa H 3aBJiaA']^BaBÍfl hm'b, ho ÚOjAe o^o^hmi h cyn^ecTBeH- 
HUMi npoTHBop'&HÍeM'B HJiH, B^pHŠe CBasaiL, aumuHOMieto iiesAy ude- 
aAOMi H A'^ficTBHTejibHOCTbH), MC^AY ^Accfi H y^pesAemeiTB, Mesj^y 
AyxoBHUHi CRJiaAOMi JiHHHOCTH u 62 npoflBJíeHieirB Wh ORpysaion^efi 
ee A^fiCTBHiejiBHOCTH. PaasaAi* TaKHM'^ oÓpasoMi aboaríA: BcropH- 
necBÍfi H ncHxojiorHqecRifi, coo6pa8HO xony, hto h canuft HAea.rb 
ComecKaro i^apciBa noAJeasaďB ABofiHOMy ocymecTBjeHÍio — bi y^peat- 
AeHÍH, T.-e. Bi i^epsBH, h bi jiHqHOfi SH3HH HOHaxa. B% nepsoiTb 
cay^aib pasja^i^ oÓycooBJíHBajiCfl Bce 6ojiie h Óo^ie yBejiH^HBaB- 
niHMCfl pa3CT0flHÍeM'B MesAj HAeajbHofi i^'&ssk) TeoBpaTÍu h peajB- 
HOK) (í)opMOK), B-B KOTopofi OBa ocyn^ecTBHjiacb — B-B n,apcTB4 XpH- 
CTOBa HaM']kcTHHRa vb PuMÍ. KaKi cBopo H^efl „6osecKaro utapcTBa*" 
Ba ^evijA Ba^ajia o6Bapy»HBaTbCfl vh A'£fiCTBHTej[bBOCTH, OBa cxaja 
BOAJiesaTb bjiíabík) HCTopHqecRBXi b ByjbTypBuxi ycjiOBÍfi B^Ra, 
pBMCRofi TpaAHi;ÍB, ^^eo^ajiESHa, aBapxÍH, BeBŽxecTBa, jhoacrbxi^ 
cxpacrefi b CTOJiRHOBeBifi; a-^a yTseps^eBÍn „ÓosecRaro i^apcTBa^ Ha 
aeMJiJi noBaAOÓHjiacb yBHBepcajibflafl Bjiacrb pBMCRaro nepBOCBfln^eH- 
HHBa, a A^ yRp^Bjíesifl dTofi AyxoBBoK BjiacTB noBaAOÓB^ocb noA* 
qHBeBie eft bcíx^ cbítcrhxx Bjaei^efl b cb.ix, T.-e. nocreneHHoe 
npeBpanieme ea wh cbítcrjk) h MaxepiaJbByK) BJiaciB. Apyroft se 
pa3JiaA'b — ncBxojoroMecRifl — oÓycjiOBJBBajica aboSbeim^ oipaseHieMiy 
Bi Ayni'! MOHaxa B^en 6o:RecRaro i^apciBa, aboShumi ero npHSBa- 
bícm^: cnacaTb ce6a h cnacaib MÍpx, coAi^CTBya TopKecTBy HaAi- 
MÍpoMi^ 6oaiecRaro i^apcTBa. 

dlOTb ABOfiBOft pa3J[aA'B BBOCBTB Bl CpeABeB^^ROByK) BCTOpÍK) 

pasHOoÓpasie, SB3flb b rjiyÓORifi iparB^ecRÍft BBTepeeb; npBpoAa 
qejiOB']^Ra npoflBJífleTCfl na ea o6mfiWh ncBxojiorBqecROMi ocHOBaBÍH 
m> MHoro^HCJieBBHXx B TOBRBXi OTrfHRaxx; RaRx Bi> Apyria Bpe- 
MeBa, TaRi b 3A'6cb mu bbabm'b nepeA'b co6ok), bi paAy Mona- 
XOB^ B nani, — BAeaancTOBx, ROTopae xorarB npeoňpasBTb A*ftcTBH- 
TeJbBOCTb, ne BSBpaa na ea rpedoBania b ycjiOBia, b no^nTBROBi*, 
Bi pyRaxi ROTopuxi. caMua hacb npeBpan^aiOTca wh nojEBTa^ecRÍa 
cpeACTBa, — acReroBx, Roropbie yMBpaiOTB AJia MÍpa, h (|)aHaTHROBx, 
3aRajiBBniBxca vh MOflamecRott ABCi^BnjBH']^ Jiamb AJia Toro, htoÓu 
HajiomBTb na nipi ea a^ejitenoe apsío. 

Bca »B3Bb npeBpaniiaeTca wh 6opb6y b ApftMy. dia ApaMa 
npoHCxoABTB Bi Aynit MOHaxa, RorAa oh^b orpusaeica orb ceMbB, 
OTpeBaeTca otb Bcero, ^xb eMy 6hjio Aoporo bi> »h3hb, ití) ero 
MaBBjío B npejibn^ajio fb CyAyniieMx; ona npoAOJi»eaeTca b^ MóHa- 
CTbrpcRO& Rejb']^ Wh gopbói Moaaxa Cb cbobmb npBBuqRaMB b crpa- 
ciaMH; OBa noBTopaeica, RorAa Monax^, ycxynaa rojiocy BAeaja 
BJiB BflyxpeHHeMy BJie^eHiio, noRBAaexi Rejibio, qxoów CHOBa ca^- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CPEAHEB^ROBOE M1P0B033P«H1£. 177 

jaTbCfl óopi^OMi vb MÍpi^. Ho noAOÓHafl se Apana padurpuBaercfl 
Wh odmHpHHxi paaMŠpaxx na BceiilpHOfi ci^eH^ bi HCTopin naa- 
ersa: noA'B SHaMeneHi acsexHSMa, bo ema Óosecsaro i](apcTBa, bos- 
BOAflTB cBoe BOAflHecTBeHHoe 3AaHÍe HAeajECTu Me»Ay MOHaxaMH h 
nanaMH, seJiHKie soA^e cpeAHeBtBOBoft Teospaím, h ci» RasAUM'B 

HOBSITL TOpSeCTBOSTB, Cl RaXAOB HOBOfi DOÓ^AOň HaAl HÍpOMl 

i^ipcTBO TeoBpaTÍH yAajiflercfl orb CBoero HAeajia. fii shshh bí- 
KOTopuxrb BiiA&K)ii;Hxcfl no6opHHKOBi „6osecBaro i^apcTBa^ mosho 
jyqme Bcero npocaiAHTb 9totb paaiaAx iiezsAy HAeefi n yqpes- 
xeflieiTb Bi HCTopÍH nancTBa, He»Ay HAoajiOMi h TpeóoBaHÍflME 

X^fiCTBHTeJlbHOCTH Fb Aymi^ MOHaxa, Ho AJUÍ dToro Heo6xoAHMO 

npesAe Bcero BUJiCHHTb xoxb bi EpaTBOMi oqepBŽ HCxopHHecBoe 
npOBCxosAeHÍe haoh „óosecsaro i^apciBa" h CMbicJii^ Boropufi ona 
nojyHHJia vh eaqajii cpoAHHXi bÍbobi cpeAB ycJOBÍfi, wb boto- 
ptixi TOPAa HaxoAiiiincb eBponefiCBÍe napoAu. 



TaB'b BaBi, vb BHAy yBasaHHOft Hanu i](^h, eirb ocHOBamfl 
yrjyÓJiflTbCfl bi noApoÓHyio HCTopiio hach „6osecBaro i^apciBa^ Ha 
seiui, TO Bcero ^iJIecoo(5pa8e'fce ĎyAOTi bx HacToameMi cjiynai no- 
XofiTB, TaBi CBasBTb, npflMO Bi efl B0Jiu6ejiH H noseaBOHHTbCfl ci» 
naifflTHHBOirb, bx BOTopoMx BTa HAefl BnepBue nojyqHjia CBoe jio- 
nwecBoe paBBBTÍe h cbok) TeopeTaqecEyH) ^opMjJiy. 

TaBoe SHaneHie nuďker^ TpaBxaTi hjih co^BHOHÍe ÁBrycTHHa 
Civitas Dei (líapcTBO BoaecBoe). 9to bmb nepenocHrb eaci E-b 
Hanajiy Y b^bb namefi dpu. 3A^Cb na rpann Asyxx HÍpoBi>, 
pHHCBO-flSbi^ecBaro h xpHCTiaHCBO-eBponeftcBaro, h noA'B Bjtia- 
BÍeMi HX'b BHTarouHSMa sapoAHJiacb tb BenHqecTBeHHafl haca, bo- 
Topyio cpeAHeB^BOBBfl EBpona nuTajsacb ocyn^ecTBHTb; SA^Cb uo- 
XBjíocb TO y^OHÍe, BOTopoe npeACTaBJUteTi eo($OH) ^hlaoco^íío hcto- 

JÁH q)eAHBX'b B^BOBl. Sa^CB mu MOJBOMI^ npOCJlŠAHTb CaMUe BOpHH 

BayqaeMaro naMH hb^ohIíe, ecjH BHHBHeHi) bi Ayxi anoxH, pa3- 
€M0TpHMT> oócraHOBBy, cpoAH BOTopofl pocb H pasBHBajica ABPy- 
CTBHi, ecjiH A^AHMi ce6b OT^erb bi toitb, BaBÍB sbab^b AO^aKHu 
6íUE saHflMaTb ero nbiTJiBBufi h reHÍaj[bHu& yiix, bbbhhh Boe- 
^tjt&híbmh nETBJíocb ero njtaiieHHoe BOOÓpaseeie, bbbíb coSutíb 
nrliH pšmaiOQ^ee ajb eero sHaneHÍe. 

Ho CBoeify BpeMOHH e jHHHOMy paaBHTÍH) caifb ÁBrycTHHi bb- 
Jierefl orai](eTBopeHÍeM'b Bopennoro aHTaroHHSHa ap^bhafo pHMCBaro 
I xpECxiaHCBaro iiipoBx; ohi bx cbmomi ceói liepesBJíi h noú^bjíjiLirh 
myth aHTaroHBBiťb b bi CHJiy SToro CA^ajica rjiaBHKíiii pyBOBOAB- 
Tejeifb coBpeMeHHaro eMy oÓn^ecTBa nps n^pexoA'6 oti craparo 

TOMl I.— JiHBAPb, 1891. 12 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



178 BI^CTHHSl EBPOnU. 

MÍpa K-B HOBOMy. Ha^Heiíi cb enoxn, Kor^a poAUJica ABrycTHH-B — 
Bi 353 r.— jiBH^ecTBO yse óhjo noCijKAeno, ho eme HaxoAUjiocB 
Blb noJHOfi CHJiš. En^e ne 6um Tor^a Hs^asu cxporie yK&su HMne- 
paTopa OeoAOcifl npoTHBi^ nsBiqecTBa, h ^ase aKeprsonpEHomeHifl 
sHBOTHuxi flsuqecBHMi ÓoraHi en^e ne B036paHfljHCb, a cb jAt- 
CTBOiťB ABryCTHHa coBnaJia HSB^CTHaa nooHTsa RvnepaTopa lOjíaHa 

BOSCTaHOBfaTB TOpSeCTBO Jl3BÍ?eCTBa. Bl CaMOBťB PehÍ flSU^eCTBO 

;íaae hmíiio nepeB^x: oho HaxoAMO cé6* Kp4nKÍft oiuot-b b% 

pHMCBOfi apHCTOBpaTÍEr, Bl TbTh CeHaXOpCKHXl <|)aHBÍJlÍflX'B, BOTOpBIfl 
OCraJIHCB BipHBIMH tí^iOCTHTeJBHBI^aMH pHHCBiiX^ npe^aHÍfi H pHM- 

CBofi CTapHHBi. Jípyroft BpinBift omoti asBi^ecTBO naxoAHJO fb 
TorAameeMi o6pa30BaHÍH, ocHOBaHHoifB na EBynemu jisuqecBofi jh- 
Tepaxypu n asu^ecBofi ^^hjtoco^^íh. HMnepaxopi K)jiíaffB Aaase sa- 
npeiHJii xpHcriaHaiPB npenowBaiB JiHxepaTypy h pniopaBy, T.-e. 

HCByCCTBO, BOTOpEIMl TaBX AOpOIREJ^B AP^BHlft uipx. H81» paSCRa* 

»OBi caiforo ÁBrycTHHa o CBoefi sh3hh, hsi ero SHaMeHHTuxx 27pe«- 
dMamú MU ysHaeMi, qxo npocjaBHBmificA bi to spěna npeno^a* 
BaxejiB jiHTepaTypKí h peropoBH, Bhbtophhi, yÓ^^HBinHCB yse fb 
^p&jiuxi .li^Tax^ wb HCTHH']^ xpHCTÍaHCTBa, jí,0Jisiewh 6tíijn>, bi CHJiy 
HMoepaTopcBaro sanpemeHÍa, pascTaTBca cb ^(oporĎfi eny AiflTejiB- 
HOCTBK). HTáBx, BTO jíoÓHrB o6pa30BaHÍe, JiHTepaiypy, HCByccxBO 

H 4>H-^0C0$ÍK), TOTB VJSLJÍfiLeTCE XpHCTÍaHCTBa, a BTO nOJIK>6HTl XpH- 

CTÍaHCTBO, TorB OTpeaaerca otb Bcero, ht6 bxoahjo vl Tor^aranee 
oÓpasoBaHÍe. 

ÁBrycTEH^, BaBi yiRe ynoMAHyTO, nepesHJii bi caMOMi ce6i 
aHTaroHHSM-B h 6opB6y bthxx ^syx^ MipoBOsapinift — ^^pjixjť&Binaro, 
yxojíHBraaro, — h rpa^ymaro, nojHaro »b3Hh h Ďy^ymnocTH. Ero 
OTei^i 6biji'b ABiiqHHBi, ero MaTB, MoHHBa, 6£uia peBHoerHaa h fijia- 

rO^eCTHBafl XpHCTÍaHBa, CBOUMH HpaBCTBeHHEIMH AOCrOHHCTBaMH AO- 

BaBKiBaBinafl npeHMyn^ecTBO HOBaro yqeHiji h noBjsiflBinafl ea o<5pa- 
^eflie Mysa h CBina. Ho ajia mojto^ofo ABrycrana ^acB oCpam^e- 
Hifl AOJro He BacTynajii). B'b HTenÍH flsuHecBHxi commeBÍŘ, bx 
TBopeHÍflxi II^Hi^epoHa h bb ^iajioraxi Il;íaTOHa ÁBrycrHHi no^epn- 
Hyji'B jiK)6oBB Kb My;^pocTH, a 9Ta MyApocTB npoBOBajia ero b'b abki- 
qecTBy. Bmšctš cb rhwb, owh BecB OT^asca TOiqr npESBaHÍK), bo- 
Topoe BmÓwňe cooTBiTCTBOBaao ero TajianTy, h BOTopoe bi to 
BpeMfl npejcraBJíajio Jiyqmee cpe^CTBO npocaaBHTBca h npiofiptcTH 
noHecTH. Oe-B oT^aaca pHTopHB* h sanajii mícto npo^eccopa 9Toro 
HCByccTBa Bi Mvijíhwb, TorAamneft cfojhi^^ sana^HOfi phmcboě 
HMnepÍH. 

TaB'B npomjia ero mojoaoctb, h eny HacrynHj['B 32-0& roA'B. 

npHMŠp^B H BJliflHÍe HaTepH CÓJraBHJH ÁBryCTHRa CB xpHcriaHCTBOMx; 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CPEAHEB^KOBOE MIP0B033P%H1E. 17!> 

OETB JTAJŮBACSI Vh KHHrH XpHCTOBU H, nO CBOHM'B IIpU3HaHÍHMZy 

TeopcTH^ecKH y»e jcbobjcb ce6* ÓowecTBeHsyH) HCTHHy. Ho ero 
oópan^eme saMeAJiflJiocB npHBjísaHHOCTLK) ri MÍpy^ h Aftse Tor^a, 
sorxa, no ero cjioBaMi, vb neMi noracjH crpacTH, Bor^^a ero y»e 
He BOJiHOBaia na^es^ra na noqecTH h (5oraTCT60, owh Bce em^e 
uejmuTh — ero OTBjreBaja jedÓobs b% ceMefiHO& shbhh, jik>6obi> bi 
xeHn^HB-b, KOTopafl AaJia eHy CHHa. 

Mu BHAHMi, TaBHifB oÓpasoiTB, ^TO nepexo^TB ABrycTHHa kb 
ipHCTÍaHCTBy npeAcraBiflJicfl eiiy paspuBOirB — co nekwb t^mi, htď 
€My 6ujío Aoporo h i^íhho bi aWdHH. 

jQ^ÓJirH H MyqnrejibHii 6iije ero K0j[e6aHÍfl; ohi caici nojipoÓHO 
nocBflTHJTB HacB B'B TH&BU Ajmjlí CBOeft. Owb o6o]íjpsiJVb ceófl npH- 
HtpoiTB BHBTopnHa, BOTopaS, no ero BiipasBeniH), ne ycruAHJicfl 
iipii3HaT& ee6a paÓoifB XpECxa, „cornyxb meio cboh) uo^h uvom 
<;MHpenifl h csjíoHHTb rop^oe tcjio bi opy;íiio nosopa — kl Bpecry". 
ÁBrycTHHX HcmiTEiBajii b^ ceói nojinoe paBABoenie; oh'b paasH- 
«!» wb ce6* ffBi bojh: o^ny crapyH) — Apyryio noByio, o^ny njioT- 
<;KyK), ApyryK) ;^yxoBHyH). H ^4mi ;íOJBnie npoAOJiKajicfl btoti 
pasj^op^B B^b ero Aymi, rbwh tfojisnie MÍp'B npeAcraasajiCfl eHy 
iHSBHiťB, HenysnuiTb ÓpeMeHeBfL, Roropoe naxo c6pocHTB cl cetfji, 
HT0611 CB060AHO HATH Kb XpHcry. 

Bx TaBOMi HacTpoeHÍH HaxoAHJicfl ABrycTHH^, Bor^a o^na 
ciynafinafl Bcrpina nop6mHJia a^o, h pascsasi o noABHrb Apy- 
nix'B jsfun* eny CHjy coBepmHTB totb noABHPB, soTopnft AaBHO 
saHHiiajrB ero Ayniy. Stotb MOiceHTB vh shbhe ABrycrena BecBMa 
xapaBTepeH'B: owb nosasEiBaerB, vh saBOMi Ayx'6 n cb BaBHMH 
xoTHBaMH coBepmHJOCB ero o6pan;eHÍe bb xpEcriancTBO, h sasoe 
dHaneme ono hh&io msl Bcero ero MipoBOdspinúi. 

Bi TO BpeMfl, — pascBasHBaeTB ÁBrycTHHB, — BorAa oni e^^e hh 
BB HBiTB ne H3MÍHHJIB CBoefi SHTeficBofi oOcTaHOBBH, xoTfl TpeBora 
BB neifB pocjia cb sasA^MB AneirB h ovb noc6n;aj[B i^epsoBB, na- 
csojiBBO dTO eHy AOSBOJiflJio saHflTÍe pnTopHBofi, ero uocíthjib ero 
3eHi2KB, ^OHTH^iaHrB, 3aHHHaBmi& BHAHoe H^TO Ha cjiysiCib HHne- 
paTopa. Bec^Ayfl cb ÁBrycTHHOHB^ IIoHTHi^iaHi sanŠTHJiB na nrop- 

EOWh CtOSb BHHfy H BSflJIB eO BB pyBH; OWh AyMaJIB, ^^TO 9T0 

BaBoe-HH6yAB co^Hnenie no pHxopHB^, h cb HsyHjemeuB yBHA'&iiB, 
fTo dTO 61LIH TBopenifl anocTOja IlaBjía. 

Il0HTHI^ÍaH'B ÓBIJIB XpHCTÍaHHH^B; CB yJIUÓBOK) yAOBOJBCTBÍfl OH'B 

BHCBasaiB ÁBrycTHHy CBoe yAHBjeme, h BorAa ysHajTB, ?to ero 
ApyrB CB ycepAÍeM'B HsyqaerB CBan^ennoe nHcanie, — craa^ eny pas- 
oasHBaTB o&h OTmejBHHB^ Ahtohí'1 b'b ErHmi, Roropufi ysse 
yen^^fB npoeiaBHTBCfl cpeAH xpecriaBi^ no nnfl Boroparo enite Óelio 

12* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



180 raCTHHBl BBPODU. 

coBepmeHHO BeesBicTHO. ABryciHny. Tenepb yate ABrycTHHy npa- 
mjiocb HsyMJiflTBCfl, RorAS owh hs^ cjíobi IIoHTHi^iaHa ysHaoii^ 
„RaEi njOAopoAHBj cxajiH ' erHnercBÍa nycTUHH, EaB'B pocEonma 

OHH npOI],6ÍJIH OTfflaSbHHRaMH H ReJIbflMH, H BERyiO CBflTyH) SHSHB- 
Bl HHXl) fieJIH''. 

Bi oco6eHHOCTu se nopa3Hái> ÁBrycTEHa pascRasi o coCutír, 
OHeeuAi^eMX Boroparo 6ujii caMi IIoHTHi^iaH^. 3a HŠcsojibBO Bpe- 
MeHH npeAi^ t^mi IIoHTHipaH^b HaxoABJíCfl bx Tpnpi npn ABop'& 
HMnepaiopa. OAHasAU nocjii o6ÍAft HMnepaxopi ornpaBiLicfl cb^ 
CBoefi CBHTOfi vb i^HpBi, ^TOÓH nocMOTpbxb Ha Hrpu. noHTBi^iaHii^ 
jse ci> xpena h3i» cbohxi ^py^^fi OTnpaBHJCfl b% pon;y, npuMu- 
KaBmyH) bi KpinocTHoft ct^hš. 

Taui ABoe b3i> nporyjHBaBniHxcfl, oiyqafiHO 0TA'&3BBniÍ6Cfl oti. 
ApyrBxi, nomjiB nayraA^ Bnepe^i, u wb rjyfisHt pon^H nanuB 
xflSBHy, Bi> KOTopofi HOcejiHJiHCb xpBCTÍaHCRÍe OTmejbHHBH. Bo- 
meAmH bi> XHSHHy, ohh yBHA^JiH xáirb BHHry, saBJíloqaBmyK) b^s 
ce6^ sKH3HeonHcaHÍe Abtohía. Bsflffb BHHry, oahhi hsi hhxx^ 
Baqaii HBiaTb wb nefl, Bce CHJibHŽe h CHJibH'le craHOBnaocb Bne* 
qaTJi^Hie, ero oxBaTHBmeey h, HaBonei^i, OH'b o6paTHJiCfl bi CBceiiy 
ToeapHH^y ci cji']&AyK)n;HMH cjOBaMn: ^CsasH, nosajyficra, ^ero mbi 
AoGHBaeHCfl q.^bHOH) bcžxi sthxi naniHxi TpyAOBi? ^ero mu Hn\eM%? 
H8i-3a nero neceMi Hamy cayKÓy? He cocTaBJíaeTb jih Rpaňnitt 
npeA*^!* HamHxi Ha^esAi no cnysĎž npH ABop'b AOÓHTbca 8Ba- 
Bifl ^Apysefi Hunepaiopa''? A naBi HenpoqHO dxo SBanie, BaRir 
noJiHO onacHOcrefi, h Ror^a e^e m£i ero AOCTHrneni? ecjni se a 
aaxoqy ÓHTb ApyroM^b FocnoAa, to cettTOCb Mory hmi c^iJaTscfl". 

no Mip^ Toro, RaRi OH^ npoAOJisaji ^Tenie, ,ero Ayxi co- 
BJieRajii ci> ce6fl Bce seMHoe'' , h, naRoneAi, owh o&ba^EAi> CBoeiiy 
TOBapHH^y CBoe TBepAoe pimenie Tyrb se HeMeAJieHHO oTpeqbca 
OTb Bcix^b seMHuxi HBAesKA^ H HOCBflTHTb ce6fl cjiyseHÍK) Bory. 
Ero Apyn> corjiacH.iCfl nocj^LAOBaTb ero npHH^py, h o6a ohh no- 
piniHjH bmíctí cb rbwb OTRasaTbOA orb Bcero CBoero AOcroflHÍfl. 
Bx 8Ty MHHyxy IloHTBipaHi cb CBOHMX cnyTHHROH'b padbrcRaJiH 
TOBapH^eĚ; ho naopacHo ohh hxi y&bm^euíii BOSBpaTHTbca Cb hhms 
BO ABÓpei^i; ycrpeMHBi bc% cboh BOSA^Ji^nia rx He6y, ohh ocxa 
JiHCb vb XBSHHŠ. y o6oHX'b 6um HeB'lcT£i, H A'^BymBH, yssaBi o 

HaMŽpeHÍH CBOHXl SOHHXOBl, HOAOÓHO HMl, HOCBflTHJIH CBOO A'&BCTBO 

Bory. 

Mu He craneMi onncuBaTb Toro, qxb npoHCxoAH^ao bi Aym^b 
ABrycTHHa noA'b BHeqaTJi']kHÍeM'b pascRasa IIoHTHi^íaHa, h ne cra- 
Heiťb npHBOAHTb ero RpacHop6qHB£ifl npHSHaHÍa. m^b 6ojífbe cbm- 
HaTÍH euf BHymaJH mojioauo j[B)ah, noRHHyBmie HMnepaTopcRÍft 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CPEAH£B«ROBO£ MIP0B033P1^HIE. 181 

j^Bopei^i A^fl XHSHHU oxmejiBHERa, rbwb 6ojíie 3J[o6u qyBCTBOBaji'^ 
owb npoTHBi caHoro ce6fl. ÍIpeA'B ero BOO^paHceoieMi CHOsa nponua 
BCfl nepesHTa£ hmi shshb cb to& MUHyrEr, Ror^a ohi, 19*jtT- 
HHiTL lOHomefl, pacspBijrL ropTeH3Ífl, 4>ifjroco4^CKÍft TpaKTarB H^n- 
i^epoHS. TenepB bc£ Hac^asAema, ROTopa^ eny AOcraaafljTa HayRa, 
Bci yBjreiema lOHomecRHX^ crpacrefl, npe;íCTaBjr£JiHCB eny hjjih)- 
siefi H aioiTB, TaRi RaRi, Cjiaro^apa hmi, ohi OTRjaAUBaji to, nrb 
npBSHaBai^ TenepB 6BicinHH'B j^ja ce6fl 6jaseHCTB0Mi. 

BoTB npH RaRHXi ycjiOBÍflx^ noAroTOBjflJOCB oÓpan^eHie ÁBry* 
cnraa; nepexo^i vb xpHcriaHCTBO osnaqajii am nero nepexoA^ 
OTB senHoro h cyeTHaro k% HeÓecHOMy h Bt^HOMy 6jiary. 

Bt 387 roAy, ABrycTHH^ upisnsjn, cb. Rpen^eme h, TOTqacB 
ocraBHBx CBOK) npoí^eccypy, y^ajiEjrca cb naTepBio h HtRoropsifH 
xpysiflMB Bi jeAHHeHHyK) bh^jj, fa*]^ HanHcaj['B cboe nepsufl co^h- 
Henifl pejHríosHaro co^epniaHÍfl. TIo CMepTH x,e MaTepn oh^, no ea 
tOBÍTy, BosBpaTHJDíCfl Ha pohany; TairB oh'b pos^aji^ CBoe HMyn^ecTBO 
a ycTpoHJTB CB ApysBaHH pejrario3Hoe o6n^essaTÍe, nocjiyxHBmee 
otipasi^OMi jí^a BOSHHRmaro no3AHÍe vh XII bI^kí aBrycTnncRaro 
MOHamecRaro opřena. BnocjiÍACTBÍH owh CA'l^ajrca npeCBHTepoHi, a 
aoTOM^ enacRonoH^ Fannona wb A^paR^I. 

CpeAff ero enncRoncRofi a nponoBtAna^ecRoft A'6flTejiiBH0CTE sa- 
CTBTJO ÁBrycTana to MipoBoe cotorie, noA'B BnenaiJiinieMi roto- 
paro OROH^aTejBHO (viosaJocB ero MipoBOSsp^me a BupasaiocB b'b 
ero BeJHROiTB TBopenia— Civitas Dei. 

7x6 6ojAe TEiCH^H jtTB npoAOJisaiocB vb TO BpeMH cyn^ecTBO- 
Banie Paara, a acTOpa^ecRift noABarB btofo ropová ano^nfe sasep- 
iDBJCfl. noA^nnaBii ce6t opysíeafB Apyrie ropová HTajiia a i^ap- 
eraa Apeanaro HÍpa, PaifB otfpasoBaji^ rpoMaAsyio Aepsaay, npe- 
BpaTBJCfl vh ujbjtuŘ ifipi. Ho R^B aa^ajy Y bI^usl iioryn^ecTBO pan- 
CBOi AepxaBKí HanoBajo. Hiinepia pasA^jrajacB, mo6u Jiymne oxpa- 
BflTB CBOH npeA'iJU OTB BTopseHÍfl BparoBi; HO 9T0 pasA^jienie 
enuo na^AJiOMX pacna^enia, ROTopoe oco6eHHO tfiicrpo o^aapysa- 
JOCB vBsanaAHofií, ^acTO-pancROft, qacTa annepia. UpadTOMi pasjío- 
seniH HipoBoS Aepsaau ocofienno ne^ajiBHa 6ujra cyAB6a canoro 
Pana. PaiTB ^asno yme nepecraai 6htb CTOJiaiíeft ne tojibro Bceft 
HMnepÍH; ho Aase a sana^nofi ea ^acTa. %o6u Ceitb 6jiase r^b 
rpaHHi^']^ HTajiia, no^Bepraamefica Hana^eniairB, sana^HEie minepa* 
Topu nepenecsa CBoe iťibcTonpeÓEiBaHie b'b Majiani, a noTOiťB b'b 
PaBeHHy. Ob CBoaica acTopa^ecRaMa BOcnoMananiaMa, ci CBOana 
TpiyM^ajiBHBitfa apRaMa, nanoManaBniuMa o npesaaxi no6%Aax'B, 
CB CBOHiTB óesHacjieHHUMi coHHOM^ CTaTyfi ROHcyjiOB'B a aMnepa- 
TopoB^, cos^aamaxi Moryn^ecrBO Pana, stotb ropoA'B ocraaajica 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



182 fiftCTHHSl EBPOnU. 

OAHHOBi H nycTUHeHx. Bi TporaTejibHux!b BiipaseHÍflX'B HSotfpasfLis 
flSH^iecBÍfi nosrL Kjia6AÍaH'B uJlSí^% PHMa, oópan^eHHufi rtb nime- 
paTopy ToHOpiK) no cjyqaio ero noefemeHÍa Binaaro ropoAa: „Bt 
Te^eaie li&iaro BÍEa, — «ajiyeTCH rop^aa Pojia CBoeMy noBejiHTejK), — 
fl BHA'6Jia TOJbBO Tpex'B HMnepaxopoBi b'b cbohx'b cr&Haxi, h sas- 
Aufi pasi OHH Bi^^ajiH wb ropoA'B na KOJiecHHi^ax'B, o6arpeHHUx*b 
BpoBjbK) pHMCBHXx rpasA^Hi^ . Bi ero oAHHoqeciB^ Phitb mosho 

CpaBBHTB erb CrapBKOlťB, ROTOpblfi CpejSJlí MHOrOHUCJieHHO& POAHH, Sl^ 

HeMy paBHOAyniHoi, vb yrpioMOHi yeAHHemH h bc^mh noEHHyTuft 
Aoa^saerb CBofi b^bi. 

HaBonei^x, dra AP^xjiocTb e CesnoMom^HOCTb PHMa ofiHapysH" 
jiacb poBOBbíMX AASL Hero oópasoifb b'b cxpaniHofi Baiacrpo^, no- 
crarmeft ero bi 410 roAy. 

BecrroTbi, noAi^ npeABOAHTesbCTBOirb CBoero Bopojia Ajapexa, 
AaBHO yse ctobjih y Bopon HTasÍH, bx HMnepiH, rposfl cbohh'b^ 
BTopseHÍeHi. CnaceHÍe HTajda e PHMa 6uao bi pysaxi Apyroro 
BapBapa, BaHAajia CxHJiHXOHa, samMasmaro nepBoe m^^cto hdh 
ABopi^ HimepaTopa PoHopifl. KorAa npEABopnas HHTpnra JHmiiJa 
CrujBXOHa BaacTH h sbshh, Ájiapiix'B BcrynEuii wb Vítbjiuo. Qpe^* 
jDíOsenifl, CA'i^JiaHHHfl hmi HMnepaiopy, BCTynsTb cx roTCBHifb onoj-^ 
HCBieMi Kh HCMy Ha cjiy»6y, 6ujih OTBeprHyrH roHopieM'b9 c«i- 
TaBinHM'b ceófl ÓesonacHUMi sa bpíhbhmh cr&HaMH PaBennu. Ocra- 
BHBx Wh CTopoat PaBenny, Ajiapnxx Asa pasa noAcrynajii bi Phmj^ 
nocTaBHJ['b Taifb Apyroro HMnepaxopa — hsx cpeA^i ceHaTopoBi^, a no- 
TOHx, y6'liiHBniHCL, HTO offB ji^Jia. Hero óesnojeseni, pasBinnaJi^s 
ero. HaRosei^x, ÁJsapHx^b vh xpeiift pasi noAomejii B^b PnMy ch 
HaMipeHÍeMx 0BJiáA'6xb hitb. Phmx Óuat^ b'b 6e8noMon^HOM'B cocxoa- 
híh. y Hero ne Óllio BoasAefi; A&a;e pHHCBÍfi enncBoni HHHOBeHTÍft 
BO Bpeiffl HamecxBÍfl roxoBx ocxaBascfl vh PaBenni h, no Éupa- 
ateHÍH) OAHoro coBpeMennaro CBHAfoejibCXBa, hoaoCho Jloxy, ornep- 
Hyjcfl OTb rndeJiH ne^ecxHBaro CoAona. 

He 6yAy™ bx CHJiaxx Bsaxb Phmx npHCxynoMi, AjiapHX'b pi- 
mHJiCfl HOBopexb ero roJiOAOMx; npn rycxoiťb HacejieHÍE PHMa, ee 
npHroiOBHBHiarocfl bx ocaA*, rojiOA^B AW^ ce6a nyBCXBOBaxb CBopa 
co bcímh cbohmh cxpamHbíMH nocji^ACXBiflMH. JI^ocxaxoqHO OAHoft 
Hepxbi, qxo6ii xapaBxepnsoBaxb nojioseme: yBasaxb na xy metb,. 
Boxopaa, Bi npHoaAB^ ÓesyMÍa, yxoJiHJia cboS rojOA^b cbohmi rpy^- 
HUMl peóeHBOMi. 

OpeAH sxHx^b ysacoBx HacxynHjia poBOsaa a^a PnMa ho^s 
24' ro aBrycxa. Ox^annie hjh HSM^Ha oxBopnjiH Bopoxa Bpary, h vs^ 
HO^HOMi MpaBi roxbr rycxoK) xo^inofi BopBajHCb wh ropoA^b. Oaio6- 
jeHHbie AOJirHMi 02BHAaHÍeMT>, ohh sasrjiH AOMa, cxoHBmie hmi no 



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CPEftHEBftKOBOE MIP06083raHIE. 183 

nyTH, H orB OKpaHHi ropoAa oroHB crajix 6ucTpo pacnpocTpaHUTbCfl. 
noAHflBmaflCfl óypfl paseecjia ero no BceMy Pemj, a ri AOBepmeHiio 
putca 6ypfl conpoBOSAaJiacB rposofi, bo BpeMfl BOTopofi HHoríe jisu- 
^ecBÍe xpaifu h craiyH na ^^opyni 6ujih nopámeHEi yAapoMii moj- 
HÍe. XpEcňaHe BEjiibjíii vh dioin* SHaMenie 6osecTBeHHaro rH^^ea, 
otfpan^eHHaro na rpe^ecsifi Phitb, h nocTBrmee hx^ Ó^ACTBÍe no.iy- 
mio FB Bxi rjasi^x peJiHríosHoe sHa^eme. 

Ho crpameie en^e h HeiiHJiocepAH^ orná 6ujh ne^H rbxoBx 
H Hx^B xbii;hoctb. He nojiyqHBi bosmoshoctb co^epauiTB CBoe onoji- 
ime sajiOBafiBem EMnepaTopa, AjiapHX'B npeAOcraBiuix roraMi 
BiEaMH HaRonjieHHUfl 6oraTCTBa Peiia b% BOSHarpasA^HÍe sa jih- 
meHÍfl H flfiiňsí 02KHAaHÍfl, h roTCsie bohhbi Ópeuun Bce, htó mriLio 
i(j^HHOCTB Bi Hxi rj[a3ax'B. QpeHMyn^ecTBeHHO se OHH HCKaJH AenerB 
H soďora, H TaMiy r^t ne HaxoAUH hxi bi AOCTaioiHOM^B eojih- 
HecTB^y HJiH Txb yse ao hhxi noÓBiBaJiH rpa6BTejKE, ohh 6e3sa- 
aocTHUMH HCTflsaHÍBMH npHHysAaJiH SHTejiefi BBiAaTB CRpuTBifl, no 
hb mhšhík), coRpoBHn^a. A BOs^ysA^nnue npa stoitb SBŠpcRÍe 
HHCiHHBTU ABRHX^B jnoAeft yse He snajiH npeA'&iOB'B hh b% saROM'B 
OTHomeHin. Ha diofi xeMHOfi sapiHni cb^tjiumh xo^RaMH buaí- 
uiOTCfl H^ROJiBRo noABHFOB^ dsaropoACTBa H BejmROAymifl co cro- 
poHu OTA'&iBHuxx rÓTOBx; HO noApoÓHOCTH, AomeAmifl ao naci o&b 
3THXB nepBuxx npo6jiecRaxi pBii^apcTBa, BBicraBJífliorB wh emfi 6ojvke 
apROM^ cbítí TparHHecRyH) cyAB6y tfojiBniHHCTBa nacejieHifl. 

y^acTB pHMCRHxi xpHCTÍaHi 6ujia H^CROJiBRo CMflr^eHa vbwby 

HTO BeCTTOTU ÓBUIH RpeU^eHU H CMOTp&IH Ha XpHCTÍaHl RaRX Ha 

exHHOB^pi^eBi. Ho y^acrie BeciroroBi ri xpHCTÍaHaM'B orpaHHqn- 
JiocB rjiaBHUiťB oÓpasOMi tímb, hto, no pacnopaseniH) AjiapHxa, 
ofiniHpHBifl 6a3Hj[HRH CB. Hexpa bi BaTHRani h cb. HaBjía sa Bopo* 
TRHH PHMa ÓBUiH HSBflTBi H31 rpa6esa^ H Bcbwb xpHcriaHaMB, cna- 
caeniHjfB xairB cboh) sh3hb h HMyn;ecTBO, Óujia npeAOcraBjena hoj- 
Hafl 6e3onacHOCTB. 

HecMorpfl, OAnaRO, na dxy mhjioctb noÓŠAHiejfl, MHoríe xpe- 
criane CA^ajiHCB aiepTBofi paBopenÍH h pasrpaójienifl PaMa. 06b 
iXB CTpaAaniflxi mu hm^mx Aase doji^e Tonnufl CB^ACHÍfl, h^mx 
o 6i^ACTBÍflxx flBuqecRofi HacTH Haceienifl, h no cjAh&b xpncTiaHx 
MOSHO CA&iaTB saRJiio^eHie o emie Óojiie nenajuBnoft ynacTH asu^- 

HHROBX. }í,ÍňO BX TOHX, ^TO AOHieAmífl AO HaCB CBHA']^TeJlBCTBa 

npHHaAJiexaTB xpHCTÍaHaMx, h noroHy bx noApodnocrflxx 6ojňe 
sacaiOTCji xpHcríaHB. JKHBmift BXdxo BpeMs B^BHOJieeift, cb. lepo- 

•HHIfX 6ElJn> BHaROlTB CB H'lROXOpUMH XpHCXÍaHCRHHH CeMBHMH H3X 

piMCROft apHcxoRpaxÍH, H H3X ero HHceiTB MU ysHaeMX ne^ajiBnyH) 
cyAB6j, Hxx nocxHrmyH). EjiaroAapa dxoMy HCxo^HHRy, naMB shbo 



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184 B«CTHHSl EBPOmi. 

TipeACTaB.ifleTCH crpamnoe 3p'&iHiiie, nponcxoAHemee vb aomš sHar- 
Hoft MapiliejJiu, hma ROTopott Tas'B Hanou HHaerB caMsa ^jecTan^iii 
BpeHeHa PHiia. Tojina pa3CBHp']bii%BinBX'B rbTOB^ OBj[a;d^a Mapi^ei- 
jiofl H ÓesqejiOB^qeo y^apaiiH posorB BUMoraja y Hea cospoBHii^a, 
ROTopufl cooTBÍTCTBOBaJin 6u BHimHeMy ÓJiecKy ea oCmEpnaro AOMa. 
UcTflsaHÍfl 6ujiE TaB'B 2cecT0RH, HTO Mapn^ejua yMepjia ^pes^ f6- 
CROJiBBO AHefi. Ho cpeAH dTHxi iiy^eHÍfi oea Aynajia tojbbo o 
BocnHTaHHoft Bx efl A0ir6 MOJio^ofi A^BymR^I, Roropan TaRse Haxo- 
AHjracB 6'B pyRaxx ;^HRape&, h iiojiHJia non^aARTB ee. 

TaRt udLJVb Phmx vb ore^ h bx RpoBH, RaRi 6u HCRynaa no- 
AoCflyK) yiacTb, ROTopoft owh laRi nacro noABepraxB Apyrie ropová. 
Ho na^eHÍeifi PnMa crpa^anifl pHMJiflHi ne orohhhjihcb. Ohh bii- 
HecjiH Hxt cb C060& H3X o6rop^Eixi CT^Hx H pasHecJiH no Bceiiy 
MÍpy. O&hsiTue ysacoMi, ohh cn^mnjH noRHAaxB ropo^x, nn^a 
yó^iRHn^a na ocrposax^ hjih^ AaJiBme, vb A^pHRt h bx Asíh. Ho- 
TepflBniH Bce, MHorie npa dnowb Ďeijih npHHysAeHEi RopMHTbca mhjeo- 
^TUHeft, a T^, ROTOpue cnacjiH qT0-HH6yAB^ no^^BepraJiHCB hobomj 
orpa^JieHÍK); Ropa6ejiBu^HRH, nojiBsyacB óesnoMon^nuMi noJoíoseHieiťB 
&kvJieuflBi>j BHMorajiH y hhx^b nocji%AHÍ& AHnapift. Ho ne oj^na 
TOjíBRO HHn^era nocTHrajia Oirjei^OBB, — hx'b qacro osH^ajH paÓCTBO 
H nosopi. Fy^epnaTopi A^^phrh, FepaRJiiaHx, pasc^HiBiBafl b^b bte 
CMyTHBifl BpeiieHa Ha nojmyio ÓesHaRasanHOCTB, najiarajrB na bc%x'b, 
npH?ajiHBaBniHX'B r'b fieperaMX ero npoBHHi](ÍH, rpoHa^HyK) nomJiHHy, 
H t£xx, rto ne mofb OTRynHTBca, npowsaJTB bx pa6cTB0 CHpit- 
CFHMx Ropa6e;iBntHRaMX, ROTopuxx ohx, RaRx roBopflTi naniH hcto^- 
BHRH, Hapo^HO BBinHcajEi. TaROft ne^ajiBHOfi cy^BÚ^ noAseprjiHCB 

MHOrífl liaTpOHU HSX pHMCROft apHCTORpaTÍH CB CBOHMH AO^epBMH. 

nncBMa lepoHHMa snaROiuiTB naci cb ymcrBio baobu llpotfa, $ejB- 
tohíb, h efl ceMBH. 9to 6ujia Ror^a-TO caHaji Óoraxas hsx phmjh- 
HORx; ho npn pasopenÍH PnMa ona ocraBHja wb pyRaxx rĎTOBX, 
BBipyiaa otx hhxx cbok) ccmbio, ÓOJBrayio nacTB CBoero cocroania, 
a TenepB vb A^píRt, htoCbi cnacrn cbom) Bny^y Jl^eMeTpiajy otb 
npoAasH Bx paÓEiHH, ona AOJisna 6um or^aTB nocjšxnee, ^rb npn 
ce&h nifijia. 

Ho dTHMx HOHHorHifB A^tHHBíMx MOJRHO ce&b npe^craBRTB, RaRoe 
rj[y6oRoe, norpacaion^ee BnenaiJitHÍe npoHSBeJio na coBpeMenHHROBi 
na^enie PHMa. Ho o chjv^ btofo Bne^aiJi^^HÍa vosno cyAHTB jyqme 
Bcero no ero nocji^ACTBÍflMx: rnfiejiB Poica BUSBajia nepesoporB wh 
yHaxi; ona nocjiysHJia hcxoahok) to^rok) pa HOBaro B3rjiflAa Ha 
acHSHB u AJfl HOBOfi 9noxH vb HCTopB^ecROfi SH3HH. KaxacTpo^^a, . 
nocrarmafl Phmx, pasosr^a ao RpafinocrH aHiaronnsirB; cyn;ecrBO- 
BaBniifi MesAy fl3BiTOHRaMH H xpucrianaMH. Asei^hhrh 6um BOSMy- 



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CPEAHEB^KOBOE MIPOBOSSP^HIE. 1 85 

n^eau; bi rutfeJH PHMa ohu bha'Í^jih Y6ijí,mejihEoe AORasaTeJiscTBO 
Toro Bpe^a, KOTOpuft xpacriascTBO npHHec^o Pimy. Pbitb óqjtb 
Morym-B H líB^rymi, nosa bi HeirB ee (Jeijio xpHcriaHi. OcKop(S- 
jieHHue xpHCTiaHaiíH 6om jum^jiH Phmi CBoero noRpoBHTeJiBCTBa; 
saitet 6um Bocnpemeeii HeprBonpuHomeHifl sl^u^ec'ÁEWh ^oraiix? 
saq^irB BUHecJH hsi cenaTS, no pacnopasKemK) HMnepaTopa, craTyH) 

BHBTOpÍH? no BHH'6 XpHCTÍaHX pHMJIflHe, TaRi cRasaTB, caMU OTpeR- 

jHCb 0TB uo&bmy oópeRJiH ce6fl na nopamenie h nosopi. 

Ho vrh orop^ajio asu^herobi, t6 pa^OBajio xpiiCTÍan'B. Phitb, 
Bi Hxx rjasax^y 6uji^ aoctohhi r06e^, noTony ^to xpanajii vb 
CBoeŘ cpeA^ EAOJOBi h roch^^ Bi flsu^ecTB^. Mu BHA'i^jH, qio 
pHMCRÍe xpHCTiane onpaBABiBa^H OTcyrcTBÍe CBoero nacrupA t^mi, 
TTO eMy ne cji*AOBajio a'6jihtb ynacTB. neqecTHBaro Co^OMa. Moab 
capta est, cb npenetfpeHeHieHi BOCRJiBi^aji'B cb. IepoHHM'B, npH- 
irlHBfl Ri PflMy HyBCTBO npespinifl h HenaBncTH, ROTopuMi Óujii, 
oxjmeBJíewh es^panHEit HapoA'B, HspaHJiBTflHe, R'b asBiqecRHiťB Moa- 

BUTAHaiTB. 

Ho na 8T0& oxpHi^aTejiBHoB to^r^ 3p]§HÍfl ne mopjih ocrano- 
BRTBCfl xpHcriaHCRie nponoB^AHHRH H y^HTeJTH, H xpucriane ne Majio 
nocrpa^ajiH otb rnÓesH PnHa; ea^o 6ujio hx'b yriniHTB, epaBCTBenHO 
nojpcptnHTB, a tíx'b. ROTopiie ne nocrpa^ajm nenocpeACTBeHEO, oxpa- 

HffTB on CO^HBMOB^ SBBiqHHROB^; Ba^O 6UJ10 HX^B HaCXaBHTB H 

odiflCHHTB HifB BejBRÍft npoMBicJTB Boasíft, BBipaBEíBniiftcfl TaRx na- 

rjfl^O Vb OTOlfB pOROBOMTi C06bITÍH. 

HO^O^HO ApyrHMl XpHCTÍaHCRHIifB nponoB^^AHHRaiťB, n ÁBryCTHHl 

^acTO RacajiCH vmóejin PHMa wb cboqxi noyHeniflxi; ho H'bwb 6ojtbe 
OBI BAyMUBajica wb bto coCurie, tími 6o^e oxBaTHBajia ero rjy- 

(SOBafl BCTHHa, ROTOpyK) OHI B^ HOMl np03p%BajI'B. 06'BflCHfleMBlft 

Mwb ^asn CA^iajoíCfl ^jta nero hctoihbrom'b i^^aro HipoBOdsp^nifl, 
H sa^a^a npe^i* hhmx bco pacniHpfl.iacB, BCJi^ACTBÍe pasHuxi nepe- 

PUBOBI; OHX TpyABJICfl HaA'B HOK) 1 6 JlirBy H 7S-Tb A'bTb OROHqBJI'B 

CBoe coTOHOHie De Ci vítáte Deí. Oho coctoajto hb^ 22 RHHrB b 
8aRSH)qa^o RB ce6i ab^ nacTB. IlepBafi 6uji^ oópan^ena r^ abbihhh- 
saMi, Ki flBuqecROMy Pany, — Kb Tony, ht6 nornfíjio b doAOfCHo 
fejo noniCHyTB. ABrycreHx ne orpaHBqBBaexcfl bi neft onpoBep- 
seHÍeiTB ynpeRa, tto Pbatb naJTB no bbh'^ xpaerian^B; BOBpaauui 

^HTOBRaiTB AOBOAaMH, BSfiTBIMB H3X BXl Se BCTOpÍH, OH^ AORaSU- 

BaxB HM1&, TTO Phmi b npes^o lepn^i Ó^actbía b ropijix npn 
noiiHOirB B^a^BíHecTB^ flSBi^ecRBX^ ÓoroBx; ho sax^Mi ohi s^erB 
xaiie, H ero nojroMBRa cb ASBiqecRBirB Pbhomi pacrnspaercfl ao 
aereifaTB^ecRaro o6jiHqeHÍfl Bcero MHBMaro pniiCRaro BejB^ifl, Bcefi 
emecROĚ RyjiBTypu, Bceft HcropiB xp^BHaro Mipa. 



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186 BftOTUHBI^ EBPOnU. 

ít6 ae, o;^HaBO, crop*Jio h norefijio? — noraÓ-io jíikjio pyKi tojo- 
B^^ecRHxnb, rop^H A^peBO h saMHH, AOMa h (rríteu; HCTiiHHn& se 
Pbmx óyjífiTb 2KHTB, ecjiH pHMjflHe nepecTanyi-L ^ofí^pate 6oraiťB 
H3X AepeBa h Mpaiiopa, h o6paTflTCfl si sHBOMy Bory. 

Biopan qacTb noaTOMy oCpan^eHa Kh xpHcriaHaMi. npeAcrasEBi 
HMX Bce, H!tb iforjo ÓHTb jíJia hhxx yrimoTejEHaro cpe^a Bceofimaro 
6ÍACTBÍfl, HTb 61SU10 cnocoÓHO ycnoROHTb Bxi HeAoyiť&HÍe h cmaf- 
^HTB Hxx CRopÓby A6rycTHH'B nepeHOCETTB Bonpoci Ha 6oÁÍe bu- 
coKyH) no^y. 

^"kso BOBce ne vb seMHuxrb ÓJiaraxi h ne b'b seMHOMi c^ctb'6. 
FocnoAB HHKOFAa ne AaBajPb oó^n^am oÓesne^iHTB sa xpucxiaHaMH 
seMHoe 6jiarococTOflHÍe. XpHcriaHe npeAHasHa^eHH ne a^a Toro^ 
9To6ii HM^TB npo^Hoe y6^SHii^e ea seMjři, ho hto6u na seMJfb 
npio($p%CTB He6o. Ecjh hx^ seMHaa poAHea pasopena h Óojrjte ne 
cymecTByerB, to y hhxi ecxB ;iyxoBHOe, necoRpyraBOioe OTene- 
CTBO, H TOJibEO OHO HMŠerB cyn^ecTBeHfloe sHaneHÍe ajh xpHcríaH'B. 
9to AyxoBHoe oie^ecTBO ABrycxHH^ h HsoÓpasHJi wb CBoefl rhef^ 
„O BoxecROMi H^apcTB^^. TaRHMi o6pa30irB, aHraroHHsiťB nes^ 
flsu^ecRBM^ H xpHcriaHCRHMx Phmomi 6ujíi> HAeajHsoBaH^ H npe- 
ofipasoBaHx Bi npoTHBonojioseHie seMHOiiy mpy ^y^OBHaro siipa, h 
Ha padBajiHHaxi PHMa 6ujo npoH3HeceHO cjiobo, Roxopoe h3'b neiua 
sasrjio HOByH) shshb 0, 0TRpLrB'B npeA'B xpRcrianaMH nepcneRTHBy 
Hx^ HOBaro HCTHHHaro oxeiecTBa, Bwkcrk ct> rbwh BOCRpecHJio 

PeMI Wb HOBOĚ MO^H H BJaCTH. 

ÍTÍ) se HMeHHO HpeAcraBJíaeTrB ce64 ABrycTHffB hoa^ ÚoofcecKUMó 
i^pcmeoMZj H RaRoe owb ^aerB eny onpeA^JieHie? BoxecRoe i^tp- 
CTBO y ÁBrycTHHa híhto caMO C060H) nonainoe, h kb to ate BpeMfl 
HeyjiOBHHoe ^a. TO^naro onpeA^eHÍfl h bucoro napflii;ee kb bo- 

06paseHÍH, H']&HT0 ROHRpeTHOe H Bl> to se BpeMfl MUCTH^eCROe, 

hSíto cyn;ecTByiomee bx Mip4 h BHxoAflmee h3i npeA^iJiOBX ero; 
dTO o6o6n;eHÍe nsx HCTopin qejiOB^^ecRofi, RaR'B ee snajix h hohh- 
iiajTB ABVjcnuEE-b, H Bi TO se BpeMfl nocmyAamz ero peJHriosnofi 
9THRH. TaR-B RaRTb noHflTÍe o civitas Dei cjioshjiocb npeHMyme- 
CTBeHHO noAx B;iiflHÍeM'B npoTBBonojioseHifl xpHcriaHCROfi oÓn^EHu 
u xpHCTÍaHCRofi 9THRH fl3UHecTBy H pHMCROMy i^apcTBy, TO ODpe^fe- 
jeHie 6osecRaro itapCTBa ÁBrycrnna Jiy^me Bcero MOserB 6£itb 
ycxanoBJíeHO nyTeMi cpasHeHÍfl bjh napajuejiB MesAy hhm^ h npo- 
THBonojiosHbíMii eMy noHflTÍflMH. Bi Tpexi OTHomeHÍflxi mosho 
npoBecTH 8Ty napajiaejiB h noRaaaTB, cJiÍAya ABrycTHHy, npeHMyme- 
CTBO i^apcTBa óosecRaro na^i AapcTBOM^ seMHUMi: no npoHcxo- 
SAeHÍH) Bxx, no hx'b HasHa^eHÍio h no AOCTOHHCTBy. 

IIoHflTie „civitas** oÓosnaqaerB o6H^HHy rpas^aai, T.-e. jwoACRyio 



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CPEAfiEB^KOBOE HIP0B038P£HIE. 187 

fj H noTOMj Wh rlcHOMi CMuejii, saRi 6osecsoe, xas^ h 
seMHoe i^apcraa motjiií BOssHRHyxb Jiamh cb noflBJíemeM^ Ha ^eujA 
JiOAeft. CorjiacHO ci dTHM'B h ÁBrycruH^ othochtb na^ajio 060- 
HM itapcTBt KT* coTBopeHÍK) HejiOBÍEa. Ho Bi ApyroMx, Óojiie oCmep- 
flOMx CMHCJii 06a ^apcTBa cymecTByíorfc y nero yme w noaBjema 
61 MÍpi qejiOB^Ra. Ha^ajio i^apcTBa ÓosecRaro ÁBrycTHHx bhahti 
FL coTBopeHÍH aHreiOB^. ^aciB bthxi anrejiOBX BOBMyn^aerca npo- 
THffB CBoero TBopi^a H OTna^aeTB otb nero; ohh o6pa3yK)Tb co6ok> 
ppcTBO caxaHii, i^apciBO naAmuxi aerejiOBi ilih ;iieM0H06i, roto- 
piuTB noRJOHflipTCfl flsu^HHRH, npHSHaaafl HTb CBOHMH 6oraMH. 

TaRHMx oópasoMx, xapaRTep'i> seMHoro rocyAapciBa, laRi CRa- 
3axB, yxe npeAp^nieH^. Oho flEJiacrcfl npoAOďseieHieMX u^apCTBa a^h- 
£OJa, ROTopoe ctohtii bi npAMofi cbash cb HBUHecTBOirE. Ha sewA 
se Ha^aio jiioACROMy rocy^apcíBy nojiaraeii KaeHi^, ROTopuS, na 
CBHAÍxeJiBCTBy nHcaHÍfl, 6ujn> nepBHMi crpoHTejieMX ropová. Cjiíao- 
BaTejbHO, ocHOBaxeJieMx seMHoro i^apcTBa Asjuaiercfl 6paToy6ifii](a; 
EaHHx, HBi saBHCTH yÓBBmifi CBoero 6paTa ÁBejia, ciaHOBETCfl ne 
TOJLRO ocHOBaTejieHi seMHoro rocy^apcTBa b'b o6ii;eirB cmucjt!, ho 
H EaRx 6u THnHHecRHMx nepBOo6pa30M'B ocHOBaiejiefi seiiHUxx rocy- 
japcTBi. IIoAOÓHBíMx ae ópaxoyÓiftcTBOMx, MHoro bírobií cnycra 
noafb EaHHa, 6ujio nojtoseno eanajio xoro ropová, Roxoputt ca^- 
laicfl CTO^msfiio MÍpa n nyxeni nacHJiifl coeAHHHJii bc£ nponie 
ropoAa H A^psaBEi fb OAHoarB seMHOMi rocy^apcxB^. 

HaHaBX, xaRHiťB o^pasoMx, cí Kanna, ÁBrycxHHrb cj['bAHxi b^ 
CBoeĚ RHHr& sa cyABĎOK) ^scMHoro** rocyAapcxBa: oh-b H3Jiaraen> ero 
iCTopÍH) jiHinB vh oÓmjaxT* ^epxaxi, A^psacB xpoHOJomnecRaro no- 
^ARa, HO ocxaHaBJíHBaflCB xojibro na xixi Jí2Ufl,Tb h coóuxíax^^ 
soTopBifl HM&iH A^fl Hero XHHHqecRoe sHaneHÍe. HapajJiejiBHO eny^ 
Bo xaRa^ oxpuBOHHo H dOHsoAHHHO, ABrycTHH'B BeAexi HCXOpÍK> 
.(Sosecsaro*' i^apcxBa, Roxopoe nposBJíflexcfl b'b npaBeAHHRaxi h nax- 
píapxax'B Bexxaro saB^^a, bi pa3JiB^Hiix'B MOMenxaxi Hcxopm hs- 
6paHHaro BoroMX eBpe&CRaro napo^a h bi cyABÓib xpecxíancRoS 
oÚmjíBU, MHoro HaxepnŠBine&cfl otl epexHROBi h asu^herobi. 

Ho ecjiH npecj['6A0BaHÍfl, ROxopuMx noABepraiecB xpHCxíaHe otb 
S8uqecBflX'B HHuepaxopoBi h BJiacxefi, mofjih CJiysnxB AOCxaxo^Hoft 
npHHHHofi j^juí nojHaro npoxHBonojioseHÍH seMHoro rocyAapcxBa 60- 
zecROMy, xo cyn^ecxBOBaJio jih ocHOBanie BucxaBJíaxB exi b'b xa- 
KOM'B se ROHxpacx^ H B3aHMH0irB aHxaro^3MÍ BO BpeMfl ÁBry- 
ciHHa, KOPAa 8xa BpasRAa seiiHoro rocyAapcxBa ri ÓosecRony npe- 
spaxHjacBy ROFAa HMnepaxop^ h npeACxaBHxejiH BJiacxH cA'&3aJiHCB 
caMB HjeHaMH xpECxiancRofi o6ii][hhbi? dxox^ Rouxpacxx neď^Ay 
HiMH, OAHaRO, npoAOJia^aexcfl h MOXHBHpyexcH fb H3o6paseHÍH ÁBry- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



188 BftOTHHB^B EBPOnH. 

CTHHa pasjraqieiTB hxx uasHaHeniH, I^-fejiB seMHoro rocy^apcTBa ecTB 
ycraHOBJíeHÍe e coxpaHeme MHpa. SeMHOft HHpi, npaBxa, Bejrasoe 
6«iaro; oh'b HeotixoAHMi h a^^a rpasAaHT» fiosecsaro i^apcTBa. Ho 
9T0TB MHp'B 3eMH0tt Heopo^eHi H Ri TOMy se HacTO npiobplTaeTCfl 

JHmE I^^^HOfO TflSaiUX^B BOfiHX. Ho BCflRafl BOfiHa, XOTfl 6VL H 

cnpaBeAJHBaa, BOSHHRaeTb hsi rpixa h Be^erb ki rpixy, h bca- 
Rafl noói^xa, xota 6s h HHcnocJiaHHafl 6osecRBnrB upoHUCioirB, 
flBJíflercfl cpeACTBOifB Rapu h HcnpaBJíeHiH. 

Bcerka jh, Bnpo^eMi, seMHUMH rocy^apcTBaMu pyROBO^HrB cnpa- 
Be;^JIHBOCTb? a 6e3i cnpaBeAJHBOCTH — BOCRJiHi^aeTB ABrycTHffB — htí> 
se HHoe seifHBifl rocy^apcTBa RaR^— magna latrocinia? 

3eHHoe rocyAapCTBO oceoBano Ha ce6ajrK)6ÍH, ROTopoe aoxo^htb 
AO npeHe(ype»eeÍH BoroirB. Hetfeceoe rocy;napcTBO ocHOBano Ha 
jik)6bh Wh Bory, ROTopaa Be^erB r^ npeHe6peseHÍK) co6oh). Oaho 
RH^HTCfl CBoeft coÓCTBeHHOft CHJioft B Ho^eTi CBOK) ciaBy q)e;(H 
Awdeú; ji^si ípyroro — Bucraaa cjaBa bi Bort, cy^iib cobícth. B-b 
nepBOMX H3X HHXi npeoÓJfdAaeTB CTpacrs BJiacTBOBaTB na^i horo* 
peHHHMH HapOAaMH; bx ApyroM-B— rpam^ane npoaBJíaiorB JiioÓOBh wh 
BsaHMHEixi yaiyrax'B; nepBoe jnoónvh bi* cbohx'b npaBHTeJiflxi cboh> 
coÓCTBeHHyio MomB; b* jípyroMi — roBoparB: „jik>6jik> Te6a, Focho^íh, 
Bi Te(íi MOfl AoCpoA^TejiB". 

npH TaROHi ipasjívmin, Bce npeHMyn^ecTBO AOCTOHHCTBa na cro- 
pOH* 6o»ecRaro líapcTBa, h ABryciHHi npocjiaBJíflerB ero bi naxe- 
THqecRBXi E ^dHarosBy^HBixi nepio^axi CBoero opaTopcRaro RpacHO* 
p^qifl. 

líapcTBO 8T0 — Fiqnoe e HecoRpyniHMoe; oho ho snaerB cmíhii 
SE3HE E CMepTfl; B^ EBWb R'bTb posA^HÍa, e6o HERTO Wb HeH^ He 
yMEpaeri; wb neirB ne bocxoaetb cojHnie HaA'B DpaBe^HUME e ne- 
^ecTEBBíME bm£ct%, HO cúJiEUfi npaBeAHOCTE Bcer^a oxanaROBO ciaeTB 
HaAi) o^HEME 6jiaro?ecTEB£iME; OHO ne snaerB ECRyccTBa o6orantaTB 
rocy^apcTBeHEyio Řasny Ecron^eHieMi qaciflaro RomejiBRa, ho o6jia- 
Aaerx oÓn^EMi coRpoBEo^eMi ÓoxecTBeHHOfi npaBj^Bi. 

IIpE TaROMi noďOseHÍE A^Jiit, rpasjí^aHEHi BeMHoro rocy^apcTBa 
ecTecTBeHHO cranoBETca fieayqacreHi r-b ero cy^BĎaíTB. Cyeinoe 
(Jjaro BHjíETB ABrycTEHB Bx oÓniEpHOCTB BJiacTH E ;íepaaBH. Pac- 
niHpeHÍe npe^iJOB^ rocy^apcTBa tojibro neiecTEBOMy npeACTaRfaerca 
c^acTBeMi; ^jaro^ecTEBEíe ae beji^etb bi caiioft san^ETb npe;^OB% 
jiEHiB poROByK) HeotfxoAEMOCTB; Majio Toro, rpasR^aHEHi 6omecRaro 
i^apcTBa Aase BnojiH']^ paBEO^ymeHi k'b xoMy, wh RaROM'B seiiHOMi 
rocy^apcTBi^ eMy upexojí^etce npoBecTE MEMOJterHyio seshb. ^He 
Bce JiE paBHO, — BOCRJBi^aerB ÁBryciEH-B, — no^x iBeft BjracTBK) jrebot^ 
^eJOBÍRi, ofipeneHHHft na CRopyio CMepTB — homo morittírus? 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CPEAHEB^KOBOE MlP0B0d3P«HIE. 189 

Bi BHAy .ly^esapHOfi BapreHu, nsoópasaioii^efi ÓosecKoe i^apcrao, 
He ToiBKO seMHoe rocy^apcTBO, ho h bca seMHaa SHSHb qe^iOBisa; 
Bci ero HHxepecu h npHBflsaHHOcrfl TepflK)TB cbok) i^^hj. Ob axoft 
TOHRH spisifl ÁBrycTHHX pascMaTpBBaeTi vb CBoeft 19-ofi RHHrb 
SH3HB HejiOB^Ka Kh xpexi cij^epaxi) ero A'^TejbHOCTB, Ha^HHafl ci> 
e&Mofi TicHofi H ójimKOŘ qejiOB^Ey ceMe&Hofi shshh. OnHCUBafl 
HeBsrojiu ceMefinaro óuia h Henpo^iHOCTs cqacxBfl, BOTopoe ceifBA 
xaerb qeJiOB^Ry, ÁBrycTEH^B nojiLsyeicfl h asunecRofi jiHrepaiypot, 
npHEOAa CTHXx TepeHEiia: 

„Bsflii a aieHy, h ckojibko ot-b aioro yBHA'feJi'b a ^•b;^!*; 
„PoAHJiHCb cuBOBBA, H eobslr noDua MBÍ saČOTa*^... 

EcaH Aase AOMamHifi o^ari, nepBoe h o6iAee yótsHii^e JiiOAeft, 
Hii^yii^Hxii MHpearo cnacTba, se oÓesnenHBaerB ero, tó qxb se csa- 
3aTi> o6i o6m,ecTBeHHOfi ^hseh, o $opyM'& eb ero xasÓaMH h yro- 
JOBBUMH npoDieccaMu, Bi» Boxopbixi cyAflXB cyAB0, ne Bt^aioii^íe 
cobícth xoro, na^i* Bikwb npoHSHOCflxi npHroBopi? Hxb CRaaaxb o 
BÍqfiuxi pasAopaxi nem^y rpas^anaMH h KpoBasuxx cnyxaxi, oxi 
KOTopMxx He oCesneneHO HHKaRoe ^ocy;^apcxBO? 

ňepexoAfl Ri* xpexbefi c^^ep^ o(iii;esHxífl, r'b MesAyHapoAHUM'b 
OTHomeHiflMX, ÁBrycxHHX yRa3iiBaeii> Ha xo, CROJibRO h xyxx hcxoh- 
HHKOBi asa H (5tACXBÍfi. Yxe oaho pa3HOo6pa8Íe asurobi — BejiHRoe 
aio; oho nacxojibRO pasoón^aexi jiio^efi Mes^y coóok), mto otfn^aa 
npHpoAa HX'b npH dxoM^ RaRi 6yAT0 HC^esaexi^—^ejiOBŠRi qysRAaexca 
HejOBÍRa, H oxoxHŠe npoBOAHrb Bpeifa cb CBoefi coCaRoft, hšmi cb 

HHOSeMI^eMX. 

DpaB;^, .iiOAH cxapaioxcfl npoxHBOAtficxBOBaxb axoMy pasofin^eniH); 
OHI cxpeMflxcfl pacmBpnxb npeA'£jiu CBoero rocyAapcxBa h HaBasaxb 
no6isAeHHbiM!b ne xojibRO CBoe nro, ho h CBOfi 23uz%. Ho CROJibRO 
m AOCXHseHÍfl xaRofi ujkiu npaxoAHXCfl secxH xasrbxx BofiH'b^ 
CBOJbRo norHÓaexi jiiOAefi, CROJibRo npojiHBaexcfl rpobh! 

A RorAa BÍkjíb AOCXHrnyxa, xo sa npeA&iaMH rocyAapcxBa ocxaioxcfl 
en^e Apyrie EpasAeCnne napoAU, — h RorAa, HaRonei^i, rocyAapcxBO 
AOBeAeHo AO orpOMHbix^ pa3M'£poBXy xo fb ero cotfcxBeHHuxi npe- 
Xi^axB BOSHHRaiorb hobeia 3aM']bniaxeJibCXBa h boShu. 

Bet axH CiACXBÍa xaRT» BejiHRH, — npoAOJiaaexx ABrycxHHx, — ^xo 
o HHxi HejbBfl AyMaxb 6e3'b rJiyóoRofi CRopfiH; a rxo 9x0 Mosexi, 
o TOMB cjíijiyerb emfi 6ojvbe cosajrixb, xaRi RaRi owb yxpaxH^ii 
pasyMHyK) npapoAy ^eJOB^Ra. 

TaRHiTB oópasoMi, npeA'b Rpacoxoio AyxoBHaro iiipa 6ji'&ahíh)tb 
Bcl seMHUfl Cjiara, roxopbimh AOposHxi ^ejio^KT>: 5oraxcxBO xepaex^ 
CBOD i^iny, RaRi RpacHopiHHBO AORaauBaexi ÁBrycxHHX bi yxí- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



190 B1iCTHHKl> EBPOnU. 

menie rixx, kto npH norpoM* PHMa yrparajit CBoe HMymeCrso, h 
HC^iesaeTB o6aflHÍe, ROTopoe HMŠiorB a^a qeiOB^sa ceHBfl, o^H^ecTBO h 
rocy^apcTBO. BcÉ &th HHrepecH, OAHaKO, ABrycroHx ee óesycJOBHO 
ocyffiAaera. Kasi „seMHoe*' rocywpcxBO, ecJH oho coAMcTByen i^i- 
jiaMi »6oaecKaro* i^apcTBa, xaKi h ceMba, h co6cTBeHHOCTB Moryro 
6uTh ocBfliueHH i^epROBBK), HO caMO no ce6i Bce sto — ee ĎJiaro, a 

3JI0, TaBl BaR'B OTBJíeBaeTB OTB HCTEHHfilXl E B^^HBIXl ÓJíSLlTb. 



BoTb BpaTKoe yKasanie na pyKOBO^Hmyio mucjtb toS BBHrH, 
ROTopaa HM^jia TaRoe CHJiBHoe BOcnHTaiejiBHoe BJiifleie Ha cpeAHÍe 
B%Ra, OTRy^a rpaMornue jiioah xofi snoxH qepnajiH ne tojibro cboh 
ucTopHqecRifl n apyria nayqHHa CBt^enia, — BOo6me BcecBoe o6pa- 

30BaHÍe, — HO H CBOe MÍpOB033p^HÍe, H CBOfi JRH3HeHHU& 13Ji.eBJÍ'b. 

Ho Txb 3Ke HaftTH axo „6o»ecRoe i^apcTBo", ri RoropoMy tc- 
jiOBŠR^, crpaHHHRi Ha dTO& seMji^, AOJTseHx HanpaBHTB CBofi nyrs? 

BosecRoe i^apcTBO y ÁBrycTHHa, cirosHBniiiCB noA'B BJiianieBTE 
^BofiHoro anraroHESMa, hocatb bi ce&k ^Ba CMBicjia, ab^ H^eiiy 

B03M0SH0CTB ABOfiHOFO TOJ[ROBaHÍfl H ocyn^ecTBjeHifl. 

Oho B08HHRJ10 H3X npoTHBonoJoaLeHifl xpECTÍancRoS oÓh^ehh 
asH^ecRoft EMHepÍE, a hotomx — BOo6n;e seMHOMy rocy^apciBy. Oh 

3T0& TOHRE Sp^HÍfl, 60SeCR0e I^apCTBO ÁBryCTHHa OJEI^eTBOpflJIOCB 

wb i^epRBE^ ROTopafl BOBBumajiacB na^^ 3eMH£[ME ii;apcTBaME, npe- 

BOCXOAfl EXl CBflTOCTBK), CBOUMX npOECXOSAeHÍeMTB E BUCOTOK) CBOOrO 

HasHa^enifl. K'b i^epRBE e 6uho npEMineno Bce, ht6 ÁBrycTEHX 
rOBopEJTB o ÓosecROMi ixapcrB^, e bto vh sHaqHTejrBHOft crenesH 
noMor-io 3anaAHoft líepRBH OAep»aTB no6t;ny b'b ÓopBÓi cb Hune- 
piei, caMOft craTB i^apcTBOMx h ;íaTB ce(5t i^apcTBeHHyio opraHHsa- 
ujuo^ cpe^H ROTopoft Phm^ CHOBa npECBOBJTB ce6i TO i^eHTp&iBHoe 
nojiosenie e Ty rocnoACTByiomyM) saBoeBaTe^nyK) pojiB, Roropaa 
eMy npEHa^Jiesajia bx asu^ecROiTB mpb. 

Ho bx ocHOBanÍE e^ce 6o»ecRara líapcTBa JiexEro eme Apyroft, 
ÓojAe rjiy6oRÍfi e 6oji%e o6niEpHBifi anTaroHEBirB. Ofipan^eme Ab- 
rycTHHa bi xpECiiaHCTBo 6bijio ne tojbro OTpe^enieMx otb asH^e- 
CTBa, HO E OTpeieHieMi ovb MÍpcRHX^B EHTepecoBX E ÓJLBTb. HorpoicB 
PEMa 6uji'B B'B rjia3axi ÁBrycTEHa sHaMenieirB Toro, hto xpEcriaHe 
;i(OJiaiHBi nepenecTE cboe saÓOTBi e hombicjih orB senHofi poaehh iab 
HeňecHOMy oxeqecTBy. BosecRoe líapcTBO, no yTCHÍio ÁBrycTHHa, 
cyn^ecTByerB yaie jifl BOSHERHOBenifl xpECTÍancRofi o^h^ehh hjih 
i^epRBE, ero na^ajio bocxoaetb a^^^ro sa npeA'ÍJiu coTBopenia Mipa; 
cji'ibAOBaTe;iBHO, 6osecRoe i^apcTBO aBJíaeTca y ÁBrycTEHa Tanse 
noHaTieiii E^eajiBHBíMi, otjiehhbimi otb xpECTÍancRoft o^h^ehh, npo- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CPEAHEBIbROBOE MIPOBOSdP^HIE. 191 

THBonojiosHUBTB BceMy 3eMH0My H BOHEpeTHOMy. BoaiecKoe I^apCTBO 

fil 3T0MX CUUCJA eCTb He CTOJBEO H3BÍCTH0e y^peatACHÍe, CROJIbBO 

HSBÍCTHoe íyxoBHoe o6meHÍe, oceoBaHHoe Ha OTpe^eHÍH otl Bcero 
seMHoro H cyereaiH). 

A HMeHHO dTJ OCHOBHyH) HABK) 602ReCBarO U^apCTBa, dTOTB, TaRX 

csasaTB, TpaHO^eHAeHTajibHufi npHHi^mrB ero ocyii^ecTB.iflj[o ea senjvb 
MOHatuecmeo. 

BoPB noTCMy MonaraecTBO bi čpějme BÍKa 8HaMeeyen> co6oh) 
He KEKofi-HHÓyAk oco6ufi poA^ SH3HH, BaBOfi-HHÓyAB oco6u& BJiacci 
BJiH paapflA'^ JK)Aefi, a ciaHOBHTCfl munuuecKUMz simeBiewh cpe^- 
HeB^BOBOft SH3HH EyjibTypu, BEipasedeifB h ocyii^ecTBJíeHieMi 
rocnoACTByioii^aro SBsneHHaro H^^eaJia. 

Tasí noHHHajio CBoe npesBanie cpeAHeB^BOBoe MonamecTBO. 
Cpe^H MOHaxoB^ Bce Óojrbe h Óojiie yRopeHflJiocB yCiat^eHie, ito 
idpi He TOJiBBo ne HM^en HHRaBofi uiknu js^Jisi xpHCTÍaHHHa, ho 
TO) owh npeAcraBJHeTB o(JjacTB, rj;* tfesycjiOBHo rocnoACTByero* 
3ioe, rpfaoBHoe nanajio. „BecB Mipt ecTB líapcTBO caxaHH",— p4- 
mHTejBHO, Hanp., saflBJHerB aóGaxi Pepo (Gerhoh), npHHHiiaBniifi 
j^xeJiBHoe y^acrie b^ 6opb6% nancTBa cb HMnepieĚ. 

Ob apyroft cropoHH, yKpšnjaeTca Bi ysiaxi mucjb, hto cyme- 
CTBOBanie Monaxa ecxb y«e HanaJio HeÓecnoft »h3hh. A66a.vb Fbh- 
jejBVB b% CBoeMi TpaBTaii o shbhh oxmejiBHHROBi yBasuBaeri) na 
TO, HTo ne AapoMi Ha3BaHÍe MonamecRofi rojibh (cellula) nponcxo- 
mrb OTb HasBanifl neóa (caelum), h6o HOHaxH, hoaoÓho cbatuhi, 
BCK) S1I3HB caaBáTB Bora h aiHByrB bi mucjh o Borl^. MoHaxk 
q)eAH oón^aro mucjia. xpHcriaH^ npeACiaBJVfliorB co6oio H36paHHHROB% 
He6a. »lHcyci> XpHCTOCi, — roBopnix RapAHHaji ^aMÍaHH b^ XI b., 
— BupHBaeTB HonaxoBi hbi MÍpa, hoaoGho Ao6pOMy nacrsipK), BHpu- 
BaiDii^eiiy hšcrojibro siVEHTh h3'b nacTH xH^naro sBtpa. BjiasenHu 
H36paHHHRH, ROTopEix'B FocnoAB cnacaerB cpe^H orponnaro HHCia 
norH6aK)Q^HX'B; npHHHMaa hx'b b'b CBOfi cbatoS ROB^en". 

no3TOMy ,He6eca jHRyiorB, seujisi xpenemerB, bc4 slsujsjí cjca- 
Ban Focno^a*, Ror^a rto-jih6o oÓpan^aeTca hbi wipaBTb MOHaerapB. 
BcrynjieHie bi HOHamecTBO npHBHaeTca RaRi 6u BiopuirB Rpen^e* 
Hiexx. Oho ecTB BOBpoxAenie rx hoboS shbhh, h, ójaro^apa axoMy 
BospoxA^Hiio, MonaxH CTaHOBflTCfl npnqacTHH anrejiBCRaro HHHa. Co- 
6(íph FL Hhmí, cosBaHHKifi nanoK) YpÓanom 11 b'b anoxy nepBaro 
KpecroBaro noxo^a, AorMaraqecRH ycTaHOBHJix, hto MonaxH hoaoChh 
aHreaaiTB, noxoMy hto BOSBimaiorii noBejitma Bosíh, h na ocHOBa- 
híh anajioriH MesAy MonamecRofi OAeaiAOft h mecTBH) RpujiBflME 
cepa^HMOBi, co6op^ Aa^se onpeA^Hj'B hšcto MOHaxoBi cpeAH an- 
rejBCEoft iepapxÍH. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



192 BftCTHHK1» EBPOmi. 

XoTfl RaTOJHqecKoe HOHamecTBO TaBHHi ofipasoMi yse cb caicaro 
Ha^sura, no caMOft H^ei CBoefi, flEjraeroi peajrasai^iefi ea seiiJii 6ose* 
CKaro AapcTBa, oho rku% ne ifea-le npeAcraBJíflerB co6ok) Bocxo^fl^ee 
flBjeHÍe, T.-e. npoABJíflerB i^^jbiS pflAi» nonuroKi ocyn^eciBETb dTors 
EAeajTB Bi BOSMOSHOMi coBepmeHCTB^. EasAftfl b3i laBHX^b nonu- 
Tosi BUBUBaeTi B'B »n3HE HOBufi TBox MOHamecKaro 6uTa, hobuS 
ycTaBi H HOBEift opAenx. HoBue opřena B03HHBaK)Ti KaKi bi> BHjiy 
Heco6jiK)AeBÍfl ycxaBa u ooraÓJieHifl AHCAHnjraHEi vb npesBHxi ho- 
HacTupflxi, xaKx h noTony, hto OTHOCHxejiBHO caiioro MOHamecsaro 
H^eajia npeA^BABJífliDTCfl Bce 6oji']&e h 6oA^e Bucosifl rpeCoBams. 

3x0 B0CX0Afln;ee ABEseoie cpe^H BanaAHO-eBponeficRaro Mosa- 
mecTBa fieperx CBoe Ha^iaio b'b X-mi bšbš, Kor^a nsx iioryn^ecTBeH- 
naro 4>P&Hi](y3CBaro MonaCTupfl Ejiiohbh, bi BypryHAiE, pas^aeica 

npHBMBl KX pe^řOpni, — 9T0TX MOHaCTUpB CraHOBETCa líCHipOlTB H 

FjiaBOK) ocoóofi, Óojrbe acKeTH«iecBO& ROHrperai^iH cpeAn 6eHeAHBTHH- 
CMxi MOHaCTBipeft. HcxoAx X B*Ka, T.-e. nepBaro TucaiejÍTÍa, bbi- 
sBajTB y coBpeiieHHHBOBx MEicjiB o npeACTOfln^eBfB rohu']^ MÍpa h ^pe3- 
BUHafiHO ycn.iHJix peiiHriosHoe lyBCXBO bb cmucjií acRerHSHa. ^hcjo 
MOHacTupe& H MOeaxoBi xaKi óucrpo Bospoc^o, hto oqeBEAeA^ arora 
ABHseHÍfl, MOHaxi PaAyJiB<()B FjiaÓepB, H8o6pasaeTB 3to ABHseme 
CJiOBaMH: „BasajiocB, BasB Óy^xo BecB MÍpx csEHyjix cb ceóa BeiH- 
Byio o^esAJ u oÓJeKX ceóa B^ 6^£itt noBpoBB i^epBBH^. 

BxoMy HOBOMy npnjiHBy acBexHHecBaro H^eajiHSMa CTaHOBHTca 
xicHO Bi MOHacTBipflxx, H OHX npoHBJíflexcfl Bx cxpeMJieHÍH Bi oxmejB- 
HH^ecxBy. FjiaBHBifi npeACxaBHxejiB sxoro HaupaB^enifl) cb. PoMyaj[Bxi>t 
xot]^'b 6Uy no cnoBaMi ero 6iorpa$a, npeBpaxHXB bccb MÍpB 3'h^ 
CRWTb. noA'B ero BjdflnieMx h pyBOBO^cxBOMX HenpHCxynnufl Bep- 
niHEu AneHHHHa yc^jincB ]í'&iumb cohmomi oóaxaiefi, bb boto- 
puxi oxmejBHHqecTBO 6u^o conpflseno ctb hsb^cxebimi oÓn^esH- 
xieiTB. 

PejinrioBHoe ABHsenie, BUdBasmee h conpoBoaiA&Bmee nepBEifr 

BpeCXOBUS nOXOA'B, BUpaSHJIOCB OnflTB Vb uiklOMl, pajSJk HOBBrX'B MO- 

HamecBHXi opAeBOB'B. B^ 1084 6hiji% y^pem^eni op^enB Bapre- 
sianiíeB^ — Chartreux, a 14 jištb cnycxa 6efleAHEXHHCRÍft op^en^ 
BUflíkínurb H8B ce6fl noByiD, eme Óojrfee cxporyio Ronrperaiíiio — ^HC- 
xepn;íeHCByM), i^eexpoATb Boxopofi 6ujn> MonacxupB Gíteaux, xaBse b'b 
BypryHAÍH, h rjraBHUM^ pyBOBOAuxejieMB ea cxa^iB Bepnap^B Kjiep- 

BaJIBCBÍĚ. 

H en^e 20 jiítl cnycxfl cb. Hoptfepxi, noAOBOJiBHBift bc^mh cy- 
n^ecxBOBaBniEMH ao nero op^enaME, fljaLjn> y^pes^ennoMy hhi iiOHa- 

CTBipK), IIpeMOHXpé, OCOĎBift CypOBBlft yCXaB^b E A-Ifl HOBBIXX MOHa- 

cxBipefi CBOero opřena cxa.ix napo^no EB^EpaxB neBAOpOBUfl m^ct- 



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CPEAHEB^ROBOB MIPOB033P1^HIE. 193 

HOCTH, f,ÁSi Toro HTOÓu MOHaxH nocTOflHHO HM^H nepeA'i> C06010 

CMepTB H CBBlIUUlHCb Cl MUCIBK) O Hefi. 

B'B npoAOJseHÍe XII B^sa boshhki eii;e i^'&Abi& paj^t hobuxi 
MOHamecRHXi op^enoBi — TpHHBTapÍH, qtJiBio Roxopuxi óhuio B36aB- 
JieHÍe xpHcriaHi, HaxoAHBOiHXCfl bx n^i^Hy hjih bx pa6cTBÍ y My- 
cyjBMaHiy H pasjHHHUfl Apyrífl Roerperai^iu, ROTopua noroHi óajiw 
CJHTu o6ii;HMib ycraBOMi bx opAeex aBrycxHHi^eBX. 

HaROHei^'B, wb bmsíjA XIII b. acRern^ecRaa HAefl AociHrjia buc- 
maro CBoero HanpflseHÍfl bi AByxi Hflii^eHCTByioii^HX'^ opAeHax'B, 
ÝpaHi^BCRaHi^eBi e AOMHHHRaHi](eB'B. EciB npeaRHÍe opAena Tpe6o- 
BadH OTB HejiOBÍRa npH BcrynjemH wh Monacrups OTpe^efidfl otx 

JH4H0fi COÓCTBeHHOCTH; TO 9TH HOBUe OpACHa CTaBEJIH TaROe Tpe* 

6oBaHÍe yse caMOfi Ropnopai^H. Caicutt MOHacrups ne AOJrseHi 

6hLAT> BJiaA'Í^Tb COÓCTBeHHOCTLK), H MOHaXU JSfiámnU ÓUáE JRHTB OAHOK) 

MHJOCTUHefi. H ecJH npesHÍe opAeHa xpeÓOBajin, hto6u HOHax'B 
jmBa2'B o6ÍTh noBHHOBeHifl CBOeHy AyxoBHOMy Ha^aiíBCTBy, to cb; 
$paHi](HCR'B B% 9Towb OTHOmeHÍu nomeJTB en^e A&^i>nie h BupasiurB 

dTO TpeÓOBaHÍe CSOBaMB, ^TO M0HaX'B HaCTOJIBRO AOJISeH'B OTpi- 

fflHTBCfl OTB CBoefi BOJB fl CBoero BHAHBBAyajBHaro cyn^ecTBOBaHÍfl, 
wto6a craTB RaRx 6u óesAUxaHHUMi TpynoirB. 

TaRBMi oÓpasoM^B, acReTB^ecRÍfi flAeaj[H3M'B ne tojibro noRpu^ii 
Espony JsíkJioŘ cítbk) MOHacnipefi h opAeHOBi, ho h crpeMBJícfl Bce 
HOBUMH HOBbUffl ycflJiíjiMH npeB30&TB CBOH npesHÍe pesyjiBTaTii. 
,KaRib OAHa SB^Aft, — CRa3aji'B loana^ Coj[Bc6epíficRÍ&,— OTjniqaeTCfl 
OTB Apyrod óojiBmeH) apRocTBH), TaRx oabhx opAeffB orjBqaeTCfl 
OTB ApyrBXi CojiBmeH) cbstoctbio* . CoBpeneHHOMy ae HCTopBRy bcí 
OHB npeACTaBJUiH)TCfl Bi CBoefi xpoHO^iorHqecROft onepeAB nocsŠAO* 
saxejiBHuirB npoflBJíeHieiiirB BejiBRoft baob no5ÍABi Ay^a HaA^ MÍpoMi, 
—cmyneuHMu, ao ROTOpuMi HpaBCTBeHHafl dHeprífl ^eJiOB^Ra crpeiiB- 
jacb Bce 6ojrbe h 6ojAe npadiBSBTBCfl Ri coBepnieecTBy nocraB- 
jeHHaro ce&b BAeajia. 

TopsecTBO MOHamecRaro npHHi^Bna^ B£ipa3BBineecfl kb yRasas- 
Huxi ^^aRTax^B, MOSHO CRasaTB, 611J10 nojiHoe; ho hími Bume CTa- 
HOBHJOCB dTO TopsecTBO MOHamecTBa HaA'B MipoiTB, tíitb chjibhí^ 
crajio oÓHapysBBaTBCfl ero eosórbúcmeie Ha mph. B% 8tom'b saRsio- 
uercji BCTopHqecRafl po.iB RaTOJiaqecRaro MOHamecTBa. Oho 6uáo 
cípeitieHieMX yfixB b3x MÍpa, 3a6uB'B ero, h icesAy tími hbhto ne 
Hi^o TaRoro rpoMaAHaro BJiúinifl Ha cyABÓy MÍpa, RaRi HiieHHo 
laTOjB^ecRoe MonamecTBO. 

3to aamme narjiflAHO BiipasRaeTCS yse b'b canoft Bnimnefi 
o6eiaH0BR£ MOHacxBipefi. OrpoBTejH MonacTupeft HcaajiH yeABHenifl, 
yxojpuH vb rjiy6B ji'Icob'b, wl 6e3J[K>AH£ifl uicTa h vb ropu, ho 

Tom L— flHBAPb, 1891. 18 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



194 mCTHMKl EBPOnH. 

nocrpoemeirB CBoero MOHacrupa ohh o6paii^ajiH caHae nycTUHH h 
jAcsl b'b pascaAHHRH i^eiTyn^efl ByjibTypti. MoHacropB npHTJirHBaji^B 
vb ce6i HaceJieHÍe; Tonopi h sacryirB MOHaxa Cb Ea raumi ro^oirB 
pacmHpflJiH^iLaíOii^aAB o6pa6oTaHHO& senJia wie BHHorpaAHHBOirb, craas- 
niHXCfl no CEJiOHanTL nenJOAopoAHuxi ropi, a aiíóapu e no* 
rpe6a Monacrupeft, A^Bafl nHn^y h pa6oTy cothami jio^ett, crano* 
BHJiHCb i^enipaMH x03fl&CTBeHH0& SH8HH EBponu. 

9to Óujto B03AÍfiCTBÍe iiaTepiajibHoe, TaEi* csasaTb — neBOJknoe. 
CnJbH^ H 3HaHHTejibff6e no cbohmx nocJi^ACTBÚiifb 6hjo aiunie 
caMOfi HAen Monamecsoft na AY^OBnyia SHSHb Esponu. 

3Ty BffiJO HejbSfl Óqáo saBJíOHHTb vh MOHacmpcBHxx cr^naxib, 
H ona E8i-8a hhxi osapaja idpb. Ecjih ona 6Hja xaici cubna, 
qro Tucfl^iH yBJíeBajia vh MonacTEipb, to h tš, soropse ocraBajiHCb 
vb nip^, ne MoriH ne ^BCTBOBaTb na ce&b ea bjíshía. 

IIpesAe Bcero sjíuime acBeTHqecsaro HAeaJiBStfa aojsho Óujo 
orpasHTbCJi na Ójnsma&meŘ bx MOHamecTBy c<|)ep6 — na AyxoBencTB^. 
DepBbifl nonuTBH npHtfjBBHXb AyxoBencTBO bi MonamecTBy otho- 
CflTCfl en;e Kb YUI B^By. B^b ary Buoxy enHCBom MHscBÍfi, Xpo- 
AeraHrB, cocarhejii cBflo^eHHHBOBi CBoefi coCopnofi i^epBBH bx 
o6nífix,wňe h B03JiosEj['b na Bas^aro e8% ero uenoBi^ BpOM*! o&fera 
ÓesÓpa^ifl, oÓflsaHHOCTb nepe^aTb CBoe HMyn^ecTBO o6ii;esflTÍK), co- 
zpaHJifl sa coÓOK) JHnib npaBO nojbsoBaHÚi. TaBÍfl oÓn^esHiifl cba- 
n^ennEBOBi npn ^epBBax^ cxaJiH nasuBaTbcfl ^i^HOHHBaTOifb". 

EanoHEBaTu crajiE tfacrpo pacnpocrpaHflTbCfl no Esponi^, a 
Bir6cT6 Cb T^'B sairikqaeTCfl crpeii jenie noA^HHATb BanoHEBOBi Bce 
ÓOjAe crporoMy ycraBy. Meoríe crajH, nanp., c<iHTaTb coójoíasHOMi, 
HTO BanoHEBE ne OTBasuBa^iflCb otb npaBa noiibsoBanifl cboemi jie^- 
msatb EHyn^ecTBOMi. RapAEnajii JI^aMiaHE BEA'&Ji'b wb 9T0Wb Ecroq- 
HEB'B B%HHO& TEÓejiE jífiň BaHOHflBOB'B, a dí66skTb Fepo rOBOpEJ^, 
qro noBH ne CyAen BupBana c^ Bopneiii cotfcTBeHHocTb Banonn- 
BOBX, OTx BToro THEjioro BopHE BceFAa 6yAyTB BATB TaBÍe ae ne- 
TOAHbie pocTBE. TaBi nocxenenno noAroTOBJífljiacb Ta snaHeHETafl 
pe^opMa, BOTopafl wb bohi^ XI BŠsa Bocsyjiacb yse Bcero BaTO- 
lE^ecsaro AyxoBencTBa e, eoaoÓho BanonEsairB, BoaiosEJia e na 
Bcix'b npoHEXi CBfln;eHBEBOB'b MOHamecBÍfi o6'J^ti ÓesÓpanifl. 

dxoTb BopeHHoft nepeBopoTB, BOTOpaft, Bone^no, coBepmejicfl ne 
cpasy, ne TOJibBo fldBf^BEj'B xapaBTepi AyxoBencTBa, oiopBaBi ero 
orb noHBu seMHoro rocyAapcTBa, ho btuitb nyTCMx npeo^pasEJi h 
caMuft CTpoft i^epBBE sanaAHoB Eeponu. HsBto^HO, BaB'b mhopo co- 
A^ftcTBOBaJio BBeAenie 6e36pa<iifl pasBETÍio nancBofi BJiacTE. 

Ho MonamecTBO BBEiocb coK)3HflBOM b PflMa ne b'b btomi tojibbo 

OTHOmeHÍE... 



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GPEAHEBIROBOE MIP0B033raHIE. 195 

OrapHHHue 6eHeAHRTHHCKÍe MOHacrupH, sjía^^ otfmEpHaiiH sen- 
jUMH, nojib30B&aHCb H TÍMH npaBaiíH, BOTopufl Bx ^eoAajibHyH) dHOxy 
-ásjm conpflseHEi cb seMjreBjaAiHieAfB. Cocraaiflfl oco6yK) bojoctb 
'CpeAB Apynui) oco6utt MÍposi, dxa MOHacrupH crajiH crpeMHTbCfl 

Bl QOIHOMy 0($OCO(SjieHÍ[0. OhH A06EÍBa.1HCb He TOJIBRO aBTOHOMÍH Bl 
^laCTH CBŽTCBOft BJiaCTH, HO H OTHOCHTeJIbnO CBOHX^B enBCROnOBl^ 

soTopue qacTO aioynoTpeÓjajiH AyxoBHOio BjacTbfo ajui liipCRHxi 
otjeá. drairb HOHacnipflMX npeAcraBJUiJiCfl Becbiia yAOÓHEift nyTb, 
X^fl ocBOÓOHCAeHÍfl 0Tb enapxíajbHOfi Bjacrn, bx HenocpeACTBeHHOiTB 
noAiHaemH pEMCsony enucRony, e CB^TCRÍe rocy^ape oxotho A^poBajE 
EWh dTy npEBEwieriK). Epynaue 6eHeAHBTHHCKÍe HOHaciEipE cociaB- 
MAii^ TaKHiTb o6pa80irB, BO Bceft Espon^ ocrpoBSE, BXOAHBmie bt> co- 
'CraBi enapxÍE puMCnaio eoBCRona. 

Ha pasBETÍe BJiacrn nocstAnaro noBJíífljTB saTtirB en^e Apyroft 
jfOneHTL Bi ECTopÍE MOHamecTBa: v,eHmpaAU3aiJi,ÍH hobuxi HOHame- 
^^RHXi opAeHOBi. Kor^a bi KjiiOHbH 6biJia coBepmeHa pe^^opna, 
MHoríe HOHacTupH nocjT&AOBajiE ero npEMtpy; nps dxoMi canafl pe- 
4»opMa o6uRHOBeHHO npoBOAEjiacb npncjiaHHUME hsx EjioobE MOHa- 
xaME. Pe^^opMupoBaHHue eme MonacrupE coxpaHEJiE e nocs*! Toro 
TbcHyfo CBflSb Cb rjiaBHSM'b MOHacrupeMi, cocraBjfljifl ci HEsrb oco- 
(}yH> ROHrperai^ÍK) e ocraBajiECb noA'b ero pyROBOACTBOiix. To se 
caiftoe noBTopBviocb eotomi npE peýopaii, i^eHTpoarb Roropoft Óujte 
MOHacTbipb Gbt6. Bo Bpeiffl cb. BepEap^a, x.-e. BecbHa CRopo no 
npoBeAeHÍE pe^opMU, i^Ecrepi^ieHCRafl Roerperai^ifl cocroaja yse esx 
500 MOHacTupefi, a B'b cjit^yioa^eMx bírí yse ebx 1.300, pas- 
-etflHHuxx no bcímx crpaHaMi EBponn. Eacero^HO b% rjiaBHOirb 
a66aTCTBÍ ao^shu 6wivl co^BpaTbca a6($aTH Apyrflxx MonacTupefi, 
H TOjibRO caMUMX OT^ajieHEUMi paspimajiocb EBjflTbca ptse. TaRas 
KOHrperai^ifl cocraBJEja, laREirb o6pa30iťb, ocoóoe i^apcTBO, cnio- 
^eHHoe HeBEAEMOH) cBflSbH), HacTOED^ee „6osecRoe i^apcTBo' cpeAH 
EeHHiixi rocyAapcTBx e BpasAyK)ntEX'B HapoAOBx. 

Ho BCi 8TE IfOHaCTEipE E ROHrperai^ÍE COCraBJIflJE XOJbRO BO- 

jiocTfl fl npoBEBi](ÍE Apyroro, 6ojAq oÓmEpsaro i^apcxBa, — Aepa^asii 
pEMCRaro enflCRona ejie pemcroS uepRBE, ROTopan no ESBicTHUifb 
HCTopE^ecREMi npE^EHaMi Bco ÓoJiše E 6ojr6e. noA^nnflJia ce6^ 
Apyrifl i^epRBE e ciajia a^a áanaAHofi Esponu i^epROBbio Booón^e. 
MonamecTBO e nanciBo — ab% ECTopE?ecRÍfl cejk, HaxoAfln^iflCE 
vh TtcHOMi BBaEMOA^i&fiCTBiE. MoHamecTBO, acEBfl AJisL CBoero EAeajia, 
fle Morjo He satfoTETbCfl o TopsecTB']^ dxoro EAeaia B'b Mip']b. Oho 
iipeoÓpasHiio no CBoeny o6pa3Ay AyxoBeHCXBO, caMoft i^epRBE cra- 
pajocb npEAaTb Torb cxpoft, ROTopuS Bcero HarJiEAH'le ocyn^ecr- 
uuii HAeio 6oAecRaro i^apcTBa, e crpeMEJOCb oÓesne^ETb sa Heft 

18* 



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196 vhOTEoneb ebpoiih. 

TO noJoseHÍe, BOTopoe HaHÓojiie mofjio coAMcTsoBaTb TopiRecrsy 
HAeaabHO-ÓosecBaro KapcTBa na^xh MÍpoHi. MoHaxif CA^JiajiHCb, ts- 

BBlTb OfipaSOlfB, rJiaBBUMH SOA^HMH CpeAHeB'lROBOft TeoBpaTÍH. Ho^ 

vb CHJiy dToro, MonamecTBO, oiBasaBniHCb nepBOHa^ajn>HO orb iiipa, 
Bepeyjiocb cHOBa R^b HeMy, npHHfljio ea ceófl mhccík) ^'^tcTBOBaTb bi^ 
irípt H pyEOBOAHTb i&wby EaRx 6u A^fl Bfln^inaro TopsecTBa Úome- 
CBaro i^^pcTBa. 

TaRoe ABofiHoe npHSBaHie iioHaxa — cnacaTb ceósi otb MÍpa h cua- 
caTb MÍpí OTi rocnoACTByromaro b% není sjía — BnoJiHŠ cooTBiTCTByept 
ABoftHOft uAei, saRjiio^aion^eftcfl bi noMTÍH o ÓomecKowh i^apcTB^ 
y ABrycTHHa. 

Ho BaR^ se ysHBajiocb bi Ajmi Monaxa 8to aboSboo npe- 
SBanie — yfira orb sjra bi iiipi h bi to ate BpoHfl coA*flcTBOBaTb Top- 
2BecTBy Ao6pa bx nip^? Bi jh^hoctb h cyAb6£ Eepeap^a E.iepBajib- 
CBaro Haifir ^^Har^r^AH^ Bcero npeACTaBHTCfl paspimeHÍe dToro bo- 
upoca. 

B. FEPbE. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ji:9M0CT> 

Cov. iHCCHEra. 



ÍACTb I. 

I. 

Fopa CraHt^dpH, ch sana^Haro CRJiOHa KOTopofr cnycRaercfl Be* 
caiaa }s,ojíwbAj yTonann^afl fb sejieHH jyrOBi h BHHorpaAHHROBX^ 
flaxoAHTCfl ea padcroflHiH ee 6ojAe abjxi qacoBib nyra orb irbcr* 

HOCTH, HSpHTOft BOnJIMH H SaCTpOeHBOt ^aÓpHRaMH, AUMfl^HMECS 

xeBh H HOHB. EcjH FJiflA^TB CO CBJíoHa ropu, Tjiib BOBAyXl TaRl 
;(%BCTBeHHO iHCTB H CB&K^B H TaRi jepRo AunieTCfl, Ha 9T0 npo- 
MfiinueHHoe ir&creTOO, to oho npeACTaBJuercfl RaRHBTB-To Mpa^HEnrB, 
^epHUlfB sepjoiTB. 

Kt* OAHOMy 6oRy rotjiobhhu npHiiEiRaerB ^epesHA Baojet; no 
^pyrony hactb seiLiJiHafl eacunb, sacaneHeaii AepeBBflMH; orojio 
Hen HBBHBaercfl HerjytfoRÍfi pyneft, Boaxaton^ift vh GesepEi. 

jl,epeBeHBRa BaeJiefl coctohtb Bcero h3i OAHOft yjiHi^u. ]ífiMA 
9b Hefi RaMeHHHO. ^erupe hsi hhxi, crapiiHHoft nocrpo&RH, npe- 
eax^esajni HeRor^a BejbBHRCROiiy a66aTCTBy, h ero paBBajiHHu ao 
KMsrb nopTB en^e saHimaiOTB co6o& nopa^o^Hiifi y^acroRi seiuH. 

Bl dTOft M^THOCTH RaMeHHOyTOJIkHIlft lUaCTB XOCTHraeTB HaH- 

-úosbmei TOJm^HHu, hšmi rx*]^ 6u to hh 6iijio bi ÁHrjiin. Tojicteui 
ertHH ApeBHflro sAaHÍfl coBepmeHHO noHepe&ra otb AUMa h Majo- 
no-Maiy ocunaiOTCfl, corpacaeifiiji paCoTaion^HME orojo hhxi rpo- 
HSXHHMB uaniHHaMH. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



198 BfiCTHHB^L EBPOnU. 

KorAa Be^epoMi cojHi^e 3aKaTUBaeTCfl sa Bepmeny CTanÓapH^ 
TO sasercfl, tto oho ÓarposierB otl re^Ba, bhaa Ha boctob^ 
flpEoe sapeBO, nponsBOAHMoe nujiaioiiiHMH ropeaMH ifšcie^Ba. Torjut 
vb ÓimoBJíh MOSHO padJiH^HTB Bi OByTBJBaH)ii](efi ero A^iMBOfi nejieflit 
CBepKafon^ifl nojocBH: sto ÓJiecrarL HeMHoru yi^'&9'lBiirifl creBJa 
B^ ORHax^L nojypaBpymeHHaro MOHacrupa. EciHtfu MOHaxH mofjib 
BcraiB Hsi rpoéa, ohh ne yseajiH 611 bi stoitb saKonrijoMi ica* 
MeHHOiťB octobí CBoero MHpnaro ytf^SHn^a, By^a creB&iHCb ÓJiaro- 
HecTHBue najOMHHBH, vjíik Bce Aoniajio HeBO3HyT0M£urL cnoBoScTBieni^ 
H THmHHot. y^yniJiiiBiifi ji,uwb. rpoxoTi MamHHi, niuaion^ie ofhb 
— Bce 8T0 npoHSBejio 6h na hhxi Bne^aTJi^HÍe a^a, nocroflHHaro^ 
npeAMera nTh crpaxa npe acnsEH, ho, Basi naxo HaA'&iTbCJi, ee 
BOSMyn^aioniaro lenepb hxi B^nnaro cna. 

Ha xojiMŠ, rocHOACTBy iontem HaA'b BceH) aojihhoh), BOSBumaercs 
saHOBi BaHjeft — 6ojbmoe Beánie, croan^ee ocoÓHABOirB h OBpyaRen- 

HOe CTOJ^THHMH A^P^BLAMH. Bl XY BÍB% OHO UpAHaA^eSaJIO MO- 

HacTupK), H MOHaxH SSHJH Bi> BBWb AO caMaro ynpasAHenifl Mona- 
mecBHxi opAenoBi. HenHoro hosah^, BopojieBa KsHcaBera npi- 
o6p4jia ero bi cbok) coCcTBennocTL. Bi BOH^š XVIII crojiŠTia 3a- 
MOBi» nocrynHJi^L bo BJiaA^Hie 4>aMHJiÍH 3jibaohobi>, bm^ctí cl npe- 
aeraion^HMH b^l Heny seM^AHn. 

Oahhb H3i djibAOHOBi, npH 6HJibrejibMÍ lY, coBepmenno sány- 
CTHJii CBOH A^a; cuHi ero bsajcji hxi nonpaBHTb h, otjoshbi^ 
Bi CTopony cocjiOBHiie npeApascyABH, sanAJicfl BOMnepipet. OAsaBO 

BTBWb OHX OBOHqaTOJIbHO paBOpHJTB CBOe HM^BÍe, H He COXpaHHCb* 

npHAanaro ero senu, nocJí% ero CMeprH, djbAOHQ crajiH 6u hh- 

m^HMH. 

TorAa-TO saMOBfb nepemejii bi pyBs HŠBoero MoTHiiepa, pas- 
<$oraTÍBmaro Bysnei^k. OAHaBO, Bi CHJiy HŠBOTopux^b oÓcroflTeJbCTBi^ 

o BOTOpUX^b KU CBaseill HHSe, JI9AH 3jrbA0H'b co CBOHMH AByMS 

cuHOBbflMH npoAOJsajia SHTb vh Bamiei. Bdb xpoe, daaroAapA 
yroH^eHHOCTH cbohxi BBycoBi, npHAaBajiH saHBy oco6eHHufi apecro- 
BpaTHqecBitt jocbi; npH TOMiy Ó^aroAapfl cnocoÓHOCTH i^íhetb upe- 
BpacBoe H xopomeMy BBycy, ho laBi ^acro BCTp'6iaioiitHMca b^l^ 
jiK)AflX'b, BumeAniHXi hsi HHsmaro cocjobía, HOBuft coÓCTBeHHHKb* 
BaHJiefl ocraBHJii 8aH0B'b fl tomt> bha^, bx BaBOirb nojy^HjrL ero. 
Ohi He BtipyfiHjrb napBOBi h ne o6e8o6pa3Hjrb AO^nny neyBJíioaiHMff 

4»a6pH^HHMH SAaníflMH. TtMl yAHBHTeJíbHle ÓELIO 9T0, ^TO AOJIHHa 

Vb H^Apaxi CBOHXi TaHJia HOHC^epnaeMEifl ÓoraTCXBa BaMennaro 
yrjfl H 2Be.i^. HanpacHO npoHunueHHHBH JibCTHJiH ceót naAOS- 
Aofl, HTO Bi pyBaxx npaBTe^ecBaro, A^^naro qeJOBilBa coBpoBHo^a^ 
JiesaBmifl Bxyn^ ctojbbo bíbobi, BuflAyn, naBOHei^i, na cbít^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



AaMOci. 199 

EosiS H AOJflHa, BaBx h 6ejbBBR'B, yTpaTHB'B CBOH) BpacoTy, CA^- 
jaercfl saTO npoMumjieHHiiMi i^eHTpoiťB. Botb yse AB^HajwaiB 
jjrrb, saR^B OHH cb saBucTBH) nocMaTpHBaJiH H8i CBoefi saBonT^Jioft 
SMu Ha CMÍK)iiuftcfl CBJíOHi OraHÓapH, h Aa»e hha BaHJiefl mí- 
majio HM^B noBoftHO cnaTb. 

6% dnoxy, Bor^a Ha^aHaercfl Hami pascBasi, caMiiiMi> pecneB- 
Ta^ejbHUM^B B% obojotbí aoaai S^baobob^ c^Hxajiocb ceMettcTBO 
BajibTaMOBi, cocTOflBmee hsi Maiepn, seHi^HHu cpeAHHXi ji'It%, 
cHHa, lOHomH ABaAiiaTH-OAHoro ro^a, h BOceicHaAAaTH-j['lTHe& ao- 
"^eptf. XoTfl TOJbBO BTopofi TOA^b, BaBi BajibTaMbi nocejiHJiHCb bi 
dToft micmocin^ ho ohh nojibsoBajiHCb Bceo^m^HMi yBasenieicb, bi 
oeoóeHHOCTH 6jiaroAapfl CBoefi bopotbocth cb 3jbA0HaMH. 

Mysi M-CB BajiBTaMi 6uji% aB^ioHepoM^ oahofo ÓanBa, wh 
soHi^i BOHi](OBi opeBpaTHBmaro cboh njiaTesH. HecMorpfl na dTO^ 
BanHTaji, KaBofi yAajocB caacTH npn BpymemH, bhojih^ oÓedaeiH- 
sajii juifl Hero h ero ceneflcTBa hsb^cthbií AOcraTOBi h cspoMHoe 
AOBOJibCTBO. BbJTB MoserB, A^a ero secBMa CBopo npHnuiH óm kb 
npesHee 6jecTflii^ee cocroflHÍe, ecjivióu ciiepTB ne najiosHJia Bne- 
sanHoe veto na ero HOBBifl nonuTRB r^ oÓoran^eHiiD. GnycTJi ABa 
roAa nocji'1 CMepre iiyaca, h-cb BajiBTaiťB nepeixajia bi Banjieft 

CB CBOBMX CHHOHl Ajlh^^efl,OWb H AOHOpBH) ÁAeJIBK). OhH SaHflJIH 

MajieHBBift AOMHBi, CTOflBmift y noAOinBu ropu b oahoB croponoft 
BHXOAHBmifi ea AepeBeHCByio yjBi^y. dra HeoÓuBHOseHHO nacrofi- 
iiHBafl, AaJbHOBHAHafl H upaBTH^ecBafl A&Ma nocTynaja tbb^ ee n^ 
MHHyTHOfi npBxoTH, HO HO 3apaHl^e o6AyMaHHOMy ujiany. Hbao npH- 

BilTb BO BHHMaHie, HTO MOJIOAOfi djIbAOHl SHJl HO COC^ACTBy H 

6HA Bcero na ^erupe roAa TOJibBO crapme AAe;iB. Becbna ecre- 
CTBeHHO, ecjiH MOJiOAofi qejiOBÍRi, B'B HacTOflic^eiťB ne pacnojiaraB- 

niii BHBBBHMB 0€05eHHUUB CpeACTBaMB, HO HeCOMHÍHHO Mormít 

padCHHTHBaTb vb Ú^jsjmfiwb nojiyqflTb neifajioe cocroanie, ne cn%- 
mBjn> seHHTbCfl. 

HacryHHJia BejiHBafl nflTHBi](a. 

Bi aroifb roAy nacxa npBnuacb oqenb hosaho; AepesbB yse 
yópajiHCb H^SHOiOy HsynfpyAHofi jibctboh) b nanoJiHflJiH B08Ayx^ cbo* 
HiTB 6jiaroyxaHÍeM%. H hb h-cb BanBiaMOb Becna A^flcrsoBajia aur- 
BOTBopHO, H ona, xoTfl B ÓescodHBTejiBHo, HBCJiamAajíacB eio. Osa 
croflja y OTBpuTaro obhb b rjiBA^a hb nepcneBiBsy AepeBencBOft 
yJ^lI^I B Ha mapoByio AOJiBHy, noAUMaBmyiocfl sa neK) TeppacaMB, 

nOpOCHIHMB ryCTUMl» JI'ICOM'B, 8e;[eH'lBniBMl CBtoeH) ilBCTBOfi; BOTO* 

paji TO^HO AUMRB ORyruBBjía «ro BepmBHu. IIo CRJioHaMi aojibhu 
isecrpbsE BHHorpaAHBRB b uom. Oahbro Óuao Bi.dTOifi neflsasi 
B^HTO HapyrnaBmee rapMOHÍio Bceft rbptbhu, a BMenHO RaRÍe-T# 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



200 BtCTSBVh EBPOnU. 

rjyÓORie psu h eacunH, BíAH^Biniecfl he ropH30HT6. E^sa jb ts- 
KÍfl pa6oTii MorjH npoesBOXHTB cb i^^h) ocyrneniji no^su, rivk 
6oAe, nw M']^aMH yse Óum npoJOSeHii pejibcu. JD^ha TpH, BasrL 
Ha^aTBifl pafiOTu ocraHOBHJHCb, fijraroAapa BHe3anH0fi CMepm M-pa 
MoTBMepa^ H BcfbxT> saHHMaji Bonpoci, Hairl^peHi jih Haci^xHHRi 
npoAOJi»aTb Hxi. XoTfl m-cb BajibTaifb OTHOcnjracB coBepmeHHO 
paBHOAyniHO b^b RpacoTaM^B npepoxu, ho h ona nyBciBOBajia, Ra- 
Ryio AHcrapMOHÍH) BHecia bo bck) RapTHHy CBATOTaTCTBeHHafl pyRa 
ajiiHaro qejiOB^Ra. Ho ona 6uji9l nenii^eHa nojiosirrejiBHafl, npe^- 
noHBTaja nojessoe npiaTHOMy, h AeHBre — bcarhitb RpacorairB npH- 
poAQ, a noBTOMy ee raR^ se o^eHB HHrepecoBajrB BOnpocB: b^ 
caMOMi JIH flíbA FytfeprB Sjibxohi HaiišpeHi upoAOJisaTB BRcn^ya- 
Tai^ÍH) RaiieHHoyrojiBHuxi Roneft, hjih hšti? 

M-cB BajiBTaM-B saAyMajiacB, ^epsa b-b pyRax^ Hynepi m*ct- 
Hofi raseTBi. Roropiifi co($Hpaj[acB-6iiJio ^HraTB. 

Ha AepeBeHCRoft rojorojbh^ ^acu npoÓHJiH qerupe. M-ci BajiB- 
TaMi oqnyjiacB otb CBoeft sa^yM^EBOCiH. BarMHyBX Ha yJHi^y, ona 
jBVLxbjíSi, qxo Ha tpohhhr^. BOAinefi r^b efl Rore^sy, noRasajiacB 
MOiOAafl Ai^BymRa. 

— . ^OMa Afl,ejih? — copocHJia ona Óiicrpo. 

— Hítb eme, — oTBi^ajia m-cb BaJEBTam: — ona nonuia cb 
épaTOMi ryjflTB. 

— Tiwh xy»e am nea! — CRasajia A^BymRa. FoJioirB en 6HjrB 
TaRi 2Re CBtsi H npiflTeHi, RaRi h ea xopomenBRoe, i^BŠTyn^ee 

JIR^HRO. 

— SI npHmjia 3BaTB ee nrpaTB b% RpoRen, n ecJiHÓu bu snajH^ 
nero MHŠ 9T0 CTOHJio! — npoAOJiacajia ona. 

— HoqeMy »e? 

— DoTOMy qxo a snajia, ^to M-pi AjB^peA^ Bepnyjica. 
FoBopa 8T0, A^ByniRa sacM^ajiacb, h JierRÍfi pyManei^i noRpmii 

ea H^eRH. 

— KaR^ Morjio bto Bací ocraHaBJHBaTB? HeyacejiH bu ÓonrecB 
AiB^^peAa? 

— ^a, — OTBiqajia ona, RORerjiHBO ooycRaa rjasRír; hotoitb 
npoAOjraMura Óesi BcaRaro nepexo^a:— ít6 bbi ^ynaeTe, m-ci, o 
HameiTB hobomi nacropt? 

— y Hero yAHBHxejiBHiift roJocB, — OTBi^aja m-cb BajiBTaiTB. 

— A BOJTocu! BTO HaCToan^aa rpHBa. Ho nponoBŠAB ero yaRacHO 
HiafijiOHHaa, — ne npaB^a jth, m-ctb? 

— SI jk)6jih), Ror^a nacropi roBopHTB npocro. 

— M-p-B Sjbaoh-b CRopo npiiAen, m-cb? 



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ASMOCB. 201 

— Ero »AMH cero^^Hfl yrpoMi, ho, ko BceoÓmeMy yiíHBjeHiio, 
OHI He npiixaj'B. B^poatho eme nyTeraecTByen. 

— Bo BCflBOirB^csyqa']^, ero icaTB jí^ojitbíeb, SHaxb, vjífk offb na- 

XOAHTCfl. 

Bo BpeMfl dToro pasroBopa A^Bymna to-h-a^o BsrjiflAKiBaJia wb 

ORHO. 

— KaaieTCfl, M-p% BeftBepHi en^e ne 6uji% y Bací cb bhsh- 
TOMi, Aa? Hy, xaKt bohx ohi HAero! PaAH Bóra, m-cb, nosBOJibTe 
uwk y&biSAThl — H A'ÍByinRa BCKo^BJía h tfpocHjracb co BcbTb Hon 
npo^. M-cb BajbTaBTB cb yjiu6B0fi na rydax^L CHOTp&ia et BCJr6A'B. 
HapysHocTB HOBaro nacropa, cb ero MoryqHifB cjosenieMB h jibbh* 
Hot rpHBofi, 6EiJia ne h3x vbTh, Kasifl MoryrB npaBHTBCfl h npH- 
BjeBaTB MOJiOAux^ A'^ByineB'B, xota ero cypoBoe, ne^ajiBHoe h BSAyn- 
^HBoe, HO He sjíoe smsfl Bnymajio AOBipie h yBasenie. KorAa na 
ero ryóaxi noABJífljiacB jierBafl yjisiósa, owb hoxoahjii na aobojib- 
saro MeAB^Afl- E^y 6£U0 yse 3a copoB-B. 

BoftAfl vh BOMHaTy, oe% TopsecTBeoHO npoTanyjii pyBy m-cb 
BajíBTaifB, ycraBHBii na nee CBoa qepHne rpoMaAHue rjiasa. 3a- 
tImi, OBHHyBí BsrjiflAOifB BCK) BOMHaiy, OHi^ rpysHO e&ii na Rpec^o, 
aarpen^aBoiee noA'B ero TfljKeciBH), npoAOxaBaa HsyqaTB 4^h3Íohomíh) 
M*eB BajBTaMi. 

3to 6HJa nojraafl tfjiOHAHHBa cb aboShuitb noAtfopoABOM^B, ofiíb- 
Taa cRpoMHO, HO Bi jiHi^y. Ha ea m&b BHC^Jia BOJiOTan i^l^no^Ba; 
Ha 6^11X1 H TOHBHXB najBi^ax^B 6jiecr&9H BOJBi^a. IIpHCTajiBHBie 
BsríflAu nacTopa, BasaJiocB, 6ojAe ^bcthjh efi, h^btb ct^chajih. Ohi 
hmíjix bha^ MysTOHEi en;e bo i^b^t^ cbjtb, — opHrHHajia, Majo saóo- 
TSH^arocfl o&b o6ii?aflxi h npujiH^LiX'B. PasroBopB saBAsajCfl no no- 
fiOAy BHAa, pascTHJiaBniarocfl nepoA^ hxi rjasaMH. 

Ona onacajiacB Bna^ajíš, qTo6u oh'b ne o6paTHJiCfl Kb neft 
CB BaBHiTB-jHtfo BonpocoMi, BacaH)ntHMca efl npomjiaro, ho, 6jiaro- 
Aapfl CBoefi npoHHuaTejBHOCTH, cBopo 3a!iflTHja, ^to BJiepASHneni 
CJiymajii ee pasc^HHHO h, BasajiocB, coBepmenno yrjry6HJiC2 bi> cboh 

MBCIH. 

npHBBiBmafl, HTOÓBT 00 ciymajni BaBx opaByja, m-cb BajBTairB 
6wuL HOMHoro yAHBJíeHa neBHHMaTejBHOCTBio ea cotfec^AHHBa. OAnaBO, 
OHa Hamja bosmoshumi hsbhhhtb ero, Tasí BaB'B nejiovbK^b osa- 
(ofeBHiifi cnaceHieki Aynii Bcero npuxoAa, eCTecTBeHHO Mori Óeitb 
saAyiRHBfiíMi. 

— CBasHTe, Hey»ejiH ototb npejiecrnufi bha^b xaBx-TaBH 6y- 
AerB [rcnop^eH'B pa6oTaMH? — cnpocHJii BJiepA^BEMeni, MOAJienno 
CBaHAHpyfl ciOBa. 



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202 B^CTHEKl EBPOnU. 

— BipofiTHO. Bnpo^eiťB, kto 3Haera, Óy^eii je M-pt 3jib- 
jiflwh npoAOJsaTB paspaĎOTRy Ronefi? — OTB^naja m^ctb BajiBTairB. 

— A! — npoHSHeci ci pasdflHHUM^B bhaoi^b nacropi; noroiTB, 
noMOj^aBt, npHfíaBHjTi: — Bi;íb, Ka»eTca, ii-px ryCepn 9jibaohs 
BflTb M-pa MoTHMepa? 

— Hirt, 9T0 ero CparB, FoA^HAt. 

— Jl|a-a-a! 9to BOTopuft jMepi? fl, SHaere, cb ipy^oiix aa- 
noHHHaio reneajioríH) mohxi npHxosaHx. Bei ORasaJiH 6u mhí hcthh- 
Hoe 6jiaroA'i^HÍe, m-cb, eunóu cooÓmiuiH mhš xaKi spaTso, Basi 

TOJbSO BOBMOfllHO, Ch JíiWb Wh pOACTBŠ (ffhMSLJÚB djBAOHOBl H H31 
BOrO OHa COCTOHTB. 

— Ona cocTOHTi hbx jibah Sjisjioh-b h ea CBina FyÓepTa. Crap- 
mifi, FoAij^pHAi*, jReuEjícsí hu Aonepe M-pa MoxHMepa h erb mojioaok> 
aseHofi norH6i Bo BpeMfl tfypn no nyrH B^ HoByio 3ejiaHAÍH). 

— Ohi cjiysHJii bo ijfJiOTk? 

— Hirbj OH^L saT^Ba^ii pasHUfl npeAnpifliifl vh Bejo^Bwti. 
OreiJCB ero cneKyjHpoBajii na neHBR'^ h norepajrB na stoitb Bce 
cocTOflHÍe. CuHi Tose BSAyMaji^ do&th npoTHB^ ipa^Hi^ifi ceMBH a 

BaHflTBCfl TOprOBUMH DpeAOpíflTÍflMH, H fiOTB TdB^B ySCaCHO BOHIMX. 

KaBafl crpamHafl BaTacrpoij^a! OHHTOJBBo-iTOseHHJiacB... KoHenno^ 
6paB^ BTOTB oqeHB He HpaBHJicfl JI8AH djBAOHi. Oaa roBopHJia mb^^ 
HTO y M-pa MoTHMepa vb JIohaohí — i^íiBift JieríoH'B (Síahbix-b po^- 

CTBeHHHEOBl. 

— SaBŠn^aHÍe noBoSearo o(5oraTHTB hxi, aa^o raBi noiaraTB. 

— »a Bl STOMl COMH']kBaK>CB; TyficpTa 3-IBAOHa ClHTaiOTB Ba- 

ci^AHHBOMi Bcero HMyn^ecTBa noBoSnaro. 

— 9to HsyMHTCJiBHo! — BOCBjHBHyjix nacTopi, noBHAHMOMy Ay- 
MaBmift coBepmeHHO o ApyroMi». 

— M-px MoTHMepi, FipoflTHO, HOCTynHjix Tas* paj[H naMATB 
CBoet AO^epu, BOTopyio crpacTHO jrotfHJii. B'lpoflTHO, nosTOMy oh*b 
H piniHJicfl o6oraTBTB Ópaxa Hec^acTHaro ToA^pa^a djiBAOHa. 

— M'p^ MoTHM^pi ByoH.n, saMOBi^ BaH^efi y 9jibaohobi? 

— ^a, eme ao Toro, Baai owb craji^ aiiTearB M-pa MoTHMepa^ 
FoA^^pHAX djiBAOHi, HysAftflCB Bi AeHBFaxi, npoAajii eMy BaHjefi. 
M-p:B MoTHMepi TpeÓOBajii, ^toÓbi MOJiOABie noce^iuflCB cb hhm'b 
Wh BaMBŠ. GxapHBi Booón^e OTJimsuicsí ÓojBinofi AOÓpoTofi h bca- 
HecBH CTapaacfl noMoraTB jibah 9jibaohi>. Kto ne bba'í^'b cbohmh 
rjiasaMH Bcero btofo, TOMy ipyAHO ÓyAerB hohatb OTHomeHia, ycra- 

HOBHBmiflCfl MeSAy HHMl H JI8AH djIBAOBl. HaAo CBasaTB, qTO M-p^ 

MoTBMepi Booón^e 6hiJii> qeJiOBtBi HeoÓuBHOBesHO ÓjaropOAHEift^ 
Wh . HeMi Aase saM^qajocB ^to-to apHCTOBpaTunecBoe. He snaft a 



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AaMOcx. 203 

HasipHoe ero npoHcxoscAenifl, fl noAjMajra 6u, wto oh^ npBHa^iije- 
sHTi Kx RaR0&'HQ6yAb ciapoft, apHCTOspaTHqecKofi $aME[jiÍE[. 

— O^HaBo, B^AB 9T0 BMj npHmjio Wh rojiOBy paspafíoTHBaxB 
xoiiH B'B jí,0JiEBÍ\ — CRasajix M-pi BetBepHi, BsrjflHyBí na 6e30($pa3- 
HUfl rpyABi seMJiH, HaBajieHHUfl no BpaflMi rjiyÓoBHXi BanaBi. 

— Sra Mueib h bx rojiosy ne npaxoAMa BaJitTaMaMi, — 
OTBÍqajia ero co6eci;íHHiía, — Aa bx Tony ae h aeMja hxx ÓHjra 
BCfl pacnpo^ana no BycRaMi, TaBi hto M-py MoTBMepy npnmjiocB 
CKynaTL ee Majio-no-Majiy, no yHacTBawB. 

M-pT» BefiBepnx, saBajiocb, 6u.!rB coBepmenno norjiomeHX cbo- 

HUB MUCJIflMH. 

M-CB BajibTaMi cnpocnjia: 

— Bu BHA'fejH J!8AH SjIBAOHX? 

— Hin. eme, — oTB^qaji-B onx: — cocToanie ea B^opoBEa ne 
nosBOJifleTB eíL npensMaTb Boro 6ii to hh Óujío. 

— BiAHaa ^enn^Hna! ona onenb crpa^aei-B. Ronenno, Bame 
SBanie nacropa Morjo 6u, Raateica... Ho ona TaB'B JívyÓwn yexH- 
Henie. CorjacHTecb, qro orcyTCTBÍe M-pa djibAona na noxoponaxx 
ea craparo Apyra, M-pa MoTHMepa, 6oji4e hímx cxpanno. 

— ^a, o^enb crpanno, — noBTopaJii M-px BeĎBepni. 

— JI,aKe coBepmenno neoÓiacHHMO, Oxnomenia Me»Ay nniiH^ 
noBHAHMOMy, tfbiJiH caMbia ApysecTBennua. 

— M-pi 9jbA0BT> xenepb, B^poaxno, na BoniBneHrS, — cBa- 
3ajrB nacTopx. 

— a BToro ne AJMaro. A bu cjiuuíme bto otb Boro-HHtfyAB? 
M-pi Be&Bepni CA'bJajrB OTpBi^arejibHuft snaBx. Ero coÓedbMr 

HBi^a npoBsnecjia cb ntcBOJbBO BSBOJinoBanBUMi BBA0M'b: 

— Ornb B-B Obc4)opaí. 

— Bx yHBBepcBTerfe? — cnpocBJii> nacropB. 

— ^a. Oht> en^e o^ent mojoa^. Esiy tojibbo-íto MBnyjio ABaA- 
iV^TB-ABa roAa. 

6i 9Ty HBnyTy pasAaJica crysi bx Asepb. IIoaBBBniaaca bcjiI^a'^ 
satiiTB ropHBTOaa cnpocBJía, ne npBsaserb jih m-cb noAaBaxB qat. 

— YroABO BaMx BunBTb namsy tok) cb naMB? — cnpocHja 
nacropa xoBafisa AOMa. — B^poarno, Moft cuwb b AO^b cefi^acB 
npHAyrb. 9to y nacB híito wb poA* nojiAHBBa. 

— 3. oqeHB paAX 6yAy cb nBMH no^naBOMBXBca. 

— Mo& CNHi npiíxajii na nacxa.ibHBia RaoBBy^n. Xoxa 
BejiBBBBi B OHenb HeAaj[eB'B otb Banjiea, no Bce-xaBB owb ne 
xoseTB SBTB cn> naMB. 

— Cbojbbo jtítb BanieMy cany? 

— JIjBaAiíaTb-OABnx. 



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204 BftCTHHBi EBPOnU. 

— Ctojibko »e SHaHHTB, CK0.1BK0 H MOBMy, — csasaji nacTopi. 

— A y BacT* ecTb chhx? 

— Jla. Owh y^HTca My3HR'fe vh repMaHÍH. 

— £[ tfiijia 6u oqeHb pa^a, ecjiBÓu Hofi AjiL^pexi* HsÓpajL 
noAo6HyK) Aopory. flo nocji^ CMeprn Moero nysa Apysbfl npHHflJiH 
<$OJiBiDoe ynacrie Fb ÁJb^peA^, h a nocoB^TOsajia eMy npHHATb 
M-kyro, KOTopoe ohh eny npe^JioaujiH. 9to o^eHb pasBHToft Majib- 
qHB^y HO sapaseHi paAHBajbHbíMK H^esHE. A^ejob cb hhmi Bcer^a 
Ha Hosaxi. A AynaK), hto h Tenepb hxi sa^epauu^ oahhi hsi 
HX^ ÓesRoneHHbix^b cnopoBi. He Mory noHflXb, r^^ owh uon na- 
ciyniaTbca TaKHxi yacacHHX^ H^^eft! BnpoqeMT*, oh* Tenepb ho- 
caxca B^ Bos^yx*. 

— Ohí Tenepb HocaTca wh Bós^yx*, M-cb BaJIbTaM^! oni ho- 
caTca vb B03iyx4! — noATBep^HJii nacTopx. IIpHxoA^ AjibýpeAa 
npepBajii) aiOTL pasroBopi 0611 HAeflX'b. 3to 6u2i> neBucoRaro po- 
cra, HO xopomo CJtoseHHufi mojioao& qejiOB^Ki. Eupasenie JHi^a 
xase Herjiynoe, xota bo Bcefi $Hryp% CRasbiBajiacb KaRafl-TO He- 
ecrecTBeHHOCTb, TpHBÍajn»HOCTb h ^aTOBCsaa saHOCiHBOCTb. íto6h 
BaBir-HHÓyAb csptiTb HeAOcraTOB^ pocTa, ohb ^epasajicfl Tas^, Óy^ro 
apmHHi nporjiOTHjďb. 3AopoBaflCb, ohi Tpjicx BaMi pysy, ciobho 
^eprajx pyiKy KOJiOBOJibHHEa. Kor^a owb noMOHHjica M-py Beft- 
Bepny, HacM^niJiHBafl yjuCna nrpajia na ero ryóaxi. Rasajiocb, oh'b 
xotíjii WTb noHflTb TOMy, HTO MepHKajibHaa OAeat;ta b-b ero rja- 
Baxi ne HMÍeTi» HHBaRoro SHa^eHia h BOBce ne BHymaeri eicy 
yBaatema. BooÓn^e OTHOCHTbca ri HeMy-Jietfo cx yBaTRenieMi, — npa- 
tfaBHH^b Hu OTi» ce6fl, — 611J10 ne bi xapaRTep^ Ajib^pe;^a. 

IIosaBi pyRy nacropy, ohi noRpacni^i h saTÍMi, cbwb hb 

RpeCSO, S^BHyjTB. dxHMl 0H^ AJMaJIl BaflBBTb o HesaBHClíMOCTH CBO- 
HXl BBFJIflAOBl! 

— KcTaTH, — otfpaTHJca ohi ri MaTepe: — 9jibA0H'b, naRonei^rby 
Bepnyjicfl. Oh% npoixaji humo nacB wh Raperb. <9 ne otfpaTHjrb 
na nero BHHMaHÍfl, ho A^ejib BHA'i^a. 

— Bx caMoiťb A^i\ — BOCRJiHRHyja m-cb BajbTairB: — ohi, 

B^pOflTHO, ŠXaJI'B CT> BOBsajia? 

— MoseTi 6qtb. Ha Bepxy Rapexu npHBflsaHi* ^enoxani. 
AAeJiB Hamjra, ^to y d^iBAona tfojBBofi bhai. He Mory hohatb, 
RaRi ona ycn-kia 9to saMŠTiiTB. 

Ho CBoefi npHBbíHR']^ H-pi BeftBepni a^ejii bha'b, mo BHHMa- 
TeJibHO BCJiyniHBaeTCfl bi pasroBopi, HaRjiOHHBmiacB bc^itb Bopny- 
cowb BnepeA'B h ynepnmcB bi rojiÍ^hh pyRaMH. 

?afi yse nacToajiCfl, h m-cb BaiBTairB coÓnpajaCB ero paaxH- 
BaTB, RorAa wb ROMHaTy Bomjia Aaojib. 



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A9M0C1». 205 

Ofla 6íAM pocTOMi BEime ceoero Ópara, cxpofisa h rpai^iosHa. 
Ona yjuÓHyjiacb, npeFlTCTBys sjepA^HMena, h sxa yjiu6Ra CA'&3aj[& 
ee en^e MHJi'be. 

QacTop^ ycTpeifHJTB na eee CBofi npecTajibHuň esrjiflAi h oxe- 
^ecRH nojosHJi pysy eft na rojoey. 

„RaKOBi HaxajTb!" — roBopHjii ucbm> cbohmi bhaom^ AjiL^peA'B. 

— HaKOHeiíTb-TO M-pi djihjs,OBT> npifeajii*! — CKa3a.ia m-ci 
BajibTaMi, BonpocHiejiBHO BSc^iAHyBí Ha Ao^b. — Ajib<]^peA'b Haxo- 
AHTb, ^To y Hero onenb HesAopoBut bhai*. 

— MaMá, — BOCKJiHKHyjii MOJiOAOft hcjiobíki, — noKajryftcra, 
He nepeHHaqHBafiie MOHXob cjiobi. FoBopio Bani, a ne oópainjis 
Ba Herc HHKaBoro BHHMaHÍfl h ne BH^aji, BaKofi om> TaMi, 6ojib- 
Hoi HjiH BAopoBufi. Bcfl ^ecTb 8Toro OTBpuTifl upHHaAJiesHrB AAeJH« 

— JifiL, UBÍ JiíbtLCTBETeJlhEO OB^ DOBasaJCfl He COBCilťb sAopo- 

BHiťb, -' CBasajfa ÁAeJib h npeAJiosuJia M-py BefiBepny qepHOCJHB- 
Baro HHpora. 

Bi CBoefi pasctflHHOCTH BJiepASHMeHi, npHABHHyBí B'b ce6^ 
(Sjioio, cxajii yHHHTOSLaTb nuporb, h BorAa cooÓpaBUJix, ^xo B^Ab oh'b 
noAani ne a^a nero oahofo, Ójuoao 6um ho^xh nycxo. Ajib4)p8A'b 
syca^^ ceót ry6bi h A'&3aji^ cecxp^ sHaBH. ÁAejib ooycxHJia rjiasa^ 
?xo6u He saifj^qaxb hxi. HaBonei^i, M-pi BefiBepHrb noAHflJica^ 
iipoii(aflCb. 

RaB^ xojibBO OH'b cspujcfl 3a Asepbio, Ajib^peA^, iipbiCHyB'b 

co CHl^Xy, BOCBJIHBHyJIi: 

— He6o H seM-ia! mosho .w xaBx oOxtAaxbca! ^exBepxoft 
HacxB xoro, mx6 ohi nporjoxHjrb, Cujio 6h AOCxaxo^HO, hxo6h pas- 
cxpoHXb maayAOBTi. 

— Bame aaM-feqame Henpa.iHHHo! — CBaaajia m-ci BajibxaMi, 
Cb xpyAOMi, OAHaBO, coxpaHflfl cepbesHuft BHA'b: — M-pi BefiBepH^b 
xosexi 6bixb paBciflHi, OH'b Becb norjion^eH^b {<a($oxaHU o CBoet 
nacTB*. 

— CorjiacHxecb, oAHaBo, hxo ne 6yAb ohi xaBi norjion^eH^ 
HUB, OHI Horjion^ajii Óu en^e 6ojiše. CBasexe, Maifá, bu AOBO^ibnu 
ero npcnoB^AbK)? 

— He cjiiAyexi hebopo ocy»AaTb, — cBasaja neAOBOJbHO m-c^ 
BajibTaM-b, ne oxB^qaa na Bonpoci. 

— Mhí M-pT» RefiBepni onenb nonpaBHJica, — otfxaBHja ÁAejrb, 

rJMAfl Wb OBOHÍKO. 

— Hna^e h óhxb ne momo! xu roxoBa CA'feJiaxb ce(54 <]^exHnia 
H3i RasAaro B^epHBa! — nacM^HLiHBO 3aMŠxn.i'B Ajib4)peA'b. 

Owh Bumejii) Bi caii^ n npoxasHBaJiCfl xaMi, sypa corapy;^ 
KorAa OHx HaM^bpeBftJicfl noAHflxbCJi naBepxi*, BHHsy ;itoHui]ibi ero 



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206 B^CTHHKl EBPOnU 

BcrpiTua A^eiB, soTopas conua urb eeMy hsi sajiocTH, wioóu 
npeOTap^AHTb ero o npHxojíi m-ci MtiojiHHrB, 

— Boae Mofi! KaKx mh* cnacTHCb orb 9Toft necHOCHOft (Soj- 
TyHbH! IIoftAeMi Bt TBOH) KOMHaTy — TajiTb fl Óy^y bx 6e3onacHOCTH. 

SaifŠTHBi Ha nionHTpt cecrpu RapTHHBH pejHríosHaro co^ep- 
ssaniji, KOTopufl ooa pacspaniBBajia, mojioacS ^e^OB^Bx bocbjhb- 
Hy.li: 

— Pa^H caMoro Bóra! ecjH th xo^emb Hay^HTbCfl pHCOBaTb, 
OTHOcecb Bi A^y cepbe3H0. Tu AOJiSHa domertb, hto Te&b yse 
BOceMHaAi^aTb aíti^. 

— Si 9T0 OTJlHqHO nOMHK). 

— Ecjiff TEi 6yAenib BaHHMaTbCfl laBBMH nycTflBaMH, to h bx 
28 Mb ocraHembc^ lasofi se HepasBHTofi. 

— Bx caMOMx Kkjrb? ysx TaBi, bh^ho, mh^ na po;(y HanHcano! 

— Tu Horjia 6ei pasBHTb ceóa, ecJiH^Ei ^Hxajia tí BHHrH, 
BOTopufl fl Te&b peBOMeHAOBajTL npoqecTb. Tasx tei ^ynaemb, qro 
OHI cepbesHO CojieHx? 

— O BOMX TH roBopHmb? 

— Hy, o6t> btobtb... o6t> 3jrbjíOHÍ! 

— SI ue nOHHMaH), noveny tu o Heirb roBopHmb Bcer^a Ta- 
Kiiiťb npespHTejibHUiťb tohomi! 

— Tu OTJiH?HO SHaemb, saBi ohi mh*! HecHifnaTH^effb. 

— Ho no^eMy? 

— IIoTOMy HTO 9T0 $epTB, $paHTX, H opo^., H npoH. 

— a TeÓa ne noHHMaio. 

— BOTL HTb SHa^HTB HH^CrO HB HHiaTb! IIOAX 8THMH CJOBaifH 

noApa3yM']^BaeTCfl ^ojiobíbi cb rpoica^HUMu npeTeH3ÍflMH h (Seai 
BCflBaro coAepsanifl. 

— M-pX BjIbAOHTb A»eHTJbMeHT» BX nOJHOMX CSiUCJI^ dToro 

ciOBE. SI ne 3HaK); wb ntwb ero mosho ynpeBHyTb! 

— JI|a:eHT.ibMeffb! — BCBpeqajrB Ajb^peAx cb npeHeCpeatenieMx: 
— Bx Hame BpeMfl bto cjiobo ho HM^erb HHBaBoro CHUcjia. ^ejo- 
vbR% ecTb hojobíibx — h fiojBme Hn^ero. TeTy^su ho npe^aj^yrB eify 
AOCtohhctbi, BOTopuxx y nero h^tb. C;iaBa Bory! mu shbbmx ne 
bi> 4^eoAajBHUfl BpeMena. BnponeMX, mu TJisijíflWb pasHUMH rja- 
saMH Ha M-pa djbAona. 

— Tu npeAyfi^iacACffB npoTHBx nero. 

— Ohx HecHOceHx! Ha^o bhaítb, Basx oex Te6a MipaerB c^ 
Horb AO roJiOBu! Mosho no^yMaiB, ^to y Hero opocflTB m^cto na 
ero BOHiomB']^. BnpoieMi^ fl npesupaio ero ne sa oaho To^ecjiaBie. 
Bci sHaiorB h oobtopbiotb na ero c^otb aobojbho. 

— MoaterB 6utb. Ho hhbto ne ocys^aerB ero Tasx crporo. 



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AaMOCi. 207 

Basi TU. SI He 3HaK) sa nuwb Huqero TaRoro, sa ?Tb mosho 
(Shjo 6u ero cepbesHO ynpeRHyxB. 

— 3to flapasHTB vb dojihomi dáí^ui oaoBa. Ohi OA^Baercfl 
H iiBen», H icrB ea c^erL 6oraTaro óypsya, Boroparo bi Aynil^ 
npesHpaeTB, h, (liaroAapa ero n^eApocrn, Be^eTb sasHb TyHe^AA^ h 
Mora. 

— Hy, MOSHO jm TaRi roBopEXb! ^o caMofi CMeprn PoA^^pn^a 
JdAH 9jibaobi> HHq'£M'B HB nojiBdOBajiack OTL craparo MoTHMepa 
B sHJia coBepmeHHO HesaBECSHO ovb Herc. 

— Th AyMaemB? JísinaAiíaTL thcato ^yHXOBi roAOBoro ao- 
XQAa — HeAypHofi Rynn, a? OoofiTH craparo Moranepa h y64- 
AHTb ero ociaBHTB CBoe cocTOfleie mrb — bšab 9to AOBOJibHO jiOBRas 
a4>epa! Bi HamH A^MORpaTH^ecRÍa BpeMeea nejiBSfl CRasaxE, ^to6ei 
apHCTORpaTBi BURasajiii cefia oÓpasi^OMi 6e3RopucTÍfl, — Tose oxyjíRH na 
pyRy áe nojiosaTil M-pi roA4>pHA'B CBaTaeTca r^b AOiepH MHJiJiioHepa, 
— pa3yMÍeTCfl, ne paAH ea npBAanaro! GTapHRi ao tofo no^ibi^eHi 
HecTbH) nopoAHHTBCfl Ch TaROft Apeseefi ^aM^jiieft, RaROBu djikAOHBi, 
^To Ch paAOCTBH) corjramaeTCfl ea CBaAB6y. EjiaropoAHBíMi djbAO* 
HaiťE Toro TOJBRO H HaAo: OH0 npHcacuBaiOTCfl kt, eeMy, RaRi 
iiUbbe, h SRcnjiyaTHpyiOTi caMuiťB HarjiuirL oĎpasoMi AOB^pqHBaro 
ueóefl! 

— Tu Hapo^HO cTapaembCfl Bce npeACTaBHTB bx xyAOifB chirb^ 
AjoíjfipeKh. To se caifoe mosbo pascRasaTb coBepmeHHO HHaqe. A 
rjiaBHoe, HCxoAHaa TOHRa tbohx^b o6jiHqeHÍfi coBepmeHHO jnosnaa. 
Otb dToro a Bce nocjil^Ayion^ee noxose na OTpaseaie b^b rpbbomi 
depRajii. ,9 HHRaRi ne nory corjiacHTBCfl, hto seoHTBÓa M-pa 
PoA^^pnAA Ha MCB MoTHMepi 6u ja tojibro npocTofi cneRyjiai^iefi. 

— Pasyiri^eTCfl, cneRyMi^ifl! — BCRpaiaji AjiB^peA^B cb xoxo- 
vjm. — SBteHo^HHu ae AonycRaion^ noAo6Hux'B Ben^efi. Hxi qyBCTBa 
HiTB dToro ae nosBOJiaiOTB. 

— ÍTO »e, aoBUfl HACH oxpai^aiorB a wa qyBCXBa? — capoca^a 
ÁAen. 

— Besi coMB^aifl. KorAa seaa^aau tfyAyn nojyqaxB 6ojríe 
SApaBoe Bocaaraaie, oa^ aaynaTCfl npaaaMaTB a MÍpB, a jiOAefi — 
TanuíH, RaRÍe oaa ecTB aa canoirB a'^'^^ h nepecraayrB yBJíe- 
BaiBCJi nycTUMa ajjiosiflMa. 

— Ř npeAno^axaio ocraiBca apa CBoeirB aeBteecxBÍ,— cRa- 
saia ÁAejiL toboitb, noRasuBaBmairB, OAaaRO, hto oaa b^rojbro 
nosoie(Sjieaa aBTopaTeTaocrbio paBcyacAeaifi ÁJiB^^peAa. B% to Bpena^ 
uxh 6paTB npeaapajcca cb cecrpofi, MeasA? m-cb MbiojaarB a 
X CB BaiBTaiTB Tose mejix osaBjeaauS pasroBopi. 

M-CB MBiOJaan CBoeio rjiaBaoH) cnei^iaJiBaocTBio asópajia co- 



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208 BftCTHHRl EBPOnU. 

6HpaHÍe H pacapocrpaHeHÍe HOBOCTeS. CeroAHfl ea lopsecTByioiivui 
4)H3ÍOHOMÍfl noRasLiBaeTB, HTO OHa co6pavfa 6oraTyK) ?saTBy. 

— SI To.ii>BO-HTO H3X BejiBBHRa, — CKasajia ona, upHABBraacb 

HaCKOJIbKO MOSHO 6jIH2Be Bl CBOefi COÓeCŽAHHI^i. — ď BHA'&iia M-CL 

FoTUHrB, seny Hoxapiyca, Be^yo^aro bc% a*^ MoTHuepa. 

— Hy, H qió »e OHa BaMt roBopajia?— cnpocaia Heiepni- 

JHBO M-CB BaJIbTaMl, He COMH'lBaflCB, HTO p^HB nofiA^Tl OTHOCH- 
TCJILHO 3jIBA0H0BI. 

— y^HBHTejiBHafl Ben^Bl HenocraseMafl, npocro HenocTHsimafl 
Ben^b! — BocKJiHBHyjia h-ci MBiojiHHrB, HacjiasAaacB bo3moshoctbh) 
cooĎmHTB HecoMH-feHHyH) H oieHB HHTepecHyH) hoboctb: — M-p^ Mq- 

THMep^ He OCTaBHJTB 3aB'&IAaHÍfl! 

— Bhtb He MOffierB! — BOCiuHKHyja Ji-ci BajiBTaMx, KOTopoft 
Aase ;iuxaHBe nepexBaxHJio otl HeosHAftHHOciH. 

— HcKajiH noBCiOAy, nepepHJiíi bcí anpiKH, nepecMOxp&H (Sy- 
MarH, KHHra, ptniHTejiBHO Bce oóraapHJiH — hítb h h^tb! M-p^ 
MoTHMep-B yMepB, He ocxaBHBx saBin^ania!- M-c^ BajiBTaifib CHA'&Ja 
Kb OA'lneH']kHÍn, ÓesrjiacHafl EaB^ HcrysaH^B. 

— BorB KaK^ Bce npoHsomjio, — npoAOJsajia, aaxjiefiíiBaacB, 
M-CB MbiojiHHrB: — 3a ABa aha ao CBoefi CMepra M-pi MoTHMep^ 
Bssíjn> y Hoxapiyca 3aBÍn](aHÍe. Hsi erp cjiobi bhaho 6ujúj tto 

OWb XOT&Il TOJBEO CA'Í^aTB Wb HeM'B H^BOTOpUH H3MÍHeHÍH. Ha^O 

AynaTB, owb pasopBajTB ero^ HaM^pesaflCB HanHcaiB HOBoe, ho ne 
ycniji-B — CMepTB BHesanHO ero nocrer^a. 

— BuTB MO»erB, owh BaarifepeBajica CA^SJíaTB tojbko KaKyio- 
HHÓyAB npHnHCKy, bkjiiohhtb Koro HHĎyAB wb CBoe saB-feníanie? 

— CjyniaftTe, Aoporaa Moa, ^Tb si BaBTB cRaxy. M-pa Moth- 
Mepa BOSMyTHJio noBe^enie FyÓepxa 9;iBA0Ha, BSB^ciHaro ry^RH, 
paBBpaTHBRa h uposHraxejfl 2KH3hh. PasyBf^Tca, aro Bce ocra- 
Heicji Hea&Ay naMu! 

— ByABxe cnoKotau. 

— BHAHxe, npoHecca CJiyxi, Cy^xo MOJOAOfi Sjibaohi, b% no- 

03*1^066 BpeMfl, CB RaBOS-XO aRXpHCOft HJIH HŠBHI^et... BU HOHHMaeXC?.. 

9x0 HaA^ajio mhopo myny. Eone^HO, naniJincB jioah, soxopEie fft- 
necjiH o6o Bcew-B M-py MoxHMepy. Snaexe, xaE-B mhofo .mnetty 
ROxopLiBTB M-pi djiBAOHi BHymaexi anxHnaxiH), hxo, npaso, ne snaemB, 

ROMy H3l HHX^ npHQHCaXB 8X0X1 AOHOCB. djBAOHl BCerO M'ICflI(^, 

RaRi* ocxaBHJii Ahfjiík), a yaie ycn^i coBepmHXB ujbjiuŘ pa^*^ ca-- 
MBixi 6e3pa8cyAHLix'B^ ÓesyMHuxx, mosho cRasaxB, nocxynROBi>! 
Bti BHaexe axHXi jKenn^HffB! a 9xa, roBopaxx, nojBsyexca OBpo- 
neScRofi HBBŠcxHOCXBH)... IIoHaxHO, o6o BceiťBdxoMi roBopaxx noA*^ 
BejiHqafiniHiťB ceRpexoM^. «9, cb CBoe& cxopoHBi, yAnaiaiocB HUHŠm- 



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, A9M0CX. 209 

Himi MOIOAUMIb JlIOAflMX... EaR^ 6U to HH 6lUI0, M-pi djIBAOHl 

Aoporo saiLiaTHJii sa cboh yBJíe^eHÍfl! 

— Ho ROMy se AOcraHeTCfl, b'b TasoifB csy^aš, BaHJieftCBift 

SaHOK^B? 

— PoACTBeHHHKaiTB M-pa MoTHifepa. 3to npocrne, 6i;AHiie, 
HeB&KecTBeHHue jied^h. Uo hcthhí, ecjiH arH mieóeii nocejiATca b'b 
saMRt, OHH CByii^iOTb npeBpaTHTb bi aA^ dTO npejiecTHoe iritereHKO. 
IIpeAcraBETB tojibro ce&k hxi na irikri apHcroRpaTHqecBHTB djB- 

AOHOBl! 

— Ho TTĎ se (Sy^erB jrifejiaiB FyÓeprB ^JIBAOH^! — bocejhr- 
Hyjut M-CB BaJBi^^B, coBepmeHHO c6HTafl Cb lÓJiRy. Bc£ ea. 
BOSAyniHue saHRH h xHxpue luianu Bnesanno paspyniHjiHCB. 

— O HeiTB He CTOHTB 6ojiie cosajTÉTB, Hiwb o Apyrexi. Ohx 
HOserB saHflTBCfl aABORaxypofi, BepnyBmecB bi Ahfjiíh). 

— Ohi y»e BOSBpaxHjicfl! — CRasajii m-cb BajBTaifB. 

— Rb caifOiTB jíjkjrbl 

— AjrB4^peA'B B A^ejíiB bha'&ih ero na Aopori. 

— EaRi) AO*isHa cxpa^aTB ero 6%AHafl naTB! BooÓpasaio, 
npuTHafl 6yAeT^ exi Bcrp^qa! Bnpo^eMX, crporo roBopa, ohi ho 
iDiiď^ HHRaRHXi npaB^ Ha 8T0 HacjT&ACTBO. Bo BCflROBTB csy^at, 
^s Hero 9T0 ÓyxeiTB soctorem^ pasoqapoBaHÍeBTB. Crojilro Jiv>neŘ 
TenepB, a AyMaio, norepaiorB pyRH otb yxoBOJiBCTBifl — M-pB 9jib- 
AOffB vbjkh o^eHB HenonyjflpeHi. Stotb MOJiOAoft ?ejroBÍRB Aep- 
aoBx, BaHOC^HBi H AepsHTi ce6fl nenpHcrynBO, RaR^B RaRaa-HHÓyAB 
KopoHOBaHHafl oco6a. TenepB, Ror^a 4>opTyHa otb nero OTBepny- 
jacb, ero ne non^aAflTB- Ho, RaRi 6u to hh 6eij[0, HasTB ocraeTca 

TOJBRO 6BITB MOJI^aJIHBEIHH SpUTeJUIMH dTOfi TparHROMe^ÍH. 

M-e^B MbiojiHHrB noHesHJia rojioeB h npoAOJimajia ROH^HAeH- 

iqajfBHHlfB TOHOM^: 

— KcraTH^ OTHOCHTOJIBHO BOBBpan^eHÍfl djIBAOHa... Si Ha^l^IOCB, 

Mofi BonpocB ne noRasercfl HecRpoMHEiHi... RaRi se Tenepb ctb 
BamHMH npoeRTaMH? ,S roBopio o6Í A^ejin. 

— fl He 3HaH), o RaRHx-B npoéRTaxi bu roBopnTe, — CRasajia 

x-cB BajiBTaMi xoítoaho 

— Ax^! B^Ab fl SHaR)... a onacaiocB... 

— ByABTe cnoRofiHH, noisajiyficTa. 

— A! rkwh jry^rae! coxpaHHiťB Bce bto vb TaftH^. ^to Ra- 

caeiea SToft nopasHxejiBHoft hobocth, to, s Ay^aio, OHa TOT^aci 
craHeTB bc6mi H3B'&CTHa. 

M-cB MBiojHHrB mr&jia nojraoe ocHOBanie sto AyMaTB. 



Tom L— íSLhbap^ 1891. 14 

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210 BMTHHRl EBPOim. 



II. 



Rapera, ROTopyK> BHjcIjia Aj^ejiB, ryjiHfl cl 6paT0ArB He^ajieso 
OTb BaHJíefl, npHBJíeKajia Bceoón^ee BHHMaHie. Ms^ bc^xi obohi 
BucoBEiBajiHCb FOJiOBu jno^onciTHiixi; noBHAHMOMy, dSHnas^B, Harpy- 
seHHEiS óaraseifB, BOSBpan^ajicfl co craHi^iii. ^!To6u H36aBHTbCfl otl 
jiH)6onuTHux'B BsrjflAOBi, nyTemecTBeHHHRi saxepHjjii saHaB^sH 
Ha CTOBjíaxi Bapeiu, qxb, sone^HO, tojilko en^e ÓOJífbe noAcrpe- 

BaJO JIK)6onEITCTBO. 

BosBpan^eHÍe FyÓepTa npE^aBajo en^e 6bj[Binifi HHiepeci ero 
^pHBJIK)HeHiflM^ ea ROHTHHeHTb. ^l:o6u AOCTHreyTb 3aMRa BaHJiefi, 
HaAO OAOJitTB noA'beirB, no BpafiHefi u^pi, bi ab^th MerpoBi. 
SaMOKi coBepmeHHO cnpflTaHi 3a AepeBBflMH, TaB'B tto ero mosiho 
saiitTHTB He paHBme, BaB^B o^yTHBmHCB nepe^i* caiiuMi ero <]^a- 
caAOMi. 

61 8TorB Be^epB hotth bcI^ ciaBHH 6ujiH sanepTu, TaBi tto 
AOifB Basajcfl Heo6HTaeMUMi. HaA'B MaccHBHofi, oBOBaHHot sejiš- 
30MI BXOAHOft ABepBK); npoKBBOAHBiDefi BneHao^HÍe TK)peMHO&, ea 
TflmejiOMi 4>poHTOHŠ MOSHO 6uA0 upo^ecTB cjOBa.* Nisi Dominus. 

Ej['&AHB[& MOilOAOft HeJIOB-bBl, Wh BanHJeHHOMl AOpÓSHOlll BO- 

crK)H^, Bumejii hbi Baperu h chjbho A^pHyjrB 3a a&eji']fóHyK) i^- 
noHBy sBOHBa. Cjyra, OA'J^THfi wh nepnoe cb Hori ao tojobu, otbo- 
pejii FyÓepTy- Sjbaohj. Btotb CA^Jiaji eny BHasi chatb qeMOAaHx 
Ey E^eApo pacnjiaTHBiDHCB c^ ByqepoMi, BOI^eJl^ vh leMHyio nepeAHioK), 
FA^ 6LiCTpo CHflJi mjflny, nep^aiBH h iuuibto. i 

— MaxymBa wb cBoeft BOiiHart? — cnpocHjx 0H^ cjíyry. 

— Mhjbah HyBCTByerB ce(Ja o^eHB Aypno h onacaerca, hto 
(SyAerB ne wh cocroanÍH bha4tb Bací ceroAHa BonepoMi, capx. 

— Bu BaionujiH BaMHHi? 

— Jífiy B^ ÓHÓJiioreBi. 

— á TaM-B H 6yAy o6ÍAaTB. SaxonaTe xaBake bx Moeft BOMHaxi. 
Cjyra 6e3inyMH0 yAajiHJíCH, a FyÓepxi 3j[baoh^ npomejri> vh 

($H6jioxeBy. 3a^cb Bce ocxaBajiocB HeH3MÍHH£»fi co cnepxH ee 
xojiBBO ero oxi^a, ho h a^jí^l. FyCepxi óujvl cxpacxHBifi ÚEÓmoíjfEjPh. 

9X0, BM^CX^ COCXpaCXBKi B'B pOCBOmU H paCXOHBXeJBHOCXH, nopjo- 

xHJio nocjťlAHie ocxaxRH 4>ftMHJiBHaro cocxoflHÍfl. OsHHyBx BsrjflAOifb 
Čboh coBpoBHD^a, Fjóepii jerB na oxxoiiaHB^ npoxHB^B BaMUHa, 
3aJI0SHB^ pyBH 3a rojiOBj. H'£cbojibbo BpeneHH ohi ocxaBajics ne- 
noABHÁHBíMx, 3axÍM^ BCxajTB H, HOBBOHHBi, npHBasajii BomeAHieMy 
CJiyrt nparoxoBHXB eiiy BaHny. 

JífiB, Haca cnycxfl ohi noo6%AaJi^ ÓeBi BCflBaro annexHxa) bii- 



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fjduoc%. 211 

BypHJii cHiapy b oxnpaBHJicfl r^ MaTepH. Owh HamejTB ee bi en 
^y^yapš, veÓjnrpoBaHHOifB pocRoniHO^ ho aobojieho ÓesBKycHO. 

XoTfl J9AH 9jib;(ohi He 6ujio emfi h naiHAecfliH, ho efi mosho 
6ujio A&TB ceHBAecflrB. Cepe6pflHiifl upa^H npoÓHBajiHCB vb ea 
aRBypaTHO sanecaHnux^ BOJiocax'B. Tími ne Hen-le, ona coxpa- 
HHja csJbAU 6ujioíí BpacoTu. Bx 9Ty MHHyry Jivmo ez Bupasajio 
HeoÓHqHyK) cypoBOcrs, — HeoÓuqHyK), roBopHMi mu, laR^ saBi o6ur- 
HOBeHHO OHO CB^THJiocB Ao6poTott H RpoTOCTBK). Rorj^a ry6epT'B 
oÓHfljilk CBOK) MaiB, ona xojioaho CRasajia: 

— Ca^B, TyCepTi. Mnt na^o noroBopnib cx to6ok). 

Ofla, TaRse RaRi n cuhi ea, roBopnjia BjacrnuMi h hícrojibro 
opano^^HaTUMi tohomi. 

FyóeprB ne ynacjiÍAOBajrB RpacoxH CBoeft MaTopa. CypoBO CBe- 
ji;eHH£ia 6poBH npBj^aBajiH eiiy hohth CBHpiniifi bh^ib. 

— IIoHeMy TH TaRi ^ojiro ne BOSBpaníajca? — cnpocHJia ero 
jBAH 3jibaohi. 

— SI Óuň^b ÓoJiewb. 

Biri&AHOCTB TyĎepia noflTBepKAaJa ero cjiOBa. 

— r^i TU saóoji-ijix? 

— Bx FepMaHÍH. R neuejí^eEno nycTHJica bx nyxB, jhhib tojbro 
sojy^BJfB Bame nBCLHO, HSB^n^aBmee o CHepxB M-pa MoTBMepa. 

— HoqeMy aie th ne oiBinajTL na ^pyria mob nHCBaia? 

— SL ne MOPB nocrynHTB Bnaqe. 

— O^eHB atajiRO, ^to th ne mopb HHane nocTynBTB, FyÓeprB. 
Tsoe MOJraame ;íoporo oÓohliocb TeÓi. M-pi MoTHMepB pasopsajii 
^aBin^ame, — npoAOJisajia ona ^ipornyBniHMi roJiocoiťB, — sa Asa xHa 

xo CBOeft CMepTB. 

FyÓeprB ne npoH3Hec% hh ciosa, tojibro na^iBi^u ero nepBHO 
HCRpHBHJHCB. JIhiíio ero 0CTaBaj[0CB coBepmeHHO cnoRO&HUMx, b na 
HeiTb nejiBsa óeijio npo^BraTb ero nyBCTBi. 

— EcJiHÓu TU BcnojiHBJíi TO, O HBWb a Te6j| npocBJía, eciHÓu 
TH BHajTB MOBHi MOJiBÓaMi, MOBMi npocTO A^iTRe npBRasaHÍaifB, 
Te6a ne nocTnrjo 6hi no^oónoe pa30^apoBaHÍe. M-px MoTBHepB no- 
Basai^B ceóa bi btomi ciyna^ HCXHHHO-ÓJiaropoxHUirB ^eiOB^ROMi. 
KovASL sjsíbcb CTajH xoabtb cjiyxB na TBofi c^eTB, owh bsb^ctbjii 
ueHM 060 Bceni. «&, Ronenno, ne xorijia b^phtb. M-pi MoTBMepi 
Tose pax^ tfujix 6hL y^^A^Tsca b'b hxi jaCBBOCTB. Ecib ohi T&(fb 
ne BanHcajTB, to tojbro wl HaAesA'^ Ha to, hto tu nocjymaenibca 
MeHB, onoMHHmBca. Ohi xot&h BcnuraTB Tetfa, ho tu ne Bu^ep- 
suui'B ncnuTania. CRasa hh%: vb^h tu nojiy^BJTB mob HHCBMa? 
ji snaja, hto tu ocTaBiuii AnrjiiK), ho HaA'&iJiacB, tto nacBMa 
Te6fl .:^oroHaTB. 

14* 

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212 BftCTHHKl EBPOnU. 

— Si wxh nojiymuiT^ dohth 6e8i BCflRaro npoMeAJepifl. 

— HraRx, SHaqen, th cb yinicJiOMi ocrasajca rjyxt ea mob 
mojb6ii? 

— Aa. 

JldAH dxbfijOE^ npoAOJUsaJia, noHHSHBi rojoci, co ciesanH na 
rjiasaxi: 

— M-pB MoTHHepi cooÓo^HJii Mffb o CBoax^B HaM^bpeHÍiixi: 
„SL Buojiwb AOBÍpaH) ŤyCepry, — roBopan ohi, — h c^HraK) ero Ta- 
RBMi se HecTHuifB H fijiaropoAHEUfB HejiOB^ROMi, RaRHiTE óujTh evo 
6paTi. & He Mory noB*pHTB, ttoÓh ohi mopb Becra TaRyro (5e3- 
nopjiAOHHyio S03HB, RaRi o Hein» rjiacHTB MOJisa. Rirb... hítb... 
& He sejiaH) hm^tb HHHero o6ii^aro cb coBpeMeHHBTMH pasBpaTHH- 
RauRÍ EcjH OFB TaROBB, ecjiH fl A^ftcTBHTejíBHO o^MaHyjicfl B*B neui>y 
TO fl OTpeRaiDCB OTB Hero^... Til sHaeniB M-pa MoxHMepa, sHaemB^ 
ht5 SHa^HJO, Ror^a ofb TaRi roBopejii. Ybí^I CRaHAajBHEie cjyxs 

o Te6^ nOATBepAHJIBCB HeC0MH'lHHUMH 4>ftRTaHH. Tu He OTB^qaJTB MH^ 

HH CJiOBa! SI ne Morjia Te&k Aas^e HaneRHyTB o tomi, ht6 Tefiii 
osMjífiieTh] MeHB ocraHaBJFHBajio h qyBCTBO ^ecTH, h, HaROHei^, cairB^ 
M-pi MoTHMepi sejiajTB, HTotiu ero naiišpeHie jbdibtb Te6si na- 
ea']^ACTBa ocraBajiocB bi lafin^. Jl^a h pasx tbi npeneÓperB mohmh 
MOJiBÓaMH, B He sejiajia no^BepraTB ce6B yHHseHÍio bha'£tb, RaRi^ 
MaTepiajbHUfl biipoau sacraBHJia 6hi Te6si ycrynaTB. 

FyéeprB ho^hajii roJiOBy u OTBinajii BSBOJraoBanHEiirB rojiocoHi: 

— 3Ta AeHeacHaa norepa A-sa BacB HHqero ne cocraBHTB, bh 
Bume noAoéHuxTi Mejro^eft. ?to se Racaerca MeHB, to a hojsosh- 
TejiBHO ĎJiarocaoBJífliD cyAB(5y. A TenepB nosBOJBTe mh4 yAajiHTBCfl, — 
a HyBCTByK) ce6fl o^eHB Aypno. Mu saBTpa 060 BceMi noroBopHirB^ 
noApoÓHO. 

Aqjuí dihfiflwb npHHOAHBJíacB, CTapaBCB pa3rjiB;^ÍTB bx cyMpani^^ 
BtapcTBOBaBmeMi wb 6yAyapi, jihiio FyCepTa. 

BpocHBDíHCB Rx Heft, FyďepTB saRjioqHjrB ee bi cboh odBBTifl. 
JldAH 9jibaoh% sapu^aja. FyÓepTB noMOPB efi dbcTB h, cTaBX nepeA^B. 
HeĚ na roji^hh, npHsajicB rx eA JiHi^y, cb sapoMi oÓHHMafl- ee. 

— Th Óojch^? — aiaCBnffB roJocoMi cnpocH.Ta ona. 

— He Óy^eMi roBopHTB 060 mhí, nosajiyficra! — OTBÍqajB Fy- 
6epri. — CRasHTe Jiyqme, RaRi yMepx M-px Morniiepi. Bx nHCBH*& 
Bu ne cooÓn^aeTe HHRaRHXi noApoÓnocreft o ero CMepTH. 

— noApo6HOCTefi oneHB neMHoro. Bi BOCRpeceHBe yrpoii^B^ 
Ror^a Bcb buhuih h3i» i^epRBH, croposi HamejTB M-pa MoTHMepa 
ifepTBUMi Ha ero CRaMefiiri^. 

— Ho B*AB nacTopi ^ojiseni 6hjii 6u bh^ítb ero Cb CBoera 
jiicTa. 



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AdMOCB. 213 

— SanaFlcRa 6ujia sa^epeyia. 

— CTpaHHO. IIoieMy 6h bto? 

BirikcTO OTB^Ta JI9AH djihjsflwb no»uuia nje^aiiH. IIotomi sa- 
ntTHja: 

— KaKB TU Tflsejo xi^menib, ryóeprb! tei CHJibHO 6ojiewb. 

— Aa, mh£ HesAopoBHTCfl, HO dTO HHqero. SaBTpa a nocoB^- 

TyK>CB Cb AORTOpOITE. 

H^CBOJiBEO ceRyHA^B o6a xpaHBJíH MOJiqaHie. HaEOHeicB, ryÓeprB 
enpocHJii: 

— Yse CA'&iaHii BaRÍfl-HHÓyAB pacnopasema? 

— Hírt, — paBHOAymHO OTBi^ajia jibah 3jibaohx. — M-pi Iottjb 
^SHAajďB TBoero BOspan^eHÍa, hto6u hbbšcthtb pOACTBeHHHSOBx M-pa 
MoTHMepa, nposHBaion^Hxi bi •Iohaoh'1, o ero CMepTH. 

— Ji 6yAy saBTpa yupowb bi EaiBBHRŠ, — cBasajii FyÓeprB 
^a^yiiHEBO H, noMOJiTOFB npHÓaBHJiii: — Bani cawb M-pi MoTHiiepi 
csasaJTB, TTO OH^B pasopaaji saB^n^anie? 

— H^TB. 3a ABa fflsi jifi CBoeft CMepTa ohi bsajiii saB^^n^anie 
y Horapiyca. Bx noHeA^BHHB'B yrpoMi HoiapiyeB AOJiseH^B étiJi 
aBFTBCfl AJia cocxaBJíeHia Hoaaro. BtpoflTso, BaBi tojibbo noRoftHuft 
oojyHHji 3aBŠii](aHÍe, cefiqaci se n paBopaajii ero. 

— ía, OTO BHOJHÍ B03M0»H0, — CRasaJi^B TyCepTi cb noAA'6JiB- 
Hofi ÓeaneHHOCTBK). 

— M-pi> loTTJiB mhí roBopHJix, ^TO TaRx se (5hjio pasopaaHO 
saBin^tHÍe, cocxaBJíeHHoe nepe^i) CBaAB6oK) roA4>pHAa* 

— Kto ae HacjiiAHHRi? 

— BnyHaTHuřt njieMAHHHRx, Hocan^ift Ty se 4^aMHJÍH), mib h 
€ro wjui. Bx TOM-B saB-imaHia, ROTopoe ho cymecTByerB (Jojiše, M-pB 
MoTHMepi HHRoro He saÓiiJii hsi cbohx^b MHoroqacJieHHKix^ pox* 
CTBeHHHROBi. TeoepB saMORi BaHjefi nepefiAen r'b ero n^eiiaH- 
HHsy, líJia^mie se HJieuu ^aMHjÍH nojiyqaTB jiumB cbok) saROH- 
ayio qacTB. 

— ÍTb Bu npeAnojiaraeTe npeAnpHHaxB TenepB, MaMá? 

— Pa3B^ 9T0 Te6fl HHTepecyeTi, FyÓepTB? CocToaaie Moero 
aAopoBBa He nosBOJiaeTB uwb noRHHyrB sth iitcTa. SI aynjíK) sxbch 

HefiOJBHIofi AOMHRl H 6yAy AOSHBaTB CBOfi B^RTi. Hy, a TH RaRl 

AyiiaeniB? 

— 3roHcrB acer^a (rByjcien ycTpoHTBca TaRi, htoÓh HenpiaT- 
HocTH SH3HH HO OTpaBJíajiH eMy cyH^ecTBOBaHie. Ohi npe^ocraB- 
JflerB Hxi cjiaÓuifB: TaRi ysx hcrohh Be^eTca! 

— ?ej[OB^R*B npeAHOJiaraeTB, mo& MHJiiifi, a Bofb pacnojia- 
1'aeTB! Hy, a TenepB nopa h Ha noROft. Ecjih tu saaTpa yrpoMx 
<(yAeinB HyBcraoBaTB ce6a TaR^ se ajpho, RaR^B h ceroAHa, to no- 



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214 B^CTHHK^ EBPOHH. 

sajiyĚcra nonuH kb BejibBHKi sa AORTopom*. Tu ÓjAfifiWhj ysacHO 

ry6eprL noacaJii pyRy CBoeS Maiepe b noi^'hiOB&ix ee vb mfiuj. 

Ha Apyroft A^Hb yrpoMi ciyra, flEBEmifica na pbsBÍi sbohoki 
TyCepra, Hamejii ero bx nojiycBAflHeiix nojiosemB — noMepsBBae- 
MEiMi noxyniKaMB. Xotb 6ujio yse coBepmeHHO cbštjo, na ctoji^ 
CTOflJia ropiBmaB janna. Ohcebaho, ohi ne TymBjrb ee bch> 

HOHB. 

— nonuBTe nocKopte sa AORTopoirB ManHom, — CRasajn* Fy- 
6epTi ciaóiiiii rojocOMi: — ho, nosajyĚcra, HB^ero ee roBopHre hh- 

ROMy. 

MeH^ HiiTh Hepesi toci abajca AORxopi, xy^on^aBuft rocno- 
XBBii Fb o^Rarb. Ho ero ROCTH)My sanŠTBO 611J10, mto ero BHe- 
saimo pasÓyABjíB, b ohx, OAtBmBCb bo htó nona^o, nocnimBJíi vh^ 

SÍJlOKb. 

— Hy-Cb, ht6 y Bací. TaRoe, mojioaoě hcjiobírx? — CRasajrb 
0H*b: — B He 8Ha;rb, ^ro bu yse BOSBpaxBJBCb. 

— fl npoBejTb OHeHb sypHyK) noHb, AORTopi. 

— JlBxopaAOHRa, a? 

— JI,a, dTo nocj']&ACTBÍe panu... TojbRO, AORTopi. npomy Bacs 
coxpaHBTb 9T0 Bx TaĚH^.... BB^BTe JB... ROF^a fl npi^xaj*b? ce- 
TOAHB cy66oTa, Raserai? ny, laRx A^CflTb xnefi TOMy nasa^x, nyia 
nonaja uwb botx' ciOAa... 

H FyÓepTb yRasajii Ha opaBuft Corx. 

— IlyjiH) BUHyjiB, — npoAOJsajx ohx, — b, b AyMajix, dXBirb Bce 
ROH^BTCB... SL Dpi^aji Hsx TepNamB. 

JIiORTOpi CReiITB^eCRB HORaHaTb rOJIOBOH). 

— GeroAHfl, — CRaaajb ryCepn, crapaflCb yjiufinyrbca, — a Hye- 
CTByK) ce($fl RaBx*TO ocotfeHHO CRBepHO. Si nOJOSBxeJBHO He b'b 
coctobhíb nonieBeju>HyTbCfl. S, cairb saM^naH), qro nopoft Ha^BHaB9 
ÓpeABTb. Bu uwb npBnuere CBA^Ry, A&? S. na Bacb padCHHTbi- 
BaK>. Mwb ne xo^erca óunh bi Tflrocrb HaniBirb jiOABirb. TyrB 
HyseHx onHTHBfi ^ejOB^Rx, ho npaBAa-jB? 

AORTOpb RBBHyJTb FOJOBOft Fb SHaRl COr^acifl B npBCTyiIHA'E 

SI ocMOrpy 6ojibHoro. 

m. 

Ha oBpaBHt MpaHHQxx RBaprajOBx UcjBHrroHa a ORcroHa^ 
HbH)HOpTCRaB Aopora, nepec^RaflCb cb Ranajoirb Perenra, o^pasyen^ 
nenpaBnjBHHft TpeyroJbHHKx, sacrpoenHut MajenbKHMH AOMHKaMH 
B HOCsii^Ě HaspaHÍe BH-ibTOHi-CRBepa. 



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A9M0CX. 215 

Crpoemfl 3a^cb canofi pasHosajiHGepHoft apxHTeBTypEi. Ex o^HOMy 
131 AOMHBOBi, He OTJiHHaH)ii^eMycfl ocoÓeHHofi spacoTofi, npHMUKaerB 
He MeH^e HeyRJiiosafl iiepBOBB, ORpymeHnaa pimexBOfi, sa Roropofi 
seiefliiorB qaxjEifl Aepesi^a. 

KpoMÍ &Toft líepKBH ecTB H Apyrafl, cjiymamaa míctomi co- 

(ipaHÍfl RaJIBBHHHCTOFB-MerOAHCTOBl, BaKl CBHAtTejrBCTByCTB Ha^nHCB. 

JíflUAy no 6ojihmeŘ ^acra, OAHoarasHBie. ORHa ByxoHi bhxoaati sa 
TicHBie, MajieHBBie ABopu. 

MyTHBifl BOAH saHaja MeA^eano OMEiBaiarB yrojBHUfl n apoba- 
HHfl spHcraHH. Ci aroro TpeyrojiBHHBa OTKpBTBaercfl bhax na ab^ 
AÍaMerpajBHo npoTHBonojiosHBifl no CBoeMy xapaBiepy hžcthocth. 
Ha rorB paserajaercfl Okctoh-b. Bto— rpasHEift pa6o?ifi BBapxaji^ 
ei psEMH, AyinnuMH yjHi^aMH; BaRonT&iiifl, Mpa^nua $a6pHRn, Apo* 
BaHueABOpBi, nepeyjiRH, HanojneHnue JiaB^onRaMH co bcarhitb xjra- 
uowb H ORanHHBaion^iecfl csipsiMH lyneRaMH, — Bce ba^cb roBopHTB o 

HJSA^, RaTOpSHOMl TpyA%, BCIOAy BCTp^HaeTCfl HH^eTa FB caMuxi 

OTBpaTHiejiBHBixi ^^opMaxi. 

rpOMaAHUfl 4^ypBr, lasejma TanRH RaiSTCfl cb rjyxHHi CTyROM'B 
no MOCTOBoft; oÓopBanHEie pa6oHÍe, cb yrpiOMBíMn, hcubtiimh jh- 
JífMEj moMpaiOTh BsaAi* h BnepeA^B 

Ha cŽBepi Bdopy naÓJiiOAaTejtfl npeACTasjísercfl coBepmenno 
leaa Raprena. 3aícb BOSAyxi cpaBHHTejiBHO HH^e, yjiHn;Bi mapě; 
8AÍCB yse ne BcrpiiHniB TOJinn oÓopBani^eBi. Ha yjiniiiaxx nona* 
XanrCfl TOJIBRO MOJO^HHI^BI, npoAaBii^Bi nenoQRH AJ12 RomeR^B h Top- 
roBi^i OBon^aMH. JI,OHa onpaTHBi, RpacHBu, to-h-a^o na ORnax^B 
HHiaeniB: ^OrAaeTCfl RBapiepa^. nonaAaiOTCfl Aona HeoÓuRHOBenno 
djeraHTHBie, c^ ROJionsaMH h Ga^RonoMi, ORpysennue HBflo^HUMn 
caAHBaMH. 

3A'iteB SHByrB Tbj Roropsie CByM^H BOcnojUBSOBaTBCfl TpyAOM^B 
paóoqaro, npHnysAeHHaro 6nTBCfl RaRi pBi6a o6i jioax nsi-sa RycRa 
sacyn^Haro x;rb6a e BOTfln^arocfl vb rpasHBix^ Tpy^o6ax^ ORCTona. 

CiOAa nepeceju[H)TCfl na noRofi laRse rb hsi paóo^nixx, ro- 
TopHicB yAajiocB ButfHTBCfl H3^ HH^eTBi, CRonHTB RanHiajii, — neMHorie 
CHacTjHBn;H nsi BenHROft apiiin xpyAan^aroca npojierapiaTa. 

RoHTpacTB dTHxx AByx^B RBapTajOBi nopasHTejieHx, h neBOiiBHo 
sacraBHTB saAyMaiBCfl. 

BuBTOHx-CRBepi npeAcraBJíflerB hs^b ce($fl h^hto cpeAHee nesAy 
himh; OHib ne laRi Mpa^eni, RaRi Orctohx, ho oneBHAHO nace* 
leHíe ero jnniB ^yiB-^yxB notfora^e. 3a4cb-to h npoKHBajia ccmbí, 
BB cyAB^ ROTopofi, 6jiaroAapfl Ranpnsy ^prynn, npoHsoniJia TaRaa 
íysecnafl nepenina. fltose^x MoTi!Mep'B, mieManHHRx CROponocrn^HO 



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216 BftOTHHBl SBPOim. 

CROH^aBinarocfl BJiaA'&iBita Baajieii, yiiepB naTHAaoiTH jAn^ ocra- 
BHB% seny n xpexi A'^TeĚ. 

Owh pafioraJTB BCH> shshb, CRonejrb Koe-KaRÍa a6hbsohse h ;(ase 
jiajii H^ROTopoe o6pa30BaHÍe cbohhi a^tamx. 

OTei^i ero, Feepn MoTHMepi>, nojBSOBHBinificfl 6ojBinoK> esb^ct* 
HOCTBH) wb CBoe Bpeiffl^ poABJCfl vb Haiajit Hamero crojriMfl h 
6uji% xoponiHMx MexaHHBOicB. Ero ÓparB, PHHapxi*, Mojose ero 
Ha AecflTB jAtl^ coBepmeHHO ne cxo^^JiCfl cb hhitb hh xapaRxe- 

pOMl, HH HaRJIOHHOCTflMH, HH J&bSRJS^eEULUB BpaTBHy Bl ROHJ^t BOH- 

i^oBi, coBepmeHHO pasoniJiHCB. FenpH, crpacrnafi hojhthrx, araxa- 
Topi H AeMaron, oTjiHqajCfl cnocoÓHOCTBK) roBopeib AOJiro h x^Sctro, 
H BOo6nie, ^to HasuBaeTCfl, sa cjioboitb b^ RapMani ne jiasBjrb. 
Boo6n^e se dio 6uji% no naiypt dHTysiacTB, cnocofinnĚ yBjteRaTBCfl 
peBOJiH)itioHHiiMn HAeflMH AO caM03a6BeBÍfl. ^prHcrcRoe ABHsenie 
fiMO, HaROHei](x, eify BOSMOSHOcib saflBHTB o ce0£. 

B'B 1839 roAy ohi Óujuh HsÓpani qjeHOirb Ha^ioHaJBHa^o co- 
<{paHÍH Bi BBpHHHraMi. Toť^a ohi yse ycn^JTL sacraBHTb roBO- 
pHTB o ce6£, TaR^b RaR^B ynacTBOBajii vb dHaMOHHTOft npoi^ecciH ci 
4»aRej[aMH h nonajTEi sa dto bi& xiopBHy. 3to npHAa^o eny opeojii 
MyHeHHHecTBa h tojibro pasosrjio bt> Eeu% nojiHTHqecRÍH crpacTH. 

Ol ceMseK) owb BHAajica p^ARO. SBuena ero, dHeprHHecRaa h 
TpyA0JH)6HBafl seHH^HHa, cana co^epsajia ceÓH h CBoero cuna ďLo- 
se^^a, eAHHCTBeHHaro ocraBmarocfl vb shbuxi hbi ceMH neJOB^Rx 
A^iefi, 6uBmHxi> y Hea. ArHraiopcRafl A^TeiBHOCTB MaLio-no-Majy 
coBepmeHHO norjiOTHJia ea nysa. 

Owb HHcajix CBoeft sen^ pasi bii no^roxa. 3a hhhi ynpo- 
HHjiacb penyTai^úi aparo pa^HRajna. Hma ero ^acro ynoMHHaercfl 
TorAamHBMH raseiaMH. Bi 1842 roAy ohi npHHHifaJTB ^'^Te.ibHoe 
yqacTÍe bt> 6yHTaxi> na jotí Ahejiíh. Roh^hj^b ofb t^mi, ^to Óujte 
paneHi ma^bnoH) nyjieio fb rojiOBy, n yiiepB vb rocnHTaJi6 npesxe 
^iťL ycH^H H3B'lcTflTb ero seny h ppAHiix'b. 

PHHapAX, 6paTB ero, cb ysacoMi OTHOCHJicfl Ri hao^mi, sa bo- 
Topuď 6opojiCfl H yMepi FenpH. Ci pannaro A^TCTBa xapanxepx 
ero flCHO onpeA^JiHJiCfl; 9to 6hun> qejOB^Ri cb aReji^HoS BOJíeft h 

CHJIBHUM'b, HesaBHCHMUlťB yMOMl, HeJlOB^B^B upaRTH^ecRÍK Vb noj- 
HOMl CMHCJrik dTOrO CJlOBa. 

Ohi xopomo noHflJix, tto npesAe Bcero na se^ujA bchríK aoj* 
seni CTpeMHTBCfl HecTHUMi nyreBfb o^esnenHiB ce6^ CRpoMHoe xo- 

BOJBCTBO, h60, Vb HpOTHBHOlTB CJyHaŠ, MÍpB OÓpaiHTCfl ]íflSl HOFO Vh 

oÓmHpHyK) AOJiroByK) iiopbMy. JIohatho, hto na BcbTb ?Bej[aBniflxx 
HH3BeprByTb RanHiaJiHcrHnecRÍft crpofi ohi AOJiseni Ówvb cmotp^tk 



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A8M0CX. 217 

ran Ha npecryiiHHROBi, noApuBaion^Hxi pasBHxie npoMámjeHHOCTH 
■ MÍniaK>mHrB ^ecTHUMi TpyseHHBaiii oÓoran^aTbCfl. 

Kor^a ero 6parB npHMRHyjrb si HaprEcrcsoMy ABHmeHiio, Ph- 
^apAi MoTHMepi, wb cbok) onepexB, nocniniBjrb saeepÓOBaTbCfl bi 

^■ClO Ban^HTHHROBX HOpA^Ka, COCiaBHBDIHXX A06pOBOJBH£I& nOJHI](e&- 

esifi coiosh H p&nHBuiHxcfl caMuiTB dHepreqecRHiťB oÓpasoMi npe* 
cjitAOBaTB sa^EHn^iisoBii 6yHTa. 

Ohii nojLBOBajcfl (k>jiBin]aM'B yBaa^HÍeirB vb CBoeMi OKaiaTR']^. 
GocTMHÍe ero yBeinqHBajiocB ci RasxuM^ AHeirb, a bmí^ct^ ci 
itiitb ynpoHHsajiocB h ero noji03ReHÍe. Kor^a oh^b ysHajx o CMepTH 
(ípaTa, to xoiOAHO csaBajB: ^Qo npasAt, dro Óojihmoe cnacTbe f^si 
Hero!* 

TiiťB He uewbej owh nonejrb cbohmi ao^ifomi ycrpoHTb 6je- 
enntu noxopoHii ÓpaTy-Haprecry h ci npesp^HieMi OTBepPB no- 
ouTu ero noHEraTeJieft e eAHHOMumieHHHKOBi bsíitb na cetiji no- 
rpe6eHÍe MynenBEa. Ohi xaKse xor&fB ofiesneHHTB seny noRofi- 
Haro H CBoero lueMflHHaBa, ROTopoMy Torxa 6imo yse ABaAi^aTB- 
jw roAa. 

Ho T^ SaflBHJIH, ^TO HQ TBieJlSJOT^ Cb HIOrB HM^TB HHRaROrO 

jiiu, H CB TkL^ nopi> Pa^apAi Aepsajx cetifl no OTHomeHÍK) r^b 
BBWh saRi Hyxofi. 

RoFAa PH^apA'B MoTHMepi Mon cuiaTB ce6z Bnojiwb oSesne- 
^HHiiiTB H Aase GoraTUM^ He;iOBÍ&ROMi^ obi xocTBrB yse cpexBHu 

XB3Hfl. 

Obi seHHJCfl na CesnpHAaHHBi^, A'J^BymR£, He OTJiBqaBmeftcfl 
BpacoToft, HO TisťB He Men^&e senn^HBŠ ptARHX'B aoctobhctbi. Eft 
(Sojo yse noA'B Tpa^i^aTB. Bi CBoeifB Btifiopi FenapAi^ pyROBO- 
juucfl 6oJÍe pasyMOMi, q&fB cep^i^eirB, ho ob'l ysf^zii i^hhtb t6, 
nb jiaeTB senn^HH^ yroBHeBHoe BocnaraBie. 

HeoCxoAHMO npHHflTB BO BBBMaHÍe, ^To PHHapA'B sejiaji o6ora- 
THTBCfl He H81 OAfloft CTpacTB Ri Ha^HBŠ, — hítl, 6oraTCTBO wb ero 
riasax^B BBjtsuiocb cpe^CTBOirB BcrynHiB bi toti BsCpaHHHfi RpyrB 
o6pa30BaHHiix'B B BOCHHTaHHux^B jsio^eft, Ri ROTopuMii Bcer^a BJieRJa 
ero npBpoAHafl chocoČhoctb hi^bhtb AOcroBBCTBa Hacroflu^eft apn- 

CTOipaTÍH. 

TenepB Me^ra ero ocymecxBHJiacB. CRopo y nero poAH^acB 
X01B, BacA^^AOBaBniafl npeRpacHus Ra^ecTBa cBoefi MaTepa. Ror^a 
osa craja Bspooiofi A^BymRoS, obi Bu^ajii ee sa PoA^^P^^a 
diBAOBa. 9to co6uTÍe abbjiocb Ryj[BMBflai;iOBBiiMi& nyHRTOMi ero 
Bap^pH. Oh'b AOcrarB Bepxa 6jaronojiyqifl, bo CRopo TparB^ecRaa 
Qf^TB MOiOAUxi cynpyroBi BaHecia eny rJiy6oRyK) b HaRor^a yse 
le 8ai^iBaBniyK)Cfl pany. EoBe^^ ero sbbbb 6uji OTpaBJíeHB otbi^b 






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218 B«OTHHK!B BBPOim. 

ropecTHEiirB coÓuTieifB, ho xyrB ero noiuepsajia BOSBumeHHafl Apya^a 

flo, necMOTpfl Ha cboh apHcroRpaTHqecKÍfl HaKJnoHHOCTH, Moth- 
Mepx Bce-TaBH ocraBajiCfl npoHQnuieHHHBOMi h a^bi^oitb. 3aB%T- 
HOH) MeHToft ero 6ujia paspafioTBa pyAHHBOBi, u, BaK^b mu yse snaeifL, 
nepeA'B CBoeio CMepxBK) ohi npHcrynHJii bi ea ocyu^ecraseHiK). 

Ho BepHeMCfl, o^naBo, b-b BHJiBTOHi-CBBepy, r^t wb cBpoMHOii'^ 

jS(OMHB^ OÓHTHJH MJiaAHlie ^JICHU ^^aMHJliH MOTHUepOBl. IliLeMflHHHB^b 

PuTOpAa MoTHMepa, ^osecl^i, senHJicfl ABa^AaiH nflTH-jcirb. Ko- 
fleHHO, seHHTB6a dxa ne yjiy^mejia ero naTepiaJiBHaro nojiosenifl. 
Bi> BOHi;']^ BOHii;OB%, OH^B AasEce paCBaflJFC^ Wh tomi, tto OTBepPB 
nOMOiuB, BOTopyK) npeA^arajii eny ero ^flAfl-RanHiaJiHcrB. Owb Ha* 
SBajsi CBoero cuna PHnapAOBfB BXHaAesA'^, hto GoraiEifi AflAK>niBa 
oópaiHrB BHHManie na sto sejiame hohthtb ero uma h BosBpaTHTB 
mwb CBOK) MHJiocTB. Btotb cuwb Qvo 6ují% MexaHHBOHX na 3aB0A'i& 
CBHHii;oBBix'B H3A^&. RpoM'1 PH^ap^a, ceMBfl ďbose^a Mornnepa 
cocTOflJia H3X AO^epH Ajihcbt, A6BflTHawaTe-Ji4THeft A*ByniBH, yjse 
ABa roAa Bas^B nocTynHBmeft npoAaBn](Hi]ie& b^b oahh^b oneHB 6ora- 

TBlfi Mara3HH'B. 

CaMOMy MJiaAnieMy, Fenpe, e^sa MHHyjio ceMHa^AaiB jňrb — t^itb 
ne MeH'le, cpaBEiEiTejBHO Ch npo^HMH ^jenanH ceMBH, owb saHHMaji^B 
ÓJieCTfliiiee mšcto bommh na Many^iaBTyp'! bo^ohpoboahbix^b Tpy(5i. 



IV. 

JI^eBflTB HacoBx Be^epa. M-cb MoxHMepi BansTa npEroTOBJíenieMs 
ysHHa. IIocTaBHBT mecTB npii6opoBi, pna nojiosHJia na 6jik)ao 
OBOJio nyAHHra, yse sna^iHTejiBHO nonaToro, 6ojiBinoft BycoBx xo- 
lOAHOfi Bapenofi roBfl^HHH. IIotomi, ohhcthfb h HaBpomHBx Bapro- 
{^ejiR u BanycTu, npnroTOBHJiacB OTnpaBHTB Bce dTO na CBOBopo^y^ 
TA^ Tpe^aiii pacranjiHBaioiiiificfl SHp'B. 

OroHB, rop^Bmifr vb íieHK% h rasoBBit posoBi 0CBÍin.ajíH na* 

leHBByH) ByXHK). 

RpacHUJi BaHaB^CBH na OBnaxi npe^aBajiH BOicHarl H^Boropyio 
BOM^opTa6ej[BHOCTB. Bce 6jiecTkJio HAeaJiBHOfi ^Hcrorofi h nops^KOiTB. 
PasjíH^Hafl yTBapB na hojb-j^, mBa^Bi h cryjrBfl y ctIhi, Bce ao no- 
cjykAEei MOJio^H CTOflJio Ba CBoeifB oÓuhhomi M^erí^, aBBypaTHO 
npeCpaHHoe. 

XcsaftB*]^, xHBofi H AiareJLhRoi oco(5']&, mosho Óujlo ^aTB jt^tb 
noii-B naTB^ecATB. Ma.ieHBKÍe oasa cb BHCMaTpHBaioiniHMi Bsr.ia- 
Afiwhy pÍ3Boe OHepiaHÍe vy6% noBasHBaiH, ^lo ona qyBCTByerB ce6a 



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Ha BQCOT^ noJoseHÍfl, BaR^b Maib u xcsafiRa, aa oieibTCTBeHHOCTH 

KOTOpofi BaXOAHTCfl BCfl CeMBfl. 

B'b o6mfiííi>, Jimift ea, 6ea^ eAHHoS mop^hhbh, Bupasajio 6ojiie 
AOfipoAymífl, H^wb yna. Tenepb ona Óam bt> cTpaniHOirB nerep* 
nÍHÍH. JI^aBHO HacrynHJii ^acb ysnea, a hhrto hsi AOMamHBxi ee 

— Ha^o nojiaraTB, hmi laM-B oneHB Becejio, hto ohh He H^yrs 
ffi CHxx nop%, — npo6opMOTajia ona, OTo^BKraa orB orea CKOBopo^y* 

BeesanHo pas^a^Cfl cxyRi bi AsepB. XosflfiRa noniJia otbopate^ 

H CEOpO BOSBpaTHJiaCb, BX COnpOBOSAOHÍH MOJIOAOfi ^i^BymRH, AO- 

BOJiBHO MHJOBHAHofi, HecMOTpfl Ha Ójubjíflocnh H BupaseHÍe RaROg-TO 
cspuToft TOCRH H cxpa^aHÍfl Ha jiHii;^. IIpocTOxa ea Rocnona ro- 
fiopiua, HTO OHa oqeHB Ót^Ha. Ha Heft ÓEua HaA'frra RopoieHBRafl 

KO^TO^Ra CB MÍXOBOK OTOpOHROfi Ba BOpOTHBR'6, TeMHOe DJaTBHBie, 

BaienaB nuiirna e ^epnua BAsanufl nepnaiRB. 

— HeysejiB HHRoro en^e hš-tb? — BCRpanajia ona. 

— BorB Hxx 3HaeTx, ta* ohh Bcfe sanponaciHJiHCB! — OTBŠHaja 
M-d MoTHMepi. — JI,BRi, 6631 coMH^BÍfly Ha MHTBHr6; AjiHca H FenpH 
AOJSBu CRopo npBATH. Ca^HTecB sa ctojix, 3MMa; Óesnojesno hx'b 
saatb; saaB tojbro, hto y nenB h^tb HBBa. 

— H4rB, fl ne yKHHaTB npHmjia, — OTsib^ajia dMiia; — a xoTfeia 
toiBRO CRasaTB Bani, TTO Ó^AHyio JEaHHy ohbtb ÓBerB jiHxopaARa. 

— He MoaterB 6htb! Axx, ona fi^Anaa! — BOCRJiHRHyjia m-cx 
MoTHMepx, A^psaBHiafl CROBopoARy na ovwb h noBopaqHBaBmaH ho- 
SOHB ea coAepsBMoe. — ^Kasercfl, cb neio bto yse nsTuft npHnaAORx? 

— Kasercfl. M maBHOe, cb RasAUMX opHnaAROiťB xyse h 
xyze. Mil ((ohmca, hto efi npE^eiCfl npojiesaTB ao ROHi^a ocene. 

— Aa, jiHxopaARa, Aa en^e peBMaTHHecRaa, xotb ropo cjomhtb^ 
KcraTH, snaere, ht6 cjiynnjiocB cb J^hromx? 

— ^TÍ) TaRoe?. 

— SL AyMaja, BH y»e anaeie. Obi> noxepajix m-Scto. 

— DorepaJii m4cto? — noBTopnJia BcnyraHHO A*ByniRa. — na- 
pěny ae? 

■=- CiiifflHoft BonpocB! PasB* MoaerB coxpaHHTB ntoo patfoT- 
HHSB, ROFAa owb BOs6y7&flfiiQTb HeAOBOJBCTBO vb TOBApan^axi H 
pyraeiB na RasAOMi nepeRpecíR^ cbobx'b xosaeFB? & dToro yse 
WBHo SAaia. B^epa ero npesBajii oahh^b hs^b ABpeRxopoBi h b^- 
•nao oCmbhjté eny, hto h am nero, h am ero xosaeBi ÓyAera 
Jy^me, ecin oni ce(J4 noHmeTB Apyroe mícto no CBoeny BRycy. 
Hy, j^BRx OTB^HajrB, paayirfeeTca: »H tfesi Bací oCoftAycB!" Bii 
B*AB sBaexe, RaRoft oh-b y Měna! 

MojioAaa A^BymRa CBA']^a nenoABHsno, onycTHBx rjiasa, h^ Ra- 



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220 'b^othhbii EBjf^onu. 

ssjíochj coBepmeHHO caosofino cjiymajia. HaBoneAi, ona Ce^Ha^esHO 
BSAOXHyjia. 

HenpaBEJiBHOC jih«ihro ea BupasaJio jiotipoiy h necTHOCTB. IIo 
;iBHseHÍK) ry6i saM^THO óbijio, hto efi tocto npHXOAHTCfl noAaBJuiTB 
eiesEi. Bi rojio<^ ea ue cjramajiocb oCuqHBixi y paÓoxHBi^i pfe- 
KHxi H ByjiBrapaivxi hoti. 

Kor^a M-c:b MoTHuep^b BOHHpjia CBofi pascBasi, 3MMa, no npes* 
Heify xpaHfl noinoe MOJi^aHÍe, bxtocsš saiiOMBJía pyBH. 

— Bh noHanpacHy tojbbo , ceóa Myqaere, — cnasajia joCpo- 
^^yniHO M-cx MoTHMepB. - JI^HSi HH BanejiBRH He pascrpoecrL t^mi, 
HTb cjryHfuocb. HanpoTHBi, oh^b xoahtb cb TaRHHi TopsecTByK)- 
n^HiTB BHAOifB, TO^HO nojy^Hjii eacji^ACTBO. Jl^a botb noroAHre, oh^b 
npHAeTB H c&hch Bce noApoÓHO pascsaserB. noysHHa&Te, iioe ahta. 
4S cefinaci BaMi aami Bapro^^eJio. AsnaK), bíi ee JiioÓETeBanycTEi. 

Bo BpeMfl 9Toro pasroBopa cajio npoxojuBaio Tpen^aTb na cro- 

BOpOA%. 

— KaKx 9T0 Aoca;iHO, — BCRpaqaJia oea nerepníuraBO, — rrri 9to 
AOcaAHO, HTO RasAoe BOCRpeceHbe FeapH npHXOAnrB Bce nosAH^e 

DOSAHU! Oh^B AOJISeHl MHŠ npHHeCTH DHBO! 

— IIo3BOJbTe, fl cxosy sa nHBOBfb, — npeA^oiRiua diiiia, noA- 

HHMaflCb. 

— Hirb, JíflK^ paacepAHTCfl, RorAa ysnaera, ^to a nocuJiajia 

BaCB BX nHBSyK). 

— Oahhi TO pasi HH^ero. 

— TaRx-TO xaRx. Ohx, Moserb 6HTb, 9 ho saBopqHTB. F^aBHoe, 
41 AOJiaELHa BcerAa hxi AOSHAaibca. Hmi 6br ciiAOBajo noAynaTb, 
qTO Bi MOH roAu 9T0 coBCJ&iťb HO npHCTa.10. H AiBca Tose! Hy, 
Tjsík OHa Tenepb nujieTCA, a Bací cnpamHBaio? Ysi axa HUH']&inHflfl 
MOJOAesb! CjiaBa Bory, hto bu ne noxosH ea hhxi, 9MMa! Ho 
ysHHaftTe, nosajiyficra, a to a, npaBO, pascepmycb. He TpeBOSL- 
Tecb, — JI^HRx HaflAerb Apyroe m-ícto. 

— Ybu, h Ha HOBOMx Mibcrb cx HHiTb aoBTopETCfl Ta se 
HCTopifl! — CRasaJia nenajibHO A'^BymRa. Oea eAsa AOTpoay^iacb ao 
RymaHbji, ROTopoe npeA^arajia eň m-ci MoTHHepx. 

— C'B CBoefl CTopoHu, fl CA^aio eMj BuroBopi; na Bameirb 
HtcTÍ, fl 6u CRasajia OMy, hto ohi nocrynaerb RaRi aroHcrb. Crr- 
sHTe eMy, hto obi AOJiseHi BcnpaBHTbCfl. 

— a He hocmík), — CRasajia 9MMa, npBCJiyoíHBaiicb. Ha jišct- 
Binni pa3AajiCfl my Ml maroBi. 

— Hy, Raaterca, bto ohh, naRoneiíi! — BOCRJiHRHyja m-cb Mo- 
TBiiepi: — BTO J^HR-B xoxoqcTB FjaBHoe, A&&Te eny noHATB; Raxi^ 
OffB rjiyno nocTynnai. 



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AdMOCb. 221 

depeši MHHyTy Aseps OTBopBjacB^ h fb ROMHaiy eomejn Jí^nn^h 
Bi conpoBOSAeHÍH Apyra ceHLH, B^Eoero J[aHÍcjfl X^66'b. 

— 3ApaBCTByfiTe, duMa, vtb CRaateTe xoporaaro? — BcnpHqaj^B 
PHqapA'B, xojiOAHO noacHMaa pysy MOJiOAOfi A^ByniRH. — Bipno MaM& 
ysse ycirljia Bani na MeHfl HaroBoperb; a a xaRi ÓJiarocjiOBJíflio 
Bce ciyHHBmeecfl. EaROBi Bumejnb ceroAHa MHTHHrb, JI|aHÍeJii»! 

Bi T<^ cpeA%, Ri ROTopoft PHHapAi^ npHHaAJiesajix, ohi npeA* 
craBjfljTb p^AKoe flBJíeHie. IIpoHcxoAfl hsi TpyA0Jik)6iiB0fi h ÓepeauraBofif 
ceMEH padOTHHROb^, ROTopafl yse vb hšcroibrhxi noROJri&Hiflxi nojB- 
soBajacB OTHocHTejiBHBrMi AOBOjBCTBOMi, xopomo DHTaJiaCB H Hlf&ia 
xopomee no&rlii^eHie, PHqapA'B OTjra^ajucfl neoÓuRHOBeHHOft ^HSH^ecRoft 
auoB H sAopoBBeiTB. BucoRaro pocra, inHpoRonj[eHÍ&, cb ropAO npH- 
noAHflTofi rojiOBO&, ohi Aepsajii ceóa cb HeoÓHRHOBeHHuiii aoctohe- 
CTBOM-B, RaRoe p^ARO BCTpbTEraiB Aaace y jiK>Aefi Bucmaro RJiacca. JIhi^o 
ero He BBipasajio lynocTH, RaRyio bhabdib HHorAa na JiHi^axx saÓHTuxi^ 
pa5oqiix'B, hh yrpiOMOft HenoABHSHOcru, yRasuBaioa^efl ea aTpo4)ÍK> 
Mosra, Bca^ACTBÍe Tflsejiaro, eenocHJiBHaro TpyAa npH xyAOiťB hh- 
TaHÍH. HcnopneHEuft BosAyx^B Aynieofi HacrepcRofi noRpuji^B iiaTo- 
fioft 6ji'bAH0CTBR) ero n^eRH, ho dxa 6AÍjs,E0crb tojibro npnAaBajra 
OTi^HORik HHTejMHreHTHOCTH ero Rpacoii. Tyenie, AJiHHHue bojiocu 
(Siijra TeMH'6e GopoAu; rjiasa ero, CBepRaBinie yMOM^, eanoMHHajin 
raasa ero MaTepu, xotji wb hhx'b ne Úujio Toft noABHscHOCTH h topo 
08a(k)HeHHaro, BucnaTpHBaioii^aro Biipasenifl, RaRHirB oiiiH^ajiHCB efl 
rjasa. B*b hhx'b CRBOSÉJia cypoBaa Aynia, h neBOSHOSHO Óujío npeA- 

CTOBH*^, HTOÓBl OHB MOFJIH BEipa^KaTB wbjELEOCth EJlll MeHTaxeJBHyiO 
SaAyHHHBOCTB. 

PHHapA'B BooÓn^e CRJiOHeHi 6ujn> bha'6tb Bce bi xyAOMi cvbťb. 

' BjiacTHufi, noJiBiA crpacTH, tojocb ero HenpiflXHO nopasaj'B 

m pasroBop^ e ^0Ra3BlBaJI^ npHBu^Ry opaxopcTBOBaTB nepeA'B TOJmoK). 

BecB HaAMeHHufi bbax ero roBopiuii o HenoROJreÓHMofl B^pt 
vb ce6fl H CBOH CHjra. 

Bi 8Ty MHHyryBci — h AypHBia, h xopomía — Raqecrsaero xa- 
pasrepa BURasuBajHCB ocoÓeHHO acho h p^RO. Oh^b Óhjtb repooM^B 
MHTHHra, CB Roi*oparo xenepB BOSBpaTHJca. BooAyineBJíeHie, cb Ra- 
KHiTb OETB rpoMUJii* sa HOJiHaca dRcnjiyaxaTopoBi, nopatfon^aion^Exs 
TpyseHHRa-paóoqaro, en^e rop&io ea ero jhi^í h upoAftBaio eiiy 
en^e Óojrbe ropAoe h BJiacTHoe BEipaď;eHÍe. JI^ameJiB ^B,6&b flBjajCfl 
Hoaffbfiniefi npoTHBonoJOXHOCTBK) csoeny Apyi^y? PH^apAy MoTHMepy, 
B npeACTaBjfljTB HHcroRpoBHufi THiTB opojieTapifl - paiSoHaro; oh^ 
xoAiLii pacRaHHBaacB, onycTHBi rojiOBy h cropČEBnracB. 3acT&H9H- 
BBft BsrjflAi' npHAaBajii ^to-to CMHpeHHoe Bcefi ero ^Hrypi. A 
MesAy Tiwb ero qepeue, Ójecranpe bojocíi, (SpoHSOBaa ROsa, mea 



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222 raGTHnKí EBPOnu. 

^BiKa, meJi^Haa pyna Cb HanpaseHHbíHH skejismii h ciajiBHEiMH 
MycRyjiaMH, MOdOJiHcrafl JiaAOHb, KopoTBÍe, TOJcrae najiBiiBi ch rpjis- 
fliiMH HorrflMHT-Bce noRasuBaJio B^ nem> npHBEiwy s^b py^HOMy 
ipyxy n repByjecOBCRyio CHJiy. Bm^ct^ (tb t^m-b, AOÓpoAymHufi bekb 
E rpoMRÍĚ xoxoTB CBHjS(%Te;[bCTBOBajiii, ^TO ^amejB oÓJiaAajrB Ao6poft 
Haxypofi. 

— Hy, HTbj P0HapA'B xopomo roBOpaix? noHpaBiUHCB BaMX 
^ro TeopÍH? — cnpocHjia m-cb MoTHMepx y flfimejisi, 

— TeopÍH-TO a ero o;^o6pflH), — OTBÍqaji totb: — hto »e Ka- 
<»eTCfl ero xo3fleB%, to, no Moeny, ohh coBepmeHHO npaBBr, nosse- 
jiaei HBÓaBHTBCfl otx xaBoro onacearo Bpara, BaB^ ohi. Jl^epesiop^ 
6My CBasajTB: „Mu ne MOseiťB ea BacB nomajiOBaTBCfl, BasrB na pa- 

<$OTHHBa; HO Haill BdBtCTHO, HTO BEI CaifH BEICBaSBIBaOTO CBOe He- 

^OBOJiBCTBO HaMH, BaBi xosfleBaMH, a Bi TaBoiťB cjiyqa^ Bcero pas- 
yHHŠe Baii^ ocraBHTB Bamy 4^a6pHBy h noHCBaiB ce&b M^cra no 
BBycy''... H roBopHTB, snanHTB, 6ojihme ne o homi. He conuiHCB 
xapaBiepaMH, n Bce lyrB. 

— A ne cxoAHTB jh EOMy-HHĎy^B sa hiíbom-b, npesA^ h4m^ 
eanaTB Cojitobhk)? — cnpocHJia m-cx MoTHMepi. 

— BorB aio Btpno! — BCBpaqajix JíaniejiB:— na^o npnjaraTB 
TeopÍK) Kb npaBTHB^. nepeA'B BpyaiBofi nHBa Bd^ jiioab paBHii. 
Mu yMHpaeiťB orB jBjsn&m* Si ce&nacB cÓ^raio n npenecy. 

— Ohh Měna (Joaica, — roBopHJix PnHapAx, BOsÓymjíeHHO maraa 
flo BOMHaii, — H a ropsycB dTHiii. Ha 9to& HeA'^J& mh bco a^o 
pascBasoMi b^b raBerb; 8to en^e no^ojiBeTB nacjia vb opohb. 

— Hy, a HÍMx TH 6y;íeniB khib? 

— SI o6i dTOMi en^e nojs^yMaio. Si saiajorB Ón, o^Haso, ^to^bi 
MH% en^e h^cbojibbo pasi xas-B se OTBasajiH. 3to hm^o 6u BejiHBoe 
BHa^enie A^a namero Ai^m, 

— B']bAHaa ^aHHa onaTB 3axBopa.ia, — CBasajia 3MMa, ycrpeHHBi^ 
j^ojirifi B3rjiaA'B na MOJio^oro ^eJiOBÍBa. OsaÓoqeHHOe jihi^o ea bbi- 
pasajio rjiyÓOByH) nenaJHB. 

— OnaxB BOSBpaiHJiacB JiHxopa^Ba? — cnpocHJi-B PnqapffB. 

— Aa, BOSBpaTHJiacB! — rpycrno OTBi^ajia 3MMa. 

— ^opTi bosbhh! ona, BŠpHO, nonaja no^x aosab, H^a na pa- 
<5oTy, — csasajii PHqapA'B, no»aBx njenaMH. 

Boji^HB 6%AH0& JRaHHii FB ero rjiasax^ aBJíajiacB hobhitb 
noATBepacjS(eHÍeMX rnycHOfi rapaHnie Banniajia h Óes^ejOB^TOOCTH 
xosaeBi-BBcnjyaxaTopoBi: ^ann^, nojiyqaBnieft HHqrosHyK) niiaTy, 
npnxoAHJiocB eseABOBHO A^JiaTB rpoMa^HBift BOHenii na 4>|t6pHBy, r;^ 
ona pa6oTajia! 

JI^aniejB BOSBpaTHJca, neacAy rkwb, neca ABa ByBmHna cb n£- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



A3M0GI. 1223 

HlIBmHMCfl USLBOWh. $H3Í0H0MÍfl erO CÚiJia OTE yAOBOJIBCTBifl. Owb 

HpeABBymajii HaciasAesie yiojiHTs sas^y xojOAHiuďB naeoiťb. 

— Efl BHCO^ecTBO eme He Bosepamajiact? — cnpocHJit owh. 
^amexb rasi roBopnjii o&b Ajumybj Roropofi noROfiHuft ^08e4)'B 

MoTBMepx AaJi'B aio hma b% ^ecTB oaho&/H3i^ Aonepeb BopojieBu. 
Bi ceMB'6 ee bi myTBy h easuBajia „npHHi](ecco&^ h „Bame buco- 

teCTBO". 

— Ona xoThia nofttH ki m-cb Toob-b, — OTB^naja m-cb Mo- 
TEMeprE, — H, 6iiTB Mosexi, ocraHercfl TaMi» b ysHHaiB. 

PH«iapA'B npHHfljicfl onflTB lOJiBOBaTB CB cBOHMi ApyroiTB o co- 
jparasu^ H pafio^eifB coiosš. 

JI|aHÍeJB[B HO MOFB OTHOCHTBCfl SI ^euj-JiínÓo oco6eHHO cepBesHo; 
OHI HcsaJTB Bi» EasAofi Bon^H 62 npiflTHyH) HjiH cirlmHyio cropoHy. 
MiiTHHrH nosBOJiflJH OMy Becejo npOBOAHTB BpeMfl; eMy HpaBHJiocB 
eryTOTB HoraMH, or;[yinHTejBHO xjionaTB hjih HcnycRaiB HeneJOB^- 
lecsifi pesi Bi OTB^TB na samHraiejiBBBifl p'Íhh A^MaroroB^. Ohi 
roTOBi 6uxh pyraxB xobaobx h yqacTBOBaxB bi HecTBOBaHÍH repoeBx 
H MyHeHHB0B^ pa(5oHaro Bonpoca, ho jhhib bi tomi cjiynaš, sor^a 
OHI MOPB 611TB yBtpeHi, ^To eny ne npE^erca njiaTHTB sa j^pasÓH- 
nA ropmoR^B^. Ohi npHHaxJiesajii bi HHCJiy tíx'b ÓojiTyeoB^B, roto- 
pue oxotho noAAepsHBaH)rB nysoe ÓesyMÍe, ho HaRor^a ne crpa- 
AaiOTB sa hofo. 

HanpoTHBi, Pn^apAi othocejica rx aí^y c% iparH^ecRoft crpacr- 
nocTbJOj vh oco6eHHocTH ecjiH oho RacajiocB ero jh^hocth. Ero 
€a]íoiH)6ÍK> JBiBCTHJO HrpaTB pojiB BOsaRa. 61 MeHxaxi OHI yse 
BHx&ii ceéfl Bi napjiaMeHT6, OTCTaHBaH)n^HM'B .npaBa paÓoíHxx h 
K^ioflWh airaRy npoTHBi) Ranniaja. QepBufi ycn^xx BOcnjiaMeHHJi? 
ero H ensfi 6ojňe bosbetcejii bx coÓctbohhbixx rjasaxi. Bi homi 
csasajacB RpoBB ero A^Aa, FenpH MoTHiiepa. O, RaRx cnacrjiHBx 
6urh 6u ero a^a'b, ecjiHÓu, yMepafl vb Tocnm^jvb otb majiBHOft 
nyjDi, MorB upoAJsnaiB, , hto ero BHyRi noflAon no ero cjiíjs,hmt> 
I 6yAeTB HrpaTB vb pa6oHeMx ABHseHÍH poJiB eu^e 6o.iie 3Ha?HTe.iB- 
Hyg), q^i RaRyH) erpajii owb caMi! CiyRx craRanoBi h TapeJORx 
I rpoMRÍft roBopx pasAaBajHCB icnepB wh Ryxnt m-cb MoiHMepi. 
Bci TaRx 6yjH yBJíeHeHBi 'i^Aoft, hhbomx h cnopanH, ^to h ho sa- 
HiiHjra, RaRi Bomjia AjiHca^ MOJiOAafl, SHBaa A'£ByniRa ci yMHUMx 
in^oiTB. CocnoiTB ea coctohjix hsx RjLixqaTaro uMTha, MajieHBRoft 

HUflHRH CB RpaCHHMX HOpOMl H M'lxOBO& HeJiepHHRH. Bx pyRaXX 

OHa AepsaJia M^xoByio se My(|)Ty. Ona naxoAQ^acB bx to&. nopi, 
KOfAa Rpacora AOcrHraerx nojinaro pasBHiiH h fijien^eix Bceio npe- 
jeerBK) h)hocth. 

MIcio npoAaBo^Hi^ii bx MaradHH'^ ho Óujio conpflseHO cx yiO" 



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224 McrwsKh ebpoiih. 

MHT&iBHEUfb, HCTOiiJ^aioii^iiHi TpjAOiťB. JleFRafl pa6oTa ee asÚLita aa 
ea s^opoBBe, iii^eRH efl He no6jtAHtjiH, RaBi y ca TOsapoKi, h 
rjiasa ne norepflJiH CBoero SHBoro tfjiecRa. IIoJiyoTRpfiiTUfl tj6u es 
nosBOJifliLH BmxbTb 3y6ci yAHBHreJiBHofi 6^h3hh. Ona ÓtiJia HeoÓHB- 
HOBeHHO noxoaca ea eBoero 6paTa: Tanofi se cejbehA xapaBTep'B^ 
HeTepn&iHBisft h BjacTHuft. 

OcraHOBHBnniCB bi ABepaxi, ona RpasByjia: 

— CKopo JIH Bu nepecraHere myifiTB! 

JI,aHÍejiB noABHHyjcfl co cbohmi cryjoiTB, Tro6ii saropoAHTB ao- 
póry AisymK*. 

Ohi TaBi nosajii efi pyRy, ^rro xa BCRpHRHyja. 

— KaR-B atajiRO, — CRasajra ona, — tto sl ne Mory Bani onua- 

THTB TOK) se MOHeTOIo! 

J[aHÍejiB 3axoxoTaj*B h daRpHHaji: 

— Ca^HTecBÍ 

AjiHca y^apHJia ero no nje^y h, npotfpaBnracB na Apyryio cto- 
pony CTOJia, cb HtonocTBK) otínaiia 9MMy. 

— Axx, RaRT. mh4 xoHeTCfl hhtb! — CRasajia ona. — HaA'iH>CB^ 

BU OCraBHJH MH^ QHBa? 

— E^Ba-JiH, pasB^ Ha caMOMi aohbihir^, — OTB^najii JI,aHÍediB. 
— Ctuaho h no^aiB ctojibro npHHi]iecc£! 

n BUJiHBi) ocTaxRH uHBa Bi* CTaR^Hi, OHTk HO^HecTB oro ÁXBídb. 
Ta MHroMi onoposHHja ero; sai^iťB CHflJia nuany, neJiepHHRy, nep- 
qaTRH H dja sa ctojii. 

— y HacB h4tb HHRyjieĚ, MaMá? — cnpocHjia ona m-cb Mo- 
THnep^. 

— a xortjia RyHHTB B^epa BenepoMi, Aa He ycn&ia. Xoxb 

OAHHl-TO paST* CaMH CXOAKTe. 

AjiHca OTTOJiRHyjia otb ceda TapeJiRy h CRasajia, naAyBHiHCB: 

— Bx xaROifi^ cjiy^a* a ho 6yAy ysHHaTB. & ne Mory icrt 
xojiOAHyK) roBflAHHy 6e3i nHRyjiefi. 

— J^aftxe MHt RaRyio-HHÓyAB nocyAHHRy, a cxosy bx JiaBO^Ry 
sa HHRyjflMH, — npeAJiosHJTB JlamejiB. 

— ÓTJiHqno, cxoAHTe! — sacBiiflJiacB AjiHca: — CTapaftxecB 6uTh 
ycjiysjíHBHMi RaBajiepoiťB. 

Jl^amejiB BOSBpaxHjicfl nepesi nnnyry, Heca (SanoHRy Cb opixaiie 
n yRcyci. Ajinca BBUosHJia hx^b ce6% na xapejRy h npHHajacB ysH- 
HaxB. KaRx Bcb MOJiOAua A:&ByniRH ea cocjiOBia, OHa HM^a npHBtnRy 
Boe nojHBaTB yRcycoMi — pu6y, obo^h h Aase eBHHoe cajio. 

— A BU ne sejraeTe nHRyjet? — npeAJiosHJix JíameiB, o6pa- 
n^aacB ri 9mm%, Bce BpeMa HOjraaBuieft h ne npHHHMaBmett hh- 
RaRoro yqacría b^b oón^eMi osHBJíeHÍH. Ona ne oiB^najia e, noAHHB- 



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AdMOCL. 225 

mscB, menHyjia na yxo m-cb MoTHMepi, hto ona xo^ero hath 

AOMOfi. 

•^ Bu xopoino A^aere, Moe abta. Bu, b^pho, bch) hohb npo- 
jiezypHxe oroio ^KaHHu? — cnasaiia xa. 

— HaA'i&K>CB, HTO ne bck). 

PenapA^B saM^THJii, hto MOJiOAafl A'^ByinBa xoneri yxoABTB, h 
BiisBajcfl ee npoBOsaTB. Owh HaA'i^j(% manBy; h ohh budub BABoeirb. 

— a AynaH), Bam ohchb AOcaAHO 6hjio norepflTB paCory, — 
capocHJia ero 3MMa, BorAa ohb onyxejiHeB na yjHi^i. 

— HHMajio! fl MorB 6ii cefinacB se nojiyqHTB ]«']&cto, ecjiH6u 
saxorkix. Ho a Cojiie ne HaM^peffB nopaCon^aTB ce6fl — (SjtaroAapx) 

nOKOpHOy AOBOJIBHO CB MeHfl! 

— KaR'B! BH XOTHTC CHA^TB cjioaa pyKH? 

— HiTBy He CHA^TB cjiosa pyBH^ a tojbro BsaTO ycrpoHTBCfl. 
Goi^ajiHCTHHecBot naprÍH eeoÓxoAHMu npeAaHHue b cnoco6Hiie 
WAH A^fl nponaraHABi, — ey, h a^^a Apyraxi i^ijiefi. Ha 8to ne 
BCflBÍg cuocoóeei, EOHe^HO, — npaÓaBHJi^B PiiqapA^B, AaBaa dohatb, 
H!ro OHI caMi BnojiH^ AOctobh^b HrpaTB HOAOÓnyH) pojiB. 

— H BaMB 6yAyTB miaTHTB sa bto, PB^apAi? 

— HaB^pHoe. 

IlepefiAfl BaHajTB, ohh onyTHJiHCB bi aaoBOHHOMi, patfoHeiťB 
KBapraji cb ysBHMH yjiei^aMH h rpasHiíMH, CByqeHHLiMH AOMaMH^ 

o BOTOpOM^B MLl TOBOpHJIH Bl> Ha^aJ*]^ FJiaBU. HeBnUfl ÓBIJH OTBpUTU. 

7 ABepefi Hxi CTOflJiB By^BH Mys^HHi H seHo^HH'B. GjiumaJiCfl 
arbxi, pyraflB h BHsrjHBue rojioca ccopHBmHxca. 

Bujia nacxa^ h paCo^ie ryjuiJiH, nponnBafl nocA^Anifl a^hbsohbh. 

dnna (TB PHHapAOMi ocranoBnaHCB obojio oahofo qeTupex'B- 
arasHaro AOMa. Pfl^apA^ cnpocHJii, ne npHAercfl jih nosBaiB AOBxopa? 

— /I,a, — OTBinajia 3MMa: — ffianna h cjaniaTB ne xo^erB o 
rocaBTajii, a MexAy t£mx efi Bce xyse h xyse. 

Ph^PA^ Bcynyjii fb pyny Smmu neoéxoAHMyio cyímy na JienenBe. 

— Bo3BMHTe, - CBasajix ohx, — axo na JCBapcTBO. ÍL dnaio, 
HTo BaMi ci» KaxepHHog ne cnpaBHTBca. HoqeMy bu Měna ne so- 
Bere npocro JI^bhomi, BaBB set? — npH6aBHjrB oh^b, noMOJiHaB'B:— a 
j^Ho yse xoT&TB dTO CBasaiB BaMx. 

— BuTB Moaten, noTOMy, hto a ajía BacB ne tí>, qxb Bcfe, — 
OTB&^ajia 3MMa cb yjiuóBofi. 

— GxaHOBHTca xojoaho, HAHre bi ce6i. Hocrapa&TecB hphath 

KB HaiTB BO BT0pHHB'B HJIH Vh CpeAy. 

— Xopomo, npHAy. 

— Hy, npomafi! — CBaaajiB Pn^apA^ h, narnyBniHCB, noiítao- 
Bais AI&BymBy vh roJiOBy. 

ToMi I.-AHBAPb, 1891. 15 



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226 B^hCTHjnffh fiBPOnu. 

jloMi, Tjííb sHjia 3MMa, Óujtb, Raseror, caiiufi rpflSHiifi b^ 
nepeyjist. Oea noAsajia rojoey h bi qexBepTOBfB dras^, bi oa&oitb 
■81 OROHi, saiiiTHJia ciaóufi, MHraK)iAÍ& oroneBi. 

Kor^a Pfl^apA^b sepHyjiCfl aomoK, ohi sacrajTL Marb si crpatHHOM^b 
ra^Bib. Oea roBopejia, pasMaxesas pyBaMH, pbsRRMi, pasApaseHHiiM^b 
roJiocoHi. fljBíEiejih yse ymeJii; co CTOjra yópajiH; Aj[Hca, chaa y neqsH, 
rptia CBOH ajreraHTHO oóyrua Horn. IIpff?iiHOK) rfffeea m-ct Mo- 
THMepi> ÓujTb no3ABÍ& npHxo;!^ ea njia^rnaro cuna FenpE, BpacH- 
Báro ceMHaAiiaTii'ji'bTHHro MajbqHRa, pocroMi noTra paBHaBmarOcfl 
CBoeMy 6paTy. GajibHufi e xopomo cJioseHH£i&, 00*^ mope 6u c^HraTBCfl 
o^iCHB RpacHBUMi, BCJiEÓu evo He nopTHJia HSjmniHflfl HetfpesHaa 
pasBflBHOCTB Manepi. IIopTHjiH ero xaRse BOJioca, noxosie Ha 
naBJíK), n Biipasenie TynocTH bi jiEuíb, Bnpo^eirB mu saeraeirB 
ero vh caMyfD He6jiaronpLiTHyH) MHHyTy. Ob^b CMyn^eHi, h ero 
pacTepflHHutt BBAi> npHAaerb eMy ^to-to noxoaiee Ha o6e3BflHy. 9to 
6uJix HejiaJieRitt Majiu&, ryjisRa, cb chjibho pasBHTUMH qyBCXBeH- 

HBIMH HaRJlOHHOCTflMB. 

— 9to HeB03MO»Ho! — RpBqajia MaTB: — CRopo tu h bi 6yAHH 
Óy^eniB BOSBpan^aTbCfl bi AB^na^^aaTOMi qacy. H wb RaROirB tu 
BiAjsM Gtbiahcb! 

FeHpH nomaTHyjiCfl h ynajTB na CTyji'B. Owb hochjtb RocnoirB 
Ch noRyme^iaMH na MO^y, RaRÍe hibiotb no mo^humi RapreHRairB 
nopTHue cpeAHefi pyRB: nanrajiOHu fb o6TflSBy, apRÍfi SHJierB, 
RopoTeHbRaa, Ryprysaa saRerRa cb ÓeBHHcneHHUMH RapiiaHaMH, 
RpacEuft rajiCTjxi cb mhhhumh ROHi^aMH, nponyn^eHHUMH crbosb 
KOJibi^o. TI0 sn^ery — TOJicraji ^acoBaji i^'bno^iBa hbi HHRejifl. 

— fl ne 60^*66 HbflHB, hímb Bct, — roBopHjiB OHB BaoneraH)- 
n^HMCfl flsuBOMi. — ÍTO TyTB ocoÓeHHaro: noryjiaiB cb ApyBBflMH 
Aiifl npasAHHRa... 

-- CaMuit npeRpacHEifi cnoco6i Bcrp^^aiB npasAHHBB! — BCRpn- 
lajia M-CB MoTHMepx. — H^h cnaTB, Feepn! 3aBTpa th ^ojmewh 
paeo BcraTB na paCory. 

— Hah cnaTB... Ho a bíaí» eme ne ysunajii! 

— TaRB H óy^yTB háh Te6a totobetb BTopoft yaHHi^! — cRa- 
saji PaqapA^, bxoaa. — CTynaft, crynaft bx cbok) ROMHaTy! 

— fl He HaMipeHB cjymaTBca tbohxb npHRasaHÍfi! — OTBiqajii 
FenpH HarjiuiiB tohom%. 

— He HaM^peHB cJiymaTBca? — nepecnpocHJii PiiiapAi.. Bi 
rojoc^ ero nooJiumajiHCB TaRÍa rposnua hotu h wb rjiaHaxi. f^rasrx- 
Hy^TB TaRofi sJíOBŠo^ifi oroHeRi, TTO FeHpH cefi^acB se no^^ujd^ca 
Ha Hors B, maTaflCb, nonie;i'B h3i> ROMoaTEi. CjruniHO 6u.io, ixaRt 
owh Tflsejio ocrynajica, BBÓBpaacb no jiíícthhi^í. 



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ABMOCB. 227 



PflHapAi^ HMŠii o6£iRHOBeHÍe n bi apasAHo^HEie ;(he ecTasaTB 
Tasí se paHo, saBi h bi Úyjiaví. 

— Tíjo, — rOBOpHM OH^, — AOJiSHO 6bitb paÓoai^ qejiOB4qecBO& 
BOM. CeuB qacoBx cea coBepmeHHO AOcraxo^HO aja OT;(£ixa. 

Ha cj6AyH)iiii& A^HB OHI noAHflJCfl, Rasi h o6£iBHOBeHHO, bi 
flo.iOBHH^ BOCbMoro. M-CB MoTRMepi, paAH npa3AHHBa, nosBOJinjia 
ce&b npoBecTH .iHmeifi qacoR^ wb nocrejiH. Feepu BumejTL tojii>bo 
iTB saBTpaBy; hto »e BacaeTca Ajhcu, to oea Bcer^a tfojia ro* 
TOBa nociT^AHefi. 

POTapAi» saHEiMaji BOMHaTy, BuxOAHBmyio OBeaME na yjieťiy. 
OócraHOBBa ea HHq'6M^ ne OTjnqaJiacb ovb o6iiBHOBeHHofi oócra- 
HOBBH BBapTHpi Óojihe HJíir Meete saiBHTO^HEixi o6e3ae?eHH£ixi 

Bce OTJHqaaocB qecTOTOft h coAepaaJOCb fb (JjiecrameM^ no- 
pa^R^^ HO Ha BceiTB jiesaii oxne^aTOBi 6aHa;iBH0CTii h M^n^aH* 
CKaro tíesBBycifl. 

3epRajio vb sojo^enHxi paMaxi; tocu, crpijiKa Boxopaxi no- 
sasEJBajia Bce oahh^ h toti se ^acB; BopsHHBa cb bocbobeimb 
ABÍTaiíH, HaBpuTafl cxeBJíflHHBiiifB BOJinaBOMi; Bonepi cb apbhmh, 
ajflnoBaTEiHH i^BiTaHn. nepeA'B T&etTKnwh AHBanoMB ctojii h na 
HeiTB H^BOJiBBO RHHrB BB (5oraTEix'B nepenjieTax'B. 

Ha cťkni Bvicbjí% niBefii^apcBifi nefi3asi> n neoÓEiBHOBeHHO 
nacMypHUMi BOJiopHTOiťB, nopTpeTB FapHÓaJiBAH h 6ojihmsisi xpoMO- 
JiHTorpa^ifl, BupBaHHaa, o^cehaho, hbi BaBoro-HH6yAB hjuiioctph- 
poBannaro acypnajia. 

Bi niBa^y sa CTeBjraMH bhahí^ihcb BopemBH bhrpb. 9to ÓBija 
^HÓJiioreBa PnqapAa, jih^^ho hm^b co6paHHafl. Fobopatb: csasa, n 
rtiTB TH BOAHfflBca, H fl CBaaty Te6*, bto tbi TasoBx; cb nenenB- 
niHicB npaBOMi mósho nepe4)pa3HpoBaTB axy noroBopsy bi tom'b 
CMucjri, qTO o qejiOBi^Bi mosho cyaetb no BHHrairB, BOTopufl owh 

^TaeTB. Rpa&Hifl MH'&HÍa PH^apAa HeCOMH^HHO pyBOBOAHJIH HMT» 
npn BUtíop^ BH0PB. 

TyTB 6hiJíB co^HEenifl, pascMaTpEBaBmifl peJiErío3Hue, hojiete- 
HecKie B coi;iajiBBHe Bonpocu cb MaTepiaaBcrBqecBofl tohbe spiEÍfl; 
cííMHHCEifl MaJiBTyca, Pofiepra OBesa b h-Scbojibbo tomob-b Bojb- 
'T^ pa crofl.iE Ha caMOiTB beabomi mšctí. HasoBei^i, TypB saxoAB- 
<iacb i^bias BOJJieBi^ÍH naM^^-^eTOBi b 6poniH)p'B cb Heo^uBEOBenno 
^MMCJiOBaTEiME 3ar;iaBÍflME B ne Měniče yABBETejiBHUMi coAepsa- 
HieMB Bi HEX-B TOJiBOBajrocB O TOM^B, ^TO caTaHBi HC cyn^ecTByeTi, 

16* 

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228 BftOTHHR^ EBPOnU. 

H qepTH— o^HHi MHO^; jOKasHBajiocb, ^TO HCTopifl TBOpeHÍfl, Haao- 
seHHafl Bi nepBOfi BHHri Mohcoa, crapafl CRaasa, ^to npoHSBO- 
;^HTB Ha CBŠTB A^Tcft — ne^EJibHafl neoÓxoAHMOCTb, hto ■íctb toba- 
AUHy HeAOCTottHO i^HBHJHSOBaHHaro qeJiOBi^Ba, ^to ecJiH pasjosBT^ 
TpyA^B Ha Bcix^B ^jieHOFB oĎn^ecTBa nopoBHj, to BaaiAOMy npn- 
j^eTCfl paÓOTaTb qacB n 37 MHHyTb bi> AeHb, hh ceKyHAOfi Óo^ibmef 

Bl BOHI^'1 BOHI^OBl O&bUmSJlOChy HTO TOJIbKO SaiI^HTHHBH BUme- 

BSJíoseHHuxi npnHi^HnoBi^ Moryrb oCaoBHib BupoAHBmeecfl ^ejo* 
BŽHecTBO, y^peAHTb fla ^eujrb i^apciBO npaBAu h CA^aTb Bctxi^ 

CWCTJIUBblMH. 

PHqapA'b Cb Majiuxi Ji'kTb sa^HTUBajicfl Bd^irb dTHMi. JiHTe- 
paTypa bi ea BejiBKBxi npeAcraBHTejiflxi, nodsifl, Hcxopifl ne HBTe- 
pecOBajiB ero. IIo bthmx padH0BajiH6epHbiM^ TpaBTaTaMi> mosho 
cyAHTb, BaBOBi ójAfiTb bíki noJiHaro TopsecTBa ifaTepiajHCTHqe- 
cBBxi Hxeft, Kor^a ncRyccTBo yrpaTETb cboh H^aajm^ 6u6msi cra- 

HCTl TOJIbEO CJiySHTb TdMOH) Jl,M H)MOpBCTHqeCBHXl» HSAaHÍfi H 

nieBcnHpa iipoBOsoacArb peaBi^ionepoMi. B% sto yxpo PuHapA'B 
6uji'b sanarb nperoTOBJíeHieMi p&qH, KOTopyio HaHŽpeBajicfl cfiasaTs 
Ha MHTBHPfe Bi cjli^yion^ee BOCBpeceHbe. B^pyrB y ABepefi nocry- 
^9^% no^Ta^bOHi^. Pu^apAi* Bumejii, h totl Bpyqajix eHy oHCbMO. 
ÁApecb óujii HanHcani HesnaBOMbiMii eify no^epROMi. Ohi MamH- 
HajibHO pacne^aiajiii naBerb. ^po6%saB^ nucbMO, ohi Bce npoAOJ* 
maJix CBA'ifeTb cornyBniHCb, b AOiiro bsvjisiat> ero 6e3i^'bjibHO 6po* 
AHJTb no pasÓpocaHHbíM^b na ctoji^ ÓyMaraMX. Kasajiocb. oh^b ne 
Morb coópaxb cbohxi Mucjiefi — xaBi nopasEja ero HeomHAanflaa 
HOBOCTb Ilepe^BTaBi en;e HHCbMO, oni sanycTBJx najibiiEi bi> <5o- 
poAy H norpy3Hjcfl bi rjiyÓOBoe pasAyMbe. 

M-cb MoTHMepb BBHJiacb SBaTb ero bi> 3aBTpaBy, cocTOflBmeMy 
H37> cejieABH, Macjia h Bo^e. 

— Th nojiyiHJix EHCbiío? — cnpocHjia OHa y cuna, BorAa oh» 
CHA'ÍJra sa CTOJiOMi bi> Byxni^. 

Pa^apA^b CA^ajiii yTBepAHiejibHEifi snaBi, crapaTejibHO buóh- 

pafl puCbB BOCTO^BH. 

BomejTb Fenpe h saHBJCb CBoe mžcto, yspaABofi BsrJCBHyBb aa 
típaia, HO TOTb ne oópaxHjrb na nero HBBaBoro BEHManifl h npo* 
A0Jrsaji'b MOJiw saBTpaBaib. 

RorAa saBTpaBi 6uzi» BOH^eai^ PB^apAi* CBasajrb Maiepu: 

— Fa^ y Bací pacHHcaHie no'l3AOBi, Boropoe a npHHecb na 

AHflXl? 

— IIoamH wb amHBŠ, Bi> CTOJii,— OTB^^ajia m-ci MoxHMepB^ 
PasrjiflAbiBafl pacnHcanie, PHqapA^ saaBHJii: 

— SL AO-iHeni yixaTb na A^Hb mjib na Asa. 



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ASMDCB. 229 

3aTÍMi owhy nocBHCTUBafl, noAHfl.icfl bi cboh) BOMeaTy. Oaí^b- 
mifCb Bi» HOBoe njaTbe, ohi jmejvh. 

TaKi» saKi 0H% ne aMsiJicsi xo Beqepa cjii^j^yioiiiaro aha, to 
Bcb ptniHJiH, qTo oh% ornpaBRjiCfl HCRaTb ce&b mÍcto. AjHca cb 
ifaTepbH) nEJH qafi bi ByxHŠ, RorAa PHqapA'B BepHyjcfl. 

— & BHay no TBoeny JHity, — CKasajia Becejio MOJiOAafl a*- 
^ymsa, — tto th Hamejii paĎoxy. 

— Bb caMOM^ a^jtí? — cnpoOTJia MaxB. 

— PasyirteTca, h Koe-^o Óojrbe HaAcanoe BAOÓaBOKi. 

— B^ AotípHfl lacL. Fa* »e aio? 

— JI,OBOJrBHO AMBRO OTL JIoHAOHa. Hajieflie-Ka h mh* %- 
flic^Ky, MaMá. Fa* Feepn, ne snaeTe? 

— Yineji^; no o6uKHOBeHÍK). 

— OTqero th nBemB ^aft vh nwHnKi? — cnpocHj^ oht* cecTpy, 

— Axi, ecjHÓu TH sHSjfB, KaB% a cn'6niy! — OTB^^aja Ta. — 
Eucrpo AoaHBi cbok> qaniBy, ona BCRoqHjia h HanpaBHJiacB r'b 
;(BepH. M-(rB MoTHMep'B MOJi^a crajia CHHMaTB CRRTepTB co crojia. 
KorAa Bce 6ujio y6paH0, PHqapA'B nonpocHJix -ee bbatb pa6oTy n 
noAHflTBca Ri Heny. 

— Met HysHO noroBopHTB ct saMH, — CRasaji^ ohi. — Bh 
j^aBHO yse ee nojiy?a.iH h3bíctí& otb a^Ah? 

— rio^eMy th kena o nearB cnpamHBaemB? 

— Ohi yMepi. 

M-ci MoTHMop^ B3AporHyjia h ycrasajia na eero riasa otb 

— JI,aBHO BH OTB HCFO Hc nojyíajiii nnceiTB? — hobtopeji-b bo- 
upocB Pn^apA^. 

— Bi nocjriAHÍft pasx ohi iracajrB TBoeny noRO&HOHy oriíy 
38 ABa roAa ao namefi CBaAB^H. IIotoitb a HHRorAa h ho cjiuxajia 

o HeifB. 

— HoTapiycB mh4 roBopMi, qTO ahah SHajrx bc4 otícroaTeJiB- 
ersa Hamefi shbhh. 

— HorapiycB? 

— R Bce Baiix pascRasy noApoÓHO. JI,aAa ynepi, ne ocra- 
BHB^ BaBtn^aflia. Bca HeABHSHMaa cotfcTBeHHOCTB noerynHTB bi 
MOH pyRB; nsib RanaTajia, pasHaro CRap6a h npo^^efi abhshmocth^ 
iioJiy^arB cbok> ^^acTB h Fenpe cb AjHCofi. 9to se Racaerca BacB, 
Mhuk, TO BH ee 6yAeTe bi tocjtí gacjrlAHHROBi. 

PHqapA'B rOBOpiíJIX 9T0 CB paAOCTHHM^ BHAOITB, HO M-CB MO" 

THiiepi, noBBAHMOMy, ne pasA^Jiajia ero qyBCTBi. Ona (tb TpeBorofl 
cjymajia ero, cjioschbi pyRH h ycrpeMHBi na nero pacrepaHHHft 
BsrjaA^B. 



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230 BfiCTHHSl EBPOniL 

— HeABHSBMafl coÓCTBeHHocTb? — noBTopiua OHa. 

— HoTapiyci Aajix mhí bcí HysHUH paaifCHeHÍa eac^erb 
Bacj^ACTBa. y AflAH 6wio XBa AOMa bi BejubBBRi n, Rpoifi xoro, 
otfmupHoe noiricTBe BaH.iefi ch saMKOMX. H31 saMRa en^e h& 
BBiixaJiH, nodTouy a ne Mon ocmotp^tb ero. ?to aie Racaercfl 
RanHiajia, — npoAOJikajii PH^apA'B, nepejiHcruBafl cboh) 3anBCHyH> 

KHHSRy, — TO OBI Bl paSJHHHUXX SeJl^HOAOpOSHUXl aRI^iflXl H 

tfyiiaraxi... Ari^íh ÓeibBHRCRexi RaMeHHoyrojibHiixi Ronefi, pas- 
BUTb sarpaHH^HBixi ROMnaHÍfi, Bcero... 

— JI,0B0JiBH0, PB^apA*!^, nepecraHb! — CRasaJia m-ci MoTHMepx. 
Oaa saAuxajiacB.— 3to cjihiobomi ÓojBinoe 6oraTCTBO... Tanofi Se- 
řadí He Morb ynepexb 6em, saB^maHia, — a ehrofab ne noB^pio^ 
dTOMy, PHqapA^, HBRorAa! 

MOJOAOfi qeJlOB^Rl BHAHMO tíUJIl SSBOJIHOBaHX BOCRJHItaHÍeM'b^ 

Maiepn. Ob BepBHuifb citixoirb obi OTB^^ajrb: 

— Bu, ROHeHHO, coBepmeHHO cbo(5oahu, Mana, b^pbtb hje 
HO B^pHTb MoH rjiaBa h yniH ee mofjih moha oÓManyrb. Bi CHjy 
RaRHrb-TO CBOHXi» coo6pa2seHÍ&, ao Roxopuxi mbí bítl poBHa 
HBRaRoro flibjíhj M-pi MoTHMepx cserb CBoe saB^n^aBÍe, a eoBara 
He HanHcaix. Oe^b CRoponocrasHO yMepb vb i^epRBH vh BOCRpe- 
ceHbe yTpoMX. He CRasRH se a Bani RaRÍfl-HH6yAb pascRasuBaio! 

— Axi, 8T0 Bce TaRi HeoaHAaHHo! — BiDCRJHRnyja m-cb Mo-, 
THMepb: — fl eme nenero h cootípasHib xoporaenbRo ne Mory. Bfbvh^ 
TjTb qio-TO ne laRx, — npoAOJjRajra ona nocaš MBHyTHaro pas- 
AyMba: — canoe (Jojbrnee owh Morx nawb ocraBHTb H*CR0JibR0 corb^ 
4>yBT0Bi... KaRx xoHemb, a xyrb hto-to nejaAHo! Hira, a co- 
Bcim fle paAa BTony BacJiiACTBy, cobc^mx ae paAa! 

— EcsH BEi Be paAu BacjnÍACTBy, Mana, to ht^ »e Bacb 
nocai BToro MOiRerb oÓpaAOBaTb, qoprb notíepn! Bu ÓonTecb, qxo- 
JH, sa ifesa? BoHTecb, ^to a eb paAOCTH aa^sy nbaflCTBOBaTb b 
HOTaTb? RaseTca, bu sa-OAHO cb BamaiiH BparaMH Ay^A^To, nro 
ne^OB^Ri B3i> paOo^aro cocjiOBia BecnocoÓeai bh sa hto 6jaro- 
poAHoe! & ynoTpeÓJíK) BacJiÍACTBO RaRx cji^Ay^b, — bi btomi a rjy- 
ČoRO yCíiRAeH-b, — H B&b CRopo yBDABTi, qTO OBO nonajo bx xopo- 
nria pyRH. 

M-ci» MoTBiiepb MOJinajia. Oaa seaja, ?to wb cnopaxi (rb cu- 
BOMi BcerAa 6yAerb ooÓisAeHa. Rpoifb Toro, efi o^obb jierRo 6buo 
noA^HBHTbca Bi A&HBOMi ciyHai cuBy, TaR'b RaRi MaTepnacRaa 
ropAOCTb H jiioÓOBh Bi Heny noMorajia efi vb btomi. Ho Bce-TaRB 
ea aBTopaTOTb ocTBBajica BenoROietíHMuifb vb oasaxi PeqapAa, h 
CTOHjio efi naMopn^HTb ÓpoBB, ttoÓh sacTaBBTb ero saMOJi^aTb. ^to 
BacaoTca Feapa h Ajracu, to aaA'b bbmh, RaRi en^e aaA'b aeco- 



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AdMOCB. 231 

BepnieHHOJi'frrHHMH, ona coxpaHjua noJiHyio BjaciB, h ohh efi hobh- 
HoeajiHCB CesnpeBOCJiOBHO. Jl^aBHO yme Mes^y hhmh ee BOSHHRajio 

HHKaROft CCOpU. 

IIpBHaAJieaa no y&kRji.emíiwh kl KOHcepBaxHBHOMy jiarepH), 
osa HHRorAa ee npHAaBajia cepsesHaro sHaneHifl pa8pyaT]iTeoBHUM'& 
TeopiflMXy KOTopuMH yBJíeBajiai ea CTapmiS cub%. Ho oea ee npo- 
THBop^qHJia ony, xopomo aoHHHafl, tto nojiHTBRa OTBjeKaerb ero 
OTE KaóaROBi H ryjibóu Cb npiflxejiflMH. 

— HoTapiyc^ roBopHTB, — npoAOJisajTB Pa^apAi, — hto no cra- 
poMy, xenepB Hecyn^ecTByton^eMy, saBtn^kHiH) Hacji'ÍAHHBOBrB Bcero 
ero BMyn^ecTBa ^ojseai 6uji'b CA'|jiaTBCfl Erbnifi djiBAOHi. Ha ero 
o6fl3aHHOCT0 jiesuuo 6hi BEi^aBaiB naMi eseroAHyH) neHciio. Ho- 
TapiycB, Rasexcfl, AyMaerB, qxo a sojischi OTRasaiBca otb Hac9']&A- 
CTBa. Ohi cb HacrofiqHBOCTBK) Bce mhž erapajcfl srojiROBaTB, qio 
noBofiHBifi-A6 sejiajii ocraBHTB Bce HOJio^oMy 3jiBA0Hy. Ho Ham 
dTUMi nevěro CMyn^aiBca; pas^ c^acTBe noBepeyjiocB wh Hamy ero- 
poHy — HaAO nojiBsoBaxBCfl MHHyTO&. 

— Orqero tu hc xot&ii roBopHTB npn Amcb? 

— BHAHTe JH, fl AyMaH>, ao speMenH, hh FeHpH, hh Ajuca 
ne jífljusiuu saaTB, hto ohh óoraxEi. & 6ok>cb, sto BCspysHTB hm^b 
rojiOBy. ^a h BOo6n]^e He na^o 6ojiTaTB o6t> btomi. Ecjih A^^Bymna 
6oraTa, to sa neft yBUBaiOTCfl 6ojvbe pa^H ea npBAanaro, ^žitb pa^H 
Hea caafofi. FeHpH se o6edneqeHHOCTB Čobcími Mosexi nory^HTB. 
£oH)€B, CB HHiťB óy^eTB MHOFO xjOHorB. KoHe^HO, HysHO liwb esa* 
saxL o nojsy^eHÍH Hacji']&ACTBay Aa h cbpkítb 8to otb hhx^b hobos- 
MOSHO, xoTfl 6u noTOMy, qTO ne ocTaneMor se mu sa^^ shtb. 
He HaAo TOJBKO roBopsTB o pasM-bpaxi naď^ACisa. IlycTB Aase 

ohh MeHfl OAHOrO C^HTaiOrB HaCJltAHHROMl. KoHe^HO, kjuicb He- 

Hero tíyAerb TenepB toptotb b-b Marasani, — ona cxanerB noMoraTB 
BaiTB KB xosaftCTBŠ. A PeHpB, HOBaMicTb, nycTB ocraeicfl na tom'b 
xe H^cri. 6i» rojiOB^^ y MeHfl Macca ojianoBii; a hotoitb en;e noro- 
BopM) o HHXX CB saiiH noApo6HÍe. 

— Th xo^eniB nanaTB AJia naci. aoitb? — cnpocHJia m-cb Mo- 

THMepB. 

— JI ne Aynaio HaHHMaxB saBoe-HHÓyAB ocoÓenHoe pocRom- 
Hoe noH']&n;eHÍey ho ace se ne ocTaBaiBca se nani shtb bx 8Tot 
T&morb! S. ne xony nycRaTB hbijtb bi rjia3a cbohitb ÓoraTCTBom, 
HOy pa8yM'beTCfl, bca nama shshb xenepB no&AeTi na noeufi jiaA'B. 
Mwb Rasexcfl, bu HiťikeTe npaso OTAoxnyxB, Haná. Si nafiny 
AOiťL BB FpHHJiaHi HJH Bi PafiÓepH. Si yse Bce aio uo^bk) o^Ay- 
jfajrb. SaBipa b, b^poatho, oinpaBJíiocB b% l>ejBBHB'B. 

— Tu pascRasemB 060 BceMi dyLu% ne npaBAa jih? 



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232 B^CTHHRl EBPOniO^. 

— Jl^a, fl Kx HeS ceftiacx h OTnpaBJírocB, — OTwbnBjrb Phtopjtb, 
no;(HHMaflCi» ci irbcTa. 

íepeax MHHyry ohi Óujvb y»e na yjiHi;4. Ohi marB fb rjry- 
6oBoft daxyifqHBOCTH, CB en^e 6ojr]te, hšmi otfEiBHOseHHO, cocpe^o- 
TO^reHHUMi BEjífiwb. Ho npapoAi^ CBoefi CAepacaHHnfi n CBpuTHut, 
PHHapAi* "ju^bjTb TaHTB CBOH ^jBCTBa. Heo^iHAaHHoe c^acTbe ne no- 
Beprjio ero bx to BOsÓysAeeHoe cocroHHie, b^e saRoe npHXO^flTB vh 
TaBHXi cjiy^aflX'L dBcnaHCHBHUji naTypu. Ho bo bcaromi ciryqa^ 
vb HeifB npHÓasHJTOCb ÓJiaroAyniifl; owb nonyBCTBOBajTL cuHnaTÍH) ro 
Bceiiy HejsoB^qecROMy poj^y, h BCflBoe seiraele oÓJin^aTL BanaTajH* 
CTOBT* H He^o;^OBaHie na 9KC^JIyaTa^iI0 paCowro 'lejOBÍBa bx hbité 
Tenepb Ha spěna yjierjioci>, 6eitb MOserB, noTOMy, ^to owb caMi 
TenepB npHHaAJiesajii rx dTOiiy — e^e ctojib HeAftBHO HenaBucTHOMy 
wa Hero — RJiaccy ĎoraTKix-B co6cTBeHHBROBx. Ho hítb, oh-b aBHTca 
HCRjiioqeHieMi Hsi npaBBJía! Owh ynoTpeÓHTB CBoe 6oraTCTBO na 
^•fcia ÓJiaroTBopHTe-iBHOCTH, OHX npoTaHerB pyBy noMomn cbohitb 

ÓpaTBflM^B-paÓO^HlTB! O, RaBl OH'B npeSHpaeTB STllTh HaAMeHHUX*B 

apacTORpaioB-B h sjihhkixt* 6ypsya! TenepB eny npeAcraBjífleTCfl 
CJiyTOft noRasaiB ce6a. ^ocejsi ohi roBopiíJi-B tojibro Ky^Ri pa6o- 
^Hxx, FA-S-HHÓyAB vb RponieiHOft, aaRonTÍJioft aajit; TenepB rojoci^ 
ero pasAacTca cbišjio h cboCoaho, h. BceMy Mipy BOSBtcTHrB hobob 
yqeme! 

TaRi, HJH no^TH TaR-B, He^aii ohi, Ror^a, HaRoneitx, ony- 
THJicfl Bi TeMHOMi oepeyjíR'!, nepeA'B aomomi, rjiik SHJia 9MMa co 
CBOHMH cecTpaMH. Owb js,epnyjn> rojorojb^hri. JI,BepB eny OTBopajia 
caMa 3MMa. 

— Bbi npnmjiH yanaTB o sflopoBbi JKaHHu? — cnpocHJia ona, 
paAOCTHO yjiHÓaacB: — eft cero^Ha ropas^o Jiy^nie. 

— Hy, BOTB H OTJH^HO. Mory a boAth^ 

— PasyníeTca. 

— noroABTe, a Ban^B nocB^qy; y naCB TaRaa TCMHOTa h t6c- 
HOTa; ocTopoacHie, pa^H Bóra! 

Ha RasAofi njon^aAR^ Rpyrofi. rpasHoS jtj^cthhi^u noc^THTejia 
o6xsiBfíjn> ocoóufi 3anax'B. Tam necjio aiapenuMi jiyROMi, TyrB 
MORpuMi ÓtjBeMi, eníe BBinie — TepneHTHHOirB. Bi naTOMX OTaK* 
xoTa Toaie BOSAyxi Óujii* aapaseni BceBOSMOHLHUHH MÍasMaMH, ho 
Bce-TaRH jier^e ABiniajiocB. Ohb bohuth bi ROMHaTy, cjiysEBmyH) 
BirlcTi H cnaJBHofi, h ctojioboS, h paóOHHirB RaÓHHeTOMx. Ho- 
HaTHO, npH TaRoifB ycaOBÍH ee TpyAHO Cbijio coaepjRaTB bi no- 
pa^Ri. Bi yrjy CToajia RposaTb, — na nefl cnajío ABoe MajieHBRHxi 
A^Tefi; y ORHa — niBefiHaa MamHHa, saBa^eHHaa úijihewi; no cpeAHH'6 



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;í9moct. 233 

eroji, Ha Roropoifb jresaji'B xjiiů^h n Macjio; Ha hotojbí ^epnuft 
KpyrB o(k)3Ha^aj7» m^I^cto, vjííb BHdjia Jiaiina. 

Crapinafl cecrpa 3mmii, RaTepHHa, OB^OB^Binafl roAi TOMy Ha- 
3a;^x, euifi MOJiOAaa «eHii;HHa, ocraBinaflCfl noci^ Myoa cb abyma 
BpomeHHEiMH A'^TBMB, pacxasHBajia Bsa^i* h BnepeA'B no BOMHaTl. 
Efl 6jiÍAHoe, ne^BJíBHoe jínufl hochjo oxneiaTOKE tfescoHHUx^ ho- 
^ei H yTOMJieHÍfl orb HenocHJiBHoS pa6oTu. 

— 3Ta KOMHaxa nacToamift CBBHoft xjiiwb, — CKasaJia OHa. — 
XoTB 6u CKOJBKO-HHCyAB HOnpHÓpaTB ee!! %o 9to, Ky;^a A*Bajica 
<rryjrB?.. He roBopnie rpoMKO, noatajiyflcra, a to a*th apocnyrcfl. 
y Bepra CojrHTB yxo, h ona Kpa^ajaia cb paHHflro yipa. Ona h 
SSaHHa He A&K>rB HaMi hh MHHyru hoboji. Mosho yÓpaTB co 
aoAíLy 3iáMa? 

— ^TO-a^ TU caMa-TO HH^ero ne *Jia? 

— Mh* cobcími ne xoqeTca. K nofl^y BsrjiaHyTB na ďiaHHy. 
GeMeficTBO PH^apAa HEBor^a ne HCHBrruBajio Tofi Bpa&Hefi hh- 

n^eru, Bor^a qejiOB^Bi yse nepecraerB ^lyiíaTB o ^íhctotí^ h nopsAR^ 
ii CTH^HTBCfl HepflmjiHBOCTH. HsBtcTHafl Hopfl^iio^iHOCTB B npex^e 

^SUa Bl> BpOBH MOTHMepOBl, H PHqapA'B CB HOBOJIBHBnťB ^yBCTBOMl 

raAJTOBOCTH ocMaTpHBajii dTO ne^fajiBHoe yÓ^HH^e. Ohi o^enb p^ako 
H ne Baxojro saxo^BJíi bi duwk. 

— Bh 6u saTOnejH, — CRaaaji-B oht». 

— RaBfHH^B TOHHTca Bi Apyrofl BOMHaT^. Mu ero tojibbo h 
TonmrB. 

— Hey»eJiH »e bu h BymanBO TaMx fotobeto? 

— EymaHBe? — nepecnpocHJia 9MMa: — BpoMÍ Bapenaro sapTO- 
4^fl, MU HH^ero HO MOSOMX ce6^ hosbojhtb. 

B% BTy MHHyTy AsepB coc^AHeS BOMHaTu OTBopBJíacB, H KaTe- 
pima, BucynyBumCB, CA'&aajia 3Mirb snavB, o^obhaho yeiOBjíennufi, 
JíesAy HHMH. Riiifa Baqnyjia rojoBoft b^b snaBi cor;iacifl. 3aTÍirB, 
yfipaBi HocyAy na nojiBy, ona no^oniJia BiPflqapAy h, aob^p^ebo 
onepmHCB na ero nje^o, CBasajia: 

— B']&AHafl KaTepHHa cobcžm^b saifyqiiJiacB. Eft npHXOAHTca ne 
cnaTb noTTH bch) ho^b HanpojierB. JI.Íth ee HSBOAflrB. GeroAHfl 
yrpoiTB ona HOCHJia A^B^peAa fb rocnoTaJiB. JI^OBTopi npoHHcajii 
KaRyio-To MHBCTypy, — h saóujia, npaBO, BawB ea nasBanie. Ho taí 
se HaiťB HOBynaTB TaBoe Aoporoe JieBapcTBO: najieHBBafl ctbjuí- 
flonsa — raHjuHHrB. V MajieHbBaro ne npopfauBaiOTca sj6u otl 
BcromfiEiB. 

— Bce oĎoflACTCfl! TenepB Bce uoŘfi,eTh Haa^e! — npoH3HecB 
ycnoBaHBaion^HMi tohom'b PuqapA^B, otiniiMaa sa Tajiiio ^'^ByniBy, 
THxo onycTHBnTyK>ca bo3ji% Hero na bojiíhh. 



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234 B«CTHHK% EBPOmi. 

— Si TOKx ycTMa, — npomeirrajia <SÍAHa»Ba: — ceroxHfl mh4 
npHmjocB CA^aiB js^a, laBHXi a-khhhuxi BOHi^a... & 6oh)cb, hto 
He 6yA7 bi cocroamH chaítb aiy ho^b orojio SSahhu, a Éaie* 
pHHa eiE^e 6ojiBine Moero ycrajia. 

Ofla roBopujia axo Pn^ap^y ne sari^Mi, hto^ei npo6ywTB fb 
HeMi CHifnaiiH) bi ce6i, a npocTO qroóu hsjihtb HaBonHBmeecfl 
ropě. Oaa cjieniBOM^ npHBUBJna jvl bí^hoS ycrajiocTH, ^toÓbi dTO 
OjKBO Morjio BusBaTB y Hefl sajo6y. BtAHaa dMiia ÓKUia cnacrjiHBa 
tíitb, hto iforjia npEsaiBca bx cep^i^y ^ejiOBŠBa, j[io6obb bi boto- 
pony cocraBJífljia bch) pa;(0CTB ea 2BH3hh. Jljpyroft 6bi na Hteri^ 
PnqapAa ne yxepsajicfl, "itoóbi ho noi^&iOBaTB aiy xopomeHBRyio 
rojiOBBy CB TeMHHHH mejiBOBHCTiaMH BOJiocaMH, npHmaBinyiocfl b^b 
Heny. Ho PenapA^ xyMajrB bx 8Ty MHHyTy o caMHň nposanqe- 
CBHX'L Ben^axi. B^b ^pyroe Bpeiifl^ ciBíma sajoÓBi C^ahož iiojioxoft 
A'£ByniBH, OHI no^yBCTBOBani 6u shboo HeroAOBame npoTHB'B sroH- 
CTOBi-xosfleBi, nopaÓon^aioii^HX^ C^ahuxi paóo^ex^B, ho lenepB oh^ 
HaxoAHJicfl Bi cjwmBOifB ójaroAyniHOMx HacrpoeHÍH ajia Toro. 

— Ha BaraeMX uicrij 3MMa, — CBasajix OffB, — ji típocEs^B 6u 
paCory. 

— BpocHTB pa6oTy? — nepecnpocHJia A^BymBa bx yAHBJieHÍH: 
— TO-ecTB, m:b bu bthitb xotutc CBasaiB? 

— SI cepBesHO roBopio Baux. Y Bací TorAa HafiAOTca BpeMfl^ 
^TOÓEi yxasHBaTB sa SBLanHofi, Aft ^ OTAOXHyTB Bani mo2Bho 6yAerB. 
H HO Jiy^me jih BairB nepeópaiBCH bbi 8Toro CBBepnaro noM^^e- 
HÍfl Bi 6oJíie npocTopHoe, taž Óbe ne 6bl90 hh ajxoth, hh cu- 

POCTH? 

— SI ne noHHMaio, PanapA^, Tr6 bh 8to xaBoe roBopaie? 

— Bj&AB BaiTB 6u xoT&iocB nosHTB Bx AepeBHi^? KaxepHHa Ch 
SBbaHHOfi Moryii ocraTbCfl vb JIohaohí h saHniB aomhb^ bi pOA^ 
Toro, Bi BaBOMi MEi TenepB SHBeM^B, Bu6paTB ce6'6 abí, ipe BOMHaxBi 
no BBycy... Mu reaepB cboóoahbt nocejHitcfl Tam, ta^ HaiTB oo- 
HpaBHTCfl. Si saBTpa OTnpaBj[K)CB wb oaho hsx cpeAHBXi rpaj^CTBx — 
Taiii y Hena a"^^* Taní a yse HaMÍTHJix oaho noM']^iAeHÍe; m. 
ynipeHi, oho h BaMi noHpaBHTCfl. HpaBAa, oho, nox^ajiyfi, ciHniBoiťB 
BCJiHBO AJifl HacB ABOHXx — ceííHaAi^aTB hjh ABaAAaTB BOMHarB. npH 
HeMX npeBpacHBi& caA'B cb ÓojiBmHMH, CTapmiH a^P^bb^mh. 

3MMa npHHysAeHHO yjuÓHyjiacB. UlpBa BasajacB efi oneHB 
ropBBofi. Ona MOrjia npeAcraBHTB ceó*! TaBofi aobtb; ona qHTajia 
Bi eseHeA'&iBHO]rB sypnaji*! onncanifl hoaoóhuxi pocBomHUX'B 
noMŠn^eHifi, taí shtb, aojisho 6bitb, TaBi cjiaABO, BaBi wb paio. 

— Si roBopK) coBepmeHHO cepbesno, 3MHa. BorB caABTe na CTyjx, 
h fl BaMi Bce pascBasy. MoserB 6utb, xorAa bbe noB^pnTe mhí. 



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AdMOCi. 235 

n OHI paBCBasajii noApoÓHO o HeosHAaBHOirB nojiy^eHin ea- 
CJ^ACTBa, H BaBOŘ OHI Tenepb 6ora^i>. 

— Bce 8T0 ÓyjífiTb opanaAJieataTB HaMi ci BaMH, — sasoH- 

HHJTB OH^. 

HafijifOAajiH Bu BorAa-HH6yAB sa pe6eHB0H^, ROTopoMy pascBasu- 
BaiDTi> BOJime^HyK) csasBy? FjiasRH ero Ma^o-no-ifajiy saropaiOTCfl 
BOCToproMi, porB pacBpurB, Bce jih^hbo ocBŠniaeTCfl pa^ocTHuiii 
jua(5onuTCTBOMi. 

To^HO cb xaBHMii BHAOMX cjiymajia dMiia pascBasi PH^ap^a. 
E§ Basajocb, mto ona bhahtb cohi. B^pyn ona yeiumajia njia^i 
peÓeHBa wb coc^AHeft BOMHaiš. Ona BCBoqnjia h xoT*&ia tftisaTB 
Bi neMy, ho cefiqacB se e&aa ohatb. 

— Hy, saBi* ae BaMX Baa;eTca — nocejHXBca HaMi bx AepeBffl? 
— cnpocHJix PH^apAi* canoAOBOJiBHO. 

— fl, npaBO, ne SHaio... £L nojioatHTejiBHO ne bx coctosbíh co- 
o6pasaTB TenepB! — OTB^^aja Ó^AHaa A'i^ByioBa. 

— Dosajyft, bh Tasi^ se ifajio paABi xoMy, qxo a nojiywji^ 

HaCJI'6ACTB0, BaBl H MOfl MaTB? 

djiiia BSApornyjia, ho MOJ^ajia. 

— B-B caMOMi jiibjrbj — npoAOJiaaji-B PEHapAi*, — ona, ysnani 
O ToiTB, HTO HaifB CB Hetfa ynajio óoraxcrBO, ne naniJia HHqero 
wiyqjDDe, sasi HaqaxB B3AuxaTB h sajiOBaiBCA hobšaomo na ?Tb, — ^ecT- 
Hoe CjIObo! y HOfl Aypnufl npeA^yBCTBÍfl; no ea aiOBaMi», ona 6oHTCfl 
BToro Hacii']&ACTBa. 3. sejiaio, qToÓu ao BpeMeHH AjiHca h FenpE 
SHEJiH BaB'B MOXHO iíei3!ke O BejiH^HH^ Hamero cocroflHÍfl. Jly^me 
Beero, ecinÓBi ao bxi coBepmeHHOjriTifl ohh AynajiH, ^to nojiyqoHHoe 
Hacfl^ACTBo BecBMa HesHa^HTeJBHoe h tojbbo-hto MoserB naiTB ao- 

CCaBHTB HliBOTOpyH) OÓeSHeHeHHOCTB. IIOdTOMy fl BaCB ytf^AHTaiBHO 

npomy, diiMa, He roBopexe hmi> HHqero. IIpHBHafiTecB,— b^Ab BaMi 
HHBorAa H Bi rojiOBy ne npnxoAHJio, hto bbi ÓyAexe senoH) 6ora- 
laro qejOB^Ba h craHere BasHott AaMOft! £L xenepB »e HafiMy a-sa 
MaxepH noM^bn^eHÍe nojiy^me h nonpocTopH'£e; bu se n cecrpaMH 
noRa nepe^Aere bi Hame lenepeniHee noMŠn^eHic. He SHaio, cbojibbo 
BpeMeHH HaAO djiBAOHaiťB, ^toÓu BuÓpaxBCfl hs^ BaHJieficBaro 8&HBa, 
HO, RorAa OHH BU']&AyTi, HHqxo HaMi ne BOcnpenflxcxByexT> sanaxB hxi 
Mbcro. Bh HH^ero npoxHB^ axoro ne HMiexe,— ne npaBAa jih, dMica? 

— Aa, Aa, BOHe^Ho! Bose iiofi, bxo cohi! 3xo coBepmeHHufi 
eoH'B! 

— BtpoaxHO, en^e mhofo xjiohoxi npoACxoHxi. 06cxaH0BBa, bo- 
HeHHO, npHHaA^esHxx d^BAonaMi, h ohh yBOsyxi ee cb co6oio, xaBi 
vto eme npHAexca BynHXB MedejB. 

— MosHO MHÍ ÓyAexi pascBasaxB Bce cecxpairi? 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



236 BI&CTBtHB^ EBPOim. 

— Bh TEBi HifB CBaKHTe: PanapAt nojyiHjii bx naciriACTBO 
jifiwb H He(5ojiBinofi RanHiaji, n 6ojri»nie ne o ^ewb pacnpocrpa- 
HflTBCfl. Si 6aM'B ocraBjíK) 6aHR0Bufi ÓHJierB na nepBue pacxojtu. 
TenepB bu Mosere BUBHHyTB 3a ORomRO mBefiHyio MamHHy. J(,o- 
BOJiBHO noMy^MHCb — fle rpix-B h OTAOXHyrB! H ^bjiEjio <3S.aHHy 
nocraBHMi ea Hora! Hy, noAHxe, pascRasExe efi. 

— " fl He 3Haio, Pbtopa*... 9th ^eHBrH... 

— MeHfl CHa6AHJi'B AeHbraMH HOiapiycB wb BH^y HacJiiACTBa. 
He ÓesnoRofiTecB. O^HaRO, yse nos^HO, h a AOJiaceH'B hath. fl en^e 
HanHffly BaíTB npea^e Boaspamenw. — OffB npOMHyjTB eft pyRy, ho 
OHa Mo;i7a npHnoAHfljacB h o5Hfljia ero cb híshoctbk), roBopHBmeft 
tfojr&e, "rbwh ona Mor.ia Óu BBipaBHTB cJiOBaMH. 

— Tki pa^a, 9MMa, He npaB^a m? 

— O^eHB pa^a, mmuH, — sa xeCa paw. 

— Hy, Aa H 8a cetfa, a ayMaio. 

— }l HHRorAa ne MeqTajia o (JoraTCTBi; Ch Měna xobo^bho, 
ecJiH TBi tíyxeniB mohmi Myseiix. 

Ona roBopHJia npaBAy. 



VI. 

Ha cji'&AyH)iiii& AeHB, bx OAHHHaAi^aTB nacoBi yipa. PH^apA'B 
CToaji^B y ABepefi Aona, vjíjb npoxHBajTB M-px ydcrjieRi, pe;(aRTop^ 
coiíiajiiiCTH^ecRaro opraná. Oht* npenajix PnqapAa vb cbocitb Ra6H- 
hctí — 6oiiBrao&, 6oraTO yÓpaHHofl ROMHart, ORHa Roropoft bbixo- 
AHJie Ha jryaafiRy. Xora achb croajrB Tenjiii& h coJiHe^Hiift, b'b 
KaMHHŠ A-va ypaBHenia TCMnepaTypu rop6jrB apRÍfi ofohb. Sanax-B 
;(opororo Ta6aRy cifiniHBajica cb sanaxoMi ca^Bana, RoroptiMi 6ujfli 
o6HTa MeÓejiB. 

PH^apA^B Bi nepBufi pasi en;e Bcrynajii vh pocRoniHBie anapta- 
MeHTH M-pa YdCTJieRa. H'Ícrojibro xnefi TOMy nasa^^B oh'b CMyTHJca 
6u npa Bapik jiaReeBi bi JíHBpeaxi, BeiHRoAnHuxi ctsefi h ji^^ct- 
HBi^u, ycTjiaHHofi ROBpoiTB, B, BŠpoaTHO, He 6e3i BHyTpeHHaro Tpe- 
nexa BcrynHjii 6u wb RaÓsnerB xesanna; ho TenepB ohi ne ^ye- 
CTBOBajfB HHRaRoro crbcHema h c^ jjiaónoi ocMaxpHBaj^ yópan- 

CTBO nOROa, cb OpiaiHUM^B C03HaHÍeM'L, ?T0 H OWb MOSerB SEBeCTH 

TaRyK) se pocRomB bi CBoeiťB aohí, ecjiH noxejiaeTB. 

XosaHHi ;^pyaecRH nosajii eiiy pyRy. 9to Óhjtb xopomo cio- 
seHHufi H, o^^eBHAHO, HOJiBBOBaBmifica npeRpacHiiiTB sxopoBBeirE 
HejiOBŠRi, CB yHHEiMx H npiaTHUM<B jHi^oiTB, HeBOJiBHO pacno.iaraB- 
niHMi R% HeMy. Ohi hochji'b cbpuft 6apxaTHiifi nH^auiRi n Ty^iiH^ 



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A9M0c^., 237 

ooA^HTUfl irlxoifB; čaTucTOBua HaaseTii dotth SEEpusajiH bhcth 
ero pyBfB. jI^HHHue bojtocu h npHnoAsaxafl rojiOBa npHAasajiH eny 
B^sojBKO Me^TaTesbHuft BHA'B. Ohi 6jiarocRjiOHHO yjiu6ajicfl. 

£uy AOJro npHXOAHJOCB 6opoTBca Cb nysAofi, h renepB oh'& 
HacjmsAaJicfl AOCTHrHyTuifB (SjtarococrojiHieMi; ao xpeAi^aTH-iuTH 
líbí OHI 6hjica Eas^ puóa o6i JeA^B, xni^eTHo crapaflCB buřtb 
H3i TflrocTHaro nasoseHia, h, HaBOHei^^, c^acTBe eiiy yjiuÓHyjocB: 
ovB AOCTHPB óoraxcTBa H SHa^eHÍfl. Othuh']^ rpo8H£ifi npHspaKs 
HysAu He CM&ii nepecrynHTB nopora ero pocBomHaro AOMa. Bje- 
cnuipfi opaxopi h BUAaionuficfl necaTesB, nponBTaHHEifi coivajiH- 
CTHqecBHMH HAeflMH, M-pi> YdciJieB^, ecsH cyAHTB no Tony y Cb Ba- 
niTB asapoMi) 0Hi» san^mij^aj^ hx'b, oneBHAHO, bi ciy^a*]^ aaAOÓ- 
HOCTH, roTOBi 6u 6ujn> noHecTH na ceůb uocjiíactbíjí CBoero paspy- 
mHTejiBHaro yqeHÍJi. Ho, cb Apyrofi cropoHH, diOMy npoTHBop^HHJiH 
ero HSiíCBaHHue BBycu b jih)6obb bi pocBomH, bobco ne Hanona* 
H&Binie A^MOBpaTHqecByK) cypOBOCTB flpaBOBi h rpasA&HCByio ctoh- 
HecByio B03AepsaHH0CTL. 

PHqapAi MoTHMepi cb Ďojbiohvb aoiOMÓom aa^ajii pasro- 
roBopi H o6iflBHJii> M-py yacTjieBy, hto pascqHTUBaerB na ero 
(jarocBJíOHHyio noiion^B. 

— A! 3flaK) — Bu HacneTB axoS HenpiaTHOfi HCTopin? — CBasaji^B 
M-prB ydCTJieB^. Offby vb Ba?ecTBÍ peAaBTopa sypnajia, Bce ysna- 
B&jii> Heo6uBHOBeHHO 6ucTpo H lenepB npeAnojaraai, hto Pu9apA'B 
xonerb cooCn^HTB, BaBi eMy OTBasajH on MŠcra, ÓJiaroAapii ero 

QrítSHMl OÓJIHqHTeJBHUlťB p^HaMl. 

— RIsTby fl xo^y noroBopHTB Boe o homi ApyroMi! 

H PuqapA^B pascBasajii o HeosHAaHHOHX nojiyneHin HacjriACTBa 
H BaRHM^ OH^B cxajii TeoepB tíora^oiTB. Uo M^pi loro, BaBi oh^b 
pa^cBa3BIBaJ^, ^hsíobomía ii-pa YaciJieBa CTaHOBfuiacB Bce npHB^i- 

IHBte H fijiarOCBJOHH^. 

— Si 60K>CB, — BOCBJIHBHyJIl OH-B, CM&ICB, BOFAa PH^apA*]^ 

jMOiBi, — qxo BH, nojiy^HBTb 9X0 nacjiiACTBO, noBHHeie paAH nameft 
napíÍH. 

PuiapAi* aocafbmvijíiy hsjoshtb npHHHHU, sacraBHBmiH ero o6pa* 
THTBca Bi M-py yacTJieEy. 

— IIodBOJBxe mbí BaMi xenepB hsjiosutb k^o, — aa^ajii obi, — 
6ojtie BaxBoe, b cb Boi'opiiiirB a OABa-JiB cnpaBJíiocB Óesi* sameft 
noMon^B. HaA^iocB, bu 6e3^ TpyAa noB^pBxe mb*!, ecjB a csasy 
Bam, qro 6oraTCTB0 ae noBJÍserB Ba mob yĎisA^nia b ne ca'í^' 
Jaen. bs^b Meaa a^^aaro dBcnjiyaiaTopa b BroBCTa-co6cTfieBHBBa* 
7 MeBa ecTB BAea. yme paspaÓOTaBBaa wb o6n^BXi nepiaxi, ho 
npíMiHHTB ee r'b npaBTBB*]^, nafiiB noAxoAfliAifl cpeACXBa a^a ea 



_jj_ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



238 B%CTHHK% EBPOnU. 

ocyii^ecTBjreHifl — CB8T0fl sa^anefl mhí e^Ba-JiH cnpasHTbCfl o^HOMy. 
TyTT> ecTb saTpyAHeHia; noroMy-TO a xo^y otfcyAHTS Bce a4jio Ch 
BaMH H BOcnojbBOBaTBCfl BaniHME yBasaHÍaMH. 

Bi* dTo BpeMfl ABeps RaÓHHera OTBoptuiacb, h Bomjia MOJO^as 
seHn^BHa. 

— HsBUHHTe, — CKasajia ona, — a Aynajia, bii ojuhh^. 

— Haqero, boBabtc, mu TOJiRyeMi cb M-poMi MoTHiiepoM^... 
Bu, KaseTca, ysse SHaROMu cb mocA meHofi? 

JÍ,iScfTBHTeJihEO^ P0qapA'B ea noca'&AHeiifB mhthhpí oÓMioajicfl 

H']kCROJLBHHH 4>P&^^H ^ ^'^T" yaCTJfeRl, OÓU^iHOfi nodkTHTeJfB- 
HtH^eft BCkTb COT^iaJHCTH^eCRHXX MHTHHrOBl. 

— Si AyMaio, Bací He crfecoBTi ea npHcyTCTBÍe? Bu h npn 
Hefi Moaiere HBJíaraTb Bame npoeRTu; ona bi cocroaHÍH a^tb BairB 

A^BHUft COB^Tl. 

M-CB YBCTjeRx MOKHO 6hjio AaTB caMoe Úojihmee ^Ba^uaTB- 
qerupe ro^a; cnjiBHaa ópiOHeiRa cb crpornMi rpeqecRHHX npo^H- 
jiewh, oHa HocHJia RopoTRÍe bojiocu, TeMHUMH npaAaMH oÓpaiiJiaBuiie 
ea RpacHBoe, cepbesHoe jiui^o. 

Ofla Bcer^a BHHMaTeJbHO npHCJiyniHBajacB ri Toiáy, mh roso- 
pHJH OROJO Hea, npiiCTajibHO BCMaTpuBaacb fb JiHi^a roBopHBinHXT>, 
npH^eMX rjiasa ea RasajHCB eiAe óojibine h npisHHiíajiH h'ícro;ibko 
yAHBJíeHHoe BBipaaceBie. Ona ckia na HuseHBRoe RpecJio h, nocra* 
BHBi JioROTB Ha Ro.itHO, ouepjiacB noA6opoAROMi Ha pyRy. 

— UpoeRTB MOfi COCTOHTB Kb CJÍlJTOníeMl, — Ha^iaJTB MOTH- 

iiepi: — a xoiy ocHOBaiB na coaiajiHCXHqecRHxi na^ajiaxi a^Jio pas- 
paÓOTRH RaMeHHoyroJBHEixi Ronefi b'b Ban.iei, cocraBJíaioii^ee th- 
raHTCRoe npoMuniJieHHoe npeAnpiaxie. SI ynoTpeÓJK) Moe cocroanie 
Ha ycrpo&CTBO Heo^xoAPMEixi ManiHffB, HHsenepHBia paÓOTU h no* 
crpoňRy noMimeHÍft aja paóoiaxi, — Ropoqe roBopa, nocrapaiocb 
paspafíoTaTb bck) AOJiHHy, ^toóu Ha^axB 9Rcn;iyaTauÍH) ea ecre- 
CTBeHHuxi 6oraTCTBi» Bx B03M0SH0 HiHpoRHxi pa3]r6paxi. %o Ra- 
caeTca ao iíohx'b jiHqHuxii rparB, to a nocrapaiocB orpaHHqeTbCfl 
jiHmb caMUMi Heo5xoAHMUM%, TaRi ^To hx^b mosho TeaepB npoftTs 
MOJiqaHieBfB. SI sejiaH), qTo5u jiíbjío ROHxpojHpoBajiocB qjieHaMH 
paóoqaro coK)3a, kl ROTopoAiy a Tenepb npenaAJiesy. OiiHniROH'B 
AOJiro npeneÓperajH ^ npaeaHH pa6oqHXi; a aReJiaio, ^To6h^ ohh aBH- 
jHCb yqacTHHRaMH bi jííbJí^y RaRi paBHonpaBHue ROMnanbOHEi. KaR'B 
BU jiyMaeie — bosmoscho ocyn^ecTBHTB btotb n-iaHi? 
M-pi YBCTJieR-B yTBepAHTe;iBHO RaqHyjii rojiOBOft. 

— Moft ojiaH-B, — opoAOJiaaji'B PagapA^, — coBepmenHO otjih- 
qaerca otb bc^xi hohutori, CA'&^aHHUx'B ao chxi^ nopi coi^iajiH- 
craMu. flfl CETb nopi BcaRÍft xpyASiíca paAH CBOefi jfHqHofi BuroAn; 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



jUduocb. 239 

MU cocraBHMx ApysHyK) ceuBio, HJieHu Boiopofi craHyrB pa^oraxB 
Ha o6myv> nojBsy, h jí yB^peni, npH TaBOŘ nocTaHOBB'b jiíbih 
fiflóheMCSí (SesBOHe^HO 6bJihmux% pesyjibTaTOBi, n^wb BaBHXi aoctb- 
vfMTh TenepB ÓejibBHBCBÍe BanHiajiHCTH. Ho Moeny, ^^opMyja: Ban:- 
ABift AOJaseHX 6uTB BOSHarpas^eHi copa8M'&pHO csoeny Tpy^y, — 
OTSHJia CBoe speiiji. Moft HAeajii bhoS. H xo^y coBepmeHHO yes^TO- 
SHTb sapaÓOTHyK) njiaTy, oÓpasoBaTB pa6oqyH) o6ii][HHy, bi BOTopofi 
Bd^, BaBi nqe.iu B^b jjih% tíesBopucTHO or^aBajiE 6a CBoft TpyjKi 
H OAHHaBOBO co BC&MH nojibsOBajiHCB ero EUioAaMH. Jí^lwio nepeft- 
j^eTB, BaRi fl yse roBopHJTB, wb pyBH paÓoíHHBOBi, cocTaBjrflio- 
n^HXTi Hamy napTÍK>. Othuh^ ohh craHyrB en^e cojinAapHŠe. Mu 
óyxeMi Hd^aBaTb rasexu, ycrpoHifi 3aJiu jkM coCpanift, mu cra- 
HeM^ nponaraHABpoBaxB bi crpani Hamii H^^ee n 6opoTBCA cb 
BanHTajiHCTaMB paBHuarB opyadeirB. Rohc^ho, BHaqajii nsiWb npH- 
Aercfl npeojKOJi']&TB ne Majo TpyAHOcrefi. Bcji ÁHnifl noAHHMerca 

IipOTHB'B HaCB, HO 8 BŠpK), ITO, Wb BOHI^'b BOHIl^OB^B, MU BOCTOp- 

secTByeMB. TaBOBa i^^jib, BOTopyio a cocraBHJiii cetíi. H a yBipenx, 
HTO Hame a'6jo OBaserca bi lucjiqy pasi npoAyBTHBH'6e rpa6HTejiB* 
CROi pyTHHu eaipa^^ecTBa. 

— BpaBO, M-px MoTHMepi! — BCBpH^ajTB pe^aBTopi. — BanrB 
npoeBTi npeBOCxoxeni h cocraBHTB namy cjaBy. HasoHei^i-To 
npHHLia nopa ocyn^ecTBHTB na jsibjíi eaniE h^oh! Sí cb pa^ocTBio 
roTOBX BaMi noMoraTB bi aroMB cbatom^ njbjA. HyseHi HMeHHO 
TaBofi nejio^KT^j KSJťb bu, ^ojobíb^b npaBTHqecBift h SHaioii^ifi 
jiíkjío; Bu B^AB, s nojiaraio, npespacHO SHaere 8BciuiyaTaiíÍK) 
KaMeHHoyrojiBHUxi sajiesefi? 

— Bqepa fl roBopHJTB cb oahhmi EHacenepOMB, M-poMB Poa- 
MaHOMTi. Ohi boojhš poa^hi j^jííí namero ^budi. 3to y6tsAeHHufi 
coipa^iHCTb. Ohi cb sapoMi yxBaxHJiCfl sa mucjib hphmíhhtb Hama 
TeopÍH BTB npaBTHBŠ. 

— IIpeBpacHO. Bu nepeAaAHxe npeAnpiflTÍe bi pyBH BOMHTexa 
samero coiosa, bx ero nacrofln^eMB cocraB^, ne npaBia jh? Hjih, 
6uTB Moserx, bu sejiaere oÓpasoBaTB BOMHTerB bst, ApyrBxx jiehi>? 

— Hítb. HoBa nycTB ocraHercH Bce no crapoMy. IIpesAe 
Bcero HaAO cocraBHTB o6croflTejiBHyio CM^Ty n otfcyAHTB xopomenBBo 
^HHaHCOByK) eropoHy npeAnpiflTÚi. TenepB a AO^iseni ompaBaiBca 
B^ BejiBBHBx. Moft HOTapiycB cocraBHTB npoeBiTB. 

— Bu, (Seai comhíhííi, noceJiHTecB bx Banjie*? 

— Jíjň,, Bx dáMB-i. TloBaMŠCTB OHI en^e sanATB, ho BorAa 

Bu^Ay^-** 

— Bu snaeTe aiy naciB AnrjriH? — cnpocajix M-px VQctJievb 
CBOK) seny. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



240 B^CTHHR^ EBPOntl. 

Ta noA&flJia rojiOBj, B3;(0XHyja h CA&iajra OTpuitaTe.iBHuŘ SHaRi. 

— S HaAÍrocB, — cKasajix MoxHMepi, — hto KorAa a ycrpoioct 
Ha HOBOišTB Mtoš, Bu noHTflxe líeHfl nocin^eHÍeMi. ^ejrisHaa ao- 
pora npoxoAHTi o?eHb ójíhsko otb s^na. PoAMaei roBopux mhí, 
HTO MOSHO 6yAeTB 6effb ipyAa npoBecTH He6o;iBiiiyK) ÓOROByio bítbb 
orb CTaai^iH 9rBopTi» ao Baojiefl. Mu o6cyAHMi btotb BonpoeB hai 
HHTUHri wb cyÓCory. 

— HxaE^, Bu ÓyAeie vb JIohaohž bi> dioTh aotb? 

— JI,a, fl AOJseH^B CA&iaxB coo6nieHÍe kl HcJiHflrTOH']^. 

— B^ TaROMi cjiyqai^ ao cyÓCoTH. fl AynaK), noBaM^crb jtynine, 
qTOÓBi BamH njiaHu ocraBajiBCB bi ceRpeii? 

— Pasyiťi^cfl. Bfii BnoiH^ Moxere noJOSHTbCfl na iceHfl bs 

dTOM'B OTHOmeHÍE. 

PenapAi noAyHajii> npo ce6fl, ^xo santxRa vh sypnajii coiaaa 
o ero BeiHROAyniHuxi HaM']&peHÍflX'L EHneiiy ae noM^^majia 6u. Ohi 
He 6oflJica rjacHOcxH bi bxomi a^^; ero ocxaHaBJHBajo JieniB to, 
^To OHO en^e 6u.io tojbro vb npoeRxi, aá h caMiifi npoeRx^ 
HaM']&qeffB jianiB bi> otin^uxx h BecBMa HeonpeA&ieHHUxx qepxaxx; 
rOBopHXB newxHO o neiTB HaAO Óujio ci 6ojihmoio ocxoposHOCXBio. 
Bnpo^eBťB, Bi» dxoifb OTHomeBÍH oh^ bhojih^ Mort nojosHXBCfl Ha 
M-pa yacxjieRa, peAftKxopa, oxjiHqaBtnarocfl Óojbuiok).^ pascyA^xeiB- 

HOCXbH) H CAOpsaHHOCXbK). DOHyjlflpHOCTb PHqapA8 HeoCURHOBeHHO 

BOBpccja nocjii xoro, jsakt> owb nocTpaAaji'b sa oón^ee a'í^o n no- 
xepfljii Mtcxo. 

Ha npeACTOflBmeMi co6paHÍH ohi roxoBHjicfl npoHSHecxH p^qb, 
B xaRi RaRi» onacajicfl, hxo sajia ne BSfikcxHxi Bc£x'b, sasaion^Hx^ 
nocaymaxb ero, a ROMiixexi cofosa nosaji^rb A^nerb, xo M*p^ 
Ydcx^eRi oÓflsaxejibHO bsajica Ha cbo& cqen nan^xb óojibmyK) sa^y 
pflAOMl Cb OAHOK) RO^efiHefi. 

Tenepb bi> nefi coopyAioH acxpaAy A-ifl opaxopoBi h oocxaBHJiH 
cRanefiRu. Hacx^Haxi sajiu oÓn^ecxBO xpesBOCXH naRjieHJio a^ama 
Cb noy^HxeJibHbíMH Hspe^emaMH. Sanax^ xaÓaRy, Ro^e h ceie- 

AORl HeBOJIbHO HaBOAHJTb Ha MUCJIb, TTO CfOAa Bl 06uBH0BeHH0e BpeMfl 

no yxpaMi npHxoAflxr. saBxpaRaxb. 

PHqapA'b, BcerAa oxjiH?aBnri£cfl 6ojibmoK) aRRypaxHOCxbio, na 
dxoxi pas^b onosAajTb MHHyxi na AecflXb. KyqRa Apy^eft, osHAaB- 
mafl ero npiiguxifl, BCxpixHJia ero myMHLiiíH npuB^xcxBiflMH. Owb 
cnoRofiHO npomejTb nepesi s&iy h noAHajicfl Ha BCxpaAj. A^HÍejib 
jl,a66'b noAajii> snaRi, n Haqajicfl HeBOo6pa8HMufi rBajm: oahh xo- 
najH HoraMH, Apyrie RpH^ajiH... PHqapA'b, ne xepflfl xjsaAHORpoBÍA, 
oÓBOAHJii 3ajiy cnoROfiHbíMi BsrjsAOMi. IlyÓJiHRH Ha6pajiocb ao ceMH- 
Aecflxu qeJiOB^Rx. MesAy hhmh xpii hjih qexupe seHii^HHU-. Ilp^- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



AdMOGX. 241 

c^AftTejB B ABa ^joeHa EOiiHTexa coB^n^aiOTCfl cb MoTBiiepOMi; no- 
jOBHHa AesflTaro — npe^c^AaTejiL^ HaROHei^i, Bcxaerrb h, oÓpan^aflCB k^e 
co6paHÍH), npoHSHOCHTi H^csojibBO npeABapnxeJibHux^ ciobi. 9to 
HejiOB^s^B ch Ao6poAymHuifB h Bece2iiiM'b jhii^omi, cb ByjiBrapHUMH 
iiaHepaMH h npoHSHomeHíeMi. 

— fl hm4k) yAOBOJiBCTBie, — Hanajiii ohi, — npeAcraBHTB Bani 
Hamero Apyra h coroBapEii^a, yse ne pasi BEicrynaBinaro na 
dcrpaffl Bi Ba^ecTBŠ AORJiaA^HBa. Mu BcerAa ero ciymajiH ci y^o- 
BOJiBCTBieMi; ceroAHfl ate coo(5meHÍe ero Óy^en HHrepecHÍe o6hk- 
HOBenearo. Ohi HaM^peffB pascMoiplTB arpapHiifi Bonpoci, en^e 
Majio HsyHeHHuň. HanrB TOBapHn^i, MoTHMepi, BsynHJx 8TorB bo- 
npocrb, Basi hhbto, h Momno cm&io yTBepxAaxB, hto buboabi, R'b 
BOTopiorB owh npHinejii, bdojh']^ AOCtoShei npaBTaqeckaro h y6is- 
AeBHaro ^ejiOBina. 

06EIKH0BeHH0 MOTHMepB rOBOpHJTB pJ^BO H CB SJIOÓBOŘ HpOHÍefi, 

BO Ha BTOTB pasi ýbm> ero AHmajia 6ojiše mhphbimh TfBcrBaMH. 
Jlersafl yjniÓBa ÓpoAH^a na ero ry6ax%. SajosEBi* o^ny pysy sa 
CHHHy, Bi Apyroft owh AepaBaji'B óynary cb leBcroiTB plqH. Bo 
Bcefi no3% ero Óujio hto-to MejtOApaHaTHqecsoe. Ohx roBopHJTB o 
tíxi BpeMenaxii, Ror^a oCn^ecTBO coBH&eri nejinocrB npaBa co6- 
CTBeHHOCTH, Bce craHen o6iii,hm'b, h nojiyneme Haci^ACTBa ÓyjifiVb 
croraTBCfl TaBHMib se HeHopMaiBHnMi aBJíeHieirB, sasrB npHCBoeme 
ce&b HaiA^BHaro sa Aopori. 

Owb npBd^rajiib ki* oúwmuwh cbohmi cpe^crBairB yd^^iiTB h 
norpacTB csymaTejieft. IIpBBOABjrB craTACTB^ecBÍfl AaBBHfl, npHBiipii 
BffB nponijiaro h bbi coBpeiíeflHOĚ ^khsbh BenpaBOABO BasBTEixi 

(k)raTCTB'B, rpOMBJI'B JIOpAOBl B BanBXaJIBCFOBl. 

nOJfflTBRO-dBOBOHB^eCRifl TOOpÍH Cir6mBBaJBCB CB JIBpB^eCRBMB 

BBJÚflHiflMB; pa6o.qi& npojeTapíaTB cpaBBBBaJCfl cb njiŠHHBRaMB, 

CHAflIABMB Ha p^RaXB BaBHJIOBCRBX^B... Owb rOBOpHJTB CB TOpaH- 

HOCTBH) HapoAHaro opaTopa h TpH($yBa, se saCoTflCB o npaBBJB- 
HOCTH o(k)poTOBi pŠHB, BO Rafi'B qejiOB^Ri, cjrino y(%sAeBBEifi b'b 
CBoeft npaBOT^ h bbojibš B^pyion^iii wb BeoipasEMOCTB cbobx^b ao- 

60AOB'B. 

EoFAa owb ROHqBj'B, npoAC&AaTejiB cnpocBJEi: ae sejaeTB jih 
Kto-Hfl6yAB BOBpasHTB opaiopy. Oahbx bbi npBcyTCTByiontBxx Be- 
MeA^eHHO Bcrajii h co CBoero iricra npeAJiosBjí MoxBMepy ceMB 
paaiBHBEixii BonpocoBi. Totb oxB^qaJix, Be 3aAyMKiBaflCB, to^bo, acao 
H oÓCTOflTeJEBBO. Tiu^b Be Menite, rocnoAHBi, saAaBaBmifi Bonpocu, 
ocraicfl EpafiBe BeAOBOJiBBHMi h BumejTB bbb 3aoi, noBHAHiiOMy, 
FB cRBepH^ftnieM'B pacnojioseBÍB Ayxa. 3a hhm'b noABHJiCfl Apyroň 

TOVI I.--flHBAPB, 1891. 16 



.Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



242 VhCTHSOPh EBPOIQI^ 

H saflBHXB, TTO ÓOHTCfl roBopHTB, ^To caoBS ero, B^poflTHOy He no* 
BpaBflTCfl co($paHÍio. 

— noTOMy? roBopHTe! — saEpn^ajiH co bc^x^b cxopoffB. 

CMHpeHHUft H po6BÍfi BHA'B OpRTOpa nORaSHBaJTB, ^TO dTO — EhUli 

pi^RÍft — THDt paCoqaro KoecepeaTOpa. 

— fl HO BHay,— Haqajii ohi, - KaKyio npasTHqecRyH) nojBsy 
HoryTi npHHecTH leopie, ROTopus pasBBBajix bi CBoefi pbHE Mote- 
MepL. PasB^ 0TT> HHxi DOBucHTCfl sapaGoTHafl luaTa h xjri^i no- 
AemeB^erb? 6ce sto oah'6 4>P&3U9 He 6o;i']te. ^ecraoe ciobo, Memi 
nopasaiDTL 9th Teopia! KaRi Cy^xo RorAa-HHÓyAfc Cora^x ycxy- 
uBTb 6^AH0My cbok) co6cTBeHHocTE>! Bi npepoA^ qejiOBŠEa xpaHHTB 
H san^Hn^aTb iipiTHaAiesan^ee eny, tď, htď owb crouhufl CBOmn 
TpyAOMi... 

— CBHHbH TOJBRO CTOflTt Sa COÓCTBeHHOCTb! BpHSHyJIl RTO-TO, 

nepeÓEBafl opaiopa. 

— Hy, ne npaBi juh si ($uji, roBopa, hto bh ae nosejaere 
KeHfl ciymaTb! — BOCRjHRHyjib opaTop'b ropecxHO. 

IIoAHfljicfl TBajiTB, cxyB^B. npeAC^AATejiB BM'lmajcfl, crapascB 
BOABopHTb nopflAOR^B. HaBOHOi^X; HeMHOFO ycnoRoujiHCL. Ho pasAO- 
caAOBaHHufi BOHcepBaTOpi ne sejajcB npoAOJsaTB, HaA'&i'B nianBy 
H ymexb b^ cocŠAHee Ra4>é, ^To6u Taiii na cbo(5oa%, b% Bpy;BR^ 

CO^BCTByH)IItHX'by H3JIHTb CBOfi FH^Bli. 

Tpexifi opaTop'B, M-px RyjiJieHi. noAHflJiCfl co CBoero M^tera h 
nonpocHJi'b ciOBa. Y dxoro „BBcnjiyaTaTopEi" u ^HOBue coi^iajbHue 
ciOR*' He CXOA0JKH ch flSbiRa. IIojroaKeHHUfl abcatb MHHyrL, boto- 
pufl Mor^ roBopHTb RasAufi opaTopx, nponuiH, h npeACŠAaTeJb na- 
noMHHJii M-py KyjiJieHy, íto nopa ROHTOXb; ho xorb npoAOJJKaJii, 
He oSpan^afl na nero BHHMaHÍfl; HaRonei^i^ ysi coc£a'b CHJiofi 3a- 
craBHJi ero cbcxb, AepnyBX csaAH. Opaxopi nuenHy^Cfl na CBoe 
MŠcxo, npH BceoÓn^eifb cmí^x']^. 

noAHflJCfl M-pi> Koycb, bucoríS, xyAOfi rocnoAHFb. Oh^b fobo- 
pHJi — xo^HO pyqeeR^ atypqajrb, rJiaARO, seiianno Ch npexensieft na 
BucmyK) Epacoxy n Hs^n^ecxBO p^w. 

DporoBopHB^ CBOH AecflXB MHHyxx, OíTh c6ji^, Cb osatío^eHHO- 

HeAOBOJIBHEIlfb H BOpHJIlfBUlfb BHAOMl OFJIflAEIBafl C0C^A6&. FpOMRÍft 

CM'6x'b BCxpixHJTB BUCEOHEBniaro Baii^A'B sa HHiTb opaxopa. 3xox^ 
o(5paxHJicfl Erb ayAHxopÍH cb bhaom^ Ea4>e-niaHxaHHaro aRxepa; cb 
xeaxpajibHUMQ jsecxaMH h rpEMacanH ohi cxajrb onHSUBaxb boo6* 
pasaeMyH) cxpany, Ey^a en^e hc npoHHEJia pa3i']kAStK)n^afl asBa Eane- 
xajHSMa, rA% i^apcxByexi nojHoe paBencxBO h ($paxcxBO. ]i,uwh $a6- 
pHqnuxi xpy($'b ne sax&r&Baexi xaifb A'3^BCXBeHHoft jasypn netfa! 
FHraHixEiď xpone^ecEífl pacxenifl ociHfliorb (Sbicxpiifl boah cpetf- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



AdMOCTB. 243 

pHCTux^B pyqBeB^! ^hshb RaTHrca xairB thxo n ÓesMflTesHo; c^acT* 
jiHBUfl, BJK)($jieHH£[fl oapoTCH njiEiByTB no efl BOJnaHi, pacn^Bafl 
iňCBJlL jír)($bh! 

3Ta np^cHafl pHTopHBa HeoÓuRHOBeHHO RaR'B Bcbwh noHpaBH- 
jiacB H BHSBajia myMHue annjoAHCMeHTsi. 

HaBOHei^i, BHOBb no;iHfljicfl Pnqapj^ MoTeMep'B. 

— Hhbto He craHeTB BOspaataTB, — Hanami OffB, — h a uewbe 
wbThj vro pa($o^ie KjiaccEi hitIioti cboh HeAOcraTBH h jifiLXie no- 
poBH. YhUy íjfSB.Tu Ha*Jiniio! SarjrjiHBTe bi roBCTOHCBia h Ecjnmv- 
ix)HCBÍfl TaBepHHT, HO 8anHpaK)iipflCfl AO noBAHefi hoto — Banoe ne- 
"lajiBHoe sp-ijiHn^e npe^CTaHer^ BamHMi rjiasaMi! Ho rjiib BOpeHB 
HamHXi nopoBOBit? Ha Boro na^aeri* OTB^TCTBeHHOCTB sa hhxi? 
Eiraa JIH paÓoqarOy eciH ohi* HanaBaercfl b'b Aynmux^B iraBHiaxx h 
Ba6aBaxrB, ecjH owb na^aerB noAi* 5peMeHeM'B eyt&au h nenocEJB- 
Haro xpy^a? Ero jth bhhhtb sa to, hto ohi ne nojiynHJii o6pa30- 
BaHÍii, wvo BBycH ero rpydfii? V nero hítb pasBJíe^eHift, a crpacTB 
Bi BHHy owb nojiy^njii ottb cbohx^b oti^obi, TaBHxi ;Be paÓOBi Ba- 
OHraia, TaBnrB se hhii^hx^b, BaB^B h oh^ camb! Kto ocif&íBTCfl 
(SpocHTB vb Hero BaMHeirB? Hhbto! 

BspKTBi orjtyniBTeJiBHiixi anniOA^CMeHTOB^. Pn^apA^B npoxoji-' 
saerB: 

— EciB BasAuft pft3i>, BBB^B y Hero CBoonrcfl h^bojibbo Jimn- 

EETb niHJIJIHHrOBTi, pa6o<lÍfi TpaTBTB HX'B Ha BHHO, OHI* He BHHO* 

BaTib. HecHacTHufi, rojiOAHufi, owh npoBOAHTB sh3hb kb rpfl3Hoft jra- 
qyri, nacTO aa<2I6bo ycTynaion^efi noir6n^eHÍio jiomaAH BaBoro-nn- 
^yAB JOHAOflCBaro apHCTOBpaTa, — nocM^iorB jih ero yBopsTB sa to, 
qro OHi> HH^erB 3a($BeHÍfl na ah% cTaBana? Ilpomy BacB, ApysBfl 
MOH, npeBpaTHTO Bamn annjiOAHCMeHT£[. HoAyMaftxe HaAi tími, ht6 
s BaifB roBopHJii, pascBasnre axo BaineMi senan^ h a'6t9M'b. 3p&- 
jHHiie napoAHHXi crpaAamfi CA^ajio hsi Měna coi^lajiHcra. RJifl- 
HycBÍ AOBOJrt Awmy, a (5yAy (5opoTBca npoTBBX yrneTaTejreft h sa- 
n^HmaTB yrHeTOHHHXx. SI BcerAa ocraHycB cjiyroío napoAa. Hhbto 
vh Mip4 He CBaaterB HHBorAa, ^to Phtopat* MoTHMepi ynycTH;i^ 
cjrynaft 6bitb nojiesHUM^B cbohmi (SpaTBAMi, hto owb aBcnjiyaTHpo- 
BajTB TÍxx, yqacTB BOTopux'B Morx 6h yjyqniHTB. 

BocTopseHHue bphbh noBpujiH rojocx MoTHiiepa. GjrilAyfl ycra- 
HOBHBHieMyca oCfii^aio, M-pi* KjMeEi> npeAJtosHjrB BEipasHTB ($jiaro- 
AapHocTB opaTopy. 

npeAC^AaTejn» co6Hpa.íca hto-to CBasaTB, ho bcé nOBCBaBajíH cb 
míctb yerpeMHjiHCB na oerpaAy ci HaMtpenieBfB nojsaTB pyBy 
PflHapAy. SariMx MHTHHrB BOOTHJica, h bc6 ocTaBHJH sány. Bbi- 

16* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



244 racTHERi iBPOnu. 

zoAfl, M-pi K7JLieH*b 6pocEJi'b B3rMji,i> Ha pacnoioseHEyio Hanpo* 

THBl nHBHyH). 

Bil OBH']^ owb saM^Tfui M-pa Royca, rjiyÓOROMucieHHO BypHB- 
maro Tpy6sy nepe^i^ craBaHOni rpora. 

M-pi RyjiJieHii noAyMa^i h BomeJii b% neBsyK) cb HaMipe- 
HÍeMi saRasaxb h cetfi rporB. 

KpaCHOpŠHHBUe San^HTEHEH TpeSBOCTH — KB npHHi^Hiiš, BOHe^mo^ 

— CA^JajiH Apyrx Apyry ;ipyKecEÍft 3HaR'b rojOBoft. 

— He npaBAa-jiH, xopomaji pbn? — cnpocHJii M-px EyjLieH'B. 

— MoTflMepx MOseTB roBopHTb BpacHop^TOBOy BorAa saxonerB^ 
— OTB^^aJEl^ M-pi KoycB. 

— ^a, 8T0 TaRi... Ohx yMŠera roBopHTb... Fitb! rirb! V Menu^ 
OAHaBO, HTO-TO nepecoxjio B^b ropjii. 

— B-B saji 6ujío ysacHO AyniHO... Y BacB ecrt ofohb? 
H OHT» npH^jHBHJiii Hoci B% Hocy CBoero npíflTejfl. 
SaBypHBi CHrapBy, M-pi Koyeb CBasajTB ceHTeH^io3HlIlfb tohoitb: 

— HeiBSfl npeABHA*TB, míb uhwb roTOBím ÓjAjinfie. 

— ^a íéjsjb Hao(J4maTB»TO CB-Tpn-Eopotfa jierBo. 

— A oíÍMaHyTB H Toro jierne! 

— Hy, a TSAKb BBi AyMaere: uu uHoro on. axoro BBíHrpaeif^? 

— ^a, BipOflTHO, pOBHO HB^ero. 

SaT^Mi npiflTeJH iipehajihcb TOJtsoBaiB o BceBOSMoaBHHxi npex- 
Meraxi e npocHA&iH Apyn npoTHBi Apyra ao canaro saspEiTk ra- 

JBepHU. 

A. 9. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HAPOJlHAa rPAMOTHOCTL 



Bb lfHOrO^HCieHHOM'b pflA^b BOnpOCOBl^ BOTOpSie B03HHBJH Ch 

Ha^uoiTB npomjiaro itapcTBOBaHÚi, bi bhaj RpecTb^HCRofi h hhiix^e 
pe4K)pirB, ocoÓeHHoe BHHMame npHBJíeRi* BonpocB o eapoAHoirB 
o6pa30BaHÍH. 3to Óhun soiipoci BejiHnafiinefi BasHOcre, h ecre* 
erBeHHO 6hjo, qro Cb tíxi nopi h aohbih']^ oetb ne nepecraBajrB 
BBSEiBaTB caMufi FopflHÍft HHiepecB ne tojbbo y cnei^ia;ibHux'b Ha- 

P0J(HHB0BI, HO H y Bc£xi, BTO CU0C06eWh COSHaTeJIBHO CMOTp^i^TB 

Ha ocHOBHHfl norpeÓHOCTff mmuvi napo^Hofi h caMoro rocy^apcTBa. 
9to CBja HapoAa h rocyAapcTBa sasjíioqaeTCfl He bi OAHOfi ^crajib- 
Hoft n^ervffl'', a laRse h, MOseTb 6eitb, en^e 6ojr£e, bi* pasBurÍH 

yiICTBeHHUX^ H HpaBCTBeHHEIXl CíUťh Hai^ÍB — dTO CraJIO nOHHMaTBOl 

BB uBCcb o(5n^ecTBa, Bor^a en^e ee ycirí^a boh^htbch RpEiMcaaji 
Bo&Ha. He TOJiBBo ;^Jifl jmjififL 6ojAe oCpasoBaHHíncB, ho h a^h 
casofi TOjniu cranoBHJiocB narJiflAHO, tto nepeA'B tímb HauioHaJiB- 
Hoe Moryn^ecTBO 6ujio noHHMaeiíO cJiHniROMi o^HOcropoHHe h t^itb 
camurB hob^pho; ^to neoCxo^HMO noAHflTÍe Hapo^earo h o6ii^e- 
erBesHaro Ayxa h pasBHTie npocB']&iiiieHÍfl h rpasA^HCTBenHoň caico- 
xiflTejiBHOCTH. TenepB, Ror^a caMO npaBHTaiBCTBO, OTBinaa na 
AaBHÍft o(5ii^ecTBeHHfiifi tojíocb h craHOBflCB Bnepe^n o(5ii^ecTBa b^ 
OAHoi vLdTb BejiHHaftniHX'B pe4)opMB, RaRÍfl 3Ha.ia pyccRafl Hcropú?, 
lor^a OHO DOAHnMajio BonpocB o6x ocBOÓosAeme RpecxBAHB, tot- 

HaCB UpHCOeAHHHJCfl H BOUpOCB O HapOAHOlfB o6pa3OBaHÍ0: OCBO- 

(iosAessiiĚ HapoA^ ne j^oja&ewh 6ajrb ocraBaTBCfl bo lípaR^; wh 
^tJtk npaBi, RaRÍa owb j^osmewh Óujtl nojiyqHTB, aojisho óiuio 
^raiTBCs H npaBO Ha otfpasoBaHÍe; BHŠcrt cb ^mb, bto ÓiiJia ca- 
vaii HacTOflTeJiBHafl Heo6xoAHMOCTB, noTOMy tto tojibro npe no- 
xoiqH Rasoro*^H(5o oÓpasoBanifl ohx mofb ao^sheimb otipasoiis 



L_ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



246 NCTHEBl EBPOim. 

noHflTb H CBoe HOBoe nojioseHie, h AOcraraTb caMurB Maiepiaib- 
EUTb yjy^meHift CBoero 6uTa h xpy^a. 

Bi crapEifl EpeMena roBoperb o „HapoAHOM'b" 0<5pa30BaHÍH^ 
Bor^a orpoMHufi npoi^eHrB napo^a isaxoAHJCfl bi Bpr6nocTHOirL co^ 
CTOflHÍH, 6ujio 6u oneBh crpaHHo, ^ase nejcbuo. Eto Morb 6u 
8a6oTHTbCfl o&b dTOMi o6pasoBaHÍH; ea BaBÚi q>eACTBa oho uovjlo 
6u ycraHOBHTBCfl; bi neny 6a oho Bejio? J^jisl orpoMHaro Óoib- 
mHHCTBa crapuxrB noiri^iiiHBOBx Rp6nocTHafl Macca cocraB^ua pa- 
6oqyK) CHjy — h tojbbo; ^xopomíft' noM^i^n^HBi saÓOTHJCfl o Maie- 

píaJbHOlTB ÓJarOCOCTOflHÍH CBOHXli BpeCTbflffB Bl dTOM'b ÓUJIl^ 

MesAy iipoqHM'b, npocTofi pasjMHO noHflTufi pasc^erB; bi stoS 3a- 
Óorb cKa3BiBa.iocb h ÓJiaro^yniie, ho AUBme MaxepiajBHaro ($jaro- 
cocTOflHÚ! 8Ta 3a6oTa 0<5uBH0BeHH0 He nua, h „napoAnaa mB0.ia* 
He cyn^ecTBOBaja. Bi bejA HCSjío^eHÚi, 6uBajH, BOHenno, h rpa- 
MOTHue BpinocTHue: ohh yHEJHCB caMH, BorAa Óhui^ ea axo xo- 
cyrb H AOcraTOBi*; npOBOAHHBaMH rpaMOTHocTH 6uBajE coÓCTBeH- 
Hue rpaM0TÍHy AepsaBmiecfl, no crapony npe^aHÍK), vb caiibft 
BpecTbflHCBoft cpeflíb] hjih ohh or^aBajiHCB vh Btiy^By noirfen^HBaiiH, 
TaBSBe Basi OT^aBajHCb bi Buy^Bj penecjairB, HeoĎxoxHMiDťb vh^ 
A0ManiHeM'b 6uTy, hjih noBapcBOMy HCByccTBy; HysHH óunajiH h 
rpaMOT^H, ^To6a 6uTb BOHTopn^HBaMH, nHcapflMH h hhoS xepeBeH- 
CBofi aAMHHHcrpajqiefi. Ho npaBHjn»HOfi hibojiu Bce-xaBH ne ůujio^ 
H HaAO 6uio DoqTH paAOBaTbCfl, hto ea ho 6um. nojioseme Bpt* 
nocTHoro, BoropoMy y^ajiocb 6u AociHrnyrb Basoro-jmóo x^ficTBH- 
TOJbHaro pe3yjibTaTa, AOcraBJífleMaro o6pa30BaHÍeM'b, 6wio 6u no 
hcthhí yasacHo: ohi mopb 6u AOcrarHyrb cosHanifl CBoero paÓCTBa^ 
cocTOflHÍe óujio 6u no hcthhí óesBiixo^no. IIpHMipu sroro h Óu* 
BajH... CaJITUBOB^ bi i^IIoniexoHCBofi CrapHH^^ pHcyerb OAHnb THn7>^ 
BOToptifi A^ficTBHTejbHO cyn^ecTBOBajrb bi spinocTHiifl Epeiíena, 
HO, Baxercfl, TOJbso hmi* 0AHHM'b ($ujrb noAM^^enx — thh^ pa6a- 
^aHaxHBa, BoropEifi lepn&iHBO chochjTB CBoe pa($CTB0 bi vjljÓojíoř 
tiíýbj iTO aro ecTb npaBO ero na BEicoByn) narpa^y bi ďy^yu^eMS 
idpiy VA% nanpoTHBi, ÓjAerb BecbMa npHCBop6HO nojosenie ero 
HacTOfln^Hxi BJiaAUBi: diofi B^pu, Bone^no, ne Morb 6u uufbíh 
patii o6pa30BaHH£i&. 

Bi BHOMi nojioasenÍH Óujio a^o y BpecTbani Apyroro poAa — 
rocyAapcTBeHHuxi: sjsíich ne Osmo JH^naro pa(5cTBa, 6Ei4a BOSMOSHa 
mBOja, BOTopafl h ÓbiJia pacnpocrpanHeMa MHHHcrepcTBOirb rocy- 
AapcTBeHHiix'b HMyn^ecTB'b, HacBOJibBO noAotfnoe a^o mosotb 6uTh 
nocraBJíeHO AenapraMeHTCBBirb h Bam^eJiflpcBHirb nopHASOMi; ho h 
ara niBOJia (Sfiua BecBiia yM^penna, h xpyAHO CEaBaTb, HacBo.ibB(> 
ocaBaiejbHu 6um efl pesyjbTaTu. He 6um HeAOcraTBa h vh jnr- 



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HÁPOAHAfl rPAMOTHOCTB. 247 

TeparypHiui nomiTsax^b npHATH Ha nOMon^i^ Hapo^HOMy oópaso- 

BaHÍK), H Bl COpOKOBUXl FO^aXl OCHOSaHO óhlJiO KHflSeiTB 0^066* 
CRHMl H SaÓJIOI^RHMrB H3B^CTH0e TOF^^a „CeJIbCBOe ^TeHÍe'', OAHHli 

H3i> saMŠqaieJibHuxi oihitobi nonyjiflpHott JinrepaTypu, ROTopuft, 

Ch APyrOfi CTOpOHtl, H 6UJI%J B^pOflTHO, nOBOAOMl, BHymHBmHMl He- 

BpacoBy B'lcBOJiBBO CTHXOBi ero ^^HjiaHTpona'': A^^fiCTBUTejiBHO, 
^BpasyMJflTb MyjRHsa o&b djesTpa^ecxB^^, Aftace npoAaBafl rhhjbrh 
.AemeBJíe luiTaRa^, mofjio RasaTBCfl ropbRofi Hacii^mRofi Hai^B 
BTHHi MysHROMi, y ROToparo He ůujiii yAOBJíeTBopeHu HecpaBHeHHO 
6oiie dJieMeHTapHUfl norpeÓHOcra ero MaTepiasbearo h HpaBCTBeH- 
Haro cyu^ecTBOBaHÍfl, qi^Hx nosHame djeRTpsHecTBa. 

npH Ha^aii^ pe4>opM'B npooLiaro i^apcTBOBaHifl, RaR^b mu cRa- 
sajiH, Bonpocb Hapo^Haro o6pa30BaHÍfl crairb OAHairb hsi nepBuxi, 
Ha ROTopufi oÓpaxHjiocb BHHMaHie JiHTepaxypu, BOsÓyxAeHHOft Tor^a 
osHAameiťb i^aro HOBaro nepio^a Hamefi shshh. Jliinib oqeHb 
HeifHorHirb jno^flirb, ROTopue yBJíeqeHu 6ujih TorAaniHHMi BOsÓys- 
xenieM^b, npexoAHJia bi roiíOBy uucjih o Óojihmoů Henpo^HOcrn 
rtxi na^esA^B, ROTopufl pacnpocrpaHfljincb bi o6ii^ecTBÍ; Aaa^e 
joDjífi craparo BÍRa h craparo nopsARa? HHMaJio ne coqjBCTBOBaB- 
mie HOBbíHi HAeflM^b, ne Óujin yB^penu, qxo drorb nopuBi CRopo 
ROHHHTCfl H qio Bepnyícfl A^BHO 3HaR0Mb[e HpaBu; HOHflTHO no- 
dTOny, HTO TorAamnie tojirh o6i dTOM'b Bonpod, RaRi> h o MHorHX'b 
ApyrHxi, BejiHCb ch yB^penHocTbio, ROTopaa noRasajacb ($u AOBOJbHO 
crpaHHofi H HaHBHofi wb Hame BpeMfl, yse (5oraToe onbiTaiiH. Bo- 
npocL saTporHBajicfl ci> pasHuxii CToponi, h cb o6n^efi, laRi* CRa- 
saTb, HapoAHO-4>HJiaHTponHqecRofi cxopoHu, RorAa AORasuBaaacb ne* 
o($xoAHMOCTb HapoAHaro ofipasoBaHm cb to<irh spinifl napoAnoft 

HpaBCrseHHOCTH H AOCTOHHCTBa, H CO CTOpOHU OpaRTU^eCROft, TaR'b 

saRi BTEWb nyTeM'b AOJseni 6uji'b boAth wl napoA^ sanaci no- 
aesHfiixi dHaeiĚ; npaBHxejibCTBO npeAnpHHBMaio opraHHsai^iH) na- 
poAHofi mROJiii, H, RaRi nep^ARO 6ubsljio vb to BpeMfl, cofiapaiecb 
CB^AeHÍfl o nocranoBR']^ niROJm bi* sanaAHOtt EBpon*!, a neiepni* 
JHBue napoAHbie naTpioxu ToponHJucb yse npocB']kn^aTb napoAS 
eo6cTBeHHuifb TpyAOM^b, yqpesAaa BocRpecHUji u Hnua A&poBUfl 
niBOJiBi, RaRii 6yAT0 ara Raoafl uiROJibHaro BHama Mor;ia ^to-hu- 
6yAb noMoqb bi it'kiOM'b Mop6 neBnanifl. IIo^hhi, Rone^no, 6ua% 
npeRpacBufi h B'b 6oj'le ÓJiaronojiyqHuxii ycjiOBÍflxi oa^b M0ri> 6u 
HM^Tb 6.iarie pesyjibTaTKi, cójinsafl B'b nojie3HOMi a*^^ o($pa30BaH- 
Hbie R^accu Ob napoAOMi; ho bi» Ty MenyTy caMH dniysiacTEi 
BOCRpecHaro otfyqenifl ne AyMajH o tomi, RaRi Morjo 6u BnpoAb 
yeiaBOBHTbCfl aio a^o; rjiaBHoe 6ujio to, ^to BA^Cb HaxoABJíH 



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248 racTHEBi BBPoniii. 

ce6i RaRofi-HH6yAi> hcxoa^ HjKeaiHCTHqecKie nopKBu TorAamHHX!E 
uokojAbíř. 

He MOjqaja, BiipOHem, h Apyraa cropoHa. Jl^ JnoAeĚ craparo 

B^Ra 8TE TOJBH O HapO^HOft OIROJIŠ RadaJIHCB UpOCTO OAHŠMH ópeX* 

HflMH, H B% HxrB apryMeHTai](ÍH npoTHBi HapoAHOfi msojiBi, Aaise 

npOTHBl npOCTOft rpaMOTHOCTH, flCHO CBB03HJIH CTapufl npHBuqsH 
BplnOCTHBIX'B BpeMeni: dXH npHBUHRH He MOFJIE HHBaR^B nOMH- 

pHTBCfl cb rbwby HTO „jiH($epajH' Ha^a.TH cepbesHO roBopiiTB o 
rkxi> MysHBarB ilih tíx'b ABopoBuxi, Boropue en^e HasaHyHŠ Tpas* 
TOBajHCb TOJBBO Cb BejiHBHMi npeHe($peseHÍeirB. XoBasaTejoLbCTBa 

npOTHBl HapOAHOfi rpaMOTHOCTH H3BJieBaJ[HCb HMeHHO HS^B BpinocT- 

Hbix'B Bpeuewh H BptnocTHuxi HpaBOBi: B^B qeny nápory rpanoTa? 
Hapo;iy coBcbwb ho HysHH HOB^fimifl nonyjiflpHKra bhhseh ch 
HayqHUMH CB^A^HÍfliíH; owh JLio6iisTb OAHO TOJbBO Třeme — 960- 
secTBeHHoe''; rpanoTHiifi iiysEBi* tojibbo nopTETca orb rpaMOTH, 
OTCTaerb ovb BpecTbflHCBaro TpyAa h ynorpeÓJiflerb rpanoxy na 
BCflBÍfl npHBasHiui BJflysbí. HnenHO bi axoiíi pox^ roBOpnjrb bi 

T^ TOMM SHaMeHHTUfi Jl^aib, BOTOpElfi C^HTaJICfl aBTopHTeTHinrb 3Ha- 

TOBOHi pyccBaro napoAa h napoAHaro 6uTa. TaB'b, y i[K)Aefi cra- 
paro B'lBa 8T0 SHanie HapoAHOCTH mofjo coBepmeHHO yAO($HO coexH- 
HflTbCfl cb BOJiHBHMx npeHe6pe»eHÍeirb b^b nápory, sa botopehte 
He npnsnaBajiocb hh choco6hocth BOcnpHHflTB aojk) HOBaro 3HaHÚiy 
HH A&se Horpe^HOCTH bi* neB: napo^^ jífiJiT&ewb Ówrh ocraBaTBca 
wb TaBOMi nojiosenÍH, bi BaBOMB 6hun>, 3to nojiosenie, Boxopoe 

Bl A'Í^fiCTBHTeJIBHOCTH 6UJ10 HpHCBOpÓHSlfB HeB&BeCTBOMl, y JKIO^eft 

H „snaTOBOBB^ CTaparo B^Ba Bfii^aBajiocB sa naTpiapxajiBHyH) HaoB- 
Hyio npocTory npaBOB^B, coeAHHeHHyio o^naBO cb sApaBUirB yMoaťB, 

^CMfiTBOtt'' H T. H., BOTOpUMl BOBCe He Hy^BHa HIBOJia H BOTOpue 

HoryTi OTB Hefl tojibbo hchopthtbca. dra crapHHHafl TO^Ba spt- 

HÍfl, CB HiBOTOpbIMH BHA0H31f^HeHÍflMH, npOAOJISaeXB CyH^eCTBOBaTB 

H AO CHTB nopB: ecTB jiibjiBa CHCTena BsrjiflAOBi, no Boxopofi Ha- 
poAy C0BC^M'B ne xpeóyexca oCpasoBanie, Bpoiit pa3B'6 ynŠHÍa ^h* 
TaTB H HHcaTB, H c^eTa; ^to-jih6o Bume 8Toro HHSMeHnaro ypoBHa 
CHHTaeTCfl ne tojibbo JiHmHHirB, ho h bi pasHtixi OTHomeHiaz^B 
BpeAHUM'B; yqpexAeme napoAHOfi hibojibi cb fIcbojibbo pacmapen- 
Hofi nporpaMMOfi CHHTaeTca Aase HapymemeirB sejianiji canoro 
HapoAa, H npoTHBHHBH napoAHOft hibojiu, coÓCTBeHHO roBopfl o6cBy- 
paHTu, ccBiJiaiOTCfl, B^ TOH% HapoAHHBOBB, Ha coÓCTBeHHoe sejanie 
napoAa (na BOTopoe b^ ApyroMB cjiy^a^i^ ne o(5paTHJiH 611 hh na- 
.7i']&finiaro BHHMamfl): HapOA'B ne xo?eTi TaBnxi niBOjrB; eHj nysna 
TOJIBBO i^epBOBHafl BHHra H T. A* Rb coacaJi^HÍK), ynaxoBB craparo 
HAeajiHCTHqecBaro OTHomenifl kl dTofi croponi napoAHOfi shshh 



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HAPOAHÁfl rPÁMOTHOCTb. 249 

AOXOAHTB B!b HameMy BpeMeHH jí,o TaK0X'b pasušpoBi, hto es 
y<ipesA6HÍeifb Hosaro raná uepBOBHO-npBXOACsiix^ niBOJii mhofím 
deMcrea Ha^EBaiOTB noRHAaxB CBoe coóCTBenHoe mBOJbHoe a^o, 
xoTfl npHXOACBÍfl iDBOJiii 611^6 A^JieKo He AOBasajiH cBoefi KOBcne* 
TeBTHOCTH, Hep^ARO AORasajiii cboh> HecocroaTejiLHOCTb h bo bca- 
xoM*L cj![y^ai HMÍK)Ti ropasAO 6ojrbe orpaHHqeHHHfi BpypB yqeHÍfl, 

^MX O^EI^HUfl 8eM'*BÚi IIIROJIIU. 

BonpocL H no cíh) MHHyry HaxoABTCfl b% towb cnopnoMrE no- 
jiosemH, Wh Rasoe oni nonajFB, RaRi» mh bha'&ib, npn caMOMi 
CBoeMi BOSHBRHOBeHÍH wb KOBjjjb SO-xx FCAOBi. IIoJOseHie — co- 
BepmeHHO CBoeo($pa3Hoe h RoiopoMy aobojilho xpyAHO nafiTH napaj- 
jejiB B^B SB3HH sauaAHO-eBponeficRofi. B'l RaTOJinnecRiixi seioflxi 
sanaAHOft Esponu ($QBajiH npHM^pu ynopnofi 6oph6u HSi-sa xoro, 
AOJiSHa JIH napoAHafl mROJia ($eitb bx pyRaxi CB^TCRaro fjh RjiepH- 
sajEHaro ynpaBJíenifl h neAarorÍH; B&sacB ($opL($a ne tojibro o xa- 
paRxep^ 0(5pa30BaHÍ)!, RoropuK jiflji7&eE'h nojty^aib napoAi*, ho n o 
zapaRTepi nojHTH^ecRHXi uw^bíř, rotopbia hofjih Óutl pacnpocrpa- 
HfleMu vh ero cpejs^i bi toitb hjih ApyroifB ciyqa'^; ciobomi, na 
HapoAHOft niROJíš OTpajsaJiacB 6opb6a nojHTHHecRHXx naprifi, — no 
taM'b ne roBopfuiocB, OAnaRO, ^xotíu napoAy cobcšmi* ne nysna 
(ujia niROJia. Gi aPF^^ CTopoHBi, sanaAnafl SHsnb eAsa jie npeA* 
craBHTb npHH^pu xaRoro napoAHEqecRaro yBJíe^eHifl, RaRoe nu na- 
(SaiOAaeifB y ce6fl b'b noai^AHÍe roAu, h ROTopoe, MesAy npo^HBfb, 
pacnpoerpanflercfl na napoAnyio mROJiy h na napoAHoe Hreníe. 9to 
nocjrikAHee ABHmenie, ROTopoMy, nesRAy npoHHMi, a^bho yate coaM- 
CTByerb ROMHierB rpaMOTHOcrn vb IleTepóyppfc h peBHOCxHHa ycHJiia 
MHoraxi qacTHHx^b jim!í,T>, npeAannuxi A'^y napoAnaro oÓpasoBanifl, 
aacjyxHBaerb Hep'6AR0 BejBHafimaro co?yBCTBÍfl h, 6e3i comh^hía, 
npHHOCHTB yae xenepb BejHRyio, xoia AOBOJbHO xpyAHO yjiOBHMyH) 

nOJIb3y dTOMy A'^y; ho, O^qeBHAHO, BI dTO& 6opb6'í npOTHBHHROBX 

H Apysefi napoAHaro oÓpasoBanifl, RaRyio mu xenepb Ha(5j[H)AaeMi, 
MU MMteMi nepeA'B co6o& qHcro cxHxí&Hoe cocxoflníe caMoro bo- 
npoca. Bpocaexcfl bb rjiasa, ^xo nojiosenie eameift napoAHOĚ mRO^u 
HBJífleTCfl Rpafine HeoapeA'&ieHHUM^, neycxofi^EBUM^, CJiyHafinuMi, 
H BCJJ^ACXBÍe xoro HeopraHH30BaHHHMi>; napoAHoe o6pa30BaHÍe, bx 
cyn^HOCTH, npeACxaBJaexcfl ecnií ne ocxasjíennsiMi na npoHSBOJirB 
eyAi>6H, xo noABepasenHUMX BcaRHMi cayqafinocxflM^B. Ecxb niROJiu 
TaRx-HasuBaeMua MHHHCxepcRÍa, seMCRia, i^epROBHO-npHxoACRia; (Ju- 
BaiOTB niRO.i£i oxA'IJiBHux'B B^AOMCXBi, niROJiH qacxHBifl seMJieBJía- 
xbJSh^eCBisl, HaROBei^i — „bojbeus^. B'b xo BpeMa, RaRi bi sanaA- 
Hofi Esponi napoAHaa niRÓJia a&bho nojiy^EJia QSB^cxHyio oprann- 
saipH) H, HanpEM^pi, repMania Aocxnrja Bucmefi cxyneHn axoro 



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250 BftCTHHR^b EBPOnU. 

fibiskj ycraHOBHBi Bceodn^yio otfasaTejibHOCTb o6yHeHÍji ^m jsibneŘ 
msojiBHaro Bospacra, xasi ^to hhbto (spOM^ pr6ABHX'B cjiyqafiHux'^ 
HCKJiK)HeHÍfi) ne uMrhemz npaea 6uTh (SesrpaMOTHEiifB, y flacB, xaKs 
BHAHMi, niBOJia Bce en^e ocraeTca bi nepioAt cxHxi&Haro ($poseHÍ2. 
PepiiaHCBafl mKOja, co BpeneHi pcij^opnai^iH, crajia Bejiasofi uiisy- 
n^ett CHJiofi Bi i^íjoh^b oÓpasoBanÍH nai^ioHajiBHaro xapasrepa: t6 
BejiHRÍe ycnixH, BaRÍe OKasaHH repMancRHMi napo^OMi wb o6jiacTH 
HayRH, JiBTepaTypH, o($mecTBeHHOCTH, eaROHei^x A^^Re BOfiHU, b^ 
orpOMHoB, creneHH aojishu Cbitb npHnHcaHu ne tomko hiroj^ 

BUCmeft H OÓHJIÍH) yMOBX H A&pOBaHÍ&, HO TaRSe HMeHHO HapoAHoft 

mROJ[%. dra nocjrlAHflfl OTRpuBajia Aocryni r^b SHanÍH) rpoMa^HOiiy 
npoi](eHTy HacejieHÚi (bi» nacrofliitee Bpena OTRpiiBaerb ero Bceny 
HacaieHÍK)) h, cji^i^AOBaTejibHO, AaerB HBBŠCTHyK) bosmoshoctb bu- 
ABHHyTBCfl BctifB AapoBaHÍflMi> , RaRÍfl Moryrb nafiiHCB bx HapoAHoft 
Mačci, fl, cn^AOBaxejiBHO, yBejiHqBTB iipoi^eimb xixi bucdihx^b Aftpo- 
BaHÍg, ROTopufl CTRHOBATCfl A^TCJAMH BayRH, jHTepaTypH H otfii^e* 

CTBeHHOtt SH3HH. Ob pa3BHTÍeM'B 8Jie3feHTapH0fi HapOAHOfi niROJISI 

0($£iRH0BeHH0 H^eTB napajuejiBHO h pa3BBTÍe mROJiu cpe^nefi, na- 
ROHeiiCB Bucmefi: mROJiu bi o6xeMÍ, iipH(5j[H2saH>iiteMCfl Ri o&beuj 
rHMHasín (Hanp., ci npenoAaBaeíeMib RjaccH^ecRHXi asurobi, h 
Aaase eBpe&CRaro, — noci^AHee no npflHHHaMii xeoJorHqecRHirB), h3- 
AaBHa cyn^ecTBOBajnH bb PepsiamH, ^a^e bi Me.iRHxi ropo^axi, n 
FB 6iorpa4>iflxi saM^^aTejiBHBixii jiiOAeS l^epnamH mh Hep6AK0 he- 
TaeMi, qxo 3TH jiH)AH, Buxo^fl H3% ceiíeB caHaro cRpoifnaro, ^bsrb 
Ó^AHaro AOcraiRa (RaRHMB y eacB sejajiE cobcIitb saRpuTB ao- 
CTyni B% rHMHasÍH), hm^h OAHaRO BOSMoamocTB nojiy^HiB cpexHee 
o6pa30BaHÍe, noAroxoBHBmee hxb ri* yBHBepcaxeTy, kb RaRoiťB- 
HHÓyAB CRpoMHOM'B MajieHBROMi M^CTe^qR']^, RaRÍfl y HacB eABa BMfbKyrh 
mRO^iy rpaMOTHOCTH. Bb ^hcjtí^ Jiio^efi, dTHM'B nyxeifB HaqHHaBnrax^B 
CBoe otfpasoBaHÍe, óubhje, nea^Ay npo^HifB, sHaMeHHTUfl KineHa 
H'6Mei;Roft jiHTepaTypu. KpoMi loro, hto mROJia, TaRHMi oCpasoMi, 
OTRpuBajia nyifl SHamfl BUAaion^HMCfl A&poBaHÚíMi*, oea cosAaBajia 
TaRse a rpoMaAHyio naccy qHTaH)iii,aro JiOAa, h3'b Roroparo co6h- 
pajiacB MHoroHHCJseflHaji oCpasoBanHafl H^Mei^Rafl ny(5jiiRa. IlHcaTejíB 
óescHjeHi ($e3x uy6jiHRH: ero caMEia BOSBumeBHwi cosAaHÍJi, eciH 
He nponaAyx^B, to noTepaiorř óojiBinyK) aojh) CBOefi chjibi h HpaB- 
CTBeHHaro BJiiamfl, RorAa ne naxoAflrB 0T3BiBa h co^yBCTBeHHofi onopu 
Bil qHTaioiií,efi Maccik, h, HanpHM']^p'B, wÍT^b comh-íhía, qio ycir6xH 
pyccRoii jiHTepaTypEi, bo bcarom^ cjiyqa^ HM']^BineĚ 3aM']^qaTejiBHoe 
paBBuiie CB npomjiaro bíkslj bi* 6ojiBiiiofi M'ikp'6 saAepsann 6ujm 
E saAepffiHBaiOTCfl jafiEuni^ MaioqncJieHHOCTBK) o(5pa30BaHHHX^ hh- 
Taieseft. Jl^ajiše, repHaHCRafl niROiía hccomh^bho B03A']^ficTB0Bajia, 



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HAPOJ^HÁfl rPAMOTHOGTB. 251 

saiKb MEi 3aM'lTaj[H, Ha it'&iiuft naipoHajibHBifi xapasxepB, BOcnHTu- 
Bafl HaiQOHajibHoe cosHasie na npoHSBeAeHÍflxi nayRH h ncKyccTBa. 
y HacB ;;aH£]HÍ npQBu&jm ^^ynaiB, h Aase cos^aiOTCfl h npocjiaB- 
jflH>TCfl xeopiH (Bt poA'^ Teopift JI,aHUJieBCKaro, npeBOSBOCUMUxi^ 
r. CTpaxoBUM'B), rjiík „HaiúoHajibHiiB TRirh'^ npeAcraBjífleTCfl caM'B 
no ce6^ j^aTaaflCTHqecROfi cwio% Roropas BnepeA'B cosjíaerB ecTopiio 
H He oco6eHHO nys^aercfl — mh coBC^Bťb ne HyaR^aeiCfl— bx noco- 
6\aTh otfn^e^ejOB^qecBaro paBBHTÍfl; ho OHeBH^cHO, qxo „HaluoHajib' 
Huft TBirb^ HyiSAfteTCfly no BpafiHeft M^pi, wh codHaiejiBHOCTH, a 
9T0 noci^AHee bo bcakomi cjiy^a^ A^erca tojíbko sHameirB. Mhhmo* 
nayHHafl Teopifl nai^ioHajiBHBixi THnoB'B, kb cosaji^HÍH), bi npaRiH- 
HecRHxrb BUBOAaxi coBoa^aerB cb AsyMH y HacB BecBMa pacnpo* 

CrpaHeHHUMH HaSJlOHHOCTflMH, BOTOpUfl 6uiH 6u HaCTOflU^HMl Ha- 

^Í0HaJlBHUM'B &bjifírBÍeKhj ecjiuóhi yTBepAH^HCb h pacnpocrpaHHjiHCb: 

OAHa — HaBjlOHHOCTb Kh Hai^íOHaJIbHOMy CaMOAOBOJlbCTBy H CaMOXBaJTb- 

eiBY; Apyrafl — rpyCaa h 4>aJibmHBaa MbicJb, ^xo oCpasoBanifl y uacs 
wpesx-Hypí AOBOJibHO, qxo mu crpa^aeM-b ero „HSJíHniKOMx*. ^ocxa- 
ToqHO orjiflHyxbCfl na Apyne napoAu, Hanp. 4>pa'Hi;y30B'b h Ha TbxT> 
se repMaHi](eB'b, ^TOÓu yBHAtxb, cb OAHOfi ďopoHu, hxo nai^íoHajib- 
Hoe caMOAOBOJibcxBO, oxjMaHHBafl Aftase apso A&poBHXue HapoAU^ 
soHiaercfl BHorAa BecbMa nena^ibHo: hbi ^Hcxaro caMOAOBo;ibcxB& 
^paHiiyBu noxepn^jiH secxoRoe nopaseHÍe bo BpeMfl 4>P&HBo-npyc- 
csoi BOfiHbi; ch Apyroft cxopoHu, tto y napoAOBi hcxhhho-hpocbš- 
n^eHHuxi H noHHMaioii^Hx^ nacxoflniee Ha^ioHaJ[bHoe aocxohhcxbo, 
He CTOxaexcfl HaianiHHMi xo mHpoRoe oÓpasoBanie, RaBHifb o(5jia* 
Aaex^, HanpHifšp^b, PepKaHÍfl. Bujo 6u BepxoM'b nepasyMÍfl h na- 
CTOflD^Hifb noRymeHÍeftrb opoxHBi HaiýoHaibHaro tfjiara orpanH^Hxs 
upe^kAti o6pa30BaHifl a^ia esluíb: CHJia npocB-ikn^eHifl Aaexi xoxi 
riyóoRO-BasHuB peayjibxarb, hxo, o6jiaropasHBafl HHAHBHAyajbnyio 
ZHSHb, Kb xo 2Re BpeMfl A^exi npocxop'b pasBHiifl BceMy xoMy sa- 
nacy yMcxBeHHuxi CHJi'b, co bcšmh hxx npaRXHqecRHMH npHjiose- 
HiflMHy H Banacy cvurb xyAOsecxBeHH£ix'B, RaRHMH nai^ifl o(5j[aAaexi>; 
RpoMÍ 6ojAe BticoRoB cxenenH Ryjibxypu, npocBl^n^eHieMi AOCxh- 
raexefl h Óojiie mupoRoe pasBuxie MaxepiajibHaro h nodXHqecBaro 
Moryn^ecxBa. PasHHi^a npocB^ni,eHHaro napoAa h opAu, Rasexcfl^ ne 
xpeóyerrb AA^bnMniQX^b o6i»flCHeHÍfi. 

Ti HeycranoBjíeHHocxb h csyqa&HOCXb B'b nojosenÍH HapoAHOft 

mROJU, o ROXOpUÍX'b MU rOBOpHMli, MeSAy npO^HMli BUpaBHJIHCb. 

fl&3eHÍeMi, HOAOÓHaro RoxopoMy mbi eABa jih HattAeM'b wb srhbhh 
sanaAHO-eBponeĚCROft. 3a HeAOCxaxoqnocxbH) npaBHJibHoň h BceoÓn^eft 
oprasHaaipH dxoro jsjí^aíy wb nocJiiAHÍe AecaxRH jArh pasBHBaexcfl 
y Hacb ^acxHafl HHHi^iaxHBa bi oparHHajibHoS (j^opMt, sa Roxopoft 



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252 BftCTHHKli EBPOnU. 

yTBepsAaercfl Haseame HapoAHHqecxBa. Ilpas^a, h fb pasBHTÍE 
mKOJKr sanaAHO-eBponeicROfi qacTHafl HHHi^iaTHBa HH&ia TaRsse 
CBOK) HeMajyK) pojb b'b pasiflCHeHÍH caiiux^ npHHi^flnoBi A^a, bi 
pasBHTÍii HapoAHO-mBOJíLHOfi ne^arorÍH n aha^Rthre h t. a^ ho, no 
yciOBÍflifb sanaAHO-eBponeftcROfi shshh, fa^ seeb BOnpocB ctohtb 
OTRpuTo, HacTHafl HHHi^aTHBa, Bx cjiyqa']^ efl BHyrpeHHflro-AOcroHH- 
CTBa, TonacB A^aercfl AOCToamein ofin^ecTBeHHOft shshh, nojy- 
qaeTb to hjih Apyroe npEiitHeme ejie mRoaBSO-npaBETejBCTBeHHyD 
caHRi^iK), aioBOiTB, BXOAETi Bi oúmfie noj[02ReHÍe Bonpoca, neno- 
cpeACTBeHHO coAMcTByerb pasBETiio caMaro A^a- ^ HacB dxa ehh- 
i^iaTEBa ocraercfl bx ysRExi npeA^axx ^acTHaro EHrepeca, npi- 
oÓp^Taen ceó^k Apyseft jEinb bx HefiojBmoMx Rpyry oahombcie* 
n^flxx peBHETejiefi, e exx TpyAU ocraiOTCfl ota']^hume noniiTRaME, 
ne npoHERaion^uME bx naccy oÓn^ecTBa e AOCTEraiOTx pe3yjn»TaTa 
pasB^ TOJBRO no OTA'kirbnE[MX nynRTaMx A^a, ne saTporEBafl e ho 
coBepmencTByfl ero i^traro oCxena. RaRX esb^eo, „HapoAHE^e- 
CTBO^ HanpaBEJOCL Rx fl3yqeHÍK) fl paBXECHeniK) paaiE^nuxx cto- 
poHx napoAHaro 6uTa, rx nocianoBR^ r6xx EAOft, RaRÍfl, no ero 
mh'6hík), 3aRJiK)qa;iECb bx dwwi 6uvk, e, naROHei^x, rx npaRTEHe- 

CROB A^flTeJBEOCTE BX CaiiOfi Cpejlík dTOrO ÓlITa E BX CMtlCJ^ 9TEXX 

EAeift. Bx ^BicTBviKi Esponn^ 6ujio ne OAHaacA^ roBopoHO o 
Ba^ecTBaxx EAeft napoAna^ecTBa e yRasuBajECb B']&ROTopK[fl cjia($iiE 
CTopoHu dToro ABHseBÍfl; EO roBopHJiocb ne OAnasAU e o tomx, 
HTĎ óiiBajo BX HeMx coHyBCTBesnaro e bx o6n^ecTBeEBOMx orso- 
meflÍE sBaMesaTejBEaro. TaRx-EasHBaeHoe ,,onpon^eEÍe^ eiBniRoifx 
^acTO ($iiBajio TOJBRO A^JOMx EAeajiflCTE^ecRaro yBie^enifl, nopii- 
BOMX qyBCTBa, ne copasir&pflBmaro he cboexx cpeACTBx, be toS híxe^ 
ROTopafl craBHJiacB ]s,jisl a^tojubeocte bx napoAsofl cpoA^i^. Mhofehx, 
RX coaMUlÍHiH), RasajiocB, ^TO ^onpo^enie* (Roxopoe obe c^ETajE 
BeoÓxoAEMUMx) AOJSBO saRjiioqaTBCfl noHTE BX orpEitanÍH OTx o6nie- 
CTBa (RaRX ne-BapoAHaro), oix Roxoparo c^HiaJOCB BysBUMx co- 
xpaBETB TOJiBRo BŠROTopufi sanacx nojy^eBBaro bx neiix Bay^Baro 

3BaBÍfl; BO, BO-nepBUXX, MOSBO 6uJ10 yCOMBETBCfl BX TOMX, ByacBO 

jiE „onpon^eBÍe'', Aase eciHÓEi ono saRjio^ajiocB tojibro bx nepe- 

MÍB'6 ROCTH)Ma E BB'Í^niflflrO 06u^9lSI, a bx OCO($eBBOCTE eCJIEÓU BX 

BeMx noApasyMi^BaJiCfl e 0TRa3x otx B'i^ROTopuxx o^u^^aeBX i^ebeje- 
soBaBBaro o6n^ecTBa; BO-BTopuxx, mosbo Úujío 6u cnpocETB, hto 
eeiE6Ei nepBafl cepia napoABEROBx, caEBmBCB {nocjrb onpon^eBÍfl) cx 
napoAOMx, npenecjia cx co6oio bx BOByio cpeAy HtROTopiifl Bocno* 
MHBaBÍfl o BayqBOMx sBasÍE (npeAnojiarafl ero ^eitobue npEirbneBÍfl 
RX Bapo;(B£iMX nojiBsaMx), OTRjAa Mor.io 6u noqepnaxBCfl 3to snaBÍe 

BO BTOpOft CepÍE BapOABHROBX, BX EXX BOBOMX nOROJrlBÍE, ROTOpOMy, 



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HÁPOAHAJ! rPÁHOTHOGTB. 253 

iiaBH;^HMOMyy ee cjr^AOsajio 6u yse BiixoAHTk hsi napo^HOfi cpe^u^ 
BOcnpHHflTOfi Hxi npeAHiecTBeHHHKaMH? HaAO 6ujio 6íi Hjrn npefiu- 
BaTB vb BTOft cpeA'^, A-iH BOSBpaxa Bi» KOTopyco 6uj[a npes^e npH- 
HeceHa sepxBa «onpoiii,eHÍfl", h cji^AOBaTe^BHO np^(5£iBaTB vhThvA 
HeB&secTBa^ Roropaa OTJia^aeTb axy cpexy, npeAOcraBJíeHHyH) canofi 
eei&b, BJiH onflTB buxoabtb hbi uesL jí^a npioÓpŠTeHÍfl 3HaHÍfi, bo3- 
MOSHaro TOJBEO Bx q)eA% oipsi^aeMaro ,o(5ii^ecTBa", buxoahtb cb 

PHCROMX CHOBa OTOpBaXBCfl OTl dTOFO HapO^a H CB HeO($XOAHMOCTBK> 

onflTB HOBaro „onponteHifl". OqeBBAHO, hto btotb Óes^ECxojiMut 

SpyPB npOHCXOAHTB 0TB TOft HJÍH ApyPOft HeupaBHJIBHOCTU Vb nOHH- 

KaHÍB i^ijiaro Bonpoca o ^apo^HOfl shshh h o(5pa30BaHÍH: sejame 
cjyaiHTB napoAy Bcrpi^aeTCfl Cb HCTOpnqecBHMx y^a^eHieirB napo^a 
orb o($pa30BaHHaro Bjacca, e Jie^mutt dHrysiasMi rx Hapo^HOMy Hexe- 
pecy BHymaeTi mucjib o HenocpeACXBeHHOHx, C0BepmaeH0M'B TOT^acB, 
HanojfHeHÍH Tofi nponacTH, Roropafl b'b Teneme bžkobi fijbjusM na- 
poAi* OTB o($padOBaHHaro h Buicrb npeBHJierHpoBaHHaro BJiacca^ 
Bjra, ApyrHHH cjOBaiíH^ TaRi ose EHane ycrpaHEXB EcxopE^ecRÍft 
pesýjiBxaxi, jiEinaBniifi HapoAnyio Maccy BOSMoamocxE npocBŠnt^HÍfl, 
RaRi Bi xo se BpeMfl ohi HaxoAHJicfl wb BROHOMEqecROMi pa6cxB%. 
„HapoAHE^ecxBo^ ecxoahjio esi nopi>iBOB'B qyBCXBa e estb esbícx- 
Hux^B xeopifi fl caMO cos^aBajio ESB^cxHiufl o($niiecxBeHHUfl qyBCxsa 

E XeopiE: CB OAHOfi CXOpOHEI, 6UJIH SpíbCb OXrOJIOCRfl OSEAaHÍft, 

BosÓysAeHHHXi H^RorAa RpecxBflHCROH) pe4>opMoň; cb Apyrott, ne* 
OOMHŠHHO oxpasajiflCB Kb uewb yqeHÍfl noeMniaro coipajtEsna, m 
rocyAapcxBeHHaro coii^iajiESMa BRjncwxaibHo; naROHei^, 6bijie sA^cb 
fl oxrojiocRE* xoro caei^iajBHaro e ECRjno^ExeJiBHaro napoAOJHotfiE^ 
soxopoe H']^RorAa BEiCRasBiBajiocB wb caaBflEoij^EJBcxB^. Ha nepBOHi 
njai^ cxajii HapoAHtiĚ EHxepecB e „napoAHaB eaca". Bo hme 
flX'b nocJi^AOBaxejiE hob^ífo y^enifl ycEjiEBajECB ycxanoBEXB xeope- 
TE^ecRÍB ^ocHOBu HapoAHE^ecxBa^, vjsíh BCflRÍe, caMHe rjyÓORÍe bo- 
npccBí 4>^oco4>ÍH, EcxopÍE, co^ioJO^ifl, dXERE, A&se no88ÍE, pima- 
jncb sa-HOBO ao npeAnojoLaraeMUM^b xpeÓOBaHÍflMi^ Hamefi HapoAHofi 
EAeE. PflAOMi ci> dXEM^b ELSE pa3BOo6pa3flUfl opaRXE^ecRÚi nonuxRE 
c6ďB3flXbCfl Cb flapoAOM'b, npoEERflyxbCJi fla a^*^ ero baobme, pas' 
xbjmTb CB Bflaťb flfiosie ero HaxepiaJibHyK), seMJeA^^BnecRyio SESEb, 
Aifl ^ero ocflOBUBajiECb „EHxeMBreflXflbiE seioeA&tb^^ecRÍa rojioeíb'' 
H X. n. BosBpafl^eflie r^b sapoAy npoESBeJio i](&[£itt pba^b pasjíEi- 
HHX'b ^piťb „onpon^eflifl^, B'b Roxopux^b bi* nocjriAHee BpeMB xaRyio 
poJb HrpaH)x% xyMaflHUfl yqeEÍfl rpaj^a JI. H. TcAicxoro. EEi,e paflbme 

HapOAHERE AOAyHUBaJECb AO E3B'£cxflaro EpOXEBOnOJIOSeHÍfl EHXeJl- 

JH^eHI^E E HapoAa, npE qeifb nepBafl oxBeprajiacb, RaRi aenpa- 
BHJbBO cyn^ecxByiOE^afl ea cvbrb; xenepb cxa^i nponoB^AOBaxbCJi 



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254 HlvCTHHKl, EBPOnu. 

^eMieji^b^ecRiK tpjxh, nas^ caMaa pasyMHafl ^pna qeiOB^qecBaro 
Tpy^a; npe^aBajiRCb ocysAemio ropová h „ropoACRaa i^HBHJiHsaivfl^, 
npH qeMx BEieMviTeEnivi npe^^iarajiocb EHcejiHTLCfl wh AepeBHH) (ne- 
asBÍCTHO Ha íeŘ cneTB h Ha qbH seMJiH) h t. ;í. KoHnaiocB ue- 
BOo6pa3HMofi nyiaHRi^efi uucjieft, rxb 3a6iiBajiBCB, HaKoneui, caMiie 
ajieMeHTapnue ^bíjítu A^fiCTBeTejiLHocni. Ta ciHxifiHOCTb Bonpoca, 
o ROTopott MU roBopHJiH, BURassBajacb Bo BceMi ea o&heui. 

Ho ;^aBH() 6EiJia h, ecJH He ooíHÓaeMCfl, B03pocTaeT'b xpyraa 
CTopona HapoAHHHecTBa, Roxopafl, HanpoTHBTi, saciyaidBaeTii nojHaro 
co^yBCTBÍH H, npeAcraB.iJifl' ne Majio pasyMHuxi na^BHaHÍfi, oC^n^aeri 
H ropa3AO Óoji^e npoHHue pesyjibxaTu. 3Ta cropoHa 8aBjiK)^aeTCfl 

Bl npaBTH^eCBHXIb, XOTA ej^HHHHHUXl, yCHJliflXl COA^fiCTBOBaTb Ha- 

poAHOMy o6pa30BaHÍH). h pa^OMi cb dTBBTB Bi HsyqeHiH ero Hacros- 
n^aro nojromemfl h wh HsucBaHÍH cpe^CTBi, BOTopuH mofjih 6h ero 
yjyqmaxb. Bi* dxoirb nocji^AHeMi oTHomemn ^qpesBu^afiHO jho- 
^onuTHa KHHra r. DpyraBHHa, o ROTopofi 6ELia yse OTqacTH yrk^h 

B'b „B-feCTHHRi EspOnU** ')• ABTOpi — peBHOCTflHft HapOAHHKX, HC 

Tora paspa^a, RoropBift npeAnoíHxaeTb o(5.íieKaxb HapoAO-iH)6ie, xeo- 
pexB^ecRoe h jifiLT&e npaRTaqecRoe, b% x% hjih Apyria (j^aHxacTHqecRÍfl 
4)opMU, a xoro, Roxopufi HanpaBJíflexcfl b^ ocoÓeHHocxH na B3yTO- 

Hie A^HHlIZl* j^aBXOBl* HapOAHOfi 2KH3HH, KTb RpHXHqeCRyK) OI^^HRy 

H Ha yRasaníe ÓJiHmafimBx^b cpeACXBi co^McxBOBaxb napoxnoMy 
HHxepecy. Hacxoflni,afl RHHra nocBan^eHa cnei](iaJiBHO Bonpocy Hapo;^- 
Haro o($pa30BaHÍfl, Racaacb pasjuiqHux^b ^^opMii, bi RaRHX'B oho abh- 
sexca: aDxopi> roBopnrb o napo^HoSr mROJi^, o pacapocxpaneHÍi; 
rpaMOXHOcxH, o HapoAHuxi qHxajcbHax^, o pasHOcnoĚ ^heshoS xop 
roBJíi, o ny6jiHqHHXi qxcHÍax^ A^ia napo^a h x, n., o(5paniaexcfl 
H Ki> cxapHH*!, qxo($£i yRasaxb cocxoflHÍe HapoAHofi rpaMOXHocxH kb 
npemnifl spenena. B^b JlHxepaxypnoiťB 06o3pifiÍH 6ujio yRa3aH0, 
qxo Bi BxoM-B nocjišaBeM^B OTHoraeHÍH aBxopx BnaAaex^ bi h^roxo- 
pufl npeyBejHqeHÚi; HMeHHO 6ujio ysasaHO, qxo cxapnHHaa rpaMOT- 
HOCXB ne npeACxaBJífljia ^evo-jmóo npoqnaro h bhojih^ i^^ecooOpas- 
Haro, Ha qeifb mosho 6ujio 6u ocHoeaxB xpa^Hi^iK) coBpeMeHHOft 
„BOJiBHO-HapoAHofi" mROJibi. Co6cxBeHHO roBopfl, 9xa nocjr&AHfifl ne 
HysAft^acb 6u B^ apryneHxaxi h3'b XY-ro B^Ra; ajisl ea san^HTBi 
AOBOJiBHO 6ujio 6u H xoFo, qxo OHa cyn^ecxBOBajia Bi XIX cxojt&xíb, 
ecjDíHÓii caMa no ce6i ona saRjioqaJia B'b ce&b ynOManyxyio npoq- 
HocxB n i;'bjiecoo6pa3HOCXb. Co^epsanie RHere r. IIpyraBHHa qpes- 
BuqafiHO JiH)6onuxHO h nesaBHCHMO ox^ dxoft HCxopHqecROfi cnpaBRH, 

^) A. G. IIpyraBHHi. „3anpo€H napo^a b oÓAsaHHOCTH BEreuiHreHiaH Bio6jacTH 
yifCTBeHHaro paaBHiin h npocBin^eHÚi^. M. 1890. Cm. „B^cth. EepoiiH'' 1890, xeiuUSpB, 
JlsiepaTypnoe 06o8pÍHÍe, rxt ysasanH py6pHRii, na sasia pacna^aerca KHiira. 



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HAPOAHAfl rPAMOTHOCTB. 255 

H MU HSBJíeHeM^ H3^ HeJi H'ICBOJ[BBO AaHHhlXl, pHCyK)II^HX'B HOJKMKe- 

HÍe Ben^efi h HapoiHHqecBifi BsrjiflAi* ba caMuS BonpocB. 

3toti> B3rjiíi;t'B oSeapyaKHBaerca vh caMott o6meů nocraHOBB* 
jcbia, BOTopufi BupasaeTCfl h b^b sarjiaBiH bhhfb: „3anpocbi mipOAdk 
H oCHsaHHOcmu HHxejrjinreHi^ÍH''. Mu HHCBOJibRO ae Ay^aeMi npoTH- 
BoptqHTB osHAaeiK) no^TeHHaro aBTopa, hto „HHTejwHreHi^ifl", to- 
ecTb o6pa30BaHHoe oÓmecxBO, AOjaHa ci CBoefi cropoHu coaíSctbo- 
BaTb ycnixaiTB Hapo^naro otípasoBanifl; ho mu AftJieRO ne pa3A'i^fleM% 
Toro ]ipoTHBono;ioseHÚi, saBoe CTaBHTOi o($UBHOBeHHO y napo^HH- 
BOBX MeiKAy dTHMH AByMJi AO^flMH hbi^íh h BOTopoe RaBi 6u npe^' 
oojaraercfl sarjiaBieMi BHHrH. 06% 9tom'b npoTEBonojoseHÍH eapo^a 
I HHTejiJBreHiÚH 6ujio roBopeno o^eob mhofo; ne noBTopflfl Toro, qxó 
<$uio csasaHO no droMy npeAMery, MeniAy npo^BMi, bi ^Bícth. 
Esponu**, saMÍTiiMi, ^Toe^sa jih rjí$-HH6yAB Kp0MÍ nameft Jinrepa- 
Typu A'6ja^ocB noAOÓHoe npoTBBonojioaieHie. B% ApyrHXT> o6niecTBax^ 
craBHjnicb h craBBTCfl, h HHorAa bi caMo£ p^Boft 4^opir6, npoxHBO- 
oojoseHifl MesAy pasjH^HUMH BJiaccaMH OTHOCHTejiBHO npaBx hojh- 
mecRHrB, OTHOCHxejiBHO nojtosenifl con^iajiiBHaro, ho, Ba»eTCfl, TOJbRo 
y HacB craBETCJi aBiHTesa: HapoA'B h o(5pa30BaHHue jhoah. Bo bcb- 
S0M'b ;Q)yroMrB otfn^ecTBi Tanafl aHTHTesa He.HM&ia 6u CMucJia; 
o5pa30BaHHOCTb ne san^io^aerB bi ce5i^ HHqero npoTHBonojiosHaro 
HapoAHOMj, H Hysna 6ujia (5ojiBaiafl nyraHHi^a noHBTÍfi, qTo5u b30- 
tfpIcTH TaBoe npoTHBonojosenie. Moibho 6u;io 6u AyMaxB, qxo 
ciobom^ ^HHxejUHreHiíifl" xoxíjih CEasaxb hšhxo Apyroe; ho napoA- 
HHHecsafl JiHxepaxypa y6toAaexii, qxo A'6ficxBHTeJBH0 xoxtjiH npo- 
TiBonoiosHTB HapoA^* H o(5pa30BaHHux'B JiDAeft, cnyxuBBfl cxapHH- 

BQe TOJBH 06x OXOpBaHHOCXH BUCHIHXl BJiaCC0B'B OTB HapOAa, H30- 

^ybxafl o€o6oe napoAHoe MÍpOB033pÍHÍe, ne noxosee na naysy 
(KfpasoBaHHUx^B Bjaceon (bi napaJuiejiB cb HanaAeniflMH JI. H. Toji- 
croro Ha „Hay^Hyio naysy'' h bsbhxcjibhum^b 0CM'&iHÍeM'B ,,pa6oxu 
rojioBofi*), oxBepraa ropoA^ am AepeBHH, BOCXBanafl 8eMjreA*iJiBTO- 
asĚ xpyA^ H ne^Hoe MacxepcxBO (ajih ,(!*AHUX^ baobi") npeAno- 
mxejibHO nepeA^B xpjAOMX HHxejjiHreHXHHM-B, h x. n. BecBMa b4- 
poaxHO, ^TO aBXopi nacxoíímeft EHHra ne pasAiJiaexB Bxoro npoxHBO- 
BOJoseniH, H MU ynoMHHaeMi o neMi, Tro6u ycxpanHXB bosuoshoo 
HeAopasyM^j&HÍe. Cnei9a.iBHue HapoAHHSH, Boxopue BOo6n^e c^Hxaioxi 
3& HHTeJJllHreH^iefi RaByio-TO hpobhhhocxb oxHOCBxejiBHO eapoAa, mofjih 
(w HOBxoMy CTHxaxB sa HeK) x4 HjiH HHUíf oÓasaxeJiBcxBa ki napoAy, 
1 ec;iH6H OHH c^HxajiH, qxo HHxejiJiHreHi;ifl MOJKexi ^eMy-HH(5yAB 
yuTB HapoA'B (nep^ABo, Bas^ mu bba'&ib, nojiaraexCB, naoSopoxi, 
m> HHTeJiJHreHitifl AOJisna y^BXBCB y HapoAa), ohh roBopHJiH 6u 

Ofo y0<$fl3aHH0CXflX'B HHXeJIJIHreHiqH ^ . TaBHM'B 0($pa30MX, MU o(5p'6- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



256 BftCTHHB^ BBPOim. 

TaeMca bi HeAopasyMŽHÍH: B'BHeirB saMiOHaercfl oÓasaHHOCTb? Kto 
ycraHOBHJTB ee? U^iíi&n> jih HHTeJLIH^eH^ifl bosmoshoctb hchojihhtb^ 
9Ty oÓasaHHOCTB? 

05fl3aHHOCTB, ecjui6u ona cyn^ecxBOBajia, 3aBJiK)qajiacB tfu, o^e* 

BHAHO, Wb B03M0SH0 mEpOBOlTB HJIH, Bl Cyn^HOCTH, nOBCeiri^CTHOMX^ 

ycrpoScTB^ napoAHuxx mROJn, noTOMy hto bi npHHi^Biii hcbos* 

HOSHO A^TB mBOJiy OAHHM'B CJlOSLWb HaCejeHÍfl H OAHHMl irikTBO* 

CTflMi H He AaxB efl ApyrHMi. flfiji^ej ohceb saipyAHHTejiBHO ot- 
bíthtb Ha BonpocB, kto ycTaHOBHji-B 8Ty ofiasaHHOCTB. EcjH ycra- 
HOBJTflen ee caMa rpynna HapoAHHsoFB, BOTopaa Bce-xasH HenHoro- 
HHCJeHHa, TO noHflTHO, HTO efl Tpe6oBaHÍe He HH^en bi o6iiHHOK'b 
nopfl;^R']k Ben^efi hh najiMmaro aBTopniera. EAHHCTBeHHoe, ^:iu7> 
MOFja 6u 6uTh MOTHBHpoBana xaKafl „o(5fl3aHHOCTB^, tfsrjia 6ii hjb 
npocrafl xpucxiancRafl oÓflBaHHOcrb nOMoraxB ÓmsBMeujy hjh otfo^e- 
CTBeHHoe HyBCTBo, no6ysAaH)D^ee 3a6oTHTBCfl o BceHapoAHOM'B (Jjaii; 
HO, Kb coxsLjrkmiD, paasHiHUfl o^n^ecTBennufl rpynnu BecBMa 
pacxo;(flTCfl bi* noHEHanÍH 3Toro ójibtsl n, Mes^y Hpo^HHi, rpynnu 
BecBMa BJiiflTejiBHBifl nojiaraiOTB, ?to nápory cobc^m'b ne nysna 
TaBafl mROJia, vh Heo6xoAHMOCTH Boropofi yfiteAenii Apyrifl rpynoti 
ofin^ecTBa. Ecjih mu saxoTHMi cepBesHO otbšthtb Ha BonpocB o 

TOMl, HM^eTCfl JIH y HHTeJ[J[HreHAÍH B03M0SH0CTB HCHOJIHHTB npe^- 

nojiaraeMyH) o6fl3aHHOCTB, ^bi aojishu 6yAeiťB otbžthtb OTpHi^axeJBHO. 
%í) MOFB pásyMÍTB aBTop^ HOjíx HasBaHÍeMi HHTejíJiHreHiUH? Sxa 
cjlobo o6o3HaHaeT'B npocro o6pa80BaHHux'B Juoj^eŘy TO-ecxB o6niHp- 
HyH) Haccy HacTHUxi jiHit'B, pasc^HHuxi no Bckwb yrjiairB Hiine- 

pÍH, HHq'6M'B He CBfl8aHHHX'B, He HpeACTaBJUHOH^HXl JífiLT&e HHRaBOft 
B08H0SH0CTH OpraHESai^ÍH, JIBI^l eAHHHHHBIXl H T^M'B CaifUMl 6e3- 

CHJiBHHxi H tfesnpaBHHXTi AJifl Basoro-JiHÓo npeAHpiflTÍfl wb toite 
rpoMafl,HOMi pasMipš, KaBOft npeAnojiaraercfl „oÓaaaHHOCTBio" cjy- 
JKHTB o6pa80BaHÍH) i^aro napo^a. O^eBE^HO, a^hb stexi jihi^ ocraercA 
TOJiBBO BOSMOXHOCTb HHiaTB 6jiarífl no3BejiaHÍfl hjih, caMoe 6ojiBmee^ 

COA'Í^SCTBOBaTB HapO^HOMy 06pa30BaHÍK) RaBHM'B-HH6yAB JtHHHinrb 

TpyAOifB, AeHesHUMi nosepTBOBaHÍeMi h t. h., Boropue onasyTCH, 

ROHe^O, MHRpOCROHHHeCRHMH Bl CpaBHeHÍH CB rpOMa^HOCTEKV 

HpeACTOfln^aro A^a. He na^o 3a($fiiBaTB npHTOMi, iTO^Aase btot^b 
jEHHnfi TpyAx H nosepTBOBanie Moryrrb ne ao&th ao CBoero HasHa- 
Henífl: RaRofi-jn6o yHHTejiB-AOÓpoBOjeiti, RaRafl-HH^y^B RHHSBa 
(„AemeBJíe nsTaRa^), HS^^annafl cnei^iajiBHO js^jisi HapoAHO& mROJra 
HJIH fl,jisi HapoAHaro HTenifl, JierRO Moryn Óuib OTBeprHyru JiHi^anH 

HJIH B^AOMCTBaMH, SaBŠ^yiOH^HlíH HIROJIOfi. Il0A0($H£IlfB OÓpaSOlTb^ 

MOseTB npexcraBHTBCfl Bonpoci: b'b hoitb coctoatb „sanpocu na- 
po^a*" H RTO HX'B onpe;^^^jrB? HsBto^HO, hto HMenno no hoboaj 



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HAPOXHAA rPAMOTHOOTB. 257 

lapoAHoi mROJBi dTH „sanpocu^ oi[peA'&iflK)TCfl Becbiia pasíH^HiDii, 
juise npiíMO npoTHBonaiosHiqrL, ofipasoirb, a mieHHO, msi eapo^a 
n pasHHxi CTopoHi npexJiaraiOTCfl ABa cobcím'b pasHBie xena 
mKOjrb H xBa paspa^a TreHÍa. KaRÍe „sanpocu'' jsíbAB^erh csM-h 
BapoA^, STO vh cyn^HOCTH HeudsicTHo: hhrto ne Mon 6u csasaTB, 
KB HeMy npímuia 6u vb 9tomx eiyna^ BceoÓn^afl no^ana rojiocoBi, 
ecjni6ii OHa Morja 6íitb ycrpoena. 

TaRHMi odpasoMi, vb HacTOfln^eiix nojoseHÍH Ben^efi aeropi 
HacTOfliaeft KHHrH nocrynHirb 6hi B^pn^, BO-nepeiixx, ecsaCu caMue 
sanpocu napo^a nocraBiurb js^kíowb ne pimenHEiMi, a HCROMUiťB^ 

a BO-BTOpiIXX, eC&HLÚU ;9 0<Sfl8aHHOCTH^ HanpáBHJTB He Rl HHTejJIH- 

reniÚH, Roropas ecTB RjiaccB BecBMa Heonpe^^&ieHHiifi, coBepmeHHo 
HeopraHHsoBaHHufi H, HaROHei^i, He Hiiiioii^ifi hh npaBa, hh bos- 
MOXflocTH pacnopflsaTBCfl napCAHofi mROJoft h rpaMOTHOCTBio, a k% 

riWb BÍAOMCTBaMl npaBHTeJIBCTBeHHUMab, rOpOACRHMl H SeMCRHMl^ 

«m>pEifl mAioTb BjacTB HaA'B napOAHOfi mRaioft ejih hm<6h)ti hs- 
BterHoe npaBO yHacrifl «b ea ycrpofiCTB^: sto — MHHHcrepcTBO Ha- 
poAHaro npocB^iEieHifl, Aj^oBHoe, BoeHHoe h hhiia BÍAOMCTBa, hitéh)- 
wfsí CBOH) iDROjy, HaROHei^i ropoACRoe h sencRoe npeAcraBHTeJibCTBO. 
Bi» dToB nocraHOBRŠ a^o 6ujío Úu coBepmeHHO acho: nHcaieiib, 
npHHHMaioiiúfi R'B cepAAy nHiepecu napo^Hoft rpaMOTHOCTH h o6pa- 
aOBamfl, otfpanvuicfl 6u np^MO Kh rbwb Bjacrairb hjh t^mi npe^- 
emBHTaiflirB otíu^ecTBa, Roiopue hmícotb A^ficTBHrejiBHoe npaBO h 
BOOfosHOCTB npHHHMaTB t6 hjih Apyrífl o6ii;ifl Mip£[ no dTOMy npeA- 
lery. Koryta, bmžcto Toro, oh'b odpaiHaercfl r'b HHTaiJiHreHiKiH, ohx 
ciaBim BonpocB ea npesBiinafiBO ROJie($JiH)myH)Cfl no^y: „HHTejjH- 
reeitifl'. Rasi TaROBaa, ne HOserB npHHHMaTB HHRaRHXii mipx; 
eciB($Ei Aftse OHa, BCs^ACTBÍe ytftsAeHifl asropa, yB^pHjacB ei ne- 
o6xoAHMOCTH paóoraiB jím napOAHOfi niROJiti, ona, bi huhíhihhxi 
yeioBÚizi^ jsíkíí^j ne Hn^kia 6u hh Majnšfimaro npasa BMŽmaTejiiBCTBa 

BB 8T0 A^O H BCfl FB I^OITB CBOeBTB COCTaB^ 6UJI& 6u 6e3CBJ[BHa 

nepeA^B nepeuirB HHcneRTopoATB napoAHuxi yqnjiHn^i. Rone^no, 
BosepTBOBaHÍH ?fiB HapoAHOfi HiROJiBi He sanpen^eHBi, no seprBOBa- 
TeiH) npHiDJiocB 6u OTRasaTBCfl on BCflRaro ynacrifl wh ynoxpeÓJie- 
híh ero nasepTBOBanífl, h ecmóu cJiyHHiocB, hto ohi HMŠerB oahhi 
KTjflA^ Ha „sanpocu" napoAa, a niROJiBHafl aAMHHHCTpai^ifl — APyrofi, 
10 oRasajocB Óh, tto noacepTBOBanie MOseiTB Óutb ynoxpefijieHO 
upoTHRB MHCJieft sepTBOBaxejifl. IIoao6hi]mx oCpasoATB, ecjniču peB- 
BsreiB HapoAHaro oÓpasoBania, y Roroparo naAotiu npeAnojioz^HTB 
KBicTHHfi onpeA^eHHufi BsrjiflA^ Ha saAaHH aioro oČpasOBanifl, 
pfanHJH OTAaTB eny cbo& jH^H£ift.TpyA'B, h dra ^opiia nosepTBO- 
CHOBa Horjia 6u bctpíthtbca cb npenaTCTBÍAMH. HaRonei^i, 

T<na I.— HHBAPfc, 1891. 17 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



258 ffbGTHIISl EBPOnU. 

Kasi HH sacayxHBaerB yeaseHia jhoÓobb k% ^jesHeify n {^HJiaHTpo- 
nifl, HaiťB Basercfl, hto ctojb sejusoe a&io, jsavl HapoAHoe o6pa- 
30BaHÍe, He Mosers 6uTb ocHOBBiBaeno na gahoS {^HjaHTponÍKi. 

TaSHMIi oCpaSOlfB; BOUpOCX, ROTOpufi aBTOpl RHHFH, nOBH;iHMOM;, 

xorbix nocraBHTb Becbiia yHHBepcaJbeo, vh cyn^HOCTH, nocraBJíeH^L 
o^eHB TkcRO, 3a^b, Basi H BO Bc&xob HHHXi Bonpocaxi HameĚ 
o6ii^ecTBeHHOfi h Hapo^HOfi hh3hh, Ta SHTeiJiHreHivifl, RaByio xo^en 
noApasyiflBaTB r. IIpyraBOHi, hohth cOBcbiťB 6e8ceJibHa, a HHxeji- 
jHreHuifl Booónie, EaKas ecTB na xkrk^ npeAcraBJíflerB hštto BecBMa 
HeonpeA^JieHHoe, ÓesxapaKTepHoe, h miybctndLSi ?acTB ea (rpy^HO 

CSasaTB, Bl BaKOM^B 0(h>eM^, B^B (5oJ1B1IIHHCTB^ HJIU MeHBímiBGTBi) 

CMOrparB ea Ben^H coBcbwh unsHe h BOBce ne npeAnojiaraeTB Toft 
^o6fl3aHHOCTH'', saByH) BOSJíaraen na Hee r. IIpyraBHHi. ÁBTOpi 

MOSSeri BOSpaBHTB HaMX CB HÍROTOpUMl HerOAOBaHÍeifB, HTO JIH>Aett 

Tasoro poAa ohi h ne npn^HCJfleTB Kh HHTejJíureHipH; ho ohh 
HOCflTx Bc6 efl npHSHaBH — nojiy^HjíH cpe^Hee hjih BEicmee oCpaso- 
Basie, HHTaH)rB řaseni h sypna^u, cjiy^arB b% Rani^ejjipíflx^ h 
AenapraMeHTax^, ^'^ficTByiOTB b-b jiHTepaiypi h t. jí,. npEXO^nrcfl, 
CJi^AOBaTejiBBO, onpeA^flTB h to, o sasoi HETeunreHi^H H^erB 
p£^ Roro HaAo Ri Hefi dphhhcibtb. 

TaROBii MHoropasjíHqHBifl HeAoyBfŠHÍfl, RaRÍa B036ysAaerB TeHa^ 
flocTaBJíeHHafl r. IIpyraBHHtiirB. ^^o ORasuBaexca cobcšmi ne TaB'B 
npocTO, RaRi OHO npeACTaBjfleTCfl cb HapoiHEiqecRofi tohrh spí^HÚi. 

Ho Sa BCŠITB liWby Vh TOWb 60AÍe vbCBOWh CMUCJI^, Vb ROTOpOlfB 

CA^Ajerb noHHHaTB nocTaBJíeHHui BonpocB, BMeHHO bb cmuci^ yRa- 
sasit Ha qacTHyH), HHorAa eAHHHHHyH), A'i^TejiBHOCTB npexannux^ 
peBHHTOJiefi HapoAHaro oÓpasoBaHÍs: RHura r. DpyraBHHa npeAcras- 
jiaerB, RaRi mbi roBopn^H, BejiHHafimiň EHTepeci. HanaTB (tb ero 
co6cTBeHHaro TpyAa, BBymeHHaro, ohobhaho, caMofi npeAaHHofi jod- 
60BBH) Rx A'&ay HapoAHaro o(5pa30BaHÍji: aBTopi* cjAfljijn, 8to a^o 
no MHOxecTBy oTpuBOiHuxi cB^ACflift, pasÓpocaHHHXi no raseTairb 
H mícthbimti HSAaHÍflirB, co6upafl AaHHua o HapoAHKai niROj[axi>, 
^HTajBHflxx, o HapoAHofi RHHXHO& ToproBj']^, CTapaflCB npoeiÍAHTb 
BBFJiflAu HapoAa Ha padJiq^Hue thhu hiroju, BnenaT^^HÍfl napoA- 
HBixi qHTaTeJiefi orB rhhcb, nonaAaion^HXCfl bx hxi oChxoa^, h t. x. 
GaM'B OH'B, ROHe^HO, yÓtxAeni b^b toitb, wro HapoA'B A'i^ftcTBHTaiBHo 
Hn^erB oópasoBaHÍa; ohi co6HpaeT'B ^B,wru A^Te^BHOCTn qacxHux-E 
jiHpx, TaRi HJIH HHane 6jih3Rhxi h npHROCHOBeHHuxx R'B napoAaoft 

niROJlt H rpaMOTHOCTH, H T. A* nOHflTHO, WTO COfipaHHUO ^RTU MO- 

ryrB óbitb o^enB pasMHOseHii, h MoryTi ($qtb TO^wte onpeA^JteH&i 
pa3.iHqHUfl noApo6HOCTH HapoAHiix'B BsrjflAOBi H 4>aRTHHecRoe noao- 
3&eme niROJiu; ho oasno bo bcaromi c^y^a^, ?to a^o Ha^aio, h 



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HAPOAHAa rPAMOTHOCTB. 259 

BuicTb CB ApyrHMH ipy^aMH^ ROTopBie conpHKacaKn^Cfl ci Tbii% ace 
BonpocoMi, ara pa6oTa nocaysHTB ri BiiflCHeBÍK) BODpoca bi o6- 
n^ecTBeHHOMi MH^bnÍH, a noca^^^nee, pano h.ih hosaho, B03A'i^KcTByerB 
Ha o^(|)HiíiajiBHUfl uipu uo dTOMy npeAMery. KHHra r. IIpyrasHoa 
fl Bi HacTOfln^eiďB cBoeMi ofiieii'! cootín^aeTB mhopo JiK)6onuTH'IB- 
niBX^L CB^Aemfi o tom^ BasHOin» oén^ecTBeHHOMi h — CRaisesrB Aase — 
rocyAapcTBeBHOMi HHTepecb, Ranoft npeAcraBjflerE yMCXBeHHajar shbhb 
HapoAa, creneHB ero pasBUTia^ ROJifl?ecTBO h co^epsame SHamS, 
RaRBMfti OHI BjaA^eTB. Jl^ajite, ona cooÓa^aerB ctojb ae JiK>6onuT- 

HUfl CBtA^HÍfl o TÍX^ tfUTOBUXl (|)OpMaX'B, Wh RaRÍfl CRJaAUBaCTCfl 

yAOBjeTBopeHÍe yMCTBeHHuxi noipe^HOcrefi; HaROHe^^, hphboahtb 
pflA'B 4^aRT0B^ HacTHoft A^flTeJiBHOCTH Ha nojiBsy HapoAHaro oCpaso- 
BaHÍfl, npHirbpu Roropoft BnymaiorB HepiABO r.iy6oRoe yBaHienie ri» 
(SesRopucTHUMi jifyíiejísiwb Ha stomb xpyAHOirB noopeniflk. 

Co6paHHue (|)aRTBr, Rone^no. BecBMa pasHopoAHii. HaÓJiOAaTeJiH) 
npHXOAHTCfl onri^qaTB h ycntxn HapoAnaro o6pa30BaHÍfl, h ero sa- 
erofi, H 6jiaroHOJryHHoe pasBHxie hirojii h bxi ynaAORx, e 6jiaro- 
npiflTHUfl ycJiOBÍfl jííkjia. h netfjiaronpiflTHUfl. Bi rjas^ hoab nasBa- 
HÍeiTB: „rpaMOTHOCTB npesAe h lenepB^', aBTopB yRa3BiBaerB saj- 
Roe HOJioseHÍe a'^a bi npe^Rnee Bpeiffl. ^hcjio hirojix 6b[jio Rpafine 
HeaHawiejiBHo; Bi^ TO «Ao($poe crapoe Bpeiifl^ hhrto ne saAyiiuBajicfl 
nRaie eaA^B HeoÓxoAHMociBH) RaRoS-xo ocoÓeHHOfi noAroroBRE j[,m 
yHHTejfl HapoAHO&, „iiyacni^ROfi^ mROJiu. Canoe BBame napoAHaro 
yraxeJiH C9HTaj[0CB bi r.!ia3ax'B TorAamH^ro noMt^HHBaro o6n^ecTBa 

Iipe8pÍHH£IM'B, H CeJBCRÍfi y^HTeiB Vh dTOtt CpeA^^ flBJIflJICfl Vh noji- 

HoiTB CMucjrb ciOBa napieM'B — sa^iRHifB h OTBepsennBiarB. 

^^.To6u HarjiflAHO y(%AHTBCfl, nacROJiBRO bi caMOirB a^^ 6es- 
orpaAHO 6hjio nojfoaeme HapoABaro o6pa30BaHÍ2 1 5 — 20ji4TBTOMy 
Ha8aA'B, HaiTB coBepmenno He3aH'6MB yxoAHXB bi RaRyio-HH^yAB rjyniB 
npoBHHi^iH, a AOcraTOHHO npHnoMHHTB, RaROBO Óujio cocTOflHÍe na- 
poxHaro apocB^n^eHifl bi rjiaBHuxi i^eHTpaxi Hameft yMCTBenHofi 

X1I3HH — Vh CT0.IH^aX•B". 

Bb npHM'6p'B aBTOpi npHBOAHTB H3B'ICTH£Ifl I^H^pLI TOpOACRHXl 

HaHa^BHBixi yqHJHH^i fb ňerepóypri na npocTpaHCTB^ ABCjith ji^tb, 
ffTb 1876 no 1886 r.; bt» Ha^aJií aioro AecaTHjrtTHaro nepíoAa bi 
nerepCyprife 6bijio Bcero 16 ropoACRHX^B nanajiBHHX-B yqHJHmx, vb 
soTopBixx ROH^aio RypcB OROJO 80 ^enoBiRi — Ha 750.000 »h- 
TOieft, cocraBJíflBniHxi TorAa nacejieHÍe IlerepCypra; saT^Mx din 
Ha^aJibHEifl yHEJiHn^a nepemjiH wh saB^A^Bame ropoACRoro ynpaBJíe- 
HÍfl H vh 1887 roAy ihcso hirojii cb 16 Bospocio ao 230, a 
HBCJíO y%^^HXca — otb 800 ao 11.000 (bi nacToaníyH) Manýry bth 
ip^pH emfi ÓojiBHie). Abtop'b npnÓaBJíflerB ri axoMy, tto nepsoe 

17* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



260 B^CTHHVB EBPOnU. 

HapojilHoe yujHn^e fb nerepfiypri ocHOBaao 6ujio SHaMeHETUMi^ 
HoBHKOBuiťB Bi 1777 roAY, ^ ^^ AOJiSHO ÓBUío npofiTH i^ijoe 
CTOJ^TÍe jíflsi Toro, htoÓu hhcho HanajiBHuxi mROJTB b% nereptfyprí^ 
Bupacjio AO 16. 

Bx Mocbbí bx 1869 roAy 6ujio tojbbo 5 HapoAHtix'E mBOJii^ 
CB 250 yHeHEBEMH; bi 1881, ioboji^ Úujlo 43 n^cio yHesHROBi* 
Aomjio AO 4.700; bi 1886 roAy moojvh Óujío yse 73 h ^ECJl(y 

yieHHKOKb AOXOAKJIO AO 8 Ví THCflTO. 

9tH npHM'6p])I HCJlBSfl, OAHaBO, He HESBaTb HCKJfOqHTeJbHUMH^ 

oco($eHHO npHH^pB IleTepfiypra. ?to Heotfu^afiHoe yBejraneme HHOia 
mBOJii *6uj[o 8A'6cb CHacTJiHBOH) cjy^aftHOCTBH), saBHCŠBineio ori^ 
c^acTJiHBO-CJiy^a&Haro noA(k)pa ropoACKHXi npeAcraBareJieft, hm^b- 
niHxi y($jbsA6HÍe bi HeofixoAUMOCTE iukojiu^ bhaho h3'b loro, ^to 
HHrA'^ Bi> ocrajikHofi Poccíh ne 6ilso AOCTHrnyTO xaBoro éjtecTjin^ara 
pesyjiBxaxa; AaJieRO orcra^a Aaace MocBBa, nepBon^ecTOábHafl cro- 
jiHi^a, BOTopaa ropAHicfl o6EiBHOBeHHO, hto HAerB BnepeAB pyccRaro 
iipocB']kii^eHÍfl; vh ApyrHxi ropoAaxi h y^^Aaxi mu Tkwh ueuie 
MorjH 6u HafiTE HT0-Hfl6yAB noAOÓHoe. 

Abtop'b Cb yAOBOJiBCTBieirB co6EpaerB CBÍkjí,emsi o6i yBeiE^eHÍB 
HflCJra mBOJTB bi npoBEHi^iE, ne tojbro bx oÓjacTAXx, em^ioii^bxi 
seMCTBa; BOTopufl BOo6ii^e cqjibho noABiCHyjiE HapoAHyio mBOjy, ho 
H wb ^poBEH^iflX'B, ne EMiiomflTh seMCBaro npeAcraBExejiBCTBa. Ohs 
CB yAOBOJBCTBieiTB OTBfj^qaeTi pasjíE^Hiifl M^CTHEífl CBEA^xejBCTBa o 

TOMl, BaBX BpeCTBflHe I^^HflTB lEBOJty; HO BO BCflBOMl CJiy^BŠ^ 

ycnixi eo^e spaSne OTHOCExejeHi. OTHomeme napoAa vh mBOjrí^ 
Bce eusfi HeflCHOy h sa noc^AHee Bpeiifl, ocoÓjiebo co BpeMenE no- 

EBJíeHifl I^epBOBHO-npHXOACBHX^ IIIBOJI'B, npCACTOETB BUflCHETB, Ha- 

CBOJiBBO coBHaTejBHO BpecTBJíHe „i^^HflrB mBOJiy^. Uo BpaftHefir 
uipí BMeHHO Bi HOCjrbAHee BpeMfl npEXOAflJiocB ne pa3i> ^raxaTv 

HdB^CTÍa E8X npOBflH1](ÍH O TOMl, TTO H B% CpeA% 8eHCBEX'B COÓpa- 
Hifi, H Bl CaMOM'B BpeCTBflHCBOlfB HapOA'^ BUCBaBBIBaiíOCB HOpflAO^* 

Hoe paBHOAymie bi> seMCBoS niBOjri^ e Aase nojraaji totobhoctb^ 
BaBpuTB ee, Esi-sa Toro, Bone^no, hto noJiBsa es ifajio BpasyME- 
xejiBHa E seMCBÍe jh)ae sejiaH)TB yAepsaTB AenBrE, Boropufl hijih 
na eA coAepsanie ^). IIoaoÓheixi 4>aBT0Bi, ($e3'B comhíhúi, mofjio 



^} Bi oxHoft MtcTHofi raserl ^HraeMi, vb H0ii6pi 1890 to^a: 
^OÓCKypaHTH, npHBepseHKH MpaKa h HeeteecTBa noxHmiaDrfc noHOMHory foiobk 
xaxe vb seMCKHxi coÓpaHÍaxi. HamH oón^ecTBeHHHe f/buTeia co CTyneHBSH oa cry- 
leHbKj xomjiH, HasoHeiTB, xo TpeóoBaeu boxbophtb norojoBHoe HeBisecrao cpexv 
KpecTBJíHi. FjiacHHĚ rop6aTOBCEaro seMCKaro co6paHÍ;i, B. A- OÓtbxhobi (xa Cyxer^ 
6e8CMepTH0 dro bmh), sa^BHii rpoMonacno, hto bcI yciuia recyxapCTBa, seMCTBa h t. x* 
Ha oonpHiai pa3BHTÍii rpaifOTHOCTB H o6pa80BaHHOCTfl q)exH Kpecfthsvb — HaiHmHH m 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HÁPOAHAfl rPAVOTHOCm^. 261 

4ÍII 6uTb COÓpaHO OHeHB MHOrO, H A^fl EpílBHJIbHOfi OI^HRH JífbSí- 

^TBBTe.iBHaro nojioaseHÍfl dirojiii cs^AOBaio 6u npHHflTB vb cooópa- 
seHÍe H TaBÍe ^asTii, ^to6u ne nexaTB ce6fl nuumsisoíHy a bm'6ct^ 
Cb tími xora 6u TeopemnecRn coo6pa8HTB, ^irb Horjia 6u ($htb 
msojia oÓedne^eHa oti uojí,o6BUTb Biri^maTeJiBCTBi, rpo8fliUHX'E ca** 
MOMy efl cyiuecTBOBaHÍH). 

Gpem TaBoro sanyraHHaro nojiomeHÍfl mBom oipaxHoe BnewT- 
xbme npOHSBOAmrB ^'^TejiBHOCTB ot^^bhbixi jíhi^b (onaTB ue 
BHaeiTB, BaBi Bejiiiso hx^b ^hcjio na iipocrpaHCTB^ PocdĚCBOft Hime- 
Píh), no rjiy6oBOHy y6Š2KAeHÍH) OT^aion^Exi CBOft Tpy;^^ h cboh mo* 

JOAUfl CHJIU Ha 8T0 CBpOMHOe H, O^HaKO, Wh paSHUXl OTHOmeHÍflX^ 

Tflsejoe nonpHn^e. B^ beheí r. IIpyraBHHa mh HBraeirB o xaBOt 
X&nejiBHOCTH BHi[3fl ^. H. niaxoBCRoro: „Kn. ]í,. H. maxoBCBOft 
— MOJOJioft "lejtOBteB, hícbojibbo jri^TB TOMy Hasax^ OBOtfqHBmift 
sypcB vb OAHOiTB H31 CTOJiii^Huxx yHHBepcHTeTOBi. IIo nponcx02B* 
xemio, no poACTBenniíMi cbasami h t. n., eny npeAcroflJia nojmafl 
BOSMOsnocTB saHflTB HSB^Hoe, Cojrbe mm mewbe Bni^noe, 6oji'be 
HJ0 Menše Buroj^noe n tohbh spinifl Jinqnaro diaronojiyHifl no* 
joseme vh tomx np^BEJierapoBannoirB Bpyry, b'b BoropoMy owh 
npnnaAJiesajix no CBoeiiy pos^enÍK). Ho ne cioxa, ne bi dxy cpe^y 
^raKB-nasuBaeicaro j^BUcmaro oÓn^eciBa'' , apHcroBpaTHHecBHXi CBjíseft, 
npHBfuierii h (jiecran^iixi BapBep^, BJiOHHJiacB ero CHMnaTÍH. Om 
xoT&rB SHBoro, peajiBnaro A'i^a; oni crpeirajicfl bb ^'^TejiBHOCTH, 
BOTopafl 6hi flenoq)efCTBenno nanpaBJfoacB na noJiBsy napo^a, bo- 



jtaxe BpexHH, ito rpaMOTHocTB KpecTBjraaifi Bpexaa (noieana ona, BHXHTe jh, tojbko 
Be-KpecTMHa]n>, AftBaji hite BoaMOXHocTb. dojj^hbi oópasoBaeie, oÓianomiBaTB specTbAHi 
9 Booóme HasHBaTB xeHBni). fi^uzAň BHxoxsa r. OóraxHOBa Hamia noxxepxsy co cto-. 
poHH riacearo IQBaHBHHa, csasaBmaro, hto sa 12 iítb cjyx6H yisxBHMi BOEHCKHm 
Ha^UkiBHHBOHi OHI Tose Ha6ju)xaii, HTO rpaMOTHue HOBo6paHiui— ao ÓojBmeĚ ^acTS 
'6e3HpaBCTBeHBBe copsaBue h jk>xh nponamie... IjacHtift hbi Kpecr&aHi A. A. Cipa- 
KOBib BaiiiTHJi: „floMHjyfiTe, HBani ^[(ifBTpieBHTL! B^ab h a 9 lin coctod vchomi 
BDíHCiaro npHcyTCTBia, h Bcerxa bb 6iuh bi BOCTopri otb rpaMOTHHXi H0Bo6paBKeB%. 
Bh roBopojH: „botb nocMorpnie Ha rpaMornaro HOBO^paHi^a— ohi h yMBie, h spaB- 
«TBeHBÍe, H noHBTJiHBie HerpaMOTHaro". Y aaci. vb IIoxi>B6jiOHCKofi bojocth caMan 6ix- 
oaa CHpora na boojlíabúi spozH crapaeTCB o6jhhtb rpaMorb cBoero cuHa, saTim ot- 
flpaBJueti ero m* yciyxenie bi> AcTpaxaBB, OpeaóyprB, CapaTOBi h np. Cmotphbib — 
loxit ^epesi 3 — 4 napenB noiy^aeTB 200—500 py6. xaioBanBa, BOSBpanmeTCJi bi le- 

pesraO, XeHHTCJI H CTaBOBHTCB HCnpaBHHMl XpeCTBAHEHOHl*'. Tá, niBaHBHTB CBOHJ^y- 

ZMiea^ a r. O&tMmMovb craii xbsasHBaTB, hto specTBBHBHy h Hesa^m sapaóaTBBan 
niLi Óoibuiíji a^hbiu*', h t. x* 

Bi xeKa6pBCKoft khafí „B. EsponB** 1890(„Il8nb o6n;ecTBeHHofi zpoHHKH*')pa8Csa8aBa 
ůfUíL HCTopía oxuoĚ seMCROĚ mBOjB, KOTopaa exBa ue cx^aiacB xepTBOD BOSMyrH 

TeHbHOft HHTpBFH. nOCOÓHHKOlil BJH HCBOJHHTeJieMl KOTOpOĚ XBHIOCb BpeCTBJlHCBOe 06- 

^eono, Kone^HO, ho nosaBaBoiee arHifi, ^to oho ^qtBHTB anojiy*^. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



262 BftCTHHBl* EBPOmi. 

Topas nocraBHJia 6u ero jibi^ohi ri JiHi](y ci Maccofi A^peseHCRaro 
jiiOAa, co bcímh ero HysAaifH h sanpocaMH. H boti> Ofl'B 'bAerB 6*^ 
npoBHHi^H), saHHHaerL CRpoMHoe Mto'0 ^saB^Ay^icn^aro xosflficTBeH- 
HOK) qacTbK) y^HjiHmx" Bx BecbcroHCROMi seMCTB*, TBepcROfi ryóep- 
híh, h HaqHHaeTi pafiOTaTB ea diowb nonpnn^^ cb yBjie?eHÍeMir 
HCRpeHHO y6i»AeHHaro qe-iOBiRa** (exp. 23). 

IIOHflTHO, ^TO RH. maXOBCROft OTHeCCfl Rl jAjI^ CTb SeJiaHÍeM'B 

HsyHHTb ero fb ochob'6, h r'b cnacTkio b'e tomx Rpa'6, rjiík owb pa- 
CoTaerB, owb uon Ha6jiH)AaTB Beckna ($JiaronpúiTHiie pesyjiBTaxEi, 
AocTHraeMue seMCROfi niROJíofi. „Rhasb IQaxoBCRofi sa^ajica CJii- 
Ayioa^HMu BonpocaMH: RaRoe Boo6iAe nwkerb Bua^eHie wh jbsAir 
mROJia, Ha Roropyio ipaiBTCfl ne Majio seMCRHxi j^euen? ORynaerx 
JH OHa HBAepsRH, ea nee npoHSBOAHMUB? TaRi jih crosrB a'^o, 

RaRl OHO AOJSHO CTOflTL, H HXb CJI'lAyerB EdWbEWHh Vh EeWby VTOCu 

raROJa HcnojHfljia CBoe uadHaneHie? 

„IIpeatAe Bcero,— rOBopHTB rm3b IKaxoBCRoft, — coseptuenua 
HecoMHfbHHO HpeseuHaůHoe paseumie ipaMomnocmu ez ytbsdrb. ELa 
naMBTH y mhofhxx en^e xaRoe Bpeiifl, Ror^^a bi jifipeBwb rpaHOT- 
HBífi 6uji% Bx ptjiROCTB, Ror^a HeROMy Óujio npoHecTB bi i^epRBn, 
RpoM^ A^fl^Ra, Ror^a n nHCBMO-To npoHecTB hjh HanecaTB MysHRy 
ÓBiJio TpyAHO. TenepB yatx Bce 8to — ^aBHO MHHyBmee... HanjiuBi 

yHeHHROBX Bl 3eMCRÍfl mROJIEI TaRl BeJIHRl, TTO |,B1> 60JIBinHHCTB'& 

MŠCTHOcrefi ybsAa mROja ne vb cocroflem bb^^ctetb Bd^x'B»ejafO' 
mjATb nocrynHTB bi nee. IIpHxoAHTCfl hjh OTRasuBaxB vh npieM^, 
BJiH npHHBMaTB yqeHBROBi 6ojiBme, ^^wb crojbro oosbojbiotb ca- 
MUfl 7M']^peHHi>ifl Tpe6oBaHÍji rnneHU^. 

Ha ocHOBaHÍH jih^hbixi, HenocpeACTBeHHuxi Ha6jiH)AeHÍfi HaA'B 
iDROJiaMH BecBeroHCRaro jísab,, rhbsb lUaxoBCROfi npBmejii ri cji^- 
AyiomeMy BaRJnOíeHÍro: „Bciody HpecfnhHue v,ihHHrm tUKúAy^ oxotho 
nocujiaiOTB yqnrBca A^Teft cbohxi, totobu Hec™ aobojibho SHain- 
TejiBHLifl saxpaTBi na a^o o5yqeHÍji; ohh o6BiRHOBeHHO BHBMaxejiBBO 
ca^AaTB sa xíbtb, RaR^ bcacxx a'6jio yHHxejiB, h y hhxi ecxB aobojbho 
onpeA^fejeHHua xpeCoBama oxx hirojikí*. 

Rx coa(aji']&HÍK), hc^bsa CRasaxB xoro seo(5ioxHonieHÍHRpecxB- 
íH-B Rx mmjii oxHOCHxejiBHO Apyrex-B írifecxHOCxeft, ta* coBcpraaioxcs, 
HanpBiť&pi, ÓesoÓpasHUfl flBJíeHia, oópas^HRi Roxopuxi mu Bume 
yRasuBajiH. H r'b cosaj-imio xaRse, bx o6usfiu% uoi^aflfi/k Ben^eft 
HejiBSfl padCHHTUBaxB Ha npHMÍp£[ BejHROAyniHaro caMonosepxBO- 
Banifl, Roxopue BcerAa 6yAyxi HCRJiH)HeHÍeirB. 

Gji']^AyK)n](yK) rjaBy aBxopi nocBfln^abxi „BaiBHUM'B RpecxBflHCRHiTK 
imcojiairB'', HJH „AOMamHHM'B mROJiaHirpaMOXHOCXH^, naRi npHHHxo 
BasuBaxB Hx^B Bi neAaroraqecROMx Mipl. Hanajo hxi aBxopi BeAers 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HAPOAHAfl rPJlMOTHOCTB. 263 

Cb ApeBQeĚ PycH, coaMtJi4éTT», ^to Hcropia hx-b Aocejii ocTaeica 
coBepmeHHO HepaspatíoraHHOK), xota iipoca'ljiBTB ee Úujio 6u BecBMa 
HBTepecHO H noyHHTejbHO. Aeiopi) HaxoAHTB RpaSse BecnpaBe;(jiU' 
BUWb TO npeHeÓpeseme, cx KaRHMi ao nocaŠAHflro epeneHE othoch- 

.IHCB Rl dTOfi CaMOA'&IBHOfi RpeCTBflHCROg mRO.lt. 

„^epHUHRH, cojiAaxu, A^a^H n t. n. jaiía, — roBopHPB r. Opy- 
raBHHi), — CHJiHBiniecfl oCynaTB rpaiíort RpecTBaecRHxt pefiarameRi^ 
HO TOJBRO ne BO36ysAaji0 hh bi rom'b h3i o6pa30BaHHaro o6ii;e- 
crsa coiyBCTBÍa kb CBoeft aíhtcjibhocth, ho, nanpoTHBX, noqie 
BCK)A7 Bcrpi^aJiH npaHO BpasAeOnoe OTHomenie r% ce6i. Oco6eHHO 
26 spasAe^Ho OTHOCHjiHCB Ri dvawb AOMopon^eHHHMi TpyaReHH- 
RaM'B HapoAHaro npocB%iAeHÍfl o^^HAÍaj[BHue npeAcraBHTejiH eamero 
neAarorHHecRaro nipa. 

,,0$$Hi^iaJibHue noAarorH, BnojtH*! y6tsA6HHue bt> tomi>, hto 
,,HenaTeHTOBaHHiie^ mROJiBHue ynuxejui Hanero RpoHt BpoAa He 
Moryrb npHHecTB HacejieHÍK), dHeproHecRH crapajiHCb bcímh cnoco- 
6aMH npee&HB ex% A^TaiBHOCTB. 3a coA^ficTBÍeBrB vh bthxi cjiy- 
Hanxi* OHH o6fi[RHOBeHHO o6paii;ajiHCB r'b uomuJM^ Roiopaji h o6sí- 
BUBajia HepaTeHTOBaHHux'B yqHTejie&-AO(5poBOJiBi^eBi noAnncRofi npe- 
RpaTHTB o6y?eHÍe RpecxBflHCRHXx peÓflTi. HapymiiTeJiefi raROtt noA- 
HHCRH nocTHrajiH eaRasaHÍfl, Hep']bARO secBMa cypoBUfl. O xoifB se, 
^To CB npeRpanJieHieMi A'^Tej[BHOCTH dXHX^ y^Hxejiefi-caMoyqeR^ 
B!B Tofi HJiH Apjrog M-^cxHocxH sa^acxyK) oxHHM&iacB y HacejeHÍa 
BOBHOSHOCXB oóy^axB pefiaxi rpaMOxi, hhrxo hc AyMajii** (exp. 
33). ÁBXopi CB yAOBOJiBCXBÍeMi> saM-bnaeTi*, qxo bx oocjiAHee 
Bpevfl „oxHomeBie oCn^ecxBa ri» caMofiuxBuifB RpecxBflflCRHMX 
insojiaMi HaHHHaexT* paAHRajiBHO n3M'&HflXBCfl^; rjiaBHoe, b^ 1882 r. 
Bumaix i](iipRyjiflpi xorAamHflro MHHHCxpa HapoAHaro npocB^n^eHifl, 
(SapoHa HflROJaH, RoxopuM^ snepBBie npcoHaHO 6buio sa bojibhumh 
y^HxejiflHH npaBO Ha cyn^ecxBOBanie, npaso na neAarorHqecRyio 
A^xejiBHOCxB. ]ífi axoro i^opRyjiapa „o bojibhuxi mROjaxi nejiLsa 
6uio roBopHXB HHa?e, RaRi wh caMux^ o^n^Hxi BEipasemaxi, no- 
TOMy ^TO BCflRoe yRasanie xo^heixI) o^peA'i^eHHux^ a^hhuxi Morjo 
BBiBBaxB pasHUfl penpeccHBHUfl u^pa co cxopoHu hojihi^íh'' (exp. 
34) y A^ScxBOBaBmeft, Rone^HO, ne no coÓcxBenHOMy ycMOxptniH)^ 
a TOiBRO B'B flcnojiHeHie bsiji^aobi iniHHexepcxBa napoAnaro npo- 
eetn^eHifl. 

CooCu;afl Awie HiROxopiia hoapoÓhocxh o „sacjiyraxx nacxe- 
poBx-rpaMOxieBi^ h o xom'b, „qtifb BusEiBaexcfl B03HHRH0BeHÍe 
BOJiBHHxi mROJTB'', aBXopi yRasuBaex^ (|)aRrB, wb oeo5eHHOCXH 

BaSHUfi H BnOJIH'6 eCXeCXBeHHUfi, qxo OfiURHOBeHHO BOJIBHUfl mROJIU 

noflKUiiDTCfl HMOBHO xaMXi, Tjsíb HeAOCxaexi 6ojíie npaBHj[BHiix'B 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



264 vhdwsjťh EBPonu. 

mKOJTB — seMCRHxi. MeSAY npo^nirB, He^ocraTOB^ dTusxh nocjr6x- 

HHXl mROJIl TaK'B SeJHBl, HTO Vh H^BOTOpUXl MŠCTHOCTflXl 74^* 

Hacesemfl jHmeHu bosmoshocth noJiLSOBaTBCfl o$$H^iaJtBHU[MH nmo- 
jaMH (crp. 44), — h Bt TaMxt-To yciOBiaxx MHHHcrepcTBO napox- 
Haro npocBÍiE[eHÍfl, ao ($apoHa HHBOJian, ne c^irraio HHse CBoero 

AOCTOHHCTBa IIpeCJ^AOBaTB OTCTaBHUXIi eOZmrb B HepHHHeB'B, AO" 

ÓuBMmETb CBOft XJIÍ&& 0(5yHeHÍeiirB npocrofi rpaMoii. 

no MHorHifB CBfbAemsiwby co6paHHHirb y r. IIpyraBHHa, h bí* 
poflTHO Bi rpoMa^HOMib 6ojrBinHHCTBÍ, eciH He Besflib^ seMCEia mBOjn 
nepenojraeHU yqan^HMHCA, npexo^HTCfl OTBasHBaTB bi npieMŽ, ■ 

Vb CBflSH CB dTinfE HaXOAHTCfl paCnpOCTpaHeHÍe BOJIBHEIXOb mEOjn. 

Hsi AftHHiirB o$$H^iaJBHoft seMCBoft craxHCTHBH OBaBUBaercfl, na- 
npnHŠp'B, qro bi MOCBOBCEofi ry6epHÍH ^hcio bojbhetxi nmojii 

„HaXOAHTCfl Bl npjiMOfi SaBHCEMOCTH 0TB HHCJia opraHHBOBaHHErxi 

y^HjnnipB h otb creneHH fibJíBmaro hjh MěHBmaro y^oÓCTBa nojiB- 
BOBanifl nocatAHHMH'': h^mi Óoshme mBOjrB seMCBerB, t^mi MeHBme 

BOJBHEirB, H HaOÓOpOTB. SeMCBHX^B IDEOJIX, RaE'B H ^MHHHCTep- 

CEHxi'*, B00(5ii^e HeAOCTaTOHHO, n aBxopi npHBOAím HŠCEOJiBifio 
i^H^pB, mtoúu noEasaTBy »EaE^, b% cyn^nocTH, HeAOcraTOHHii h KB^Jíie 
6e8CHjn»Hii wb HacTOfln^ee BpeMfl crpeiiieHÍfl seMCmea h nasnu npH- 
AaTB A'^y HapoAHaro oCpasoBama rb pasMi^pu, sasie Tpe6yK)TCi 

CaMOH) 2EE8HBH), BUStlBaiOTCfl HaCTOflTeJÍBHOK) HeOÓXÓAHMOCTBH)'' . 

Hanp., wb BecBeroHCEOMi jbsxb vh nacroflii^ee BpoMJi c^Hraercf 
45 mEOJTB, cb 3.090 y^eHHEaMH, ctoboibihxx seMCTBy 17.000 p., 
eo, TTofíH aaiB oCy^enie bc^itb jsjbTsiwb mEOJiBHaro Bospacra (7 — 12 
sbTb), no BBiqHCseHiH) EH. lUaxoBCEoro, paÓOTaion^aro bi btoicb 
jisA% TpetfoBaiocB 6u 193 mEOJu, cb pacxoAOifB vb 73.340 p., 
H T. n. 

r. IIpyraBHHx npHXOAHii no arony noBOxy k'b CJ[%X7H>ii^HirB 

BaSJlIIOHeHiflM^, HÍ^CEOJBEO HeOSHAaHHHUTB: 

„OxcBOAa flCHO, EOHeHHOy HTO HH seMCTBO, HH sasHa ptmH- 

TeJtBHO He KB COCTOflHÍH Vb HaCTOfl^ee BpeMfl yBOJnaiHHTB HHCJIO Ha- 
pOAHUX'B ynnjlHII^'B Vb TOMl paSMÍpi, EOTOpfirfi MOPB 6u yXOBJíeTBO* 

pHTB cyii^ecTByH)ii^yH) vb HapoA'^ norpeČHOCTB. IIodTOMy, bi ceij 

pOROBOfi HeOÓXOAHMOCTH, UpEXO^HTCfl CB CaMEIBfB rjlEy($OEnirB BHHlfa- 

Eiewb ocraHOBHTBCfl Ha t6xx mEOjaxi, soTopHs cos^aerB can 

HapOAl, HO C06CTBeHH0My nOHHHy, E'B EOTOpUirB OHI npHBUEl FB 

Teneme i^aro pfl^a b^eobi (?) h Eoropiifl no CBoefi A^nieBHBHi 
flBjQíflfOTCfl BnojiH^ ;(OCTynHiiMH H othioab ne oÓpeiceHHrejiBHBics 
j^jfl CEyAHBixx q)eACTBi EpecTBflHnna. 

„Sa^a^a n kb to se BpeMfl CBan^enHafl oÓflsaHHOCTB EHTejui- 
roHipH (?) npE^TH Ha noMon^B dTHici Myaun^sHirB mEOJiaiii, m- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HAPOAHAfl FPAMOTHOOTB. 265 

mn Hapo^y bx ero crpeMjemn ycrpoHTb sth ihrojei, paemHpHTb 
wTb nporpaMMy, yjrymiHTb npeno^aBanie, csobomi, ynoTpetíHTb ci 

CBOeft CTOpOHH Bd^ yCHJÍfl A^ TOrO, Tr06u 8TH BpeCTBflHCRifl mSOJIBI 

xifieTBHTejBHO flBHJHCb pasca^HERaMH npocBin^eHífl h pasBHTÍa'' 
(crp. 52). 

Mu Bcrp^^aeMCfl sa^b cb i^-brairB pa^oirB He;(oyM^HÍ&. Osa- 
siasaercfly BO-nepBBirB, ^to fa^ ^tfescajiBHu'' Basea h sevcTBO, 
laiTB o($fl8aHa noMOHB Bce Ta se „EETejumvewa^^ . Saxpaia speifesH 
I rpyxa cbo^htca y^oÓHO ki AeHesHoft saipart; Heyse.vn eama 
pyccsaff, HBBtoiiafl, KpafiHe MajiowcieHHafl (xota ee MHOiie chh- 

TaiOTB Bl nepenpOHSBOACTBi) HHT€^UH^eH^ifl HOSeTB BUCraBHTB 

Tam q>eACTBa, sasHTB ne HifleTB caMaa nasHa? TaKEKB cpeACTBi 
ona, óearb comh^híh, ne Hifšeň, ocoCjihbo bi npoBirai^iflxi Hamero 
,]iysiii(Baro i^apcTBa^, wb jbzjsja^h h bojtoctaxi, r^t HCTHHHa^, 
sacjysHBawiAafl i^roro HiceHH, nerejuiHreHitÚ! cocraajflen onenB 
<k>jiBinyK> pí^AfiocTB. Jljajte, otseibi o Óescujám BasHn BaseToi 
HaiTB cjiQiiiBoirB nocirímHiiirB. Ecjih cpasHETB craTHcm^eeicifl, pyc- 
oúfl H sanaAHO-eBpone&cBÍfl, i^^pEi rocy^apcTBeHEiixi TparB na 
f/bMO eapcAHaro npocB^n^eHÍfl^ no pasnmfB ero ^pMairB h oipac- 
jni, tfiOAseTB Hamero npocFlii^eHifl oBaseTCfl KpafiHe cbpomhumi, 
■ Haj[o 6u npesAe Bcero saejiaTBy ^to6ii 9totb fiioAsen ysejin- 
TOJCfl WH yAOBJíeTBopeHifl ^cyníecTByromeft bi nápoji norpeÓHOCxH". 
BonpocB Hapo^Haro oÓpasOBaHia ecTB, wb cyu^nocrn, nepBoereneH- 
HHfi rocyxapcTBeHHufi BonpocB; pasBHTÍe otfpasoBamfl aojsho yBe- 
jnraiBaTB npoHBBOAHrejBHUZ chjh crpaHU, ir Kor^a 9to SHaneHie 
ero ÓjK^Tb AocraTOHHO oi^Heno, tfesi comhI^húi, naft^yTca h 6h)a- 
zeTHHE cpeACTBa A^fl Toro, hto6u AOCTHrnyrB Jiy^mefi ero nocra- 
bobbh. CpexcTBa bte ne icoryn ne ($iitb RpynnuMs, h crpanno 
xyMaTB, ^iTO spynnufl norpeÓHOcrii rpoica^naro napoxa mosho 
samronaTB CByAHHMH ^HJiaHTponHHecBHMH cpeACTBaMH „HHreJiJiHreH- 
TSfn"^ BOTopafl npHTOiTB ne bx CHJiax'B oÓesne^HTB mhofhxi no- 
TpetfHOCTeft, sacaiontHxcji e^ co6cTBeHHaro 6jiHsafiinaro FHrepeca... 
Jlfiňey aBTopB HaA^^ercfl, hto npH (5%ahocth BasHu h seMCTBa Ha- 
poAHOMy o6pa80BaHÍH) MOserB hoho^b napoAnaa BOJiBHaji mEOJia, 
KOTOpafl MOserB craTB „pascaAHEKOirB npocBin^emfl h pasBETÍa''; 
HO eBOjBBO 6u he sacjiysEBajiE yBasenifl 9te noECRH napoAa sa 
ipairoTOft, HeJiBSfl npeAcraBETB ce(^, htoÓu 9te hirojiii, „ri roto- 
pum BapoA^ npEBtiRi fb Teneme i^aro pflAa b^robtb'', mofjie 
A&BftTB qro-JiEÓo RpoMi canofi sjeMeHTapHofi rpaicoTH, on ROTopofi 
^e crpamno ^duie^o ne tojibro ao npocB%n^eHÍH, ho e ao CRpoM- 
saro ypOBHE xopomefi sencRofi hirojiu. IIpaBAa, asTop^ AyMaerB, 
W) EHieuHreHipii mosotb e AOJissa „pacmEpETB nporpaMMy*, 



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266 BftOTHHRX EBPOnU. 

^yjyHiHHTB npenoxasaHÍe", ho 8to 6jjs,eTh yse npespan^enie bojb^ 
HoS mROJiH Bx npaBEJbHyio msojiy, a axa mROsa Tpe(JyeTB opra- 

HHSai^iH H CpeACTBl, H Bl RaROMl RaHeCTB^ „HHTeJLIBreHI^ifl^ MO- 
SerB BSflTB Ha Ce6fl BM'lmaTeJBCTBO FB SHSHb HapOAHOft BOJIBHOft 
mROJIBI? 

Bb AaJiBHMmefi rjasi aaropi roBopHTB o „n^ÓJumEUTb ^ire- 
HÍflxi wa Hapo^a"* — bx Mocrbí, GabccÍ, KieBi, .Š^pocjiaBJíš h np. 
„IlyfíjiHHHua HapoAHHa HTenia, — roBoperB r. DpyraBEHi, — npn 
npaBHJiBHofi B mHpoRoft nocTanoBR^ A^a Moryn flBHTBCfl, 6e3*B 
C0MH'lHÍfl, BecBMa Mory^HiTB ^aRTopoM^B HapoAHaro npocB^n^eHÚi h 
pa3BHTÍfl. IlyTeifB TaRHXi* ^TeHÍfi flBjfflercfl bosmoshoctb bjuatb 
padBHBaK)ni0M'B o6pa30M'B Aase Ha cpe^y EOAÓojAe TeMHaro, nei^pa- 
Momuaw JiJOfi»y ji^isi ROToparo He^ocTynna RHora h Boo(5D^e new£- 
Hoe CJOBO" (exp. 53). 

ÁBTopB caifB Ha6jiiOAaJiab xapaRxepi Hrenifi j^jie Hapoxa vb 
MocRB-S. B-B xeienie OAHoro ro^a (1887-88 yqeÓHHfi toa^b) b* 

MoCRBÍ ROMMHCCifl HapOAHtlXl* HTeHÍfi yCTpOHJia FB 39 MŠCTaX'B 

480 AyxoBHEixi 6eclA'b h 676 o6n^eo6pa80BaTejiBHuxx HieHift, npH 
newb o6uijASL nviijfpa, cjiymaxejeft cociaBHJia 6ojBoie 200.000 qejio- 
BÍRi. I]^H4>pa AOBOJibHO noiTeHHaa, — roBopHn aBTopx, — »ho mhl 
Bci — yKacHHe CRenTERH, mu totobu cb HeAOBtpieMi CMorpiTB 
Aase Ha i^H^pu ao lixi nopx, noRa bo-o^íbo ne y6ÍAHMCfl, hto 
dTO A^ficTBHTe^bHO ne „ÓyudLi&Eiisi^ j a hoajihehua „shbua i^H^pu^. 
A ^To6u y6'lAHTBCfl bx dTOHi, ^To6u JiHqno yAOcroB^pHTBCfl, KhKi^ 
BejHRi Bx cpeAfi npocToro JiiOAa aanpocB na TaRoro poAa OTema^ 

CTOHTB TOJBRO HOÓUBaTB XOTfl Ha AByXX-TpeXX HapOAHUXX HTC- 

HÍaxi, ycipoeHHuxi bi Mocrb^^. ÁBTopi onHCUBaerB oaho hsb 
TaRHX'B HTeHÍfi B'B IIojiHTexHHqecROMx Myse^. 

^B% RaRHX'B-Ha6yAB HflTB MHByTB sajTB ORasa.icfl nepenojiHeH- 
Buwh nyÓJiHRofi (oHi Birln^ajii fiojBoie naTHCorB neJOB^Ri). Bcb 
CRaMBH 611JIH BanaTu; t6, Rony HCAOcrajio mšcti, pasMicTHjracB 
CToa BAOJiB CT^Hi. ,& (TB j[H)6oniiiTCTBOM'B OFJaAUBaji^B co6paBmyH>cfl 
nytfjHRy. 

,,9to 6uai> HacToan^ifi pa6o4Í& jih)a'b: MacrepoBue, peicecieH- 

HHRH, ^dLÓpilHBUey — CJOBOITB, ^^epHB^ , 6^ HOJIHOITB CMBICJl'1 dTOFO 

eaoBa. Bx stom-b yÓÍKAa^M BacB b roctíomh — noAAeBRH, nojy- 
my^Rtf, qyfiKH — n jiai^a, h pyRH co cj'lAaMH caxH h rohoth. 

„OrpoMHoe 6ojiBniHHCTBO nyójnRH cocroaio hbi noApocTBOBr& 
H MOJiOAiiixi pe6arB, bi Bospacri otb 14 ao 20 jíítl. PasroBO- 

pBBmHCb Cb HtoOTOpUMH HdX dTBXl HOAPOCTROBI, a ySHaJTB, MTO 

OHH cjiyxarB r,vb yqenbH^ MaJibHHRaMB h noAMacrepbaMH vb cxe- 
capHuxi B nopTHOBCRHXi „sascAemaxi". Bbijui, padyMienca, h 



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e 

f 

[ 



HAPOAHAfl rPAMOTBOCTB. 267 

JH>XH BOSMysaiae, h crapeRH, ho ohh cocTaBJífljiEi MeHBmHHCTBO. 

^HniHHlI Wh OÓUSfiŘ MaCC^ COCraBJIflJIH CpaBHHT&IBHO HBHTOSHUfi 
JSpOUJČETb. 

„He TOJiBRO HHTeJLiHreHi^ifl, HO H Bootfn^e Tasi-HasuBaeMaa 
„HHcraa ny6jiiiKa" coBepmenno OTcyrcTBOBajia... 

„Hysflo 6huio míjífkTh jiHi^a cjymaTejiefi, ^to6u cocraBHTb ce&br 
npeAcraBJíeHie o toitb BnewTJiiHiH, BOTopoe npoHSBOAHJio ^enie. 
KaKHM'B rjiyCoBHMi, saxBaxuBaiomHMi Hniepecoii^, RaBaWi sa^- 
Hiurb jiiDtíonuTCTBOMi AumaiH srn npocrafl, rpyÓOBaTEifl jni^a! & 
HHBorAa .ne 3a6y;iy Bupaaa^emfl jiHi^a cBA'^Bmaro ^jí.owb co HHoft 
lajiBqyraHa jítb nflTHaAi^aTH. BoBsie, yMHEie rjasRH TaBi b ro- 
pBTB, xaR^ H HCRpflTCJi. HepBHO CTHCHyB^ Rapxysi sanaqRaHHEiMH 
caseK) pyRaMH, ohi Becb bhbjcb rjiaBaMH vb jeRxopa, o^obhaho 
60JICB nponycxHXB xoxb oaho cjobo, xoxb oahhi 3ByK^... 

^Mh'^ npHmiiocB noxoici noÓUBaxB vb ApyrHX'B \HxajBHflX'B, h 
BCH)A7 ^ Bcxpi^ajii OAHO H xo se*. xoJinu „eibparo^ n ^nepnaro^ 
sapoAa, psyn^aroca wh ^uxajiBHu, 3ajiii, nepenojHenHua csymaxe- 
iflMH Hsi axofi „cipofi'' MaccBi, H rjiyÓORoe, cocpe^oxonennoe bhh- 
Mamě kl ^xeniio" (exp. 55 — 57). 

Co6Hpafl CB^AeHÍfl o nocxaHOBR']^ h xoa'^ HapoAHuxi qxeHifi h 
pacnpocxpaHeHÍH HapoAHuxi RHH2;eB'B, asxopx Bcxp'l?aex^ ne Majio 

3a»']kqaxeJIBHBIX'B {^aRTOBl, CBHAÍXeJIbCXByK)m,HXX o nOCXOBHHOM^B 

pacupoexpaneHin A'i^ft. Owh npHBOAHTB, HanpiiMtpi>, hxo bi O^eccř 
npoiiaasa HapoAHuxi) Hd^anifi npn ayAHXopiH napoAHuxi Hxenifr 
Bospocia ci 1.100 aRseifiLiflpoBi vh 1884 ro^y áo 103.000 8R3. 
vh 1887'Mi; Hxo b'b pasHuxi M'lcxax'B jiijio Hapo^nux^ ?xeHÍfr 
H HHxajreHX eaxoAHXi noAAepsRy bi> yqacxÍH seMcxBa h qacxHuxi^ 
JHi^T,, — HO Bx líšjiOMX, no npH3HaHÍH) caMOFO aBxopa, A*JO ocxaexcff 
en^e na canofi nepB0HaHaju>H0& cxyneHH. HapoAHUfl ^xenifl npoHC- 
xoAflrB, CROibRO MOSHO cyAHXb H3% CB^A^HÍfi T. UpyraBHHa, AA~ 
jeRo ne bo bcšxi ryfíepncRHXi ropo^axi h xojbro uspt^Ra 3*^ 
yšsAHuxi ropoAaxx h yts^axi: „xaRHXi ylBAOBi Hafi^excji ne 
(íojrte AByx-B-xpex-B na bch) HeoÓiaxHyio Pocciio" (exp. 76). 

yBi MaxepiajBHOMi oxnomeHÍE ayÓ^H^HUA HapoAHiui Hxema 
o6GTaBjieHu y naci caMUMi nenajiBHUMi otípasoifi: fb 6ojbmHH- 
ctbí cayqacBi, ont ne hmíidxx hh onpeAÍJieHHux% epoACXBi* eo- 
xepzaHÍBy HH eoóexBeHHBixi noiťJ^n^eHÍfi, eROJibRO-HHÓvAb npHenoco6- 
jeHHHxi A^fl i^efi napoAHoft ayAHxopÍH. TopoACRÍH AyMbi n sen- 
CBÍfl eoÓpaHÍfl AO CHXi nop'B oópan^afoxi o^enb Majio BHHMaHÍfl na 
A'&io nyÓJiHqHuxx napoAHbixi Hxenift h, ho 6bJibniefi ^acxH, orpaHH- 
HBBaioxi eBoe yiaexíe bx bxomx a'^'^ <sHmb caMUMi MAsepnuirb, 
rpomoBtiMi noco6ieMi, a H'lROxop£ifl A^se h bi» 9xomi> oxRaBbi- 



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268 BftCTHHKX EBPOim. 



K 



Baiorb, RaR'B CA'&iaio, HanpHirlpii, He^^aBHO RocrpOMCsoe seMerso 
(crp. 79). 

CaMO MHHHcrepcTBO Hapo;i;Haro iipocB'lii^eHÍfl TOJibB;o cb 1889 r. 
ýbmmjio Bú^aBaiB nocroflHHyiD cy6cHAÍH) na ycueEde ^^TejiBHOCTH 

KOMHBCCÍH HapOAHUXl* ^TTeHÍft. Ho XOTfl 6u seMCTBa ORasajH H 

<!ojrfae ii^e;q)oe cox^icTBie dTOMy A&iy, xota 6h h caica ^EHTeuH- 
reHipa'' noRasajia vh Heny 6ojn>me ycep^ifl, A^o Bce-raRH pncBO- 
BaJio 6u ocraRaTbCfl bi aobojibho sajiBOM^ noJiosemH no upn^EBŠ, 
BOTopyH) ysasuBaeTB cani r. IIpyraBHHi. A HHeHHO, „napoxníifl 
^reniH nociasjeHu y naoB wh Hepesx-qypí t^hua paMBH. ^M- 

TaiB B'B HapOAHOft ayAHTOpÍH MOSHO TOJBEO Tb, HTb OJlfiÓpeBO AJS 

BTOĚ i^&iH y^eHUMi BoiíHTeroiTB npH MHHHCTepcTBi HapOAHaro opo* 
cvbmfiBisi^ . ^HCJio HTeHÍft, AOSBOJieHHuxi usi Hapo;pa[Eix'B ayAUTopift, 
BecBMa orpaHHHeHO. Bx BaTajor^ RHHrB, pasptmeHHnxi js,m he- 
poAHUx'B iTenift' MHHHcrepcTBOirB npocB^iiieHifl, SHaHHTca cjAji,jiomfie: 

RflHrB AT^OBHaro co^epsania . . , 27 

„ KCTopH^ecKaro h reorpat}). coAepsaHia .... 33 

n 6iorpa4)ÍH 7 

„ jHTepaTypHaro coAep»aHÍfl 19 

„ ecrecTBOBt^eew 13 

„ pasHaro co^epsaHÚi 9 

Bcero se ... 108 rhhtb. 

„Hjh ToqHterOBopfl,— saM^qaeri r. IIpyraBHHx, — 108 TomenB- 
BHXX CpomiopoRi. 

„noMEMO dTHX'B 108 45pomEOpOR'B, Bti He Mosere npo^ecTB bi na- 
poAHOfi ayxErropiH hh oahoS erpoHRH. Ecjh ffiz crojusn^b h yHEsepcH- 

TeTCRHXl ropOAOBl BT> BTOWh OTHOmeHÍlI A'^aH)TCH R0e*RaRÍfl HCBJnO-- 

HeHÍfl, TO fifisi o6uRHOBeHHiix'B npoBHHi^iajBHifxi ropoxoBx, a Tbu% 
6ojFbe ceJTB, ne AonycRaercs HHRaRiix'B nocsa^jemfi. 

„CaMEIfl HTeHÍfl, BSflTIIfl BM^CT^, npeACTaBJiflK>rB CO6OK) pflA'^ 
OÓpUBROBl, pÍniHTeJ[BHO HHH']kM'B MeSAy C060K> He CBH8aHHIIX'B. Hh 

uo OAHO& OTpacjH SHanifi HejiBSfl yRasaxB CROJ[BRO-HB($y;(B saROH- 
HeHHuxi cepi& — H0 no Hcropia, hh no ecrecTBOSHamH), hh no Apy- 
rHMi OTA&iairB; Bce 8to bi Bucmeft crenenH cjiyqaiHO, orpiiBOiHO, 
Óesib BCflRHxi npHSHaROBi RaRoft-HH6yAB CHcreMBi HJH ffiíxe npo- 

CTOft HOeitAOBaTeJBHOCTH. 

„IIodTOMy JieBTopy no HeoóxoAHMOCTH npHxoxHTCfl nepecRaEH* 
BaiB OTb OAHoro npe^Meia r^ jipyroMy: otb Uerpa BejHRaro r% 

XeSEH^^eRI^iH, OTB Ae3HH4)eR^iH Rl COJíHeHHOMy 8aTMÍHÍK>, orB COJ- 

neHHaro saTirlnÍH r'b JIovoHOCOBy h t. a* 

„no HeO($XOAHMOCTE TaRJRB npHXOAHTCÍ laCTO nOBTOpflTB O^HH 

H tI aie TreHÍfl; cj[ymaTejiH; ycepxno nocin^aion^ie Hapo^nyio ay^H- 



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HAPOAHAfl rPAMOTHOCTL, 269 

TopÍH), CROpo yCBOHBaiorB coAepsaeie iipoh3hochmux'b qieHiň h, se 
Bcrpi^aa HH^ero Hoearo, naJO-no-Masy yrpa^EBaiorB HHrepecL r^ 
qTeHÍflM'b... „OnflTfc TO atel— He \6ea^ rpycra saaBJíarorB ciymaTaiH 
vb TasHXi esyqajixí. — Mu aro yai h TaR'B a&bho BUTBepAHjra"! 
ÁBToprB 3aRJiH)we'rb, tto HeoTJKmsofi Heo(5xoAHiiocTi>H) aajflercfl pac- 
nrapenie npcrpaiorb HapoAHHX'E qreHifi (crp. 81). 

Sfljich onflTBMu HeaojiBHO ^'^aeiccfl „CRenrHRaMH^, xota r. lípy- 
raBBHi dTO H ocysAaerB. HecoMHŠHHO, ^to ycH^xx napoAHUx^ 
HTeflift, ROTopufi HaAO CHHTaTB AORasaHHuifB, xoTfl H npeAcraBJuieirB 
orpaAH&iĚ ^aRTB cpaBHHrejiBHO Cb npeacHHMi nojHiiifB hxi orcyi- 
CTBÍeifi, HO, roBopa ÓesoTHOCHrejiBHo, npeACTaBJíflen híhto BecbMa 
dJieueHTapHoe h BecBMa auuiRoe. Bi caMOJii jííhji% eciH bsatb o(5bir- 
HOBeHHHfi ypoBeHB coAepauiHifl ^emft, mu ueAjsfiWh^ wro 8to ypo* 
BeHB nonyjiflpHofi drtmcKOú rhefe. IIpaB^a, hto qeJOB^ROb hbi na- 
poAa, Majio CBÍjí,Ym\!iy oqeHB nacro HerpaMOTHufi, no CBoeicy no- 
HHMaHiK) npeAMeiOKB, BiixoAfln^nx^B hbi ero auaxe&CRaro ofiHxoAa, 
npnpaBHHBaeTCfl r'b mROJiBHHRy: Tony u ApyrOMy mosho o^HEaROBO 
npoqecTB RaR'B hoboctb CTExoTBopeníe IlymRHHa, HeRpacosa, pas- 
esasaTB o U&ipi BejiHROirB h JIomohocobí, h aro Cy^erB jífiSL oÓohx^ 
wÓonuTHO H noywrejiBHo; ho octb Bce*TaRH o^ohb éojBniafl paB- 
mmft Moaxy ynoM^ h HHTepecaMH niROJBHHRa h BBpociaro qejio- 
BÍRa, HM^ion^aro CBoft KHSHeHHtifi oniirB, nepi^so yMHO hohh- 
Maion^aro rk u,'bjiusi cropoHu aRHSHa, cb RaRHMH eny npnxoAHJiocB 
conpHRacaTBCfl. Ecjih Hapo^Hua qTeHia éyxyTB ^epsaTB bthxx BBpoc- 
jHxi jnojsfii na jsíbiCROŘ imns,ij mosho ycoMHHTBca, wpoÓu owb 
crajiH „Mory^HiTB ^aRTopoMx Hapo^Haro npocB^n^eHÍfl h pasBOTÍfl''; 
owb He MoryTi craTB laRHirB ^aRTopoifB, Ror^a 6yAyn orpanH^H- 
BaTBCfl otfpBiBRaHH BJieMeHTapHaro co;(epsaHÍfl. 

06pan^aflCB Auie R'b pa8CM0Tp']&HÍH) „saupoca Ha HTenie^, 
aBTopi yRasuBaerB AftHHUfl, RaRÍa coÓpaHii 6euh Kb^OMCTBaira h 

OTA^HUMH JlHI^aiIH HO BTOMy BOOpOCy. H^ROJIBRO jiíti TOicy Ha- 

Baj^^B craTHCTHHecRoe OTA&ieHÍe icocROBCRaro ryÓepncRaro seMCTBa 
npeAiiosHJO y^HTejKAM^, yqHTejiBHHi^aMX, CBHo^eHHBRairB h ApyrHMi 
jHi^uii, sHByn^HMx vb AepeBHi, AOcraBHTB CBÍfi,eBÍsL no droiiy npe^- 
Mery. Ilojiy^eno 6uJio jífi 400 otbétobi, Roropue, Ba BecBMa p4^A- 
SHiiH HCRJiiDHeHÍflMH, yRasuBaBniHicH na paBHOAynrie ri> TreHÍio, cbo- 
AHiKHCB Ri» TOiiy, HTO HorpeÓHOCTB vb ^TenÍH cyn^ecTByeTB ne tojbro 
y yHHBniHxcii bi hirojtí^, ho h cpenn npoqaro rpaifOTHaro bjh 
xase HerpaMOTHaro nacejtenifl. Bi hhbixi OTBixaxi roBopajiocB, 
TTO rpaicoTHue „npocro ocasA^iorB npocB^aMH RHHrB j^jisí qTeflia'', 
HO qTo 6E6jáoTersi> H'6rB, hto, HaRonei^i, mmsivyrb ht5 nonajio, ^ase 

yHe6HHRH. IIOAOÓHBie 4>aRTU OTM^qaH)TCfl H APyTHMH BeMCRHME H 



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270 B-nCTHHB^ HBPOim. 

mROJibBu&iEi oTHeTaMH, a Tauxe cb^achíamh neTep6yprcBaro roith- 
TeTa rpanoTHOCTH, EOToparo ceKpexapL, r. RerpnirB, ea CBOft 3a- 
npocB o TOM^ se npeAMeii, ^OJ[y^BJI^ etcROJiBBO cotb nHcesrb Ha- 
po^Husi* y?HTejiefi Hdi pasjíH^iHuxii MtcTHOcreft Poccíh, „orB Bap- 
maeu ao EaBíHaTBH^. 3th hoci^ahía nHCbHa, sasi saflBJíflJii* r. Rei- 
pHi^'E Bi AOKjiSkUÍb ROMOTexy, „CB0A'6'reibCTByH)TB o sasA^ MOJOAoro 
RpecTBflHCRaro nacejieHifl r'b npccBiiuemH) h, bi^j^ctI cb t^mi, o 
uojiHofi CRyAOCTH Mto'Huxx cpeufiTB^ AJifl y^ioBJíeTBopeHÍfl Haspfo- 
niHX^ noTpeÓHOcrefl*' . 

ToMy se Bonpocy nocBfln^Hu jifiíjAe rjiaBii: „FaBeiBi h syp- 
HajiEi Bi HapoAHOft cpeA^'', „HapoAHUfl ÓnÓJiiOTejnii h hht&ibhh', 
rA'6 conocrasjíeHEi CBiienÍH, co6paHHiifl Ha^JiioAaTejiflMii napoA- 
Hofi rpaMOTHOCTH, H Bi QX'B hucjA CaMHMl T. IIpyraBEHuiTB. 
HapOA'B, ROHe^HO, ne HHTaerb sypeajiOBi; r. IIpyraBHffB o6xflCHflerB, 

<;0 CJ10B1> OAHOfi CeJIBCROfi y^HTeiEHEI^lI, HTO „RpeCTBflHe AJDÓHTh 

HHiaTb TOJiBRO TaRÍfl RHHrH, Ha^ajio H ROHeAx ROTopuxi BaRjno- 
qaH)TCfl Bx OAHOMi nepeojieTb", ho saí^ A'9^o, pasyM^TCJi, ee bi 
nepenjex^, a b'e HeAOcrynHOCTH A^fl RpecTBflH'B sypnaiBnaro co- 
AepsaHifl. 3aT0 rasexu, RaseicH^ Ha^HoaiorB hxi BHrepecoBaTB; 
r. npyraBHH'B npHBeii, no CBÍAeHÍflMi no^TOBBix'B Roeropi, hí- 
<;rojbro jRasamil o Bunncvíb raserB caMHMH RpecTBAHaiíH; Aepe- 
BCHCRÍe TpaRrapn^ETRH HaH0HaH)rB AepsaiB y ce6fl rasexu jí,m npn- 
£je^eHÍfl CBoefi nyÓJiHRH; no csOBaMi asropa, ji^tb 5 — 10 TOMy 
HadaA'b dToro uohth ho BCrpi^aJiocB. 

„O TOiTB,— npoAOJi2RaeTB r. IIpyraBHH'B, — nacROJiBRO Bct bth 
f[3AaHÍfl Bi cocTOflHÍH yAOBJíeiBopHTB TpeÓOBaHÍfl H BRycu HapOAa, 
s TaRse HacROJiBRO senaTeJBHO mepoRoe pacnpocrpaHeme hx'b fb 
HapoAHofi cpeAt, Mti npoAOCTaBJíHeifB cyAHiB caMHiii ^BTaTejuirB^ . 
CyAHTB, ROHeHHO^ HB TpyAHO. 06ii^ii THiTB coBpeneHHofi raseTu (3a 
RpafiHe piAicHMH BCRJiH)^eHÍflM(i) npeACTaBJfleTB hí^to ctojb Majio 
npHBJíeRaTejBHoe, qxo ne mosotb 6utb comh^hía o tomi, seja- 
TeiBHo HJiH BJhvb pacnpocTpaHeHÍe ea bi napoA^; aia rasexa ne 
TOJiBRO iiajo cjiysETB noTpe^HOCTflMi caMoro oÓn^ecTBa, ho nepŠABO 
npflMO pasBpan^aerB ero OTcyTCTBÍeMi BCflRaro npo^naro y($%s- 
AeHÍH, yrosAenieM^ MHHyrt h rpyfiuMi HHCTBHRTairB tojihu, a HHorAa 
H HeBÍsecTBOM'B. jI^H HapoAa, OHeBHAHO, Óiua 6u Hysna rasera 
coBctif^ HHoro CRJiaAa. F. npyraBHfl'B ynounnaerB, qro en^e no- 

ROfinuft B. H. 0pjl06'B, BSB^CTHBlfi A^TeJB SeMCROfi CraTHCTHEHy 

pa6oTaBmifi fb Mocrbí, yRasuBajix neoCxoAHMOCTB „eosAank Ta- 
Roro raseinaro bprana, ROTopuS Óbijtb 6u npHHopoBJíeHi r'b norpeó- 
HOCTfliTB cejsíBCROtt SH3HH H MBíCJiH H AOCTynevB HacejreHÍH) no 
q^i^H^". r. IIpyraBHHx noATBepsA^erB, tto noAo6H£i& ópram „npn- 



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HAPOAHAfl rPAMOTHOOTB. 271 

HecB 6hi orpOMHyH) nojibsy HapojD[HOMy iipoce^mieHiK), ROHe^HO, wh 
TOiTB CJ^J^SL% ecJiEÓu owh ne aa^asaicfl KOiiMep^ecRHMi? i^šjiamh, a 
qecTHO 6u cjiysKJii pacnpocTpaHemH) cpe^H HaceaeHÍfl Haqaji^ xpH- 
criaHCKofi jik)6bh, pacmapeHÍK) Kpyrosopa napoAHOfi mucih h ynno- 
seHÍK) pasjHqHux^ npaRTHqecRHXi sHamfi". HaH(5ojrite pacnpocrpa- 
HeHu j^emeBHfl raseiu, KaKi ^CejLCKift Bícthhki*, „Cbítb" h t. n., 
HO owk He coBctifE OTBŠqaiOTB TOMy, ^Tb npe^nojiarajii OpjiOBi, h 
qrb A^icTBHTejibHO saiaxeJiBHO. Heciforpa ea cyn^ecTBOBame yse 
BecBHa 3Ha?HTe;[T>H0§ „HapoAHOft JiBTepaTypu'', y HacB ^o chxi 
nopi en^e ne BEipaÓOTajiacb Hacrofloiafl Manepa imcaTB xJifl Bapo;i;a. 
Buy^HJiHCB mrcaTb tojibro JierRie pa3CRa3íi; neorAa y^a^no nHmyTCfl 
pasHaro po^a rhhsre no npaRTaqecRoiiy Hapo;(HOMy xosflfiCTBy, ho 
Bcero MeHie BEipaóOTa^ocB yirfeHBe nacaTB o •rfexi npe;íMeTax'B o(Jn;e- 
CTBeHHaro xapaRTepa, Roxopuxi napo;^ HMeHHO nn^erB b'b rasei^. 
Oe^, 6e3i comhíhía, HHrepecyerca h BHyTpeHHHMH A^aiiE, h Aase 
nojHTHRoS, HO o6^ BTHxi Ben^ax'B oHmercfl hjh rbm^ o^Hi(iajiB- 

HtllfB, HJÍH yqeHO-H)pHABqeCRHM'B JIStlROMl, ROTOpBifi He^ocTyneHi 

AJji npocToro qnraTejifl; craTBH o BH'6mHefi hojihthrš npe^noja^ 
raH)rB raRia sHama, ROTopuxx napoA^i^ ne hmíctb. O^esHAHO, wio 
o6iiRHOBeHHyio rasery napoA^B noHHMaeri tojsbro ci njiTaro na ;ie- 
^Toe, H raseTa hcthhho napo^Haa ne MoserB ne opehatb bi co- 
oópaaieme droft crynenH yMcreeHHaro pasBnrifl h nosHauift. dro 
oiHa CTopoHa xpy^HOcreft noioónaro A*Ja, npejícraBjíaeMaa cocroa- 
HÍeiťB caMofi Hapo;(HO& ny^JHRs. Ho, cb Apyrofi cropoHu, He^o- 
craTRH HapoAHofi jmrepaTypEi ^BJiaiOTCfl bhhok) caMHXx aBxopoBi. 
nocx&AHÍe B% 6oJiBinnHCTB'6 cjiy^aeBX ne yiiiiOTB onpeA'iJHTB Tona, 
B-B KaROifB MOSHO H ^OJSHÓ o6pan^aTBCfl jffb npocTOHapoAHOMy mn- 
TETeJna: Bcero nan^e npnHHMaercfl MHHMO-HapoAHufi toht*, cocroan^ift 
FB cJianiaBOfi qyBCTBHrejiBHOCTH, npaóayToqHOHi c:j!eji% bi npeAno- 
jioseHÍH HapoAa cobc^m'b HepasyiiHBnfB iLia^eHi^eMB, ne yM^ioniHifB 

€0€«IHTaTB ABaSABI^ABa, ^ HJIH, HaROHei^l, Wb BeCBMa (5e3BRyCHOM'B 

aufoxBHJBCTB^. EcjiH He omH(5aeMCfl, HapoAHufi nuTwtejih caM^ ho 

jnD^HTF BOn^eft, HHCaHHUXl BHb „HapOAHOlTB'' C^EJVb] OHI HyB- 

CTByeTB BX HeiTB HaTflHyTOCTB H jiowB. HapoAT* y HacB HacTO cirt- 

niHBaiOTB (TB A^TBMH H H3JI0aieHÍe HapOAHOfi RHflrH — CB HSJIOSeHieMX 
BHHTH A^TCROfi; HO 9T0 CM^eHÍe, ROHe^HO, COBepmOHEO OmEÓO^HO. 

£cjiH HSJOHceHie Tofi E Apyroft rhefe MOserB EHor^a coBna^aiB, 
]UtK'B HanpHH^pi BTi pa3CRa3axTb H3T> ecTecTBeHHOft HCTopiE, nyxe- 
inecTBÍň E noAO^HHxx npeAMeTOBT), AaJieRExi orB nenocpeACTBen- 
earo napoAHaro 6uTa e snaHifl, to bo MHOsecTB^b Apyrnxi cjiy- 
^aeFB 9Tfl cryneHH noHEManifl e yMCTBenHaro HHiepeca he iiajio ne 
coBnaAftiorB: TaROBO Bce, nrb othocetca ri npeAMeraii^B HpaBCXBeH- 



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272 BftCTHHB^b EBPOnUc 

HBiifB, otfn^ecTBeHHuiTB, HCTopHHecBHHi, He TOBopfl O npaBTHqecRB 
xoaflficTseHHuxi npeAMeTax'B. PasyMHue jtioah hsi napo^a, ocoCjihbo 
rpaMOTHue, Moryn hmítb secBMa cepsesHoe JH)6onEiTCT60 b% aTHiTB^ 
BonpocaiTB HpaBCTBeHHaro h o6ii](ecTBeHHaro xapaBiepa, h bi coasa- 
iíhíh) ao csncb nopi h-í^tb jiHTepaiypu, Koropaa OTBiTEJia 6hi droMy 
HHTepecy. 

BonpoiTb oqeHB csoseirB h CBAsani, KOHeHHO, co bcšitb no^o- 
seHÍeM'B HapoAHaro oÓpasoBanifl. HapoA'B nojiyqaeTB bb CBoeft 
mKOjrb TOJiBBO caiioe dwseiíeHrapHoe o6y^eHÍe, h rjiaBHoe He b'b TOMib^ 
HTO 3T0 cymecTByerb, KaK'B ^aKT^B, a wh tom^, hto cymecTByera 
Bi aBTopBTeTHHxx neAarorHHecBHXi c^epaxx yó^ffirne^ hto oh^b^ 
He MOserB n ne AOJUBeH'B hmštb Apyrofi cryneHH otfpasOBaHÚi 
(Bume MU ysasuBajiH mh^^hía, qxo Hapo;iy h cobgžm'b ne nysna 
rpaMora). áoHflTHO, OAHaso, hto bi tfoji-íe pasyMHBixi jhoa^xx^ 
napo^a, mbicib BOTopiiixi> npoÓysAena mRojoft n nocJi^Ayion^HM'^ 
qiemeifB, MOseTb ecrecTBeHHo pasBiBaiBca jiH)6o8HaTej[BHOCTB. Oqe- 
bhaho, OTCK>Aa npoHCXOAHTi Ta asa^Aft k^b HTemio, Boropyio ysa- 
BUBaeTB Hani'B asTopi na ocHOBanÍH MHOsecTBa CBHA'ÍTejiBCTB% M'bcT- 
Huxi sHaion^Hxi jno^eft; h e&iH pasi ona cyn^ecTByerB — noHATHO^ 
HTO B% HopnajiBHOifB noj[03ReHÍH Ben^efi (b'b BoropoMy aojurho crpe- 
MHTBCfl otfn^ecTBO H caMO rocyAapcTBo) ona HM^erB npaBO na 
yAOBjeTBopeHÍe. EcjihÓu 9to npaBO (5ujio npHSHaHO, Óesi coicH^Hifi 
HanuiHCB 6u cpe^CTBa ajisl ero y^OBJíeTBopeHÍfl. dxH cpeAcrsa yse 
cyn^ecTByiOTB y ApyrHx^B HapoAOBx, OTqacTH 6ujih, npaB^a vh muhh- 
iiaiBHofi creneHH, ucnpoÓoBanu h y HacB, BaB'B HanpHiišpi mRoau 

nOBTOpBTeJIBHfilfl^ BOCKpeCHUfl mBOJIU A^fl B3pOCJI£IX'B, HapOAHBlJi 

TreHÍfl, HO Bce dTO aojisho 6BITB ne wb 'rbx'BBpafiHe yssEX^B, novre 
peÓflqecBHxi, pasM^bpaxx, RaBi are npoóoBajiocB y naci. Hhhto ne 
Mimajo 6u npe sejanÍH h corjiacÍH hoahatb h^cbojbbo Btime 
ypoBeHB HapoAHaro o6pa80BaHÍfl, pacmHpHTB h uobbichtb nporpaMMBi 

BOCBpeCH£IX'B mBOJTB H HapOAHlIX'B ^TeHÍft; MEI HHTaJIlI HeAaBHOy BIk 

pascBast r-SH KoBajieBCRoň, ^to, nanpHMŠpi, b'b DlBeitiH safiora^ 
o HapoAHOifB o6pa80BaHÍH co3Aajia AaiBe ctojib sairi^qaTejiBHoe ABJíe- 
Hie, Rasi „BpecTBflHCRie yHHBepcHTerH*^. Y HacL,o6uBHOBeHHo ccbi- 
jaH)TCfl Ha CByAOCTB MaxepíajiBHBixx cpeACTBi napoAa; ho h am 
BpecTBflHCBÍe yHHBepCHTeru cyntecTByBorB na rpoma, h nira co- 

KHŠHÍfl, qTO eCJIH^U CaMX Hap0A'B A^&CTBHTeJBHO nOHflJTB nOJOAY 

o6pa80BaHÍfl, Boropoe pacmapajio 6u ne tojibbo ero oóqifl noHflríii, 
HO H npoHSBOAHTejiBHOCTB ero TpyAa, to-cctb canue 8apa6oTBH, oh^, 
BŠpojiTHO, corjiacHJca 6u e bb, jshuiejov) saxpaxy ajlsl btoK hoboS: 
CTyneHH oópasoBanifl. He BecB se HapoA'^ tftAenx; ecTB, ROHenso^. 
He Majio „(SoraTuxi iiysEBOBi'^, h ho RpaSneft wbyik ohe Korora 



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HAPOAHAfl rPAMOTHOCTB. 273 

ůa CA&iaTb aoKo6BUA saxpaTu j^a CBoero iiojio^oro noBOjiHk... 
r. IIpyraBHffL Bsotipasuterb heitb „sanpoci he Hreme*', BaB'E ne- 
ooMHÍHHiift H BecBiia SHa^HTeJBHfiifi; cooón^afl o Toirt, BaB'E Aepe- 
seHCBie ^vraTejH „ocasAftK)rb npocBÓaMH o KHHraxi^, HanpHMÍpB, 
cexBCKHX'B yHHTejieft n T^HTejisHin^, oh'e npeABn^Hn sospaseHÍe h 
saiii^aen, hto HapoABiie HHTaTejm ne sejiaiOTB nojiy^aiB bhhth 

TOJBBO AftpOlTb, HO H CaMH TpaTflTCfl Ha HX^E nOBjnBy, BCJI^ACTBÍe 

9ero H pasBHBaercfl ToproBafl A^iejiBHocTB BHHronpoAaBiiieBi-jytfoi- 
HHBOBi. Moserb Óhtb; ho BOo6nie roBops, e^Ba jh ne cjA^jevb 
npesHaiB, ^to^ sa HciuiioHeHieirB oco6£ix'b jiioÓHTejiefií, BpecTBaHHH^ 
MeHBme noBynaerB BHHSBy, ^itb 6iijio 6u Bootfo^e sejarejiBHO, 
H npexnoHHiaerB bsatb ee y xpyroro, ^ sairB 9to ao chxi nops 
pacnpccrpaHOHO h kb caMbiii otfpasoBaHHOirB oúmficiwb^ nep^ABO 
fifl HenpHJHHHOfi creneHH: Ópocaa A^EBrn na vrb yroxHO, y nacB 
csHmBOMi ^lacTO H8(}iraM)T:B BynHTB BHHry. Hacrojinpft ^sanpon 
Ha veme^ tfiiBaoTB Torxa, Bor^a BHHra noBynaerca hjih, Apy* 
rHMH cjiOBaMH, Borxa wb bhhfI i^HHTCfl yMCTBeHHafl HHmia, bi 
xoTopoft ^yBCTByercfl norpeÓnocTB, a ne Torxa, Borxa npeAno^H- 

TaKKTb HOHHTaTB HySyK) BHHSBy A^fl OAHOFO pa8BJieHeHÍfl, MOserB 

ÚUThj Aase AU npocroro ,,npoitecca Hrenifl^. OnacaeifCH, ^ro fb 
TOiTB sanpoci, BáBoft HBotfpaaBaercji r. IIpyraBHHEiifB, ne iiajnift 
npoi^eHrB npBxoAHTCfl na aro ÓespaauiHHoe h noroiíy Bcero neunfi 
ÓesnojesHoe pasB^enenie. 

fljdaie^ r. IIpyraBHHi nocBATHJii hícbojibbo rjiaB^ coBpexeH- 

HOMy C0CT0flHÍH) TOfi BHHSHOfi TOprOBJIE, BOTOpafl nOCBflfl^eHa HMeHHO 

BapoAHHirB BHHraMx h Boropyio oh^ HasusaerB jiy6oHHo&. TasoBu 
VMKBu: IIoHeMy „xopomifl bhhsbh'^ ne aoxoahjh ao napoAa? Jly- 
tfoHHHe HSAaTejiB; HsAaTejrH cb „Hhbojibcbo&^ (jniTepaTypa yjraidi); 
O^HH-BHHTOHoniH; CoBpeMeHHafl JiyÓoinafl jiHTeparypa; JlyÓo^HHft 
ponairB. 9th tjiabu onenB HHiepecHu MesAy npo^HifB saBi nepra 
BHHSHiixi HpaBOKB pyccsaro napoAa, h hosho pasBi noauyÍTB, tto 
asTOpi HO paBCBasaJTB 060 BceM'B diOMi emfi noApoCnše, ^itb bto 
y Herc cx&iaHO. JlHTepaxypHue napOAHHBn tojibbo HOAaBHO crajn 
BaxaB&TB ce&b BonpocB o toitb, ^to AOJiSHa 6uTb cosAana ]í,mb 
HEpoxa cepBesHafl h sApaBaa jraTepaxypa bmícto to&, saByn) ao 
csm nopi HCBjna^HTeJiBHo nocraBJífljiH eMy nsAaTOjm „cb Hhbojib- 

CKOft'. BCBOpŠ, OAHaBO, OBasaJIOCB, HTO 6opOTBCfl CB dTHMH HSAa- 

TauDfH 6ujio HO laB^ jerBO. Fse a^bho, cb copOBOBBixi ese en^e 
ch Tpnffifi.TUTb H ABaAivtTtixi roAOBi, BpHTHBa (TB npeHO^pese- 
HÍeM*B roBopHjia o&b dTHxi HSAaiejiflxx ^cb HebojboboIí*, BOTopue 
HaeoxBMJiH cpejtjaoío h npoeroHapoAHyio nyÓJiHBy cboidíh HSAamflMH, 
Tfib óuxE crpamHue poMaHH, npHBJnoHeHÍfl pastfo&HHBOBi, raAa- 

Ton L— JiHBAPb, 1891. 18 



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274 raCTHHKl BBPonu. 

TejbHUfl BHHrH, coHHHKH, nšceHHHRH, Bceo6iuie HHCbMOBHHRi, Jie^eú- 
HHBH, jy6o?HUfl CBasBH H T. H.; HO BTH RHHrH ynopHO ACpsaiHCL 
vb CBoeft nyÓJusjA h yxepsasHCb bi Heft Aftse h ao chxi nop'E. 
HaAO 6uji6 npHSHaTb, hto bto HSAaTejBCTBO ciyir&io ESB^krHiiirb 
otfpasoMi jAOBjeTBopHTB BHHSHiifl noTpe6HOCTH Hapo^a, AftTs eMy 
nisY^ dHii^HEjíioaejáH) . noje3H}JX'B h yBeceiereJiBHEixi* bhh[*b, no 
ero yMCTBeHHQMx n no ero iiaTepiajiBHuarB cpeACiBaiTB. HapOA- 
HHfi H q>eAHÍft (iišn^aHCBÍfi h BynenecBÍfi) qfrraTe^B orqacTH h 
ne Morb BynnTB cepLesnoft bhhth, a orq&CTE ne MorB ee no- 
hatb: oh^ ne Mon HHraTB cnei^iajiBHEix^B MeAHi^HHCBEíX'B BBsrB 
H noBynajFB nonyjiflpHufi jieqeÓHHB^B; oni ne mopb HirraTB na- 
CTOfl^aro IlymBHHa hjh ďLyBOBCBaro (ne roBopsiTB o neiffHorHX^B 
ECBjnoHeniflxi bi poA% CBa30Bi>). noTOMy qxo eny He^ocryneni (5ujri> 
BecB BTOTB ypoBCHB jHTepaTypHaro paBBirriíi, h rarajit BoBy Ko- 
pojeBHia, iri^HHHBH H nojLOÓBjvD 6exieTpHCTHBy; offB Majio yHHjicfl 
rpaMMaTBB^ n necBMennOMy Haiosemio, no Beji'B pa3H£ifl upaBTH 
lecBÍfl A^a, H eify npe^JiarajH nHCBMOBHHB'B ci totobhhh 4>op- 
MaMH nsceifB na pasnue ciynaH h cb ApyrmiH a^jiobbímh coB^TaMH; 
offB emfi oópbmjicsi B^ cpeA'6 CTapHHHiix'B cyeB^piB, n bb ero ycjy- 
raiTB OBLOH COHHHRH H raxaTejiBHEifl BHHrn, H T. A- Tt HeroAyion^úi 
ocysAeníj, ch BaBnira othochihcb h oi^hochtch bi HSAaieiHMi cb 
„Hhbojibcbo&^, rpiniHjiH tími, ^to nanpaBJífljHCB ne TyAa, ByAa 
ci^AyeTi: HSAaTejiH „cb HHBOJBCBofi'' 6ujm tojibbo npoAyBTOMi* 
ByiBTypHaro cocToanifl orpoMHoi iiaccu pyccBaro napoAa, Boropoe 
A0JI2BH0 6blio Taai hjih nnane nafirn yAOBJferBopenie cbohxx bhhs* 
Hiix'B norpe^HOcrefi na CBoewh ypoBHŠ. He (5yAB bhhpb, óujivl 6u 
pyBOHHCH^ BaB'B dTO A^fiCTBHTeiBHO H 6uBa90 Bi cxapoe Bpeiifl: no- 
nyjflpHafl jHTepaTypa en^e bi XYIII bšbš XHja bi SHawrejBHOft 
CTeneHH crapuHH AO-ryTreHÓeproQCBHiiH cpeACTBaMH; nsAaiejiH „ce 
Hhboj[bcbo&" tojbbo nocjiŠAOBajiH aroM; ypoBHio h anniB aaifi- 
HHJH cnHCEiBanie behi-b neHaxaHieiťB, npnóaBHBB, npasAa, H^qro h 

HOBOO; HO Bl TOM*B Se CTHJr6. 3Ha2 OAHy CBOH) ny6j[HBy, OHH BII- 

pa6oTaj[H H cnocoÓBi pacnpocrpaHenifl cbohxx BHHrB, Bificr^ (tb 
tími ypasyM&iH h BBycsi dioft nyÓJHBE, TaB^B hto BorAa noBŽft- 
mie peBHHTejiH napoAnaro o6pa30BaHÍfl AyMaJH (5opoTBCfl cb hhich 
na dToiTB nonpHni'6, sejiafl saii^HHTB hxi nacreHBBO ByjBrapHUH 

HSA^^JOfl CBOHMH pasyMHUMH BHHSKaMH, 8TH peBHHTeJH ORasajHCb 
óeSCHJBHU: OHH He BHaJH HH XyAO JIH XOpOmO JIH, HO npOHHO 

ycranoBHBmHXCfl BBycOBX napoAnoft ny(5jiHBH, hh cpeACTBi aobccth 

CBOH BHHFH AO pyBl HapO^HarO HHTaTeJIfl. 

r. IIpyraBHHi B^pno noAM'6THjrB 9th cjiaóufl CToponu HOB'bfi- 
mHxx HHTejuiHreHTHíixi HSAamft cpaBHnrejiBHO cb HBAaHÍflMH Hh- 



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HAPOAHAfl rPAMOTflOCTB. 275 

BOJBCRaro puHRa: nepsus Cb TpyAOMX npOHEKaiH bi HapoA'B, no* 
oAfifliíí pacxo;tflTCfl vh eeifB BaB'B neJiLSfl ly^me. 

,?'6mx o6i»flCHHTB xaRoe crpaHHoe flojeme? HeysejiH bbjcei 
fiapoAa TaKi iicnop^eHu, TaBx Hsepan^eHii, hto owb cosHaTaibHO 
npeAQO^HTaeTB „nwbnusí h tfesrpaMOTHUfl HSAaHÍa*' HHKO.ibcsaro 
poHRa „xoponiHMTi BHHSRaMx^, BumeAniQMS HBS pyBi> j[K)Ae& oópa* 

dOBaHHEIX'B H HHTeJIJIHreHTHLIXI^?.. 

„PasjHHHue „KOMHTeTH rpaMOTHOcra", ^oómecTea pacnpocrpa- 
Heflifl noJiesHuxi bhhpb'', ^rohiíhccíh no ycrpoftcrey napoAHuxi 
Tremfi"' h t. n. yqpesAeHÍfl, a xaRse MHoría <iacTHBifl jHi^a h3i& 
BHTeuHreHi](ÍH cocrasjAJiH, ne^aTairn h HSAaBajiH oneHb mhofo RHarB 
E RHBseRi c^e^iaJ[BHO „a-va napo^a'. Cpexn sraxi Hs^aHÍft, xota 
H ne qacTO, Bcrpiíajacb, pasyMierca, h y^a^Haa, xopoinia, no- 
jesHBifl RHHrn, AoerynHEifl HapoAHOMy nQHUMaHÍH). 

a Ho — cxpaHHoe aíjio! — bc6 bth ^xoporaia rhhkrh^.oÓhkho- 
BeBHO npecnoROfiHO ocTasa-iHCB na nojRaxx crojiHqHEixs MarasB- 
HOB%. Bt jiy^mcBTE cjiy^ai oiA pacxoAMHCB cpejíH Toft »e HHieji- 
JHreHTHot nyÓJiKRH, nsp^ARA nona^aa bi 6oii^e otfesne^eHHLia 
msoju H yqHJiiiii^a... 

,IIo HameMy mh']&híio, rjiaBHafl npHqHHa stopo 3aR.iK)HajiacB 
n TOMi, HTO JHi^a, tfpaBiníflCfl sa Hs^ame rhbpb „a<3h eapo^a*, 
n cyn^HOCTH uo^th cobc^itb ne snajiH stopo napo^a, ne SHajH 
yeiOBÍt AepeBeHCRott cpeAu, ee ana^H norpeÓHOCTeft HjrsHRa, epo 
iipirBuqeR*B h BRycoB^, ROTopue, bo bcaromi oiyqat, Heo(5xoAHMO 
(bjo npHHflTB bo BHHMaHie. 3aTlMx y aTKXs JiiOAefi ne 6íi.io, co5- 
ciBeHHo roBopa. HHRaRHX'B CBflsefi (TB cejiOM'B HJH CB AepeBHefi. 

^HHxeJUHreHTHue nsAaTe^a HapoAHux'B RHHseR^B o5uRHOBeHHO 
TiiycsasH hsi BHAa, ^to en^e Maso HanenaTaTB h usAaTB xopomia 
iHHSRH A^fl HapoAa, HO HTO Heo6xoAHMO no3a6oTHTBCfl o pacnpo- 
crpaHeeiH hxx wb napoAHOfi cpoA*. ,íyMaTB, hto MyaaRH 6yAyTB 
caxH BHnHCBiBaTb xopomifl rhhxrh m-h CTOJH^nux^B Mapa3UH0Bi, 
DO MeHBmeft irbp% HauBHO. Heo5xoAHMO, qxoÓEi rhhsrh stu Óiájie 
siHeceHu BX cejio h AepeBHH), qTo6u ont noflBHJiHCB na apnap- 
uxB H fiasapaxx, na ROTOpae CTeRaiOTCfl RpecTbane js^jísí aaRyaRff 
Bcero HeoÓxoAHMaro a^a ceCa. 

gSaTbMi Bcb STH 'H3AaHÍa „a^ta eapoAa"^ o^uBHoaeHHO 6fiiJiff 
HepesB-qypii Aopora, cobcímx ne no RapMany MyasHKy. Ma^enBRia, 
'looteHBRia ÓponiEopRH ctohjiii oTb 20 AO 50 Ron^beR^B h Aopoa^e. 
Eiuo 6hij OAHaRO, coBepmeHHO necnpaaeAJiHBO BiiA'&Tb bx aTOifB 
KopHCTHBie pascneru co eropoHu HHTejiJiHreHTDux-B H3AaTe.ife& napoA- 
Huxi RHBa&eR^B. IIpH Bcefii^ sejaHÍB yAemeBHib cboh HSAaeia, ohh 
Be MOPJH aroro CA^iaTB, r.iaBHUM^ oópasoMB noxoMv, qro, bT) bhaj 

18- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



276 BwrsatJffh sBPomi. 

BpafiHe orpaHHHeHHaro cCuxa h pacapocrpaHeHia, npesysA^HU Óujom 
nenaiaTb cboh rhesbh vb HesHa^HTejiBHOifB sojiH^ecTBi dBdeiinjfl- 
poKB — OAHy, ak6 THca^H, ne óojiie. 

,,HaBOHei(B, H caMaa BB^mHOCxB bthxi^ Hs^aHÍfi ^ajia Hapo^a'^ 
He BHymajia AOB^pifl specTBflHaMi h ee pacnojiaraia bx% bi no- 
BynEi. Jijfuio Wh TOiTL TTO Hi^OA'B KB TeHeHÍe AOJirHXi JiŠTB yaie 
npiy^eHi jiytfoHHiiMH Hs^aHÚíMH bi iisBŠCTHofi BHÍmHOCTH H Aase 
B'B HSB^CTHOMy ^^opMaTj BHHseBx. Emj HpaBflTCfl flpBo pacBpa- 
meoBUfl RapTHHBH, BOTopufl BcerAa HaxoAflTCfl na o&iosBaxi bhh- 
seBx, BiimeAniHxx hsi jaBOBB ^HHBOJiBCBaro puHBa^. A Tyi^ 
sasafl-TO GŠpeHBBafl, xycBJíafl o6jiosBa npHBpuBaerB Ton^yH), a^hh- 
Byio H HecBjaAHyH) tfpomiopBy; na oÓJLOwAy BM'krFO saiiaHiHBaro^ 
nasBaHifl, B086ysA&B)ii^aro jik)6oiiutctbo ejh ^aeTasiH), ctoati sa- 
Bifl-T0 HenoHflTHHfl ciOBa: ^Hs^anie HapoAHoB BetfjiioTeBH'^, jum 
j^HSAaHÍe G.-IIeTep6yprcBaro BOMHTera rpaiíOTHOCTH, cocTOfln^aro* 

npH HMnepaXOpCBOlťB BOJIbHOMl SBOHOMH^eCBOMl Ofin^eCTB^'', Hd» 

^TO-HHÓyAB vb dTOMi ^Ofiib. IIpoHieTB dTH ciOBa icysEBik H sa* 
AjMaeTca: nnb 9to TaBoe? %6-to HenoHaiBoe, HyasAce, crpannoe..^ 
n ociaBHTTfc BHa»By, ne BynHTB* (cíp. 118 — 120). 

TosBBO wb nocJiiAHee Bpens HSAaxeJiH napoAHuxx Bann, saBi^ 

BanpHMŠpi fl3B'bCTBafl 4^HpMa „IIocpeABHBl^, OÓpaTHJHCB Jffb rkwh^ 

cpeACTBaiTB pacnpocTpaBeBifl h B^ tími BBÍniBHirB ^^opiiaHi HSAa- 

BÍfl, BaBEMB nOJIBSOBaJHCB BSAaxeJIH-JiytfO^BHBB, E B'B BaBHMX BapOj^B- 

npEBiiBi, H dTO Bi nepBiifi pasi Aaen bosmosboctb BBiBecTE sa* 
poAByH) jiETepaTypy Ba 6oiie npaBEJiBBufi nyTB. F. npyraBHH'B^ 

COOÓmjBL&Tbj MeSAy EPOHEMI, JIIDÓOnUTBUfl nOApOÓBOCTE Toro, BaR^b- 

BeAercfl BapoABafl BBBSBafl xoproBJífl, e saBx oópasyioicfl ea a^* 
lejiE, Bep^AKO caMoyHBE, EBorAa B'BflaHaji% A'^a Aase BerpaMOT- 
Bue. FjiaBa o ^cpEpeneBEoft jyCoiBofi jiETepaiyp^'' Morjia 6uy. 
BBpo^eifB, 6uTB nojBŠe. 

Bi nocjAjífleŘ rjiaBi beefe, osarjiaBJíeBBofi: ,,?acTBaE EBEipa- 
TEBa vh jijkjíi flapoABaro oÓpasoBaBÍs — b^b Boopocy o pacnjiaT& 
CL BapoAOiťB'', aBTopB CBOBa BOABBMaerB oón^ifi Bonpoci^ echec- 
jiaeTB MBoroHECieBBBifl nosepTBOBaBÍE aa nojiBsy BapoABaro o6pa- 
80BaBÍfl E TpyAu, coBepmaeMue ci toh) se i^íjibk) HacTBuiíE jh- 
i^aME; npEBOAETx n^jLyfo nporpaMjfy saAani Toro ^orpoMBaro, rpan- 
AÍ08flaro A'i^a, wb BoiopoirB BasAufi MOserB npEBETB yHacrie^ 
BasAuft MOserB bpejosetb cboe ceju^. 

Bapan^Ť dra nporpaMMa saBJnoHaexcfl vb cJi'£Ay]&)nieM'B: 
— HsAaBÍe BBEHB E BapxEBi A<iE BapoAa npE yqacxÍE e co- 
A^flcxBÍE BaE(5oji§e BOMnexeBXfluxi BpeACxaBExaieft JiExepaxypH^ 
BayBE E ECByccxBa... 



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HAPOíHAa rPAMOTHOCTB. 277 

— PaenpocrpaHeHÍe KHHrB h BaprEH^B fb napoA* nyreiii: 
1) ycrpo&CTBa bi ropoxaxs, ceiaz'B n ^epeBHflxi RHHSHtIx^ csjía* 
jiowh A^fl npoAasH napo^Hiixi Hremfi; 2) npesi o^enefi, xo- 
J^mnKOVby ROpOÓeftHHROB^ H T. Ji,., H 3) iiyTeM^ opraHH3ai](ÍH 
ooQÚuTh apiejeft RHHroHonrB ji^isi paBHOCHOft ToproBJH. 

— YcrpoftcTBO 6H6jiioTeK'E h rarajeHi npn niKOJiaxx, a TaKate 

npH BOJIOCTHUX'E UpaBJíeHÍflX^E, $a6pHKaX'E, tfOJIBHni^aXl, TR)pBMaX'B 

fl T, A. ycrpoftcTBO yjHqHuxi nepeABHatHHXi 6n6jiiOTem> Bt nyHK- 
^rarb HaH^ojBinaro CRonjeHÍfl eapoAHBixi nacci^. 

— CoÓHpame tohhuxi h noApoSHBixi CB^b^eniŘ o xoxb na- 
^auHaro HapoAHaro oÓpasoBamn bi Foccíh: o wcxi e nojioseHÍH 

mBOJťB... 

— SflaROMHTB o(5mecTBO cb nojio»eHÍeMi HaqajiBHaro napoA- 
fiaro o6pa30BaHÍfl bi Poccíe h sa rpanHi^efi; HeycraHHO 6yABTB h 
ooAAepsHBaTB B'B o5iitecTBÍb HHTepecB H SHBoe coHyBCTBÍe Ri A^y 
eapoAHaro o6pa30BaHÍfl h pasBETÍa nyie^rB HSAaHÍfl eseroAHux'B 

*0603pÍHÍfi H OTqeTOBl... 

— CHa6seHÍe (JiAHiftniHrB raROJX y^eÓHHMH nocoÓiflMH h 

pyROBOACTBaMKf. 

— YcrpofiCTBO noABH»Hux^ ÓHtfjiioTeRx AM yHHxeJieft h y^H- 

TeriBHHU^B HapOAHUX^ niROJ^. 

— Oco6eHHoe noneienie o ^acTHHx-B RpecTBancRHx^ (neo^- 
4^^iaJ[BHux^) niROJiaxx, laRi^HadUBaeMHxi „AOMainHHX'B niROJiaxi 

q^ailOTHOCTH^. 

— YcrpoftCTBO BOCRpeCHUXX mROJI^B. 

— YcrpofiCTBO nocmoHHHUíCb napoAHHX^ HTenift, no BOSMoa- 
eocTB CB lÍHeBUMH RapTHHaMH, RaR^ KB FopoAaxx, TaRi n Bl 
<e^X'B... 

— HsAanie eaeiri&caíHaro atypnajia e eaeAneBHOft raaerKr, 

OpHHOpOBJíeHHHXl Rl HOTpe^HOCTflMX rpaMOTHarO JliOAa H3l Ha- 

poAa... 

— UsEicRaHie H npHBje^eme MaTepiajiBHUx^ cpeACTBi Ha a^o 
HapoAHaro oÓpasoBanifl: Ha HSAame rhhtb h RapxEHi ajih napoAa, 
Ha ycrpofiCTBO 6vi6jňoTejíi>y msr^jLewb, RHHffiHEIX^ CRJiaAOBi e t. a* 

ABTopi ne AonycRaexx coMH^nift vh toitb, mo6u oÓn^eciBO 
He npEHflJio Rx cepAi^y 9th HHTepecu HapoAa. „Mucjb o neoóxo- 
j(HK0CTH npEATH Ha HOMOH^B A^y HapoAHaro o6pa80BaHÍfl Bce 
rjy6se h rjiy6ae npoHHRaerB bi cosnanie oÓn^ecTBa, h bx nocJi^AHee 
speiu Bce Han^e h namie npExoAHxcfl cjoiBiniaxB o 6oji^ hjh Menie 
BHaiHxeiBHUxi HOsepxBOBaHÍflxi Ha fiíbjio napoAnaro o^pasoBanifl^. 
ysasaBniE pflA'B xaRBXi nosepxBOBaHífi, r. IIpyraBHH^B npoAOJsaexi: 
^BLoADÓHue $aRxa a&h)xx nojiHoe npaBO HaA'^TBCfl, hxo sa Maxe- 



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278 B^CTHHR^E EBPOnU. 

piajibHUMH cpeACTBaMH A^o He ocraHOBHTCfl, pasi vb o6iAecTB^ 
BHOJiH^ C03pÍBaerB cosHanie o spattHeft, HeouosHoft h BoniK)ii](e& 
Heo(5xoAHMOCTH CRop^ttmaro yxoF^eTBopeHÍa yMCXBeHHEix^ sanpocoB'^ 
CTOMIIJIJÍOHHO& Maccu pyccBaro eapo^a. JI,yMaTB Hoane — BHa^Hio 
6u npflMO oťRopÓJflTB otfniecTBO, ne b^phtb bx npHcyrcTBie bx newb 
jiyqfflHxx CTopoHi HejOBÍnecKaro Ayxa" (crp. 261). 

npoTHBi TaBoft npeBpacHofi yB^peHHOCTH He xo^eicfl cnopHTb; 
HO 6uBaerB HHOrAa Heo6xoAHMO cnopHTB, HMenko a^a xoro, 7ro6ii 
npe^íMerB ne Ohjix OAHOcropoHHe nonarB, ^toCh xaEaa yBfepeH- 
HOCTB ne saspuBaja rjiasx na xpy^HOCXB A^a. HaAOÓeo AynaTB^ 
TTO H B^B npesHee Bpeiifl vh HameMi oón^ecTBt iipRcyTCTBOBa.iB 
^jiynniifl cropoHEi HejOBinecKaro jyxa*, h OAHaKo am napoAHara 
o6pa30BaHÍfl ne A^ajiocB HH^ero, h bi HacTOfliAee BpeMJi 8th .lyq- 
mifl CTopoHBi A^&CTBy^T^ TaBi ciaóo, cpaBHHxejBHO CB sa^aHeSy 
^0 HapoAHoe o(5padOBaHÍe no cík> MHHyTy HaxoxHTca vh Mira^eH- 

HeCKOWb COCTOflHÍH. ^^^^9 aBTOpB XO^eTB yAOCTOB^pHTB, ^TO AA^l^ 

wbvh HaAOÓHOCTH Bi oco6bix% saxpaTaxi, HanpHM'lp'B sa Hs^ame 
BBHrE, H HTO 8TH saxpaTu BepHyxcfl npH pasyMHOMi BeAeHÍH A^a; 
HO BO BCABOMi cjiyqa']^ OH^B Bcero Óojihme pascHHxuBaexi na ^h- 
jaHxponÍH), Koxopofi a&6xi bha'b ^pacnjnaxu ci napoACMi'*. Mu 
saMiqajiH Bume, qxo ^HjraHxponifl ecxB HecoMH^HHO npespacece 
A^o, BaRX HcnojHeHÍe xpecxiancBaro AOJira, ho cxaBaxB yAOBje- 
XBopenie noxpeCHOCxefi „cxoMHjjiioHHoft MaccKi pyccBaro napoAa* 
wb saBHCHMOCXB oxT* nosepxBOBaHÍfl, x.-e. ovh noAaaHÍfl, eslui> sa- 
sexcfl Aa^6 He yHHsexejiBHO jib RaRi 6yAxo ajisí AOcxoHHcxoa dxofi 

CXOMHJJliOHHOfi MaCCBI? ?eCXB H CJiaBa XÍ^M'B AOÓpOBOJIBHllM^ H 063- 

BopucxHBíMi peBHHxejiflMi, Boxopue nojiaraioxi CBoe BpeMfl, xpy^^ 
H cpeACXBa Ha nojiBay napoAHaro oópasoBania; ho 9xo — hoabhs- 
HHBH, Bxi He ifosexi 6uxB MHoro; Bxi HOMon^B jíjijij BcerAa 6y- 
Aexx X0.1BB0 cjyiafiHa, h AijiecooÓpasHO jih, qxo6fci a^o ctojii^ 

BCJIHBOt BaXHOCXH, BdBX HapOAHOe 06pa30BaHÍe, CXaBHJOCB, S7^ 

npuHi^unrb, na no^sy JiHqnaro ÓJiaroA^nífl, npnxoM^ no Heo5xo- 
AHMOCXH cJiyqafiHaro u orpanagennaro? Ecjih mu cxaBHHi cxojik 
BBicoBO HapoAHufi HHxep€(rB H A^se npHSUBaeMi na cjiyseHie eny 
ujyHmia cxopoHU neJOB-feiecBaro Ayxa**, HMŠíomiaca b^ pyccBoifs 
o(5n^ecxB']^, xo vb npHHi^Hn'6 mu aojishu 6u, Baa&exca, BecB bo- 
npoci cxaBHXB Hnaqe — pasBHBaxB muoíb ne o xom^, hxo BaBaa-TO 
,HHxejiJiHreHi^ífl" oÓJisana sa qxoxo pacnJiaxHXBCfl cb HapoACH^, 
ycxpoHBaa juísl nero 4^HjiaHxponHqecBÍfl hiboju, a o xom^b, qroóu 
HapoAHoe o6pa30BaHÍe, nesaBscHMO oxx bcaboS jih^hoK ^Hjampo- 
híh, nocxaBJíeHO 6ujio rkwb HopMajBHUMi ofipadOHX, RaRBMi oho 
jforjo óuxB, H 6ujo, nocxaBjeHO y KpyvjuTh napoAOBi, qxo6u na- 



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HAPOJHAfl rPAMOTHOCTb. 279 

po^ nojB30Bajiai HaetcTHofi AOJiefi o(5pa30BaHÍfl ne bcji'Iactbí6 
CJ[y«iafiHofi ÓJtaroTBopQTaasHOCTH, a vb npaoobHOiťB, saKOBHOMi 
nopfljiRt BeiueS. IIpaB^a, coBpeifeHHoe nojio»eHÍe Ben^efi ne Ta- 

R(>BO, qT06u CKOpO MO^KHO ÓUJIO OH&HAaTb TaKOfi eAHHCTBeHHO Up9L' 
BHJIBHO& nOCraHOBRH A^&Sa, — H Bil 3THX1> yCJIOBÍflX^ AaHUOfi MHHyTU 
MOZHO BSUBaTb RX 4^HJiaHTpOnÍU, nOTOMy HTO HyXAA BX Hefi Ha- 
lEI^O, — HO HeBOBMOSHO CTpOHTb BCe A^O Ha ^^HJaHTpOniH: BO" 

^epB£lx^, ona HHRorAa He bi coctoahíh ahib Bce, mb HysHo, a 
BO-BTopEix^B, dxa DpoHOB^AB HHTaeTB 8a6iiy»AeHÍt;, OTBOABTB pjiasa 

0TB Heo6xOAHMOCTH CTaBHTB BOnpOCl BO BCefi erO Hai(ÍOHaJ[bHO&, 

rocyAapcTBeHHOft mepox*. J^iftcTBHTejiLHO, npejR^e Bcero h Biime 
Bcero — 9T0 BonpocB rocy^apcTBa: ecjHCu bi Hacroamyio MOHyTy oho 
H 6ujio He Bi cocTOflHÍH cpasy nocraPEiTB HopMajBHUMi oópasoirb 
A'kio, danyn^eHHoe aIuiumh B^RaMH ncTopin, to (^'bAyerB no Rpafi- 

Hefi Ui^ CTpeMHTBCfl R^ TOHy, HTOÚU STO MOrJIO 6UTB CA^aHO 

BB (JyAymeiTB. Oaho rocy^apcTBO vb cocroflHÍH npenaTB niHpoRu 
H oÓflsaraiBHBiJi Bť&pu no ycipoficTBy Hapo^nofi mROJu: ycejiHB^ 
ĎDAseTB Ha HapoAHoe npocB'fe^^eHie, oho b-b hícrojbro jítb mo- 
zeTB CA^aTB éojiBme, hšmi CA^i^.iaerB Hacrnafl ^HJiaHTponifl b^ 
xecjiTRH JitTB; OHO OAHO MOs&eT^ AaTb 6bj[Bmifi npocTop^ e aBTO- 
pffrerB rbwb mícthum-b npeAcraBHTeiiBHUMT, vqpeaAeHiaBirB, ro- 

POACRHMI H BeMCRHMX, ROTOpUH, B006nie TOBOpfl, HOCTaBJíeHLI Te- 

nepB Bce en^e ne BecBMa yAOBJíeTBopHre^BHO, h oinaRO ycn'kiH 
XOCTHrHyTB, sa Bpena CBoero cyn^ecTBOBaHia, ctojib ÓJiHCTaTOJiBHiixi 
pesyjBTaTOBi (ropoACRÍa yqojiHn^a bt» IleTepóyprt h Mocrbí, mho- 
rífl seMCRÍfl mRo;iB2 vh npoBHHi(ÍH). ^acTHofi A^TeJiBHOcrn HHRorAa 
He 6yAerB saRpuTa Aopora; no 6ujo 6u 6o.!ibuihm'b caHOOÓojiBn^e* 
mwb, H BBCAeHieMi bt» oÓiiaH^ Apyraxi — AynaTB h yTBepasAaTB, 
TO) CTOJIB rpoMaAHBiít BonpoíTB MoaeT-B 6uTB pimeni nyren-B 
HacTHoft 6jiaroTBopHTejBHOCTH: sto CBysHBaeTB h caMne pa8M'£pu 
í,ija, — ^acTHafl CjaroTBopHTeJBHocTB MoaierB AaBaTB tojibro RpoxH. 
9to RacaeTca „pacnjiaTLi cb napo^OMB**, — e&wl RaKerca, tto 
BTy TepMHHOJoríK) jy^me 6u cobc^mi ocTaBHTB. 

A. IlKinHHli. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HA MOTHBT) CTEKETTH. 



I. 
nEPEAT) rpo30ň. 

TeMHierB... ?epHfiix'B tjtb Hecyícfl BepeHEi^u, 
JI^ojEHa H xojiMKí OByrajiHCfl utmí 
H cb BpHBOifb HOCflTCfl HcayraHHUfl uthi^, 
Kpysacfl hhsbo HaA'B seiíjefi... 

Bce CTHXJio — crpaHHOK), sjíOB^bn^eft THmHHOio, 

Ho CBOpO MOJIHifl ÓJieCBeTb Hdl TeMHUX^ TyWbj 

VI BHxpB uoAHHMercfl Ha;rB cohhoh) p^boh), 

H rpaneri rpoifB — ysacen^B h Mory^i. 

H cepAi(e y mcha xasoft aie iirjiofií oó^ato, 
TaBÍa SI otfjiaRá cyjjiTi h mhí Ct^y, 
H Bi crpaxš nepBaro rpoMOBaro pacBaxa 
Ji TaBse »Ay •• 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HÁ MOTUBl CTEKETTH. 281 



n. 






Tbat May will not bloom again.. 



SI He BŠpH) BOSMOSHOCTET C^aCTBfl 

Bi> dTH AHH nenoroABi h 6ypB, 

SI He B^pH), TTO UOCSfb HeHaCTBfl 

Bx He6ecax'E sackerB iiasypB. 

Si He BtpH), HTOÓi HOBofi spacoK), 
Paci^B^j^Tafl, BOCBpecHyiB mofjio 
Bce, HTÍ) jymy »hbhjio co(5oh) 
H — BaB'B Bce na seMJii — otiíbšjio. 

Ho, pu, eciHÓi Aase a cHOBa 

B03BpaTHJIHCB MHByBmíe AEHl^ 
To JIBHJIHCB 6u TÍHBH) ÓUJOFO, 

TojBBO 6ji%ahoh) TÍHBH) ohh. 

TaKOBti H ocennifl posu, 

?Tb BpacHBu H numHu na B8rjflA'B, 

Ho BX BOTOpUXl y6HJH Moposu 

BcH) HX'B ccritoecTB H BecB apoMaT^. 



o. M — BÁ. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



H3TE> 

ilAJiEKAro npoiniAro 

pyil AKAJEMIIÍ 



Ho nOBOAy CMEPTH nPO«. KA8AHCKOS j^yXOBHOfi ASÁABMIH 
0. H. nOP«HPBBBÁ. 



Bx Poccíh kb HacToamee BpeMa cymecTByeiyB ^erupe AyxoB- 
Huxi aKa^eMÍH. Gjijxe Hocaica, hto bi cRopoM'E speneHE npe;^- 
nojaracTca OTEpaiie TaEOBoft »e — nsTott, to Bhjibhí. 

^yxoBHUfl aKa^eMÍu c^HiaiOTCfl BucmHHH yqeÓHUMH saBCAemaMH, 
H no OTpacaflMi sHamfi, 6*^ hhxi^ npenoAaBaeHuxi), npeACTaBi[flH)T% 
cofioft KaKx 6h 0C060 cymecTByiomie ^aKyjitTCTH yHHBepcHTexa: 4>hjo- 
jiorH^ecKÍfi H 6orociiOBCBÍfi. SHaHÍa, bi hhxi npeno^asaeMUfl, npex- 
nojiaraiOTca HacTo;iBBo cojihahbimíi, hto hsx bcžxx Hamexi buc- 
niHxi yqe^Huxi saBCAeHÍfi tojibro AyxoBHEiiťB BLiíB,jí,emswb npeAO- 
ciaBJíeHO npaBO AftBaxB HapaBffh cb yHHBepcHTeraMH cbohmx cjiy- 

AOBTopa, MaPHCTpa, RaHAHAaia, A^ft- 
b, RaBi fl BH2iy no raseraMi, aRaAeMÍH 

»H0 no tforOCJIOBCBHMX OTpaCJIflMl 3Ha- 

;boS[ AHnji0M'B, TO fl Bi neMi npH3HaH^ 
H MarHcrpoMX bcžxi oipac^efi snamfi, 
íh. Sl ne 3HaK), cocroajca jh EaEOft- 
iLmnBmifi BOMneTeei^iK) aBaAeMÍfi na 
B niHpoBOMi CMncji']^, Wh BaROiiTL nojiy- 
rato, ?T0 nocToaHHBifi, fb nacroan^ee 



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H3i» M^BKAFO nponuAro. 283 

BpeMfl, Bcc Óojrie h 6ojvbe yee^iHqiiBaEOii^iiicfl nporpeccB 3HaHÍii b^ 
yHHBepcBTexaxx no HayRaiťB odn^aro o6pa30BaHÍfl, a bmíctí cb 
STHMx bcc 6ojr£e h 6ojí^e B03pocTaio[AÍfl TpeóOBaHÍfl oti jihi^i, 
Hiuyíi^Hxi uarHcrepcRHXi n aoktopcbhxi ahojomobi, — h cpaBHB- 
leJibHO Cb dTHM^B AftJieKO ee vh xaRofi se creneHii nporpeccBpyioiii^ee 
npeno^aBanie dTax'E eayKi bi> AyxoBHuxi aRaAeififlxi — BacTaBHJB 
EKa^eMH^ecRoe eaqajiBCTBO npH3HaTb tacíto cboh) HeROMneTeHT* 
HOCTB Wh pasAaTJb creneneft no ApyrnMi RaRBMi-HHÓyAB HayRaMi^, 

Kpoui 6orOCJIOBCR0XB. 

Ho ecjiH ecTB yHHBepcHTeru, wb Roxopuxx npeno^aioica rt »e 
cauBifl nayRH h npeno^aiOTCB ropasAO Jiyvme, nesejia bb aRaAC- 
MÚixii, TO san^MB Tor^a nysnu AyxoBHUfl aRa^eHÍe? SI noHHHaK) 
jsíkAh cyn^ecTBOBanifl aRa^eifÍH RÍeBO-MorHjflHCRofi, ocnoBannoft A<3fl 
6opB(}u CB RaTOJTHHecTBOMB H yHÍefi, npn nojinoMB OTcyíCTBÍH y 
HacB vb TO Bpeiffl RaRHXB 6u TO HH 6ujio y?e6Hux^ saBeAcnitt. 
KoHHHaH) H cyn^ecTBOBanie mocrobcro - cjiaBBHO - rpeRO - .laxHHCROfi 
aRaAeMÍH cb ea BHaneHETUMif 6paTBflMH JHxyAaMH, RorAa TaRse 
y nacB ne 6uao HHRaRHXx ApyruxB padcaAHHROBB ne tojibro buc- 
maro, ho h cpeAnaro oCpasoBaHÍa. Ho ocnoBaTejiBHO jib bi name 
speHfl coAepxaTB ocoóua Bucmia AyxoBHua J^e6Eua saBeAeHÍfl, 
RorAa paAOMB BeABTca oĎyienie Toro »e caMaro lOHomecTBa bb 
yHHBepcBTeraxB, ocoóeHHO ecjiH npeAno;iosHT|>, ?to yHHBepcnTeTH 
MOryrB hmítb bb cbocmb cocraBÍ h ÓorocaoBCRift 4>*^Ry;iBTeTB — sto 

BOnpOCTB. 

Bi> nanaji'! namero BOspontAeHÍfl h;ih, roBopa npon^e, bb mecTH- 
AecaTuxB roAaxB, Hep']^AKO yse BucRasBiBajiHCB meicjih o csíshíh 
HaniHxi AyxoBHuxB aRaAeMift cb yenBepcHTeTaMH. H CROJbRO no- 
MHHTca, eABa jih TorAa ne nepBufl M. H. KaTROBB noAajiB dxy 
uucib H ropa^o ee OTCTanBajiB. Ho noTOMB dra MucJib fiujia ociaB- 
JCHa, H aRaAeMÍH ocraJiHCb bb CBoeMx npemeeMB nojioseniH, — a 
Tenepb, MoateTB 6utb, h cobcímb BOseparajiHCb rb mucjih o neoó- 
xoAHMOCTH cyrnecTBOBania AyxoBfluxi> aRaAeMifi bb oóocoÓJieeHOMi^ 
OTB yHHBepcHTeTOBB bhaí; RaRHXB Mpe3X 9T0 npeAHOJiaraeTca ao- 
crarHyTB i^tjieft — mu ne snaeMB. MoaseTB 6utb, Tenepb, RaRB h 
npe»Ae, nojraraiOTB, qxo npn oÓocoÓjrenHOMB cymecTBOBaniH AyxoB- 
HHXB aRaACMÍft ecTb fibjíbuiaa B-fepoaTHocTb BOcnHTaTb AyxoBHoe 
K)nomecTBO b-b Ayxi xpHCTiancRaro ÓJiaro^ecTia, yTBepAHTB bb neMi, 
pacíiojosenie h npHsuqRy rb oÓpaAHOCTH, ao chxb nopB en;e 
crojib Rp4nRott BB napoA*? Ho bb AÍficTBHTe;ibHOCTH 9Ta BipoaTnocTb 
bh^ímb ne onpaBAUBaeTca. A caMB Ďujib bb AByxB AyxoBHuxB aRa- 
AGMÍaxB BT> crapoe, HwKO.iaeBCRoe BpeMa: bb OAHott yHHJica HexHpe 
roAa, bb Apyrofi — boccmb .iítb Cujitb nacTaBHHROMB. H Mory cb 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



284 B^orflHKi KBPomi. 

nojiHBun> ydiacAenieM^B CRa3aTB, ^to lyxa tfjiaro^ecTia bi o&b2X'h 
aRaAeMÍflXT> Óujio HEiRaK'B ae Óojikoie, ecJiH ne Menše , rbwh h vh 
naxoAfliAHXCfl nojí,Jvk hhxi yHHBepcHrerax^. MojOAesB — Bcer^a 

HOJOAeSB, Cb OAHHaROBUMH HaBJIOHHOCTflMH H CTpeMJeHÍflMH, — H 

CTpeMJieHÚi} HpaBu, xapaBxepi AftHHaro o6n;ecTBa HenpeirleHO 
BTopraH)TCfl B% nee h OBjaAŠsaiorB eio, saRi 6u mu hh CTapajucb 
ee orpaAHTB, 

JífiJl^^} rOBOpflTB, ^TO BŠROTOpUfl 6orOCJIOBCKÍJi HayBH HaCTOJIBRO 

cneniajiBHH, hto npenCAasanie hxi — oqeHB Hyseoe h noBATHoe vb 
^^yxoBHEixx saBeAeHÍflxi — ne hm^o 6u CMucjia b^ yHEBepcHTeraxi; 
Aase 6orocj[OBCRÍfl nayRH o6n^aro xapaRrepa, npenoAaBaeMUfl b^ 
yHHBepcHTeraxx, RaRi HanpHMipi i^epROBHaa Hcropia, — no hsbíct- 
BUMi ycJIOBiflM^ MŠcra m BpeMeHH npHHHMaiorB HHorAa iBRyio Apo($- 
HyK) cnei^iajrHsai^K), TaRoe MeJiRoe npHcnocotfjreme r'b Óubdihm^ h 
npoAOJiacaiomHMCfl cay^aftBOcraM^, qxo nocji*ABÍa ysa^ToataiorB vb 
Be& o6in}i xapaRxepi BayRn b npeBpan^aK)ii> ee bi BecBfl3Bu& c6ópb 
BHq^Mi BeoÓycjiOBJíeflBBix^B h BeoÓxacBHMux^ Bcrp^qflLixx ^aR- 
TOBi, A*JiaH)TB ee ^ímx-to bt» poA* Bcropin BoeBBOft, boapoCbocth 
ROTopofi A-ofl ^eiiOB']&Ra BoeflBaro sBaTB HBiepecBO b nojiedBO, bo 
AJífl HejKOB'ÍRa otfn^aro o(5pa30BaBÍfl sto BSJíBmBflfl pocRomB, 6edx 
ROTopoft OBI JierRO MOffienb oCoStbcb, b CA*JíaerB, nomajiyft, jy^me, 
ecjiB ynoTpeÓBTB CBOe BpeMa Ba npio6p*TeBÍe Apyraxi sBaflifi, (ío- 
ji^ke eMy npercABiixi. Bce 9to coBepmeBBO cnpaBeAJraBO. Ho Ekjí,h 
npe^nojiapajiocB, hto yBBBepcBxeTB Óy^era bmštb oco6uů Cofocjiob- 
cbíS ^aRyjiBTeTB, cjiymaTejiaMB ROToparo Óy^yi^ BCR^roqBxejBHO 
jBDia, sejiaK)B^ia bocbatbtb ceóa Ba CJiyaieBie AepRBB, bt> Rané- 

CTBŠ JIH BaCTaBBBROBli BO ÓOFOCJIOBCRBMI BayRaM'B Wb CeMBBapÍflX'b, 

B^ jísmecTffk JIH BacTEjpefi i^epRBH. Gji']&AOBaTejiBBO, bcš 6orocjOB- 
CRia BayRH, Roxopua cqnxaioxca ByatBHMH, co Bceio bxi cnei^ia- 
jiasai^ieK) h npncBocoÓJieHieMX r^b coBpeMeBBEiMi BysA^Mi h no- 
xpefiBocxaM^ i^epRSH, ÓyAyxi bmíxb xaRoe »e saROBBoe mícxo b^ícb, 
RaRoe OBH viwbíovb xenepB h bi AyxoBBEixi aRajceMÍaxx. 

BnpoqeMx, aobojbbo o6b axoMi. ŠaqiMT* no^BBMaxB cnopi o Me- 
qxaxi, RorAa-xo aHBniaxii, a xenepB Aasno yme Bcqe3ByBniBX*B. Upn- 
SBáeMi sa jiy^mee xb, qxb sa jiyqniee npHsnaexca xeBepb, x.-e. ox^í-íb- 
Boe cyn^ecxBOBaflie aRa^eMÍH oxx yBHBepcHxexoBT>. Ho RaRHX^ 611 
níbjíei BH npe^nojiarajiocB 9xhmi AOCxarnyxB, — Beo6xoAHMO Bcer^a 
OABO, m:o6u AyxoBBua aRa^eMÍH, npe^cxasjíaion^ia co6o& ABa oxopBaH- 
Bue oxi yBHBepcHxexa ^aRyjBxexa: 6orocjiOBCRÍft h 4>0JíOJiorH^ecRÍft, 
cxoajiB Ba xoM^ se ypoBB']^ sBaBÍa, sa RaROMi cxoaxi cospeMOH- 
Bue MMT) yBHBepcHxexH. H60 Be Moasexi BOAJieataxB cnopy, hto 
AyxoBBLia aRaAeMÍH, bx Ra?ecxBŠ BucniHxnb y^e^Buxx 3aBeAeBÍfi, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HSi) M-iBRAro npomjiAro. 285 

AOJiaKau 6uTh TaRHMH se HacToan^HiiH xpaMaiiH HayKH, xaBHMH se 

AMCTBHTe.SbH£IMH paSCaAHHKaMH BEICmarO SHaHÍfl Bl CTpaHÉ, BaR'B 

H yHHBepcBTexu. EIocMOTpHifB Ha HaniH AyxoBHEifl aBa^eMÍH Cb 

8T0fi TOHBH Spd^HÍfl. 

HacTOfln^HMH spei^iMH xpaMOBi Bucmaro HejOB^Hecsaro BHaHia — 
HasoBeiTb JIH dTH zpaMfii yHHBepCHTeraMH, aBa^eMÚíMH h.ih ApyrHMH 
HMeHami — MoryrB 6htb tojilbo jih)ah reHiajibHHe^ npojiaraian^ie ho* 
BHe nyTH B'E to& hjh Apyroft OTpacJiH SHanift^ hjh noMoraioii^ie 
dToft OTpacjiH vh BopoTRoe BpeMfl cfiibjíBiih rHraHTCBie marn yse bx 
npHHflTOMx eK) HanpaBJíeHÍH. Ho reniajiBHBie ynu vb nejiOBt^ecBOirB 
poA'6 npeAcra&njiiOTB coóofi Boo(5nie asjíeHÍe p^ARoe h HCJECJiH)TOTeJB' 
Hoe. nodTOMy oÓu^HEiMH cJtymaxeiiflMH HayBH bi xpanaxx Bucmaro 
HeaoBiqecsaro sHaHÍa 6iiBaiorB jhoah^ npeHiiyn^ecTBenHO nepeA'B 
' ApyrHMH A&poBHTue, cnoco(5Hiie noHHMaTb Bucmia saAa^H nayBH bo 
Bcefi Hxx mHporiy vb HanpaBJíeHiH, npojioseHHOiTB reniaiíBHiiMH 
ynaMH, H nocreneHHO, Majio-no-Mafly, noABHraTB hx'b BnepeA'B cobo- 
KynHBíMM CHjiaMH Bcšxi dTHX'B AapoBHiBKi yiíOBi, ApysHO ipyAfl- 
n^ixcfl HaA'B OAHOK) H TOK) so OTpacjibK) BHanifl. Ho H TaBíe no npe- 
Hiiyn^ecTBy AapoBHTHe jiioah, cnocoÓHue nocrenenHo ABHraTB nay^y 
BnepeA^> h cji^AOBaTejibHO, CA^Jiaibca ea npHsnaHHbrMH spei^aMH, 
cocraBJífliorb vh o6a^ecTBÍ jiBJíeHie ne nacroe. 

BoTx HoaTOiiy Bce CTapanie buchihxi yie6EUTb saBeAeHÍĚ, 9THX'b 
npHBHjierHpoBaHHS[X'B xpaMOBX HayBH, aojubho Óutb npesAe Bcero 
HanpaBjíeHO Ha xo, hto6u yif^io^H BEi^npaxb xaBHXi jiiOAefi, oxiiš- 
^eHHfiix^B caiíOK) npnpoAOK) ajiíí nayBH h8% MHOsecxBa Apyi^^'^^ k>ho- 
mefl, — a pasi ohh yAanno BuÓpaHu, HHHero ne saiixb f^sí xasoro 
Hxs npHroxoBJíeHÍH, no xofi oxpacjH snanifi, BaeeApy Boxopofi ohh 
npeAHasnaqaHxrcH sanHXb, — qxoóii ohh, npeABapHxaibHO xopsecxBen- 
Haro o&hsióJieuisL yxi spei^aicH nayBH, Bnyxpenno noqyBCXBOBaJH h 

C03HaJlH, HXO OHH CXOHTl BHOJH-Í^ Ha BUCOXi XOFO SHaHÍfl, BO- 

Topoe Ao cero MOMeHxa yse npíoóp^xeno HeJKOBinecxBOirB, no hxi 
saeeApi. Pasi axo CA'&iaHO, h lonoma OBasaJicfl A^ficxBHxejbno 
juipoBHXEifi, OMy 6uM Aana no;iHafl cfíMOCxoflxeJbHOCTb b^ Aa*KBHŤfi- 
meMi pasBHXÍH HSJíBOÓJieHnofi HBfb nayBH, — owb ABjíflexcfi npHBOBan- 
euHi B'B xpaiiy nayBH HaBcerAa. HayBa peBHHBa. Ona saBJíaA^- 
Baerb bcImh caiann Aymn CBOero jnoÓHMi^a, ^ifi ffiLAie^ tími^ 
nmpe n r^yóse pasBepxuBaexi nepeA'B hhmi cboh saAaw, n hím^ 
xaj^, rhwb cxpacTH'£e npHBASHBaexi ero b'b ce&b. H onx hh- 
KOFAa ne BupBexcfl hsi en BpinBuxi oíhant. Pasi nsCpannue 
DHomH AOCxurjiH xaBoro cocroanifl, ne nysno yse ynoxpeÓJUixb 
HHBaBHX'b MŠp^, ^xo6u yAepsaxb hxi bi xpairi nayBH. Ohh 
caiiH ne y&AyTi hsx nero. Hysno xojibbo coxpanflxb nojrnoe yna- 



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286 B^CTHHBli EBPOaU. 

ďseHÍe JVb uTb nenovb^ecEOuj AOcroHHCTBy. Ohh ropasAO 6oji%e 
HyTRH B% dTOlBiy, i.iych Apyríe jiioah. Ohh caMOJiiofiHBii, h no opasy, 
— BcaKoe HeocTOpoatHoe, nenpaBMBHoe npHKocHOBeHie kt» hx^ jhh- 

HOCTH MÓSeTl BOSMyTHTb HX'B ÓOlte BCerO. JífijAej HXl HySHO 

MaTepiaJBHO bectojibbo o(5e3neHHT&, ^to6u ohh h hx'b ceMeficTBa 
MOrjiH SHTB, ne tojbbo ne nyBCTBya Hya^AiJ bi Beo(5xoAnMOM'B, ho 

H nOJBSyflCB H3BÍCTHBIM'B AOCTaTROAťB H y^O^CTBaMH, HT06eI OHH 
BHA'&9H, HTO HXl SHaHÍe H TpyAU I^^HflTCfl H B03HarpaSAAH)TCfl 

TpyAH Hxi TOBapHH^efi, aaHHMaiOQiHxi paBHUfl n A^Hce BBicmifl no 
panry Micra b-b Apyrnx^ OTpacjiflxx rocy^apcTBenHOft eiysBÓH. 

Kasi HH A&^eBH naniH yHHBepcHTeTEi otb cOBepmeHCTBa, ho 
Bi HHXi H vb HacTOflo^ee BpeMfl o^eHB CHJiBHafl saóoTJiHBOCTB co- 
cpeAOTOHHBaexcfl na tomi, hto(5u coxpanHTB sa yHHBepcHTeTaMH BBicoRoe 
HMfl xpaMOBX nayRH. Taií^B nnor^a ne n^aAflTB HHRaRHxi cpoACTBi, 
^To6u HsfipaHHuxi bi KaHAHAaTu na npo(|)eccopcTBO aiojioauxi jiio- 
Aefi bhojhí AOCTaxoqHO npnroxoBHTB R'b hx^ BBaHÍK). Mojoabixi, 
AapoBHTuxi JiiOAefi, no BUCiymaHin nojnaro ynHBepCHTeTCRaro 
Rypca, nocujaiOTB sa rpannii^y, b% pa3Hue yHHBepcHreTu, cjymaTB 
jieRi^ÍH, no npeAHasHaqaeMofi hm'b RaeeAp^, BUA&K>HlBXCfl hhoctphh- 
Huxi npo^eccopoBib; ^3aTÍM'B ocraBJífliOTB HSBŠcTHoe Bpena npHro- 
TOBJíaTBCfl R'B HayRŠ dTofi RaeeApu AOMa; hotomi ohh AepsarB ycxHiifi: 
aRsaMOffB h nnfflyrB AHCcepiaitiH) no RaROMy-nnCyAB 6oii*e cyn^e- 
CTBeHHOMy Hsi BonpocoBi CBoefi nayRH, ncAOCxaTO^no en^e h3(UÍ- 
AOBannoMy, h tojbro TorAa, RorAa AHCcepTai](ífl 6yAeT% npHSHana 
yAoBJOTBopHTejiBHOH), RaHAHAarB npH3HaeTC2 HarHcrpoarB h AOi^en- 
TOMi yHHBepcHTera, cb ofiflBaTeiBCTBOHi npoAcraBHTB ohatb AHCcep- 
Taipio na CTenenB AORTopa, Roxopaa noRasuBaia 6u b'b noBf^ 
BnojiH'^ ROifnerenTHaro Macrepa nayRH no pa3yM'lHÍK) ocnoBHoft 
ea HAeH, no RpninnecROMy pascMOipiniro cyntecxByiontHX^ b^ neft 
npieMOBi H no yRaBaniio hobuxi HaM'lHeHHux'B h A^ftesíBixi bx 
nefi nonuTORx, (tb naA^eman^eH) hx'b oi^^hrok). Tojbro nocjii aioro 
TaRoe jmufi npHSHaexcfl npo$eccopoM'B no sannsfaeMoK hmi Ra- 
eeAp^* BnAcrb cb arHHX npo(|>eccopi npnsHaeTca h xpaRTyercH RaRx 
jiH^HOCTB BnojiH'b caMOCTOflTejBHaď, HH OTi* Roro HesaBHCHMan, RpOMÍ^ 
CBoero' BHyTpeHHflro yO^A^nia hjih yHHBepcHTexcRoft npo$eccop- 
CROfi ROH(|)epeHi](iH HJiH coBŠxa, Roxoparo caM'B cocxohxx ^jieEOWb. 
MaxepiajiBHoe nojiomenie yHHBepcHxexcRaro npo(|)eccopa xaRate Cojiie 
HJIH MOHie Aocxaxoqno oĎesneHeno. 

KoHe^HO, H yHHBepCHxexu ne Bnojin* xoího Btinojinaioxi xy 
nporpaMMy, Roxopyio mu npeACxaBHJH. Oxcxynjenift oxi nea 6ki- 
BaexB ne najio h no co6cxBeHHoK hx^ bbhí^, h no nesaBHcanj^HM^B 
OTh HHX^ o6cxoflxejiBCXBaM'B. Ho 8TH oxcxynjienia ne yHnqxoataiorB 



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H8i» AAiEBAro DPoniJAro. 287 

saKOHHaro, BomeAmaro vh ujotb h KpoBb yHHBepcHTeroBi, crpeif- 
jeHÚi, HTotfu jiHi^a, saHHjiaioiiufl M^cra npo^^eccopoBi, óuáh ao% 
eroĚHinfH npeACTaBHT&aaMB nayRH. 

Heqero ncAO^naro ne 6ujio bi aj^obhiixi aKa^eni^xi. 3xbcb 
fle TOJiBBO He npHjarajiocB HHKaBofi oco(5eHHofi saCorjHBOCTH o ao- 
craTOHHOMi nparoTOBJieHÍH HsCpaHHuxi lOHomefi na npo(|)eccopcm 
saeeApH b% asaxemaxi, ho ?acTO sa ificflirB BnepeA'B, sa HeA^H), 
Aase BnjOTB ao aha CBoero HasHa^eHifl, lOHoma ne iiorB seaTB 
xoTfl 6u o TOMX, nocrynsTB jih owh HacraBHHsoMX wb aKaAeMÍK) hjih 
vb čeMHHapÍH) — H no KaKofi HayB'£. IIpaBAa, totx ciihcoei bu- 
nycKaeMuxob cryA^HTOBi, BOTopufi cocraBJíajiOi BOH^epeei^ieH) asa- 
AeidH, cryAeBTii, Óoxbmeio HacTBio, t£mh hjh ApyrHMH nyraMH o6ub- 
EOBOBHO ysHaBajiH CBopo, HecMOTpa Ha TO, HTO OH^ Aepsajicji vh ce- 
sperb OTTb hhx'b, — n no TOfl líH^pi, noA'B Koxopoft 8anHcaH'B cryAenrB, 
owh Morb padCHHTfiiBaTB — ecin tojbbo oh'b ctohtb bi ^hcji^ nepBaro 
nflTKa — nonacTB vh nacraBHHRH aKaAeifiH. Ho tfyAen jh ctojibro BaBanT- 
hhxx vfkcTh vb HeTupexi aBaAeMÍHxi*, h no BaBHMi HayBairB osa- 
syíca drn BaBaHTHUfl iflcra, — eny 6hiJio coBepmenno HeESB^terno. 
OnpeA'b^eHÍe oBOHqHBnraxi BypCB vh aBaAeiíiflxi na M^cra HacraBnn- 
BOBI aBaAenifi HJin ceMHHapifi jííkiMOCh vh nerepCyprš. CiOAa 
AOcraBJíflJiacB bc^ CB^fi,eEÍsL o BaBaHTHuxi nacraBHHqecBHxx irlcraxo^ 
BaBi vb aBaAeiíiflxi, xaBB h vh ceMHHapiaxB, hsi Bcet Poccin. 
€H)Aa ase nocujiajHCb h cnncBH BunycRaeMEixi cryAeHTOBB. H nasna- 
Henifl jíibJíSLAiiLCb coBepmenno JioiepeftBUMB cnoco($OMi>. Ilepsiifi na- 
TOBi cryAeHTOBi no cnncBy nasHa^ajiOi na HacraBHHqecBÍfl Micxa 
vb aBaAeMiflx^B, ecjH ecTB xaBoe BOJonecTBO BaBaHTHuxi* míctb vb 
aBaA^HÍflxi; ecjin se BaBanTHiixo^ vAcTb Menie, — a nnorAa hxi tfuBaJio 
ne 6oji4e AByxt hjih OAHoro, — to h necb hohth nepBLift naTOBx cry- 
AeHTOBi Hasnanajicfl, Cb cji'lAyK>ii](HMH sa hhmh no cnncBy, bi na- 
craBHHBH ceMHHapifi. Kasán BOMy nayBa eih nayBH AOcranyTCfl 
npH TaBOMi pacnpeA^eHÍH, bx aBaAeMÍflX'b hjih bi ceiiHHapiflxi, 
— 9T0 Bce paBHO. npeAHOJiarajocb, hto Ba»Auft cryAenTB, OBannH- 
Baion^ift Bypcb fb aBaAemH, AOJiseHB sHaTb bc& tIí nayBH, boto* 
puH oni dymajTB eb anaACMÍn, HacrojiBBO, hto5u npenoAaBaTB 
Hx% ApyrHiťB — Aftace h bb asBACMÍn. 

DOHATHO, ^TO TaBOfi BUÓOpB HaCTaBHHBOBB He BcePAa MOrB 

611TB y]ífimewb; bb ocoÓeHnocTH, om> AOJia^eHB (5iijib njianeBno otsbi- 
BaTBCfl na aBaAeMÍn, BOTopas AOJisna no HAe^ ctohtb na bhcotí 
coBpeMenHOft nayBH, h OAna hsb caMuxB rjiaBHMniQX'B ea oCasan- 
Hocrefl cocTOHTB HMeHflO BB npHroTOBJieHÍH xopomHXi nacxaBHHKOBB 
AJiH ceMHnapift. 

K^B 9T0Břy opnrnnaiíbHOMy Bu6opy npHcoeAHuajiocb ecjiH ne 60- 



— -1 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



288 BftCTHURl* EBPOnU. 

jrbej TO HMsaR^ ne iieH^e operEHaosHce OTHomeme si nociixyH)* 

TOfiň A^TeJIbHOCTH H CyABfii dTHXl HaCTaBHHBOBX. CjyHUOCB, TTO 

Ha KaeeApK bx aBax^ififlxx nona^ajm HHorAa juoah saBriHaTeiuo aa* 
poBHTEie HJíH, no Bpa&HeĚ Mip%, OHeHB Taj[aHTJ[HB£ie, npH^eifB, (Sjía- 
rojiapfl Toft se ciynatHOcni, h Baeexpa, hitb Aocraainaflcfl, npHXO- 
Auacb HiTB no Aynrb, ohh naHEHaiH ycEjenno sanflMaTBCfl, n Maio- 
no-Majiy Bnojmb OBja^^Bajni npeAMeroMi TaBi, qro flBJuiJHCB danpaa- 
CRHMH npo^^eccopaHH H CA&raiH <$£i cbohmh sHaHÚíMH H npenoxasa* 
mewb Heeih jiK>6ouy Bucmeify saBe^emH). AicaAeMÍH ci^AOBajo 6u 
tfepeHB TaBirB npo^eccopoBi, Baax CBoe Jiynniee oospoBHo^e, n ne 
auurbTB nn^ero, hto6u y^epsaxE jsxt> y ceÚsL. Ho nepixRO CJiy- 
HajiocB, HTO ona oxHOCHJiacB bx hhitb ne toabo paBHOxynrao, no 
HiBOTopuiTB oÓpasoMi npeHe6pesHTejibH0. 

?T0 TaRoe HMeHHO OTHomenie npeodiaxaio bi> namexi asaxe- 
MÍflxi, — MU 9T0 Bcero siCBie MOseiTB BHA^TB Ha HCTopÍH Hameft 
CorocjiOBCBofi HayBH, npeAcraBHrejiBHHiieK) Roropoft aojjkhu h mo- 
ryrB Óutb erb Poccíh tojbro AyxoBHua aRaAeMÍn. Mosho yrBeps* 
AaTB TOARO OAHO, HTO y Hacx ÓBuiH saM^UTejiBHfiie nacnipH, ot<ih- 
^aBmiecfl A&poMi cjiOBa n nponoBŠAamfl cjiOBa Bosia; H^Roropsie 
H8i HHX'B cocraBHJiH ABa H TpH yHe6HHRa no AonfaTHqecROMy 6oro- 
ciOBÍK), h6crojibro TOJEROBamfi na t6 hjui Apyrífl rhhiii CBfl^eHnaro 
nHcaHÍfl, nanHcaHHiifl hmh vb mojoahxo^ ^xaxi. Ho cneitíajiBHiix^ 
yneHiixi ÓorocJOBOBi, hoctohhho paBpa^axiiBaion^Hxx tiorocjiOBCRyH) 
HayRy eo ecttxd es ompacMX6^ y nacB coBcIiťB íAvh. H mu 
ne MoseMi nasBaiB hh oahofo pyccRaro hmohe no RaRofi*HH6yAB 
orpacJiB tforocjOBCRHX'B HayROb, Roropoe mofjih 6u cb ropAOCiBio 
nocraBHTB na psAy c'b ÓeBwcjieHHiiMH HMeHaMH SHaMeHHTuxo^ hho- 
crpaHHHXi tforocAOBOBi-AorMaTHROBx, repMeneBTOB^, naipojioroBi, 
CorociOBOBi-HCTopHROBi, tforocjOBOFB-apxeojioroBi, Hsci^AOBaTejeft 
ApeBHOcrefi — tfHÓJieficRHXx, xpEenaHcraa nepsHxi bírobi, BEsanrift- 
CREXi H T. A* Ho noHeMy y HacB ao cexo^ nop% ho nojioaeno npo<i- 
naro ocHOBanifl 6orocsoBCROfi nayRi? EpesA^ Bcero noxoMy, hto 
caME AyxoBHfiifl aRaAeMÍE m&io crapajiECB nacaAETB y ce6fl cbok> nayRy, 
ne npBJíaraiE o6i btomo^ AOiisHaro none^enia. EaooApH 6orocjiOBÍfl 
FB aRaAeMiflxob ÓojBrneio ^acTBio sasEMajHCB ssmišMA MonamecTByio- 
n^iME, EHorAa ohohb a^PObetume, ho ohe Óucrpo orpusaiHCB otb 
paspaÓOTRE HayRE^ tfesi Ma^ifiniaro npoTecra co croponu aRaxe- 
míe. 9to tími 6oji^ ne^aiBHO, tto ohe, RaRx r Apyne cryAeHTB 
AyxoBHincB aRaAeMÍE, cneiúajiBHO na RaeoApy A-ifl Tofi Ejra APF^ft 
CorocjiOBCRofi nayRE ne totobejecb, ho, nojiyHEBi RaeeApy no TOft 
EJE Apyrofi HayRJb ciynafino, na^HajiE BEEMaieJBEO EBynaTB ee^ 
snaROMEJiECB CB HeK>, Maio-no*Maj[y ycBOEBajiE ee nacronRO, ^to 



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H3i> M-íEKAro nponiJiAro. 289 

(KLaH rOTOBU CA^aTBCfl HECTOfln^HMH Bl HeĚ npO^eCCOpaMH. — KaE'B 

BApyrb vh axo caMoe spenn hx'b 6epyTi h8*b asa^eMiH h Ha3Ha?aH)T:B 
pesTopaMH ceMBHapifi. Ilepe^nb hhmh OTEpusaeTca coBepmeHHO Apyraa 
nepcneRTHBa, ne imtioniafl hotth HHHero oCn^aro Ch npen^neH). BóJib- 
mafl ^acTB BpeMeHn otl yneHuxi saHaiifi y hhx% OTHHMaeTca na 
Ataa ynpaBJíema ceMHHapieio h ottocth jiíkJidMVí kohchctopíh. Ypo- 
BeHB yHeHiix'B saHflxifi noHHsaeroi ;i;o sanfliifi iiiroj[bhux'b, die- 
MeHTapHB]Xi>. AyAHTopifl Hxx cocTOHrB y»e He hsx cry^eHToe-B 
asaj^eMÍH, roroBflniHxca bi npo^eccopa, a hsi yqeHHROB'B ceMH- 

HapÍH, npHrOTOBJ[flH)II^HXCfl nOHTH nCKJTEOTOTeJl&HO Vb CeJLCRÍe CBfl- 
O^eHHHKH. Co6CTBeHHO HayBH, Ch eSL FJiyÓORHMH H3CJrlA0BaHÍaMH, 

mepoREMB BBFJiflAafiiiH, co BcecTopoHHHM'B ocB^n^eHÍeMX npeAMera — 
TyTb coBcbwb H He HyatHO. TyrB Tpeóyerca tojibko ne^aroranecKoe 
HCKyccTBO, yMiHBe npoqHO yTBepAHTb Kb (JojiBiiraHCTB* yMOKB, Aa- 
jieRO He 6jiHCTaTejbHuxi>, ochobbua hcthhu xpHcriaHCTBa h ocho- 
saTeJBHO npenoAaTB hmi> t^ cnoco^u, ROTopuMH 3th hcthhu MoryT'B 
jerRO n ycninrao 6utb nepeAaBaeMu nacTB^. TaEHM'B oÓpasoMi, 
co6cTBeHHO jiJíH y^enofi paspaóoTRH 6orocj[OBCRO& nayRH ^ejOB^R^b 
coBepmeHHO Tepaerca. 

HícROJiBRo Meníe nyBCTBHTeJiBHa ÓHBaerB TaRaa noTepa am 6oro- 
ciOBCKOil HayRH, Ror^a AapoBHTutt HeJiOBŠR'B, 3aHnMaH)ni,ifi[ Raee^py 
no Tofi HjiH Apyrofi 6orocjiOBCRO& HayR']^ bt^ aRa^eiíiH, A&iaeTca 
peRTopoM^ aRa^eMÍu, cb y^epaiameMi. RaeeApti no TOfi se nayRi. 
Mefffee íyBCTBHTejBHa, roBopio a, noTOMy, hto xoia, wb RanecTBi 
peRTopa, H 3AÍCB OHx 6í)jibniyH) qacxB CBoero BpeneHH AOJiaeH^ 
OTAaBaTB Ha ynpaBjíeHie aRaAenieH), na A'^a rohchctopíh, Kb ^eMy 
npHCoeAHHaexca en^e ne Ma.io a'^'b no ynpaBjenÍK) ceMHHapiaMH, 
BXOAfln^nifH Bt ynefiHHft Rpyrx AanHoň aRaACMÍH, — ho Bce-3Re nepeA^B 
HHMi 3A*CB ocTaeTca Ta 3Re ayAnropia cryAenTOBx, h eMy hítx naAofi- 
HOCTH noHHataTB ypoBeHB CBoero 3HaHÍa; nacROJiBRO y nero ocraeTca 
BpeneHH orB sanaiifi, o5ycjiOBJiHBaeMBixi aAMHHHcrpaTBBHOio aojs- 
HocTBfo peRTOpa, OHI MOserB nocBao^aTB ero na y^enyio paspaCoTRy 
CBoefi nayRH. Ho TaRHiii oGpasoMi wb ssaniH peRTopa aRaAemn Aapo- 
BHTuft qejOBÍRi Bce-se HOBOJiBHO A'fijaeTca na nojiOBHny OTopBan- 
Ehiwb OTb HayRH. BnpoHeH^B, h TaRaa, CRop^ AnJieTTaHTCRaa, ^^mi 
cepBesnaa paspafioTRa nayRH npoAOJrsaeTca ne AOJiro. Ob M'icTa 
peBTopa aRaAeHÍH MOHanieeTByK)n^ie o^enb cRopo nepexoAflTi na 
enHCRoncRÍa RaeeApBi. 

TaRaa nocToannaa CMŠna AapoBHTUxi MOHaniecTByH)n](HX'B 
mnb, sanHMaion^Hxi 6orocJiOBCRÍ£ RaeeApu, h nepeM'lnieHÍe hxt^ 
Ha peRTopcRÍa iffecTa bi aRaAeMÍaxi h ceiiHnaplaxi, cx OAnn- 
CTBennoK) i^Libh) BBiABHnyTB hxi na aAMHHHCTpaTHBnyH) AOpory, 

Tom I.-HBBAPb, 1891. 19 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



290 BI^CTHinCB EBPOHU. 

OTHflBX HXTfc HJIH COBepmeHHO, HJH CHaHEJia TOJbBO OTHaCTH, KaEl 

MU BHA^H, OTi HayKH, H BTHjfB npojiowHTB HM^ m^hwkíkmii nyTB 
Ha apxiepeficKjK) KaeeApy—HHKaK^ ne Mor.m cnocoficTBoeaTb pas- 
bhtík) h npeycn^BaHiio nameft 6orociOB^KOĚ eayKH hh BOo6me, hh 
B-L aKaAeMÍflxx, a o ceMHHapiax-B h roBopHTb neiero. 

Ho, bmíctí Cb tími, peKTopcTBO Jinií^ MOHaraecTByiomHxii wb 
HamHXi aBaAeMiflxi npensiTCTBOBajio pasBUTÍio u npcE^BtraBiio 
H ípyraxt nayKi ne tímx tojbko, 'jto peKTopa aKa;ieMÍt 
qacTO nepewibHfljHCii, Cucípo nepexojía Ha Kaeeipu enncKon- 
CKifl, a H caMoft nocTanoBKofi ^ojimHOcrn peKTopa b^ aKa^eMÍ^xi, 
coBepineHHO pasHameftca ne no H^et, a Ha npaKTHKi, oti nocra- 
HOBKH peKTopa Bi yHHBepcHTeTaxi-. BcflKa^ npo^^eccopcKaa Kopno- 
pa^ia BT> nOAoňnwx-B Bucmnxt yHeĎHfaxt saBe^enlaxi ecTB hÍko- 
TopHM^ ofípasoMt caMoynpaBwiaiomaflca ejiHHHiía. ^Jienu, ee cocraB- 
jraiomie, sek jioah o;íHHaKOBaro o^pasOBania, o^nHaKOBO Bcfe npH- 
3HaHHHe caMOCToaTe.iBHUMH H BHOJiH* KOMHeTeHTHKíMH Ha KaoeApi 
no CBoeft nayK*, laKx hto hmkto h3t» TOBapHm,eft Kopnopaiíin ne 
npeAnojiaraerca Bnaíon^HMi ^annyio nayKy jyinie, wkwb totb, eto 
;^íflCTBHTe-ibHO saHiTMacTB no Heft KaeeApy. HoaTOMy h peETopi 
yHHBepcHTeTa hjih aKa^eMÍe, óyjiyqH caMt npoij^eccopOMX, ecrt tojbbo 
TOBapiin;^, coBepmeHHO pasnufi ocTaiBnEiMi cbohmx TOBapnniaM^, 
^jenaMi to& TRe Kopnopai^in, h HHROMy h3^ Hnx'B ne MOserB yna* 
BHBaTL Bi A^feJiaxi cnei^iajibHoa Hxt HayKH, hh ohh — eny. Bt Ka- 
qecTB* peKTopa yHHBepcHreTa hjh aKa^eMÍH, oui to.ibko necpeš- 
HHK^ Meaay 9tok) Kopnopar^ieio h BHcranM-B Ha^ajrBCiBOM-B, noxony, 
KaK-B 9T0 6ujio H BB aKa^emaxi jiyxoBHuxx, h b^ yHHBepcH- 
TeTax'B^ 0H'B Butfnpajica caifoio BopnopaAieH) npo^eccopoBi h3^ 
coficTBeHHoft cpeffBí. TaKHMx oÓpasoM-B, peKTop-B yHHBepc^iTeTa h 
aKa^eMÍH — HHKaK-B ne na^ajiBHHK-B ajis npo^eccopcKoft KopnopaiíÍH, 
a T0.1BK0 (5jrK)CTHTej[B BH^mnaro h BnyTpenHaro bi saBejteniaxi no- 
pa;íKa, npoeRTHpyeMaro h yrBepar^aeMaro eio caMOio; oh^b Ha^ajB- 

HHK-B TOJÍBKO A^a CTy^eHTOBl H OCTajfBHUX^ CJiyffiamHX^B B-B 3THXI 

BaBCAeniax-B, KOTopne ne npHHa;i;jreaaTB kt* npo^eccopcKoft Bopno- 
paaÍH. Ho H SA^B BaaiHMmia jsíkjidL owb p^maerB ne nna^e, RaRi 
CB corjracia toě ate Kopnopan,ÍH hjh coB*Ta yHHBepcHTera. 

OĎ-b aKaaeMÍax-B HeBOSMoatno 6wjio CEasaxB bi btom-b cjy^at 
qTO-HHňy^B onpeA^ieHHoe. Hpn OTcyTCTBÍH BcaKoft TBep^oft rapan- 
tíh, npo^iHO oČeane^HBaicuieft kslkl jth^hob nojosenie npoif^eccopa, 
TaKx h ero caMOCToaTejBHOCTB h KOMnerenTHOCTB bi npeno^a- 
BanÍH HayKH, HeorBeMjreMOCTB y nero npasa na Ty Kaeejipy, na 
KOTopyH) OH^B HOCxaBJíeHi, xoTa 6u OHB saHHMaji-B ee MHOro jtStb, 
— npH nacToft h fiucTpoft cm*h4 peKTopoB^ aKaflenit, Mea^y ko- 



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Hsx MJiEKAro nponiJiAro. 291 

TopuMH nona^aiOTCfl jiioah pasHEixi TeMnepaMeHTOsi h xapafCTe- 
poBt, HHorAa oqent HpaBHHe, — Tpy;íHO, KasaJiocE 6h, npeACTaeHTb 
€e6% ^To6h^ KaTKAufi bhobb ^BJiaioiAÍfica peBTopi mopb craHOBHTLCfl 
^jieHOMi-TOBapHmeMT> cymecTByiomefl npo^eccopcEOŘ KopnopaiíiH h 
CTOTaj^ ce6fl tojisro paBHUM^ MesAy paBHu&iB, h TaR^ othoch^ica 
6u Kx Hefi B% KaqecTBi peKxopa. OAHaBo, 9to ÓHBajo, TaKi 6hjo, 
HanpHíitpb, 3a Bce to BpeMa, KaKoe noKoflHHft MoiponojiHrB $h- 
jiapen», 6yAy^H MHTponojiHTOM-B mockobckhmx, ocraBajica BMÍcrfi c^ 
T^Mi u (5jiH3afini0M^ none^HTejieMi mocrobceoS aRa^eMÍH. Y eero 
ÓKiJio npHHflTo 3a npaBHJio Ha3Baq^TB peRTopoBi aRa^eMÍH nenpeM^BHO 

H3l C;iy2KaiI^HXl npO$eCCOpOB'B MOCROBCROB H^e aRa^eMÍH HJH HSX 

CjyatHBraHXi b'i> ueft, iipoAo.i»aBniHX's cjiymňy ^o;^•B ero »e bíag- 
HÍe&fB Bx MOCROBCRofi ceMHHapÍH, a OCHOBHU& Raii;p'B npo^eccopcRoB 
ROpDopai^ÍB cocraBJíflJiH vb aRaj^eMÍH ABa npo^eccopa, 6. H. roj[y(5HH- 
CRift H n. C. JíeJHiíUHi, HaqaBinie cbok) CJiyjKfiy ci canaro nanajia 
aRa^eMÍH, h npHMRHyBinift ri hhm^ Tpexift, B. A. FopcRift. Bc* 3th 
TpH jHi^a ociaBa^HCB BT» aRa^esdíiH na CJiys6i jsfl ROHi^a sh3hh: 
FojyÓHHCRift — 36, TopcRÍS — 42, ^eJiHiíUH-B — 45 jiítb. Ob 6ojib- 
inHMH'AapOBaHÍflMH, rpoMaAHLiMH 3HaHÍiiMH, nojBsoBaBiniecfl Bceo(5- 
meio HSBÍCTHOCTBK) H yBaaeHÍeM-B 3a cboh nayiHue ipy^Bi, oh», 

Bwkcťk Ch TÍM%, 6UJIVI JlJOJÍfl BfirCOROK HpaBCTBeHHOCTB, jno^Hn^ie, 

cepAe^HBie, npocrue h caMBie B-fepHHe TOBapamn., Y betl yqHjiHCB, 
(JyAJHB cryACHTaMH, bc* npo^eccopa, jiíkjídLBmecsi noxoMi hxx xoBa- 
pHi^aMH, a noTOM-B — ^aate hx-b Ha^ajiBHHRaMH wh Ra^ecTBÍ peRTopoBi. 
Hxi HpaBCTBeHHoe BJiiflHÍe 6ujio rponaAHoe; ohh cos^ajH RpyroMi 
ceófl TaRyK) HpaBCTBeHHyH) TOBapHii^ecRyio aTMOC(]^epy, npoHHRByTyio 

BHCOEHMX HyBCTBOMl ryMaHHOCTH H JI106bH, ÍTO, ROHeiHO, TpyjlHO 

ŮUM npeACxaBHTB, ^toÓkt npo^eccopx, Bcero Bqepa tojbro CuBinift 
TOBapHmeMx B-B dTOWb Rpyry, cero^Ha CA^fejaBiniftca peRiopoMx, mof-b 
6htb ^iMi-HHĎyAB ApyrHM-B, a He npejRHHiTB TOBapameiTB. H A*ft- 
CTBerejiBHO, peRTopx, RaRi MOHaraecTByiomee oti^o, oĎBiRHOBeHHO 
apxHMaHApHT'B, xoTjí Wh iiytfjiH^HBixi cotípauíflx^ TopsecTBax'B H 
ORpysajicfl bcím-b AeRopyMOM-B noAofíaiomaro ero caey noieTa, ho 
Bi o6uAeHHO& 7&mnvi ocraBajcfl BnoJH'6 TOBapHu^eirB ji^Jia. Bcero npo- 
^eccopcRaro nepconajia. TaRi 6ujio h ao, h bo Bpena Moero cTy- 

ACH^eCTBa B'B MOCROBCROB AyXOBHOfi aRaACMÍH. Ho MeHfl yAHBJIfl.lO 

He 9T0, a yAHfiaajio wb BEicmeft CTeneHH ryMannoe h cepAeiHoe, 
no^TH TaRoe »e TOBap^mecRoe, fipaxcRoe OTHoraeme peRxopOBx, a 
sa HHM'B H Bcero aRaAeMHqecRaro Ha^ajiBCTBa r^ cryAeHTaifi. SI 
HHROFAa ne BHAaj^, ?to6h vb RaROMx-HHÓyAB y^e^HOMi 3aBeAeHÍH 
npeAcraBJífljiacB CTyAeHraMi xaRaa ceoÓOAa h b'b yqeHÍs, h b'b sh3hh, 

KBJVh Wb MOe BpeMfl Vb MOCROBCROt AyXOBHOft aRaACMÍH, H HHROrA& 

19* 



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292 B1^CTHHR'B EBPOnJbl. 

He BHAaji'B TaEofi AiarROCTH u CBHCxoAUTejBHOCTH El npopuBaBmHMcs 
HnořAft npocrynKaMX, oienb sHaHHTejibHUMi*, HapymaBmHiťB oóukho- 
BeHHO MHpHoe Te^enie aRa^entiHecRoň jrhbhh. He 6ujio HHRasHxs 
HH Bapi^epoBii, HH Apyrax'B npieMOBi onosopHBaHÍa npoBaHHBmexca 
CTyAeHTOBi uepeA'B hxx TOBapan^aMH. ]í,iJio OBaHHHBaiocB o6urho- 
BesHO BaiefiHuiťB paBiacHeHÍeMi npoBHHHBmHMCfl Bcero hcaoctohe- 
CTBa H HenpujiEqifl hxi> nocT7nROBi> a^a JiiOAefi B3poc;iK[X'B u opa- 
TOMX CTyAeHTOBi. CjiyqajiBCt, HaROHeiíx, npocrynKH a Aase npecryn- 
jieaifl C0Bc6M^ ne mROJitearo xapaRxepa, — ho, EOHeiao, a ne npaMO 
yrojiOBmaHaj — OAHaRoati xaRifl uoojvk ROTopuxi> hb oaho yqeóaoe 
saBeAeHÍe ae CTa.10 611 xepn^Tb bi cbobxi crbBdLXT> aposaHaBinarocA 
BOcnHTaHHaRa. Ho a xaKÍa npecrynjieHifl ae Bususajia naRaRaxii^ 
^pesBUHafiHuxi wbipi. IIpoBaHaBniificfl cryAeHrB ae 6ujn> aa acRJK)- 
HaeMt, HB noABepraeMX RaROiiy-jiaCo onosopaBaaiH) nepeA'B lOBapa- 
ai^aMH. Bcfl dco6eHHafl xas^ecrb HaRasaHÍa Bupasajiacb b'b tomi, Hxa 
npasuBaji^ CTyAeHxa am RejiefiHoft noxai^ia ae ancaeRTopb TOjibRO, a 
a caiii peRTopi. Oabhi laRofi cjiy^afi Óujvb sa H']^CR0JibR0 ji^tbao 
Hoero úucTynjieHÍfl B'b aicaAeMÍK) u npa peRTop']^, ROTopufi ocTaBaaca 
B'b BTofi AOJXHOCTH B npa mbí euifi OROJio AByxi jiÍTb. Cjiyqa& 
9T0TB xaRx xapaRxepasyexi* a ^la^aocxb peRiopa, h oxnomeHie ero ri> 
cxyAeaxaMi, ^xo ero cxohxt> pascRaaaxb. PeRxopoMx aRaACMia 6ujn> 
xorAa $Hjiaperb (ryjiajieBCEift). 3xo Óujvb, MoatHO CRaaaxb, cahe- 
cxBeHHufi A*ficxBaxe;ibHO yieHuft ÓorocjiOBi bi Poccia, Roxopwft, 
KaKi CorocjiOBi-AorMaxBRi, RaRx tforocJOBX-acxopHR^, RaRi* 6or<>- 
CJiOBi>*apxeojior'b,.cxoflJi'b ecjia aeBume, xo HHRaRi ae Haise saa- 
MeHBXHX'b BHOcxpaHHuxT> ÓorocjiOBOBi, — BoocjitACXBiH OHI 6ujn> apxi- 
enacRonoM^ MepHaiX)BCEBMi, — ^cjiobÍr^, HeoÓuRHOBeaHO xajiaaxjH- 
Buft, Bcei^ijio npeAaHHufi HayR* (bsbícxhij ero AorMaxaqecRaa 6oro- 
CflOBÍfl, Bcxopifl i^epRBB, naxpBCXBEa B MBoatecxBO Apyrax^ co^Bnemfi). 
PeRxopoM^b aEaAeMÍH owh HasHaieai Óujqi b^ mojioauxi .i']^xaxi>, 
eABa jia ae 25 JvÍTb. Pocxy oai Ceijii ne BUCORaro, BpacaBufi 
co(5ofi B B006n](e uvrbjvb aapyxHOCXb oneab npiflXHyio, neaojibHO 
pacnojiaraBmyK) ri Heny bcíxi, npaB^xjBBi a jiacROBi ro bc^mi*. 
GxyAeaxoBi, oco6eHHo saHBMaion^Bxcfl, ohi jnofiajii), RaRi CBOaxi* 
MJiaAinaxi ópaxbeai. 3axo a cxyAeaxu ÓJiaroroB^a nepeA'B BaMi> 
a Hyxb He o6o3KaJia ero, RaRx aacxaxyxRa o6o7EiSL]OVb cbobxi juk)- 
(5aMBix'B aaciaBHBROBi. Busaaxb ero na RaRoe-naÓyAb Aase JierRoe 
BaMi^aaie RaRaM'b-HB6yAb neocxopo^^HUMi a .HeofiAyMaHHUMi no- 
cx7nR0M'b 6ujio acxaaHUMi oropnenieMi ne xojibRO ajisí npoBBHHB- 
marocfl, ho a A-aa Apyrax*b cxyAoaxoBx. Hohjíxho no9xoMy, RaK-B 
BCxpeBO«eHi> 6ujn> pasi cxyAenrb, BanoBaufi vh npecxynjieHia, ropab. 
ero nparjamajra Ha ayAÍeai^iK) k% peRXopy. Ho^hbiíI pacRaaHÍa, ca 



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H3X AAJEKAro upoiiuiAro. 293 

ciesaiíH Ha r^asaxi (xiymajrB owb Horai^iiD h ynpeicH pesTopa. Ho 
xor;(a peRTop%, ÚOjrhe n 6ojiie pasropa^aack, npemejiij nasoHeiiCB} 
Bi naeocB h, upaHasi rposHuft bha^. pasApaTKeHauMi rojiocoiťB 
CRasajii eMy, ^T0 sa ňy^ymyio no^ofíHyio BHHy ohx nenpeMÍHeo 
OTAacTL ero b^ cojiaaTa, h Toneyjix npa BTOMt Horofi, — 8to noKa- 
aaiocb CTy;^eHTy Tan^ HecooÓpasHUMi* co BcfeMt ryManHuirB xa- 
paKxepoiTB ero A*aTejibHOCTH h cb ero KpOTKOH) $HrypoK>, tto oh:b 
coeepmeHHO He^aflHHO, HeBOdibHO, caBfB ho cosHaBax Toro, ^Tb ro- 
BopHrL, BApyPB BuroBOpHJii, npoAOjrsaji DJiasaTB: „Hejibsa jib no- 
THme, Barae BucoKonpenoAo6ie?" — TaKoft HeoaHAaH^Hž penpHMaHAi, 
BupBaBini&cji B3i ycTi npojinBaBinaro cjieau rpiniHHRa, vb cooh> 
o^epeAb, coBepmeHHO osa^a^eji pacxoAHBmarocA b'b nopuBŠ reŠBa 
pesTopa. Ohi» HeneAJieHHO ocraHOBiuiCfl, pascirltojcfl h caasajTL: 

,BAHTe B0H'B!* rtMlAi^lO H BOH^BjIOCL. 

&y BiipoqeHi, AOJiSieHT> CRasaTB, hto npHHHHa no^oSnaro ho^th 6e3- 
npHHHaro 6jiaroAyinífl bi npocrynBaiirB, HerepnnMUMi m yqe6HKix'B 
saBejeHiaxi, — tfjiaroAyinia, rpaHHHamaro n cjiafiocrtic h pacnymeH- 
HocTbH), — saKjno^aaacb se b-b oahoS BpafiHeĚ ryManHOcrn h chhcxo- 

J^HT&lBHOCTH R% BHHOBHUlfB, HO oCyCJOBJIHBaJiaCB Hi^BOTOpUlTB 06pa- 
30111 CJiy^afiHIiIMH 06CT0aTeJIBCTBaMH, Wb KOTOpB[X'B HaXOAHJiaCB 

Tor^a MOCROBCBafl aRaAeiiifl, MurponojiHrB $HjiapeTi> Úujíi^ ne co- 
BcfarB, vb npiaxHBixx OTHoraeniaxx cb TorAaniHHMi oÓepi-npoKypo- 
poMi CB. CHHOAa, rpa^OBTB TIpoTacoBUMi, H ocraBajica ne^OBOJien^ 
pasHuiíH MeJiBHMH npeo6pá30BaHÍaMH, Boroptia nocJi'6AHÍfi bbo^hjix hjkh 
miiajica sBecxH wb AyxoBHBix^ aRa^eMlaxi* h ceiraHapiaxi. Owb 

UU COBC^M^ yHHHTOlRaJIl npOeRTbl TaRHX'B nOHBITORl Wb CaMOM^ 

m Hanaji']^, A&Baa, vb RanecTB^ q^iena csHO^a, cboh pj^RÍe na hhxi 
0T3UBBI, HJiH OTCxpaHaJii Hxi 0TB cocToaii^eft, noAi* ero B^AonieMi 
H Ha;i3opoMi, aRaACMÍH. UoBTOMy AOBecTH AO CBi^eHÍa. erp, wrb 
BOTOiTB HyaHO (JyAerB jOBecTH ío CBi^enia h o6ep^-^poRypopa cb. 
crao^a, a hmceho, hto wb ero aRa^eMia, aRa^eMia iiocROBCROft, cry- 
XeeTH MoryTB coBepmaTB npocrynRH, ee TepnHMue bt» yqeÓHtix-B saBO- 
^(eHiaxx, Aase h He-AyxoBHUXi — 8to óeijio 6u ajih nero o^obb TasBRHMi 
yjiapoM^. BoTB noqeMy, bx HCRJiOHHTe.iBHuxi cjiyiaaxi., oňBiRAOBee- 
Baa ryvaHHOCTB h CHHCxoAHTeJBHocTb peRTopa AOJia^HEi óeijih aoxo- 
jUFTb jífi HecoMH^HHOfi cjia6ocTH H aBHaro noTBopcTBa HerepnBMuirB 
ery^eHnecRHiTB Óeso^pasiaM^. 

Ho fl jsjojiíBieB^b emfi paBi hobtophtb, qxo noAOÓnue CJiyqaH 
tiiuH RpafiHe HCR3iH)qHTeJibHB[MH. 6o BpeMa Moero lerupex^THaro 
cryxeHqecTBa noAO^Huxi cjiyqaeBi ne 6uňo, h a cJiuniajKi o H0X'b 
yxe, KaRi npe^anie h.ih jrereH^y hbi BpeMen-B nponiJiaro repoH- 



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2d4 BftOTHflBl> EBPOira. 

HecRaro nepioAa asaxeMiii, npeAcrasjíflBniarocfl Tor^a H']kM'B-TO AasHO 
yse (5uBfflHMi h OTonieAaiHM'B HascerAa bi B^qHOCTb. 

Ho fl HtcKOJiBfio ysjíeKCfl h oTooHiiJicfl OTB rjiaBHaro npeAMera 

MOeĚ pi^H. ^tjIO HAeTB He 06Ty OTHOmeHÍH peKTopoBi Kl> CTy- 

AeHiaMi), a 061 OTBomeHÍa hxx e'b npo^eccopcKofi Ropnopai^ÍH. 
BnpoqeM'B, n CBasaHHOe mhok) oOb OTHOmemH hxi k^ cryAeHTaifB 
MOseTB aiysuTb Jiy^mefi Hjunocrpai^iefi ri TOMy, htď a CRasaii Bume^ 
a HíieHHo, HTO ÓTHomeHÍa peRxopoB^ ri npo$eccopawrB ocraBajHCb 
boojhí^ TOBapeniecRHMH, HecHOipa na ^acryio cwbny peRTopoB'B. 
Orb 9TQ& cifbHu npoHrpuBaJia tojbro tíorocJOBCRaa BayRa, Tepaemafl, 
CojbmeH) ^acTLH), B'b hhxi o^eHb AftpoBflTux'B jfo^efi Ha óorocioBCRHXír 
RaeeApaxi, ROTopne mofjh CA'i^jiaTbCfl BnocJi'lACTBÍH saM^naie^b- 

HLIMH ABHraxeJIflMH TOfi UJIH APy^Ofi HSHb 6orOCJIOBCRHX'b HayR*B, eCJIHÓS 

OBH ocxaBajiHCb nocToaHHO, bjh no RpaSnefi Mbpb na saROHOMi onpe- 
A^JieHHbifi jkJiíL npo^eccopcTBa 25-^THÍft nepioAi* BpeMeHH^ na toř 
EaeeApi, ROTopyio ohh saHHMajiH. 

Ho ecJiH eme ne Óucipie, ^iwb RaeeAPH (JorooiOBCRia, to hh- 
RaRi He Menie fiucrpo Tepa jih cbohxi — BHor^a laRae AapoBHTux-B^ 
npeno^aBaTejiefl — RaoeApH Apyrax^, ne Óopocjiobcrhxi HayR^, no 

MtCTHUMl yCJIOBiaMl MOCROBCKOfi AyXOBHOft aRa^eMÍH. YaSe Bl TO 

BpeMa, o ROTopoiTL a namy, wh Mocrbí, x.-e. bx caMOíTb ropo^t, 
o^eHb TpyAHO 6ujio nojyqHTb CBan^enHHHecRoe u^crOy ne ROH«iHB'b 
Rypca vb aRa^eMÍH ch crenenbio MarecTpa, Hjm no RpafiHefi Mtpi^ 
RaHAH^axa. HoaTOHy h3'b mocrobcroď ceMHHapin nocrynajo bi aRa- 
AeMÍK)} RpoMt HSB^CTHaro onpeA'i^iieHHaro ^HCJia BOcnaTaHHBROBi, 
HasnaHeHHaro oÓepx-npoRypopoMi cb. CHHOAa h HsónpaeMaro ceMH- 
napCRHMi naTOJibCTBOMX, — mhopo BOJOHTepoB^. Jlyqniie h3^ BOcnHTaa- 

HHROBl* MOCROBCROS CeMHHapÍH OÓBIRHOBeHHO UIJIE O^CHb XOpomO, H 

HeJiOBÍRa ABa-TpH ORannaBajiH Rypc^ wb íhcjií nepsaro „naTRa". Do- 
TOMy fiĎJibmaa ^acrb HacTaBHHROBi> bt» aRaAenÍH cocroa.ia h3i> 6ub- 

JDETh BOCnHTaHHBROBl MOCROBCROfi ceMHHapÍH. MoCRBH«IH~BCerAa 

mocrbh^h: RyAa 6u hxi hh sarnajia cyAbtfa, bxi BcerAa xaHerb R*b 
MocRBt, TyTL ffie MocRBa — pyRofi noAaxb; b% neft ae, Mocrbí, B<rfr 
BTb poAHue, BHaROMue, Apysba, bc£ cepAeHHua npHBa3aHH0CTH, a^hl 
OTO AHa Bce 6ojvke h 6oÁe ycHJiHBaion^iaca ^acro noBTopaeMUMB 
CBHAaniaMH, cji^ACTBieirb ROTopuxi ÓuBaerb noHTH HeH3MÍHH0 cna- 
^ajia jierRoe yB.ieíeHÍe, hotom-b crpacrnaa JiK)6oBb, hotomi aieHHTbfia. 
Pa3^ ^ejOB^Rx aeHHJca, seny TOT^aci HaMHHaeT^ TanyTb TaRse 
Bi MocRBy Ri> ea poahhmi h noApyraMx, a bi nocaA*, ta* aRa- 
Aefiíia, RpoMŠ Toro, h mexb a^^ Hea CRynao: yAOÓcrsx HHRaRHXx, 
pasBjeHeHÍfi TaRse uukslksix^. npo^eccopcRoe sajiOBaHbe tfuja 
o^enb HHqTOSHO bi> npesnia spenena. To jih a'^-30 m^cto cbh* 



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flsi M^EKAro npomjuro. 295 

meHHHKa Bi MocitB-i! H ^po$eccop^-MocEBBH^ ' Ópocaers npo- 
^eccypy h nji^erh b% CBaoieuHaKii bi> MocKsy. Ho pasi qejiOBÍEi 
KOE^ujTb RypcL B^ aRa^eMÍu H CTaj'B npo4>eccopoMi» aBa^eMÍii, hsx 
BaKofi 6u ceMHHapíu hh 6uji'b owh^ — Bce paBQO, E^ievb TaKoe se 
npaBO, RaRi h MOCRBHq'B, Ha nojyqeme Mtoa CBfliuieHHURa b^ 
MocKB-ib. TaRHMi o6pa30in>, h npo^eccopa aRa^eMÍE hsi BOcnHiaH- 
HHROBi ApyrHx-B ceHUHapifi no^Tti nocTOflHHO A^iiajiH TO se, ^to h 
MOCRBHqH, T.-e. seHHjmcb Ha MOCRBHqRax^ H nepexoAHJiH CBan^eH- 
HHRaHH B'B MocRBy. EAHHCTBeHHoe cpejiCTBO y^epsan hxi bi aRa- 
AeMÍH 6uj[o 6u A^Tb HMi MaTepiajibHoe oĎesne^eHÍe, HacTOJibRo sna- 
HHTeJibHoe, ^To6u OHH ee MorjH nojyHHTb no^otínaro HHRorAa na 
enapxiajbHoS CJiysó^ bi> Mocrb^. 

C^ H^CROďbRO HHUMH aBJíeHÍflMH fl Bcr^iinAca. Bi RasaHCRoi 
AyxoBHofi aRa^eMÍH, xota, b^ ROHi^t ROHi;oB'b, pesyjibTaTi 6ii.i^ 
OAHHi H Ton se: MOHamecTByioiiiiixi, saHHMaBin&ixi npo(|)eccopcRÍfl 
RaeeApH, no saBe^easoMy nop^Asy, OTHHMaúiii on eayRE jiJisi n^Jiei 
aAMHHHcrpaTUBH&ixi, a npoc^eccopa, He-Moeaxa, bi> 6ojibmHHCTB'& 
caMii 6isaj[H cb cbohxi RaeeApi^, Gpocaa eayRy no npe^aHaMi, 
npaBAa, Apyroro nopflAKA, niwb b% mocrobcro^ aRa^eMÍH. 

Ha^Hy piib ci Toro, RaRi cjiosejhcb a^tcb OTHoraema peR- 
TopOBi» R'b npo<{)eccopcRofi Ropnopai^ie. KasaHCRaa aRa^eMÍa 6uab, 
coBepnieHeo HOBaa, TOJbRO-Hxo BOSHHRmaa. Cxapaxx npoiIřeccopoBii, 
BOTopue BUA^fl^HCb 6hi CBOHMH yqeHKiMd saciyraMH, npHSHaHHUMH 
BC^H, BucoRHMi HpaBCTBCHHUMX xapaRTepoMi, npío(Jp£jia 6u ce6^ 
BeocnopHMufi HpaBCTBeHHufi aBTopHTeTL H uorjia uwkTb HeoTpasHMoe 
BjiaHÍe Ha ApyrHxi, OAHHM^ ciOBOM-b, Toro Raipa npo^eccopoBi, 
RaROfi 6iiLji% wb HOCROBCRoft aRa^eHÍE H o ROTopoMx a CRasajii Bume, 
— 3AÍCb He 6ujio. HacTaBHHRH aRaAeMÍH Óujih Bce mi> mojioabixi, 
TOJbRo-HTO ROHiHBraie Rypcb. Bhjh, npaBAa, ipa npo^eccopa judrb 
crapBixi; ABoe H3'b hqxi CJysnjiH AO^roe Bpena B'b ceManapÍH, 
H xoTa 6ujíE jiH)AH o^eHb CB'6A7n^ie bi> CBoefi cneuiajibHOCTH; oahhx 
Bi CBoeMX poA^ 6iLJVb Aase píakhmT) y^enuM^ bi Poccíh, ho — jiioah 
KpoTRÍe OTb npHpoAH; npHTOMTb bx Te^eflie AOJirKxx jrfrrb ceMHHap- 
CRofi cjiysÓBi npHAaBjíeHHue TasejiuMii ceMHBapCRaM^ pesHMOMi, ohh 
óbLiiii RaR'b-TO poÓEH H HecMkiu, H He HifljiH HHRaKoro HpaecTBeH* 
Haro aBToparera; Tperifi Cuj^ bsi npo$eccopoBx, ne coBciM-b cia- 
puxx, HO npeABapuxeJibHO nltcROJbRO BpeMeHa cJiysaBrniS 6aRRa.iaB* 
poBfb Bi neiepCyprcRoft aRaAeiiia; bi» RaaaHCEyK) ohx 6ujrb nocjiaHi) 
HpaMO opAHHapHbiMi> npo^eccopoiďb, a hotomy h b% HeMx ne ORa3ajiocb . 
HpaBCTBeHHO CBa3biBaK)ni,e& bcIxi cvuiu. 9to 6ují% ^Maipífl OeAO- * 
T0BHHi> Tycefix, HHiaoniift MareMaTHRy. HayRy cboio oht> SHajii xo- 
porno, jiioGhji ee h ^^u^jvb saciaBaib saHaMaibca eio bc£xx cry- 



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296 B^CTHHRX EBPOnU. 

AeHTOB*B eAHHCTBeHHO CBOHMX aBTOpHTeTOBTB H CHJIOH) CBOerO CJlOBa. 

^ejOBÍKi OHI óujit OHCHb DHeprHHHHfl H pasyMHuft. Oat Mon> co- 
cpeAOTo^HTb OKOJio cefifl H npHBJíe^b bi* ce6i Becb netfoJiBraofi npo- 

^CCOpCRÍfl KpyaOK^B, TŠMX (JOjie, HTO HH B% CFO OTHOffleEdaXt KB 

TOBapi!ii^aMi», HH B^B oópau^eHÍH He 6ujio HHiero oTTaj[KHBaH>n^aro. 
Ho B^ Heiii ne Óujo h HH^ero npHBjeRaion^aro. HecMOxpfl na 
CBOH) Kaaiyn^yioca pasyííHOCTB, Ha^nraHnocTB, ;^a»e nporpeccHBHOCTb 

CpaBHHXeJlbHO Cb 06u?H£IMH BOSSptHÍflMH TOFO BpeiíeHH, 9T0 CuXb 

^ejiOBÍK-b — Kpatne ysKiS m> cbobm^b iripocosepi^amH. Thhx nerep- 
6yprcEaro ^HHOBHHsa HnKOJiaeBCKaro BpeMenn, Bcerw vb ycranoB- 
jieHHoS ^opifi, sacrerHyTaro na bc6 nyroBHi^u, Cea^yniHaro (j[>op- 
MajiHcra, ji^surke 6yEBU saROHa Htiqero ne BHAfln^aro, ne pascys- 
^íaion^aro, TO^naro HcnojHHTeja HanajibCTBeHHHXt npeAnHcanifi — xa- 
KOB% 6ujrb ero H^ea^i, KOTopinrb ohi HepiA^o Bocroprajica, pac- 
XBajiHBafl nopflARH nerepÓyprcBOft xhshh; bo aioro Bocropra ero 
HHKTO He pa3A4jra.Tb, necMOTpa na ero anepniHecKyH) pkm>, Cjy- 
I^aK)^^ie, ecjia ne BcerAa coanaTejibHO h hcho, to hhcthhkthbho h 
CMyTHo HyBCTBOBajH, HTO HyaHO HTO'TO Apyroe. HaAOÓHO nojaraTb, 
MTO yBJie?eHÍe HHHOBHH^ecBHM'b THEOM^ 6uJio Tor^a 6ojrke hjh MeH^ 
BtflHÍeM'b o6niHH'b H AOBOJibHO sHaTOieJibHUMi Bi nerepÓyprcBofi 
aKa^eMia BCiiiACTBie CHJibHaro bosaíSctbía o(5ep:b-npoKypopa rpa<|)a 
HpoTacoBa, KOTopiift, bsabt* bt> cboh pyKH ^yxoBHó-yqeÓHoe ynpas- 
jieHÍe, BOSHHKmee na pasBajHnaxi óuBmeŘ eommhccíh jíjxoBBUTh 
yqHJHH^x, íajix eny MHAHCiepcEyio, 6oj6e BpacHByH) h BHAHyro no- 
cranoBKy h ofícraHOBKy, KaKOByio crpeMHJica wTb h AyxoBHO-yneC- 
HUíTb 3aBeAeHÍflMi», no KpaSnefi Mtpi, kb HerepCypri. 

TaKHM^ oópasoiTb, npo4)eccopcKaa Bopnopaipa bi BasaHCRofi ^y- 
xoBHOft anajieMiH, — ne HBiia cpe^H ce(ía hh JiH);tefi, Boropue cbohmh 
HayqHHMu TpyiaMH npio6pljiH 6u ce6^ otf^ecTBeHHBifi aBTopererb, 
HH crapHxx npo^eccopoBi, ^oaro cayaHBniHx-b bx Apyrnx-b aBa^e- 
HÍflxi, BOTopue HM^H 6u 3a co6oH> AOiiryH) aBa^eííH^ecByK) npaB- 
THKy acHBHH, aBa^eMH^ecEÍfl tprahiííh, h aovjín 6u ^aBaib tohi h 
HanpaBJíeHie hoboS aBa^eMia, — HHHiirb ne Cajia Mesjy coÍÍoh) bhjt- 
peHHO cnjoqeHa h npe;i.CTaBJiaja coCoio ajísi BCflBaro npHxoAamaro 
jiHi^á tabnla rasa, Ha BOxopoB mosho Óujio nHcarb mib yro^HO, h 
TA* nirb HHKáBHX-b aieMeHTOBi resistentiae, — ne tojbbo vis májo- 
ris, HO jifiLm,e minoris. 

Kx Hec^acTÍK) hoboS aBaAeMin, peBTopoBX b^ nee crajH bh6h 
paTb H HasHaqaTb bs^ jihi;^, aojifo CJiyasHBHiHxi peBTopaiiH cem- 
Hapift, B^ T0MT>, B']^poflTHO, npcAnoJOKemH, vro ohh jho^h 6ojie 
onuTHue. Si yse CBa3ajrb Bbíme, ^to y caMuxx A&poBHTEix^b Jio^ei, 
ciy2iHBniHX'b AOJro peBTopaMH vh ceMHnapíflxi, ypoBenb nepexasae- 



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H31 jAJiEKAro nponuiAro. 297 

Mux^L, a CJi'&AOBaTejii>HO, n npioóp^TaeMBixi ehh SHaHÍft, AOJimeH'B sea- 
HHTejbHO noHHSHTBca npoTHBt Hxi npeatHflro aBa^eMe^iecKaro, TaKi 
BaK-B nepejTB hhmh xenept cobcAmi Apyraa, He-CTy^eniecKafl ayj^H- 
Topifl, H i;4jh npenoAaBama ea — cosepmeHíro Apyria. BMtcrt cb 
rhwh irbHflercfl h xapaBxepx ero jih^huxi OTHomeHÍg Kb nepco- 
Hajiy ay^íHTopiu npHcnocotíHxejiBHO e-b ea Boapaciy. IlycTB ne saSu • 
BaeTB HETaxejB, ^to a Be^y pi^^B o BpeMeaaxx a^bho nporaeAniHx^. 
Tor^a Hama nejaroría cioa^ia Booóu^e ne ocoóeHHo bucofo, h ^ase 
co($CTBeHHop7HHaa pacnpaBa cb npOBaHHBniHMca BOcnnraHHHROMB bo 
Bcixi q)eAHHÍ'B yneÓHuxB saBeAeeiaxB óuuia ne ptASOCxB. ^to na- 
caerca ji,o rpy(5ocT0 TOHa, pŠ3boctb B&ipaseHÍa, Xase 6paHia, to Bce 
BTO CHHTajiocB BDOjmik aaKOHHUMB, no Bpa&He& irip^ ee saupeo^eH- 
HHM^. KaB^B »e, — roBopHjiH Tor;ía jliojuh cobcímb nerjynHe, — cnpaB- 
jiaTBCfl HHaqe cb nenocjiyniHBíMii hjih npoBHHHBmHMHca noA^HHeH* 

HUMH? Ka^AUfi se BOCOHraHHHBB CeMHHapm eCTB HeC0MH'ÍQH0 JIHI^O, 
BDOJIHÍ^ nOAHHHeHHOe peBTOpy. IIpOÓEIBB BB noAOÓEOlk npaBTHB*]^ 

MHoro jtItb, hcjiobíbb, HenpHMirao jí,Jiň ce6a caMOro, ycBOHBajiB ce64 
^TH Hesanpen^eHHila npuBuqBH n A^ajica HeysHaBaeMUMB npoiBBB 
Toro, 'iímb ohb 6hjib, cjiyasa bb aBa^eMÍH, bb RanecTBi CBpoMearo 
(iaBsajiaBpa, cnycra eu^e ABa hjíh xpa ro^a no OBOHHanid Bypca. 
TenepB ohx ne totb, lenepB ohb ^yBCTByen ce6a nojinoBJíacTHUMB 

BanaďBHHBOlTB. H OHB A'^fiCTBHTeJIBHO Ha^aJIbHHBB H'&CROJIBBHXB COTB 

ynaoíHXca, Óy^yn^aa cy^tfia BOxopuxB Bcei^t^o bb ero pyBaxB. A 
yqaoúe? IIojiosnMB, bc£ ohh lasie se MarHcrpu h BaHAHJiaTBi aBa- 
AeidH, BaBB H OHB. Ho pasB*]^ ohb hhb ne xaBoft se na^ajiBHHBB? 
He OTB ero jih bojh saBiiCHTB Bas^aro h;{b.hhxb, npH Ma^ii^finieMB 
HenoBHHOBeHÍH, BEiÓpocHTB Ha yjiHi^y, JiHniHTB orná h boau? RaBÍe 

se OHH OHy TOBapHH^H?! 

C^B TaBHMH npHBuqBaMH H BOssp^HiaMH nocrynajTB aojifo npo- 
ciysHBniifi BB ceMHHapiH peRTopB Ha ;^ojishoctb peBTopa aBa^eMÍn, 
H ecjH OH-B 6ujvb ne nacrojitBo BJiacien-B HaA'B co6oh), ^toóh ynHqxo- 
SHTB wb ce&b HenoAXOAan^ia bb aBa^eMÍH npHBuqBH h B033p^HÍa, 
TO HaqHHajacB o6uBHOBeHHo HecBOHqaeMaa Óaxajiía, npes^e Bcero 
H rjaBHUM^B o6pa30MB, BOHeiHO, co cxyíeHxaMH. Bspocjiaro nejio- 
vbKSL, Bone^HO, nejiBsa xpaBxosaxB BaBB MajiBHHBa, ho npuAHpBH bb 
pasHOMB MeJOHaMT. H npecjiiAOBanie 9xhxb MCJio^eft ocBopÓJiaíoxi 
H pasApasasoxB cxy^enxoBx. Ha saMinania ohh oxBi^aioxB qacxo 

TaSHMH AOBOAaMH, OTB BOXOpUXB npHXOAHXCa HOJIOBBO, HaA'B CepSCSHUME 

yBt^^lHiaMH — CMÍioxca, h x. a- Ob HacxaBHHBanu xose ne BJieHTca. 
BajqrMaexB peBxopB, bb Ba^ecxBi nanajibHHBa, nocoBŠxosaxB o6pa- 
THTb Ha BaKofi-HHňyAb npeAMexB BHaManie — eny ne oxb^xsxb, BaBB 
BB ceMHHapÍH, Hxo Čy^exB-MOJi-B HcnojiHeno, ho nopoBaxB CBasaxt Ba- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



298 B^CTHHBl EBPOnU. 

KyH)-HH6yAB boíeoctl, wb poA* Toro, hto, jecicaTb, h tfe3T» becb, a^bho 
Ba 9T0 oópameHo BHHMame; a lo eme h xyae, bx poA* xoro, hto 
9T0 BOBce Kx Moefi HayK* He othochtca; — „cobcšmx HreopaBTOBrK 
iieM TpeTHpyK)Ti>", — ^yMaeii npo ce6a pesTopx h npHCaBjíaerb: 
„noroAHie se, a sacraBjTio cetffl yBasáxb''. H Ha^HnaeTCfl Hcropifl 
pa3Hux'B BOCBeHHiixi npHAHpoBi» H npEiT^CHeHÍfl. OjíjíWh peKTop^ 
TaBOĚ, ApyroK e^e HpasH-Jte. Kóny se npíflTHa Tasafl (5opL(5a n ne- 
BiaeCTBOMt H nycTUMx TmecaaBieM^? HaciaBEHKx HaHanaerb no- 
AyMUBaiB o TOM'B, EaKx nojiiOBH'le yópaibca hsi aRa^eiiiH. Ky^a? 06^ 
8T0MI MOSHO oo^yBiaTB noTOM^, a npesAe Bcero nyseo bi» dTOMy 

npHrOTOBHTbCfl, HT06£I HG HaJieT^JIl HeSAftHHO, BM^CTO HUH^mHflrO, 

BaBO&HHÓyAB Apyrofi, Cucrpuň bi» cbohxi p^^memax^ HaHajBHHBi, 
BOTopBiŘ Mosexi Teófl Óesi nperoTOBJíeHifl jruaiHTB „ovrsí h bo^ii" . 
X^^o vh Towb^ HTO aoBa HacTaBHHBi He nej^efflejTB cobc^itl nsi aj* 
xoBHaro SBaHÍfl bi CB^TCBoe, ohi xota h xoahtx bo $paE^, u roAu 
ero cjiyaÓBi HCHHCJiaiOTca no TaÓejiH o panraxx, ci nojiHtiMi npa- 
BOMi na nojy^eHÍe noA^esan^iixi ^hhobi, cb coxpaneHieirB hcbs% 
cpoBOBi Há crapniHHCTBO, TaBx, BaBi 6u onx coctoajit^ bi a'9^&ctbh- 
TejBHOft rpas^ancBoS cjiyat(Ji, — no ohx npHHaAJieaHTB Bce-iaBH 
enapxiajiBHOMy B^;^0MCTBy, h^ih T0^H'ie — bša^hík) cb. cneo^a, b 
CjiiAOsaTejiBHO, naxoABTca Bcei^ijio bo BJiacrn na^ajBCTBa xoro y^eó- 
naro saBe^enifl, aBa^eMÍn b.ih ceMHHapia, b^b BOTopoft oiysHTB. 
IIojyHHTB yBOJBEenie hsx AyxoBnaro SBanifl bi CB^TCBoe bi npesnee 
BpeMfl ne cociaBjífljo nuBasoro xpy^a, ecjiH nacTaBHHBi cocTOflJi'& 
bt^ xoponiHxi) OTHomeiiiflxi ci cboumi nanajiBCTBOMi. Ilpes^e es 
sejiaioni.exnb yBOJnaiBca b^b CB^^TCBoe sBanie HacxaBHHBOBi xpe(50BajB 
B03Bpa^^eHifl bcíxx xšxt> OBja^oBi, Eoxopue ohh nojiyqajiH no cxe- 
ncHH MarHcxpa hjh Ban^QA^xa. CyMMa axa, ecjiH nacxaBHUBi nojiy- 
HaJii ee H'fecE0JiBB0 jíxt>, AÍ-aajiacB aobojibho asa^axe^BHa A^a 
HacxaBHHBOBi, o6BiBHOBeHHO jno^efi oqeHB Ói^AHBixx. MarHCxepcBÍft 
roAOBoft OBJía^i óbijii, noMHHXca, 100 py6., a BaBAHAarcBÍfl — 70 p. 
BnocjvkjifTBia dxn OBjía^Bi cxajm AaBaxB xojbko JIB^aM^, yse jí,íř- 
cxBBxejiBHO BCxynBBniHM'B vb AyxoBHoe SBanie. Ho bm^cxo aTHX% 
OBJía^OBi, CB yBOJiBHeHieMi nacxaBHHBOBB Bi CB^xcBoe BBanie, cxajB 
BBucBHBaxB CB Hsxx A^HBrH sa BOCOBxaHie. DpeJBAe, npa 6jiaro- 
CEJiOHHOMx oxHoraeHÍH Ha^ajBCXBa E^ npocHBraeMy yBOJBEenie, A^^a- 
jiocB o6uBHOBeHHo xaB^, ^xo naqajiBCXBO, AaBaa CBoe coniacíe na 
yBOJBHenie, bm^cxš cbxímx xoAaxaficrBOBajio o6% o6paii]^eHÍH HCBaB- 
meMy yBOJiBHenia npHHHxaiomaroca ci nero BOJH^eciBa Aeeen* no 
ero MarHcxepcEoft cxenena b-b sarpa^y sa ero oxiiH^Hyio CJyKÓy, 
Ho ecJiEÓu Haqa.fBCXBO ouasajiocB noneMy-HHÓyAB HepacnojioseHHUM'B 
AaxB yBOJiBHenie, xo o^hhi BOBBpaxx AeHer'B sa nojy^eHHBie OBjraABi 



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H3T» M^EKAro npom.iAro. 299 

Ha CTeneHb, hjih — keex nocjii-T-aa BOcnHxaHie, CAt^aerB He Majio sa- 
Tpy;(HeHÍ3. A EpoM*]^ xoro, ee MaJio Hafiieicfi h j^pyrnxi npenflT- 
CTBÍfi, pa3^ HaqajiBCTBO saxoneTi^ HacToaib sa CBoeM'B. Bi Moe 
BpeHfl Čuji Tasofi cayqafl: EaBofi-TO sacTaBOHiCB, noMHHTCfl, vh 
acTpaxaecEofi ceMueapiu, saxorki^ buěth bi> CB']kTCEoe SBanie. Ho 
noTOMy JH, iTO acxpaxaHCEaa enapxia HMÍerb HeAOCiaxoqHoe íhcjio 
AyxoseHCTBa BOo6ii;e, hjh noioMy, hto bi seK iiajio AyxoBHux^ 
jHi^i», HM'ŽK)ii^HX'B aEaAeMHqecEÍe ahiliomei, — tojiseo acrpaxaHCfiifi 
npeocBfln^eHHuB He a^i> CBoero corjiacifl na yBOJisHenie bi cb^t- 
CEoe SBanie npocuTejia; ch xaEHMi) p']^nieHÍeM^ npeocBHu^eHHaro co- 
r.mcHJica h cb. chhoai*. IIpocHTejiB BOopysHJca pasHUMH jcoETop- 
CEHMH CBHA^TeJibCTBaMH O 6oji']^3HH, A0Ea3UBaBfflHMH He6jiaroHaAes- 
HOCTL ero AM AyxoBHaro SBaHÍs, h, npe^CTaBJíflfl hx^, npocujnb CHOBa 
o&h yBOďBHeHÍH Hsx AyxoBHaro SBanifl. Ha dxo noaitAOBajii otb^tb, 
^TO BceCjiarifi Bopb, npH ycep^HOŘ mojihtbí, MoaeTi yBpaqeBaxt 
Bct He^yrH npocHTejifl, h 0H^ co BpeMeneMi nonyBCTByerb ce6a bhojihí 
roAHUMX A*ia AyxoBHaro sBama, a ao xoro BpeMeHH 0H^ MoaterB^ 
CB nojib30K) cjyjKHTB Bory h ^epKBH, EaEx CJIyaHJI^ H Aocejí, 

Bl> Ra^eCTBŠ HaCTaBHElEa AyXOBHOfif CeMHHapÍH. IIpOCHTeJIB H dTUMl^ 

He yHawica, h ptniHJica na caMBiK OTBasHuĚ man^ nojiaraa, ^to, 
eciH ero h Hafi^yn bo3mo»ihbimi, no cyijvk EasHxi HuóyAB ApeBHHxi 
i](epBOBH£]Xi npaBHJii), noiBeprHyxb noEaaHÍio bi MonacxBip^ na Asa 
H.1H Ha xpH roAa, xo hsi AyxoBHaro SBania Bce-xasa, HaB']^pHoe; 
yBOjaxB, — H noAajii CHOBa npomeHie ci xaEHMi o6^acHeHieM^, ixo 
OHX, ecjia(5u h aiejajii, xo, no cob^cxh h corjiacHO 3anoBtAflM-B i^ep- 
KOBHUMi, He Momexi) npanaxB na ce6a cana CBan^encxBa, noxoMy 
TTO oex He xojiBEo ne co6jik)jx njioxcEaro, a bm4cxí h AyxoBHaro 
11'kiOMyApia, ho ecxb qejiOB']kK'B MHororp^^maufi b'b pasHuxi 6jiyA- 
Hux^ H npejiioCoA^^Huxi jiíbjíaxh. Ho h na 9xo nojy^HJii xaEoft 
'oxbíxi, ^xo „HCEpennee h iHCxocepAeMHoe noEaanie, xaEi nyÓJiHTOO 
saaBJíeHHoe nepe^T* co6opoM'L líepEBH, bhojhí o^HmaexB ero oxb 
BcaEofi CEBepnu h A^exi> eny npeAno^xHxejiBHoe npaBO na npanaxie 
B Homenie nacxupcsaro cana Aaate npeAT> BcŠMe xImh, exo oxib 
poa^enia ne snajii njoxcEaro rptxa". 

BoTB EaEx xpy4H0 ÓBiBajio BBixoAHXb H3'B AJxoBHaro 3BaHÍa na- 
cxaBHHEaMi AyxoBHO-yqetínaro saBe^enia, Eor^a y hhxi Ha^HnajHCb 
HenpiaxHua oxnomenia c^ naiajiBCXBOMi). EcxecxBenHO, ^xo 6jiaro- 
pasyaiie sacxaBJíaexB hxx 6bixb npeAycMoxpnrejiBHbíMH, h bi cjiy^at 
HaqHHaioo^HXca HeycxpoĚcxBi* bi> asa^eMÍH h npii noxept Ha^ernABi na 
yjiyqffleflie jifkjLdk h bi óyAyn^eMX, Bce-xasa, cjiyíRviTb oahbmi h3i rjiaB- 

HBIXI CXHMyJOBX yBOJIBHaXBCa Bl CB^XCEOe 3BaHÍe, HHOrAa COBCitlťB 

6esT> BcaEofl onpeA^JieHHofi i^Ijih. IIoxoMy, Eor^a bi AyxoBHofi asa- 



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300 B^bCTREKb EBPOnU. 

^eMÍH Ha^HHajio noflBjsTbCfl mhofo npo<|)eccopoBi. nepeHjfeHOBaHHuxi* 
Fb rpasAaHCBie qHHU, a Bcerjia cmoTpkib aa sto noiiospHTeibHO 
H AJMaxí*, ^TO jíjkjio CTOHTB HejajiHo, nÓTOMy qto, coScTBeHHO roBopa, 
npo4>eccopaM^ aKa^eMÍft tjtb n^vh HHKaEoro pascqeia, eciH ohh ea- 
lÁpeHEi ocraBaTBCfl h cjiysHTb bi> aRa;(eHÍn; nepeBMeHOBUBaibCfl vb 
CB^TCRoe BBaHÍe Bi npesaee BpeMfl óujio ^ase abeuhi yÚutrowl, vl6o 
3a BaaiAufi hhhi> naAO^HO (5ujio ojianiTB AeHbra, oneHb SHa^HrejiL- 
HUfl ][M Toro HR^TOSHaro sa.iOBaHbfl, Kanoe nOwiyqaje ee TOJibBO 
<$aRBajiaBpbi, ho h npo^^eccopa aBa^eMÍH. <& ne 3HaK), Moserb (5uTb 
Bx ;ipyrBX% aKaAeMÍflX'b, HanpHM^pi nerepSyprcsoi, npo^eccopa 
BMÍbcr6 cb npo^eccopcTBOMx aRa^eMÍH saHHMaiorb M^cra vh RaBHXi- 
HHÓyAB Apyraxx Bt^OMCXBaxx, r^í* HeoóxoAmio bsbícthob ^opiieH- 
Hoe npeAcraBHxejibCTBO— CJiiAOBaie.ibHO, h rpaK^aHCKie hhhh. Jl^a h 
TO, BnponeM^, HO AyMaio, vrofiu rAt-HH6yAb 6uJia TaRafl Heo(5xo- 
^íHMOCTb. JI,Jifl y^enaro nejiOBtEa Hepeufi ^paRx, a ecjra ero wkvb, 
TO Aase o6bi9Hufi Ra<|)TaH'b cb rep($OBUMH nyroBHi^aHB, ROTopufi 
Hocarb Bc6 npo(í)eccopa aKa;ieii!Í&, — AOCxaxo^iHoe yRpamoHÍe bo 
BCflROM'b npejicTaBHTejibCTB^. Ho HH Wh mocrobcroK, hh bx BasaH- 
CROft aBaAeMiflxx, npo^eccopa HHRaKHXx ApyrHxx cropOHHHXx M^crb, 
RpoM% npo4)eccopcRaro bi aRaAeiiiii, ne saHHMajiH, h bi mocrob- 

CROtt aBa^eMÍH, CBOJIbBO MWb HBB^CTHO, HHRTO HSl IipO(f)eCCOpOBX 

He nepexoAHJb bx cbítceob sBanie, xoxa HÍBOTopue He aejiajiH no 
Tbwb ujiH ApyrHHX npHqHHaMX nocTynaib m> CBau^OHHHBB. TaBx, 
HSB^CTHufi CBOHMH HCTopHqecBHHH Tpy^aMH, AjieBcaHApx BacHJibe- 
BH^x TopcRifi, ateaaa nocBaTBXb ce6a Bcei^-fcjio nayRÍ, He xotíjx 
jBeHHTbca, H BCJiÍACTBÍe 3Toro Cb 1832 ao 1860 roAa, T.-e. bx 
Te^enie 28 jt&tx, oeraBajica npocxo ^pannuKOMz^ RaRx nasuBaiH 
npo<{)eccopoBii wh aRaAeiíin, y ROTopuxx ysaBOHennoio napaAHOfo $op- 
MOK) 6ujiH ne paca, ne MyHAHpx, a TOJbBO $paBX,. hjih npocTOft 
HepHufi, HJH ch repfíoBHMH nyroBHiíaMH. ByAy^H „4>Pft^HHE0M'b*, Fop- 
CRÍ& nojiy^H^x H opAeHx BjiaAHMÍpa 4-fi CTenenn, noMHHTca, sa 
OHHcaHie TpoHi;Roft JlaBpu, no ocoÓoMy xoAaxaftcTBy MHiponojHra 
^H^apexa, xaRx RaKx, no cxaxyxy opAenoBX, jHiíaMX neHHHOB- 
HUMX opAena He Aaioxca. Bx canx CBam.eHHHRa ohx oÓJieRca xojibRO 
TorAa, ROFAa noRofinufi MHxponojiHxx mocrobcríS; na ocHOBanÍH 
ApeBHBXi npHM']&poBi>, npHSHajix HenpoxHBHUMx ycxanoBjíeniaiTB 
i^epRBH nocBaxHXb ero bt> 3xoxi> canx, Óesx oÓasaxeJbcxBa npeABa- 
pHxejibHO a&eHHXbca. IIoRoSHbi& npo^eccopx E. B. An^HxeaxpoBt, 
— npoc;iyKHBiiii& Bi> aRaAeMm 41 toaxh, no ORoniamH ABaAi^aTH- 
naxHjixHeft cayattfu neca cjyaóy npn aRaACMÍH, yate CBepxmxax- 
HyK), cjyffiHjix BMicxfe H rojOBOH) Bx CeprieBCROMx nocaA* no bh- 
óopaMi, — oexaBajica xaRse bck) sH3Hb ^^ijl^pa^HHROMx". Ho bi Basae- 



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HST* M^EKAro npomjiAro. 301 

CBoň aRa^eMÍH noqxH Bd^ oÓJieKajiHCb bi MyHAui!)K[ — h yxoAHjm. Bojib- 
mHHCTBO yxoAHJio Ha rpa»AaHCKyK) cjiy»6y. ÓoHCMy yxo^^Hjio? Ho- 
HeMy, HanpHifbpi, ymeji^b Hst RasaHCROfi aua^eMÍH fiaRRajiasp^ 
AjieKcifi A.!ieKcaBApoBHHi BoÓpobhhkobi, npeABasHanaBniifica h íoji- 
seHCTBOBaBiDÍK 6uTk cTOJinoM^ axoň MHccioHepcRoK aRa^eMÍH, RaRi 
^eJiOB']^R'B He TOJibRo p^AR&ro yna, ho e^Ba jih ne eAHHCTBeHHutt 
vb Pocciu BHOJiH^ ROMnerenTHiifl snaTORi MOBrojbCRO-RajiMui^Raro 
fl3URa? Snafl bi coBepmeHCTB^ h paaroBopHtifi, h RHHKHufi hsukl 
9THxi> HjieMeHi, OH^ TaRi FJiySoRO upOHHRi wb ^yxx 9Toro asHRa 

H '£BJÍ% J}Áa% OBJía^lsTk CBoeo6pa3HO& nocTpoftRofl rpaMMaTHHeCRHX'b 
4>0pMl, H BT, OCOCeHHOCTH TpyAHtflmefi CHHXaRCHHeCROft ROHcrpyR- 

AÍefi dToro fl3BiRa. ne HM']kK)ii^HMH HHHero noxoxaro na 4^opM£i h 
CHHxaRGH^ecRyH) ROHCTpyRuÍK) eBponettCRHXi asBiROBi, — HTO Hepea^ 
ABa HJiH Tpn ro^a no ORonnaHÍB Rypca Kb aRa^eMÍH cocTaBH.ii> xa- 
Ryio rpaMMaxHRy MonroiibCRaro asuRa, ROTopaa opsiBejia bi bocxu- 
n^enie bx aRa^eMÍu HayRi snaioROBi axoro asuRa yqeH£ix'b aRa^e- 
MHROBi>, u BoÓpoBHHROBy npHcyKAeHa óbijia diofi aRa^eMÍeio oojHaa 
AeMUAOBCRafl npeMÍfl. 3to 6buio wb KOBujb copoROBtixi toaobi hjlh 

ifb HaHail'6 EflTHAeCflTUXX, ROrAa BofipOBHHROBl tíujll. HOJOAUMl 

CaRRajaBpoM-B. He ynoipeÓH^o jih 6u bcarob Apyroe BHcraee y^eó- 
Hoe aaBeAeHÍe, cyoíecTByio^ee ci cnei^iajbHOio Jijbjíbio pacnpocTpa- 
Henifl xpHCTÍaHCTBa, MemAy npowMi, h cpoAH MHoroHHCJieHHbix^b no- 
BJOHHHROBx 6yAAH3Ma, Bcbx^b cpeACTBi, HT06ÍI yAepsaxb dxoro bu- 
AHiou^arocfl cbohmh AftpoBaHiflMH 4eJi0B']bRa na npo^^eccopCRott Ra- 

$eAP*? Ho BOTB, HeH3BtCTH0 HO RaRHM^ HpHHHHaMX, 8T0TB A^PO' 
BHTHft HeJ[0B*RT>, C03AaHHHft A™ HayRH, B^ nOJIOBHH* SO-XX TO- 

AOBT>, HJiH oROJio Toro, Ďpocaei^ npo^eccopcRyio RaeeApy h Sagti ^h- 
HOBHHROiťb B^ OpeHÓyppb, — Raaterca, vb TanoniHee oójiacrnoe npaB- 
jieHÍe, — H TaMx b*b 1865 roAy yMHpaerb bx caMOMx hojihomx pac- 
ujffbťb CHJťB A-3fl HayHHofi patíoTQ, ne ociaBJíflfl HHRaRoro cjAjsfii, CBoett 

yneHOfi A^J^TeJIbHOCTH. Jífi HM-ÉJTB jih 0H*B B03M0»H0CTb H npoAOJi- 

saTB ee, CA^JiasniHCb HHHOBHHROifb? CnpaniEBaeTCfl: mib sacTaBHJio 
8Toro nejiOB^Ra, co'3AaHHaro AJia nayRH, 6i»aTb hb-b irtcra HayRH, 
MOSHO CRaBaxb, HO^TH cnei^iaJibHO a^a eró A^poBanifl BnesanHO 
coaAaBHiaroca bi KasanH, — OTBiia wbvb. 

A Bon Apyrofi 4^aRrB hbi shshh RasancRoft AyxoBHoft aRaAeMÍH^ 
Tasse BBisuBaion^itt na pasMunuenie. nocrynHJii BiraRaAeHiio bi 
1842 roAy na RaeeApy {^hjioco^^íh Marncrpí hsi tojbro-^to roh- 
HHBHiHxi Rypci Bx MOCROBCRofi AyxoBHOfi aRaACMÍH — HaoaHaHJix Uer- 
poBH^i CoROJiOBi. Cna^ajia ohi fiujii tíaRRajiaBpoirB, noroiťb Bosse- 
AeHi» ÓUÁi* B% SBanie dRcrpaopAHHapHaro npo^eccopa, naROHei^i 
CA&iaJCfl H opAHHapHUMX npoij^eccopoiďB. ^HTaJTB ohi> Bce aio BpeHfl 



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302 B^CTHHSl EBPOnU. 

OAHy H Ty ateHayKy— $HJioco$ÍK), cna^suia Hcropiio ^h-^oco^íh, a 
noTOMi Mera^^HSBRy h ncuxojioriH). Hsi Toro, hto aRa^eMH^ecRoe 
Ha^ajiBCTBO nocTOflHHO noBíímajio ero na ero KaeeApt, bosbo^a 
ero nocreneBHO h3i ÓaBsajiaBpoBi bi aBcrpaopAHH^pHue, a dotomi bi 
opAHHapHue npo4)eccopa, bhaho, ^o oho 6ujio aobojibho ero npe- 
noAaBameM^ h c^Bia^o ero aoctoSbo 8aHBMaH)a^BM'B cboh) BaeeApy. 
Rasx BApypB vb 1858 ro^y 0B^, bocjií 16-TB-j4TBflro npeno- 
AaBaBÍfl 4^BJOco4»ÍB, BflesaBBO jiBmaeTca CBoefi 4^fl.ioco(|>CRott sa- 
eeApu B nepesť^n^aercfl Ba RaeeApy .otfu^ett i^epsoBBoft BcropÍB. 
Ornero? noveny? — BBqero BeBSBtcTBO. Mosbo tojbro loraaaBaTBca, 
^TQ BOBHft peKTopi Bc BameJI^ noBMeBOBRBBaro npoij^ccopa jsfl- 
ctoSbhmx h cnoco6flUMi saBBMaTB ^HJOCo^CRyH) RaeeApy. ilpeAno- 
josHM^ caifoe Jiyqmee, b mb b% a^bacm^ cjiyqa'^ mosbo npeAnojo- 
aBTb, — qTO 8T0TB BMCBBO OABB*B peRTop^ (bub4 yae yMepoiitl), 
nocj']^ BckTh inecTB bjib bocbmb BpeAmecxBOBaBniBXi eny peRTopoB^E, 
ROTopue Bcb 1^'lBflJiB B noBuma.iB npo^^eccopa, — ae omatícH, b 
qxo Bpo^eccopi* A^ftcTPBTe.iBflO tíujix BeyAOBjexBopBrejieffB ]í,jis 
4»BJOco4»CRofi RaeeApu. Oiiib6rb b% ^'l^axi qe^OBtqecRBXi Bcer^a 

B BeSflfk BQ3M0SBU. Ho BpB BCBpaBJeBÍB 0niB60RX BCeFAa AOJXBO 

€06jH)AaTB B3Bto*ByK) iftpy, ROTopafl Be yassajia 6u jb^boctb 
B fle ocRop({jflJia efl caM0JiH)6ifl, bx oco6eBBOCTB ecjiB cb ea cropoBíi 

B BBBU BBRaROft B^TB. ^fkwhy Bl CaMOM^ A^% BBBOBaTB ^eJO- 

BÍR^, qio ero nocroflBBO XBa^ajia b BOOBípflJiB, b BApyn., nocit 
16 JiiTh nocTOflBBaro npenoAaBaBÍB 4^bjioco4>íb, ero to BMeBBO r^b 
npeBOAaBaBÍH) btoS $moco$íb b c^BTaiOTB coBepraeBBO bccbocoC- 

BEIMl B CM^B^aH)!^ CB RaoeApBl! EABa JIB Kh RaROBfB CB^TCROBfB 

yqetíBOiTB saBeAeBÍB BOAOÓBOe oTBoraeBie ri qejOBÍRy, OTAaBmeiiy 
B01-SB3BB Ba c^ysLeBÍe A'i^y) Ba ROTopoe owb Óujpb opassafl^, 
<5hjio 6u mucibho. 

Ho 3T0 Be Bce. C% RaeeApu 4^bjoco$íb npo^^eccopa nepen^* 
n^aiorB aa RaeoApy oóa^eft i^epROBBott acropia. RaRi hobatb, bii 
RaRBXi cootfpaseaiflxi dTO A'^aJiocB? B^ AyxoBaoS aRaAeiríB aa- 
eeApa oÓB^eS i^epROBBoft Bcropia ecia ae Bume, to bo bcjirok^b 
cjynat bb^tb ae aaise ^aaoco^^cRoft. Ho eeia npoj^eccopi, qaxafl 
1 6 Ji^rb ^bjioco^^íh) B^ mojioauo roAU, oaasajicfl aacrojBRo aeyAoe- 
jeTBopBTejiBauMx, VTO npadaaai aero^i^auMi jí^b axoft RaeeApu, to 
qero se hosbo osaiaTB ovh aero aa aaeeApt acropia^ asyqeaie 
ROTopoft oai AOJseai aa^aflaTB bi Bospacrt copoaa bjb cjbbjrom^b 

J^TB? 

Ho, MOflcerB 6utb ob*b tíuji, ocrasjeai aa dxoft aoBOft aaeeApb 
asi cocrpaAaaífl ri ero nojoseaiio, wro6vi oai AOCjysajrB ao neacÍH, 
T.e. ea^e aa 9 jrbrb? HaqyrB ae Óuaaio. Cpoai aeacia AOJia^H'B 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



H3X JAJIEKArO npoiHJíAro. 303 

<Shji'b HacTynHTb fb 1867 ro^y. A owh ÓJiaronojiyHHO cjiysM^ ao 
1872 ro^a. Cji^AOBaTejiBHO, h Ha HOBOft, laKi BHeaanHO h HeoKH- 
xaHHo BaBflsaHHofi eny. RaeeAp']^ ohtv ne OBasajioi HecnocoÓHUMT*. 
HaqajTBCTBO, HM'£Bniee nocjii 25 jrkvh nojiHoe npaBO oTBasaTB eMy 
OTB cjiy^ĎBí, ne oxKasBíBaeTB, — cjiiwBaTejiBHO, Haxo^HTx cjy»6y ero 
no;re3HOH). noc:i'6 dxoro hh ^jia soro ne uosierb 6utb HHRasoro 
coMH-fefíifl, 1T0 Ha $Hjroco$cKoS KaeeApt, KOTopyio oh^ HByqajx 
CMOJiOAy Bi Teqenie 1 6 ji4tb, oh-b HaBÍpHoe 6ujn> 6u em.e nojies- 
H^e. Gj'ljiOBaTejiBHO, npHHHHOio coBepmenno HeBHHnaro, huh^mi hmx 
He 3acJíy3ReHHaro yneKema 6kijo cayqaflHoe ycMorpinie peKiopa, 
vb ochobí ROToparo jiesajiH, bí^poatho, JiHqnufl HenpiflSHeHHUfl 
crojiRHOBeHifl H OTHomenia, h MO»eTB 6utb — o^chb jD[aBHHraHÍa, TaRB 

BaB'B, MHt rOBOpHJIH, peRTOpi, tfUJl erO TOBapHn^eMX-CTyA^HTOMX 

no aRajQ[eMÍH. TaBOBa 6um BJiaciB peRTopa vb aRa^eiiin! 

npeAcraBBTe ce&b TenepB, HHiaTejB, ^to npa TaRnxi nopain- 
saxi vh aRa^eMÍH npoi^B']^TaeTB b% cpejiíh npo^^eccopoBi TaRiRe 
npo^eccop^,— HeJOBtR-B bt> Bucmeft creneHH AapOBHTuft, Tpy;^o- 
jrK)tiHB(i&, CRpoMHBifi. Oh^b BecB npe^aHi HayR%, ee Hn^erB hh 
qBHOBx, HH op^enoBi, xejiaerB tojibro hm^tb Hacyn^Huft xji^6t> 
A^fl ce6fl H ceMBH h nojHoe cnoRoftcTBie, itoÓei sannMaTBCH na- 
yKoft. Ho HMeHHo 9Toro TO cnoRoftCTBia 0H^ h ne naxoAHTB. Bpeiffl 
OTB BpeHeHHy BHesanno, b^ mhphbi& otíuqHuft nopa^ORi ero acHsnn 
spHsaercfl to^ho CTHxiftnaa CHja, ROTopaa Bce CTaBHTB BBepxx 
AHOiTB. He ciiacaH)rB BHRaRÍe ahiijiomu, hh choco6hocth, hh sHania, 
HH npOAOJiJKHTeJiBHOCTB cjiyaióu. ToBapnu^H tíiryrB. ro;ía ABa-Tpn 
npoxoAHTB tíjiaronojiyqHO. ňoTOirB ohhtb neosHjiaHHO flBjffleTca HOfiaa 
CTHxifinafl CHjia — h ohatb xaRoft ae nepeBOpOTB, mojrctt* Óhtb, hí- 
CROJBRO Bi jtpyroMi poA*. To^HO HACTB Hpoi^eccB reojorH^ecRaro 
o6pa80BaHÍfl hoboS njiaHeTu, Ror^a pa3HBifl naBOAflu^ifl yxaci nepiyp- 
ÓAu^is nepioAHqecRH neoÓxoAHMu a.ih Hifl^ion^efi ocHOBaTBca na Heft 
SH3HH. ?ejiOB%Ry CTaHOBHTCH CTpaHTHO 3a ce6fl. Bi OAHHi pasx 
CTHxiilHafl CHja ero ne RocnyjiacB, bb Apyroft paai ne RocnyjacB, 
a Bi Tpexifi MO»erB B'6ab h na neMi oČpymuTbCfl. H botb, ohi 
HamnaerB npHroTOBjíflTBCH o^HcaHHBIM^ mhok) Bume chocoSomi, ^to- 
6u ona ne 3axBaTH.9a ero Bpacnjiox^: hsb ^paRa uepeoA'l^BaeTCfl 
Bi iiyHAHpiy HOJiyqaeTi iHHfii h RpeciBi, h t. a- 

Bek 8TH MEicjiH npnmjTH mh% bi rojiOBy no noBOAy CHepTH b^b 
npomeAineM^ M'k^i^% oahofo hsx mohxi TOBapnu^efi no cays6%, npo- 
4^eC'^opa RasancROft AyxoBHofi aRaAenÍH, ITBana flROBJíeBHqa IIop* 
4^BpBeBa. BcnoMHHaa TenepB o HeM'B, a neBOJBHO BcnoMnnjii h o 
xpjTisTh JiHi^axi, Rocnyjica h ntROTopuxi noApofinocreft sh3hh bi 
HaniHX^ AyxoBHuxi aRaAeniaxi BOo6n^e. Ho RacaTBca noApoÓHOcreft 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



304 B^CTHHKX EBPOmi. 

aB^HSHH HaniHxi aRa^^eBfifi HesosMOSHO, He ofiiflCHHoi npeABapHT&abuo 
ocHOBi zTb ycrpoftcTBa, HHane na KaasAOMx máry HHiaiaia óy^yvh 
nopaiEaTB pasHua Hecoo6padHocTH h npoTHBop'&qiji, h Bce eMy ój^erh 

KaBaXbCfl HenOHflTHEIMX XaOCOMIi. XaOCB, A'Í^&CTBHTe^HO, CuJI-b, HO 

8T0 — xaocB, EaKx yBHABTi qHTaiejifc, He paspymaiomaroca, a hcao- 
CTpoeHHaro s^ama, h eejibsď en^e lepaTs Ha^esj^u, hto6u oho 
ocTaJiocB HaBcer^a bx TasoMi BEjifk. 

OcHOBHoft njiaH'B AyxoBHuxi) aRa^eMÍft óujIi cosAíiWh b'& aa- 
h^aí HUH^niHaro croji^TÍfl npeBOCXOAHO-reHÍajibHbíMi yMOMi* One- 
paHCRaro. Ho ocyu^ecTBjeHÍe SToro njiana 6ujío nopy^eno komhbccík 
AyxoBHuxi* yHHJHO^i, EOTopaa no pasHUM^b npHHHua^di ne npHBejia 
ero Bi KOHiíy HH Booóme, hh b^ ^^eTajiaxi. Do yHHqi;o»eHÍH bom- 
mhccíh AyxoBHHX^ yHMJiHmi, mícto ea sana-io AyxoBHO-yqeÓHoe 
ynpaBjeHie ct oÓepi-npoEypopoMi bo rjiaBi; oho craao ophboabtk 
BTOTb njiaHi wb HcnojHeme, ho pyROBO^HJiocb bi 3toh'b ciy?a'6^ 
He KaEoi-HHÓyAb oapeA'&J[eHHOfi H^eeň, a rbuu hjih ApyiuMu cjy- 
qafino BOSHUKaBoiHMii noTpeÓHOCTjiMH. A tolb% BaRi BOMHHCcifl Ay* 

XOBHUXl yqHJmiI^l B1> T0& A^JIH, JS^JIA BOTOpoS eAHHCTBeHHO OCBO- 

BaHu aBa^eMÍH, — T.-e. ajia y^eHoft paspaĎOTBH bxoaaiahxi bii npo- 
rpaMMy BX'b Hays^ h mb. nperoTOBiieHifl cnocotfHuxi h BHaioo^HX^ 
HacTaBHHROBi }í,Jia, aRa^emB h ceMHHapift, — npHCoeAHHHjia eníe Apyryio, 
coBepraeHHO nocropoHHiOK) h BpeAflyio js^aa ycnixa HayBí, — ujbjíh npH- 
roTOBJíeBifl H3i> npo4)eccopoBi, HOHaniecxByioniHX^b h saHHMaio^HX'^ 
BaeeApu Oopocjiobcrhxi naysi B^ aBaAeHÍflxx, jiMrejieŘ aAMHHHcrpa- 
THBHbixiy TO nocj'&AHflB uf^ CA^l^ajiacb pyEOBOAfln^HMl npHHI^HnOMl^ 
H npH AyxoBHO-yneÓHOMi ynpaBJíeHia. TaBHMx oCpasoM-b bhxoahjio 
híhto necooópasHoe q npoTHBop^qan^ee npaMOMy HasHa^eniH) asa- 
Aeiiifi; Ha aBa^esiiio Boajiosena óujia o6fl3aHHOCTb nperoTOBJíflTb ao- 
CTofiHuxi jiR>Ae& HayBH, Heo6xoAiiMbix'B A^fl y^eHoft paspaÓOTBH 
HayBH B^b Hefi caMofi h a^a npEroTOBjíenifl xopomo snaBOMuxx ck 
HayBOfi HacraBHHBOBi a^a ceuuEWpiů, a MesAy t^mt* A&poBHT^finmxx^ 
HacxaBHHBOBi, cnocoÓHuxi CA'6jiaTbCfl ycepAHUMH paspaÓaTUBaTejiAMa 
H AaJBB ABHraTeJiaMH nayBH, y nea HeMeAJeHHO ÓpajiH — eABa ohh ycni- 
BajiH Ha^HHaTb 3aHHMaTbca HayRott — na aAMHHHcrpaTHBHue hoctei. 
^fbwb ÓojAe yMHOKajocb qecjio ceMHHapifi u hhcjio apxiepeficBHxi> 
RaeeAP'B, rkwh noTepa, BOTopbia ^ocjih aBaAeHÍH b^b AftpoBHTb[X'B. 
npo^^eccopaxi, A^^&i^HCb qyBCTBHTejibHie, — rbwb aBaAeMÍH Óbicxp^ 
naAajiH, TaBi BaBi Majo-no-Majy i^&iaHx aAMHHHcrpaTHBHUM^b craio 
OTAaBaTbca aBHoe npeAnoHieme nepeA'B i^š^aMH nayBH. HayBa npH- 
m:ia, HaBonei^i, bt> xaBoe He6peseHÍe, ^to bi aBaAeMÍaxi He CTaJiff 
o6pan^aTb HHBasoro BnuMania hh na bhojihí AOcraTO^noe cepbesHoe 
nperoTOBjíeHÍe bi npo^^eccopcTBy noaBJíaBniHxca b% nefi a&PObhtux^e 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



H31 A^UEBATO npomxiTO. 305 

j[H)Aefi, HH Ha yAepsame vxb bi aBa^enÍH na noioseHHEifi y^eetifi 
25-J!i^THÍft cpoBi xopomHirb HaTepiajiBHHMi otíesne^eHÍeHi, hjh h 
nojiHinii orpasKA^HieMi nxi neiOB^^ecEaro h y^enaro AOcroflHCTBa 
OTB bosaMctbúl CTHxiftHiiix'B CHji, cjiyTO&HO BpuBaBniHxcfl Bx asa- 
Aeidio H Hapymasmiixi cnoBofiHoe h MHpnoe Teneme ea sbshh. 

OieBHAHO, HamH AyxoBHHfl aBa^eMÍH iforyn cA'^aTscfl aoctoS- 
HiiMH xpanaMH HayBH tojisbo Tor^a, Bor^a tíyAyTx umiTb vb BH^y 
TOJiBBO OAHy jsíku> — usGto Hay^HyH), ne npeoi^AyA HHBaBExi Apy- 
rHX'B; BorAa, pa^H aroft i^'&in^ x^poBETue jioah, HS^Epaeiiue a^^a 
npo^ccypH, 6yAyT^ npnroTOBjflTbCfl xaBi se Tn^axejiBHO, BaB'B sto 
A'&iaeTCfl Bi yHEBepcuTeraxi; Bor^a nperoroBjeHEiix^b TaBHMi o(5pa- 
3(»rB npo^ccopoBi aBa^eida Óy^yn crapaTBCfl y^epsaTE y ce6fl 
Bx Tepeme 25-^%THflro q[)OBa na HCBJíiOTOTejiBHO npo^eccopCBoS 
CJiysfii, na TOtt HMenno BaeeApi, b^ Boropoft ohh Óujie nperoTOB- 
jieHBi. 

no oBOHHaHÍH ABaAi^aTHHflTHJiiTHflro cpoBa npoýeccopcBoS cjystíu 
Wh aBa^eMÍHy 6uao 6u BOBce ne hosaho MOHamecTByiaiiiHxi npo- 
^^copoBi B03B0AnTf» Ha Bucmifl iepapxHqecBífl creneHH, h BaB^B 
BHOJiH^ BOMnereHTHue cneipajisHEie y^enue b% to& hjih Apyroft 
6oro€J[OBCBo& HayBŠ, ohe xorAa npeAcraBJUiJin 6u co6oh) yBpamenie 
Ha Hamnxx Bucmexi apxiepeňcBiixi BaeeApaxi. 

IIpH xaBOHi nopflAK^ ÓBicxpo noAHfl^acb 6u nayBa bi Hamaxi 
asaAeiriAX^b, a 3a hhmh h bi ceMimapiflxi, h apxiepeficBÍfl sa- 
eeApu noBpiiJiHCB 6u emfi ÓĎJiBmiufB Óiee&owby h^x Tenepb, 
OBpyseHHiie bhoshí noAOÓaion^HMi HCBpeHHHMi yBasemeiTE h no- 
HeTOM'b B% JiHi^aMi, Hxi saHHMaionJlHMi, TaBse h orb HHxejiJiH' 
reHTHOfl nacTBy. 



Bi^ raseraxi 6tijm uoiifbuifiEu spaiBÍfl HSB^crifl o noBO&HOicb 
npo^^eccopb BasaHCBoft Ay^OBHofi asaAeMÍH, EBani SsoBJíesE^i 
IIop4^HpbeB%. Ohi 6wrb ne xojbBo npo^^eccopi aBaAeidH, xota 6u 

H BHAaiOIlÚ&Cfl, a H^BOTOpUMl OtfpaSOMl H OAHHl H31 Bfl OCHOBa- 

Tejiefl, ;i;aBnrifi eft HSBficxHoe nanpaBJíeHie, — oahhi hw ea crojinoBi, 
crai .^ix^ ea onopoK) h bh^ctI SHaMeneiii. TaBÍe crojinu ÓuBajiH 
BO Bcšx'B HaniHx^b aBaAeMÍflxi. Bujih, no Bpafinefi irbpi, Ta- 
sie vb aBaAeMÍH iiocBOBCBOfi, Boiopyn) a SHaio. HasoBHxe ; aBa- 
xeMiio MOCBOBCByio, H BCflBifi H81 BHaion^HXi ee Baici CBa2Beirb, 
HTO OHa sHjia H A^ftcTBOBajia no xoHy HanpaBJíemH), BOTopoe sa- 
Msssuui Fb Heft npo^^eccopa O. A. FojiyÓHHCBifi n n. C. flfijiiií- 
isfiwbj a noTOMi npncoeAHHHBmiecfl Kb HHicb A. B. ropcBÍfi n 

Ton L— JiHBAFb, 1891. 20 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



306 BMTHHKB EBPOmi. 

E. B. ÁM^^HTeaipoBi. Bet sth nerupe JHi^a HecoMH^HHO aojishu 
6uTh npHSHaHu ocHOBaTaiflMH H CTOjnaiiH mocbobcro& aKaj^eMÍE b^b 
TOHi CMUCJit, ^To OHH, sasAufi no CBoefi cneiuajiBHOCTH, shccjih 
Bi Hee HSB^CTHUfl OTpacsH sHaHÍfl, noJiosHjH Bce CBoe AftpoBame, 
BCH) CBOK) A^ieoBHOCTB Ha ocHOBaHÍe u ynpoHeme sxoro SHaHÚi, 

TpyAHJlHCB HaA^ dTHHl Jífi BOHI^a CBOefi SH3H0 H CJifkJlííJlJll TO, HTO 

OTA&iu seamfi, Ha^i* BOTopuMH ohh patforaJiH, HaBcerxa npoiHO 
yTBepjpsrjiHCB vh aBa^eMÍe. 

KasaHCBafl aRaAeirífl p&sBo oTJiHHaeTCfl oti» bg^tl HamHxi Ay~ 
xoBHuxi aRa^eMÍft tíitb, hto ona, no n^eÉ CBoeft, saRi asa^eicifl 
HHCTO H0CCÍOHepcBafl, aBaAeidfl in partibus mfideliam, ocHOBana am 
6opB6u CB pasHUMH HHopoA^ecBHMH B^poyqeHÍflMH, BOTopuMH o6h- 
jyerB narax Boctokx, npeHMymecTBeaHO — Ch MaroMeraHCTBOM-B h 
6yMH3M0Mx. Si He seaio, 6ujio jih nepsoHa^asBHO bi HaMtpemH 
npaBHTejiBCTBa BoopyacHTB ee h j^m 6opB6u cb pacaojioirB. Ho ope- 
0CBflni.eHHufi FpHropifi, BnoojiŠACTBÍH MHiponojiHTB nexepÓyprcBifiy 
nepoBe^eHRBifi hsÍ TsepH na RasaHCRyio apxienHCRoncRyio RaeeApy^ 
nocjsíb cMepTH npeocBan^eHHaro Bjia^Hiripa, paBHO satíoTujicfl RaRTB o 

6opB6£ Ch HHOB^pHBIMH HCnOB^A^HiflMH, TaBl H 6opB6'6 C^ 

pacROJiBHHRaMH. GxkjiABmiiiCh RasaHCREiTB apxiepeejii h bicíctš 
CB T^M^B rjiaBHUHi none^HTejieMi aRaxeMie, ohi HeiceAiieHHO 
HcnpocHJii y CB. cHHo;^a paspšmeHÍe nepe^aiB vb co6cTBeHHOCTB 
RaaaHCROfi aRaxeine tíoraTyio 6H6jiioTeRy coJiOBOi^ro MOHacrapa, 
n ocHOBaji sypnajTB „IIpaBOCAaBHufi CoÓedxHHRi'' jsASk 6oph6u 
Ch pacROJOHiB. Boraxafl cojiOBei^Rafl 6H6jdoTeRa MHoro noMoraa 
EBany ďROBjeBHTf bt> ero Hscji^AOBaHiflxi jí^jísl HsyHeuifl hcto- 
pÍH pyccROfi JHTepaiypBi. Bi CBoefi pa6oTÍ owh ne Hif&irB, ro- 
He^HO, MHcdoHepcRofi i^^n. Ho HanHcaxB xopomyK) acropÍH) 
pyccRoft jrarepaTypu tíujio eciH ne Óojri&e, to bo bchroitb cjy- 
nsA HHRaRi He uenie nysHO, h^itb cnei^iajBHiifl HSCJr^AOBa- 
HÍfl no pacROJiy, a^ih Ttx'B BOcnnTaHHHROffB aRaxeiOH, ROTopae 

rOTOBHJHCB ;^fl 6opBtíBI CB paCROJIOM'B. KypCB HCTOpÍH pyccRofi IH- 

Teparypu, HanHcaHHBifi HBanoMi .SROBJíeBHqeirB Hop^^apBeBuirB, h 
FB HacTOflo^ee BpeMji cocraBJífleTi neo^xo^Hiioe pyROBO^CTBO. H eciH 

npHHOMHHTB npH dTOMl, RaRafl MaCCa HOBUX'B, SApaBBIXl H CBŠT- 

jiHxi noHarifi, ÓJiarojapa 8T0My Rypcy, pasojiBercfl no hébíth ce- 
MHHapifliii H ocBiTUTh yMEi H cepAi]ia Bclx^B ÓyAyn^Hxi nacrupeft 
i^epRBH, TO HejiBSfl He corjiacBTBca, hto TaRaa cojHAnaa paóoxa, 
RaRi y^eÓHiifi RypcB HCTopin pyccRofi jiHTepaTypu, A'&iaeTB BejH- 
RyK) qecTB He tojibro canoMy aBTopy, ho n MHCcioHepcRoft jtíbsk- 
TejiBHOCTH aRa^eMÍH, ROTopaa Heapniio, 6e3i BcaRoft 6opBdBi, bho* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



H8X MJíEBAro nponLiiÁro. 307 

CfSTh HCTHHHHt CB^Tl XpHCXÍaHCTBa, HJTRJSfiíŘ BCflBarO HeJIOB^KOHe- 
HaBHCTHHHeCTBa, B^ yilH B CepAI^a T^X^B dOO^eft, AO BOTOpBIX'b He 

Bcerxa Mosears AOCTHraxB dTon Cffbvb ApyrHiii nyxeM^B. 

BoTB no^eMy a, HHtfajio He coMH^BaflCB; saHomy EsaHa 
JSlBOBJíeBHHa IIop4>HpBeBa^ KOTopuft nojiosHJii copoR'B-ABa roAa CBoeft 
SH8HH fl A^TejiBHOCTH 6e3pa8A'i^EHO Ha cjiy^LÓy CBoeft anaiieMiH a 
juepb ch nepoMi bi pysaxi, wb hhcjo ocnoBaTejiefi h ctoidob^ 
9T0ft HOBOft aKa^eMÍH. 

S, HosHaBOMHJCfl Ch HBaHOMX iďROBJíeBHqeHi o^eob pano. Owh 
nocrynHJi bi cry^eHTiz Basancsofi aBa^eMiH bi tomi caMOirB roxy» 
Borxa fl npiixajTb xy^a Ha cjrysóy ÓaBBajiaBpoMi no nCTopÍH pyc- 
<;bo& i^epBBH H espeficBOHy flsuBy. depeši nerupe ro^a oh'b raBse 
craiTB ÓaBBajiaBpoMii e mohstb TOBapen^earb. Mu shjh b% oahomi 
e TOMi se sAaHÍH aBa^eMÍH h tísLin ($jiu3Rh nes^y co6oh). BsaHiiHEifl 
CHMnaTÍH HamH h CHomeHis ne cobcIitb npeBpaTHJHCb h Tor^a, Bor^a 
fl ocraBHJi aBaAeMÍK). Ohx ne aatísiBajii Měna h Hsp^Asa Hanoinr- 
HajTB o cedi, nociuafl mhí HSAaBaeMbifl hitb coHeneHÍfl, h mu 
oÚuinuBsuiECh nHCbMaMH. HasaA^B xony hatb járh^ MesAy HaMH saBasa* 
jutCE osHBJíeHHafl nepenncBa, npoAOJisaBmaflCfl h^^ojebo BpeneHn. 
Mff6 oBasasocb HysHUMi aoCbitb H-lBoropiiifl cb^A^húi h3i» KasaHH, 
H fl ofipaTHjiCfl Bi Heny cx npocb6oK) no dTony npeAMeTy, npoca 
€ro bmíct^ coo6n^HTb cb^a^hía o ero ohteí-Cutbš, h xaBse o 
npesHHXi oÓn^HX^b naniExi TOBapHn^ax'B no aBaAeiiÍH n3x Aasno 
npomeAmaro BpeMenn. Ei o6í^hm% arairB npoCBtíaMi oni OTHeccji 
oqeHB jBoCeano u cepAe^HO. Ohi HeneAJieHHO coo6n^HjrB set cb%- 
ACHifl, BOTopufl im'bjn> vb pyBaxi no nepBoS Moeft npocb(H^, o6%- 
n^aaCE noA'BHCBHBaTB, Maso-no-Maiy, to, qero y nero wh pysaxi ne 

ÓWLOj H Cl BeJIHBOH) OXOTOK) C00tín^HJI'b CaMUfl HQApOÓHBIfl CB^A^HÍfl 

o ce^ n o naniHxi oOn^Bxx cxapuxi TOBapno^axi. 

Bi 8T0 spěna UBam ,SBOBjieBHH*b Ówvh yse, BaB'E roBopflTB^ 
mraTCBEiTB renepajioHi. Ho HBaHi .SBOBJíeBHTB, naxoAflCE nasepxy 
CBoefi cjiaBu, ocrajca TasHirB se cbpomhumi (JaaBajiaBpoifi-Tpy- ' 
seHHBOHi, BaBHiťB Óuji^b Ha3aA'E TOMy TpHAi^aTB jAvbj npn na- 
mewb TOBapHn^ecBoiTB siaiTEt. Cootín^aa mhí o CBoeicE renepajiE- 
CTB^j owh mh% nemerBy qxo nepoAaen mhí btoti cboB ceBperx 
o c^ eAHHCTBeHHO ^paAH noJHOTu CBoero carrícalum vitae; hto 
o renepajTECTB^ ero hhbto noqxH ne snaerb hbi ero BnaBOMuxi, h 
HHBTO ero laBx ne THryjiyeTB, noaTOiiy owb h moha npocHjrb Aep- 
2BaTb 9T0 Bi ceBpexi H HHBaBHifb oÓpasoiTb ne pasrjiamaTb 8Toro 
upB aApecaxi eiiy na nnobHarb. BcBopl^, OAnaBosi, £ npoqejix bx 
raseraxiy hto eu) fljBjm BaByH)-TO 3BÍ3Ay. Mni onenb xor&iocb 

20* 



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303 VMTEBKh fiBPOmi. 

cnpocHTB ero: KaR^B ohi^ oCxo^htcji ci 9thm% OTJivniewh? Ho no* 
ÓOflJCfl noAotíHHirB Bonpocoiii CMyn^aTB crapiiKa. 

jl,a, OHI 6iijrB Bi BTO BpeMfl yse crapHR^. Bi bhaš hxho- 
CTpa^iH Kb CBoeMy currículam vitae owh npHciajTB mh% cbok) nap* 
TOHRy. dia RapTOHRa ao loro 6BLia Henoxosa ea Toro HBana. 
t&ROBJteBHtta, ROToparo a SHaii easa^^ TOMy 30 jAtb ^to, bctp^tboi 
fl Ch HHMi Ha yjiHi^^ — a npHHHJTL 6u ero 3a HejOB^RaMHŠ cosep* 
meHHO HesHaROMaro. 

SBbHTBeMi-tfuTBeirB cbohitb HeaHii .SROBJíeBHTB 6ujrh bhojih^^ a^bo- 
jieKb. flfiLj Bnpo^eiťB, pasB^ Mon xaRoft nejiOB^Ri tíuTE ^Mi-HHtiyxb^ 
HeAOBOJieHi, ecjm6u h tfujin RaRÍs-HHÓyAB HajieHbRifl HenpiflTHOCTR 
no cjrys6^, — nejiOB^Ri, Ch coheixi jšrB ymeAmifi Bnyrpb ce(5fl s 
BnojiB'6 OTAaBmificfl CBoeMy jifbjíy? Bujii tífii tojclro otíe8neHeH'B> 
AOcraTO^Hiift RycoRi xjiš6a a^a juotíniíoft nwb comlh, — a caMi oh^ 

MOrb AOBOJIBCTBOBaTbCfl CaMHlTB HHHTOSHilMl MHHHHyMOBTb Bl y^OBJíe- 

TBOpemu CBOHX'b norpeÓ&ocrefi; kt> yirlpeHnocTH owh npEiBtiR^b en^e na 
CBoeM7> crapoiTB 6aRRaj!aBpcR0Mi> sajioBaHBi, no^y^aa b ponr man- 
ger, H ponr boire, h na bcí Apyrifl noTpe^HOCTH h Hys^u h y^o- 
BOJBCTBÍfl — OAHHHx CJOBOH^B, Ha Bce npo Bce — HeH3irlHH£ie 29 py6. 
83 ROH. Bi M']^i]('B. TenepB oni 6bi;i'b coBepmenno b^ jfl[pyroH'B nojo- 
xeHÍH. Oh^b — opAHnapnuft npo^^eccopx. noRofinBift rpa^^^ ^irarpift 
ÁHApeeBHHi ToJiCToft, Bi 6b[thoctb CBOK) oÓepi-npoRypopoifB cb. 
CHHOxa, cpaBHHjii saiOBaHBe npo^^eccopoBi AyxoBHoft aRaACMÍn ci- 
sajiOBanBeiíii npocj^eccopoBi yHHBepcHTera. oKaiOBaHBe — 3.000py6- 
' Jieft Wh roA'B. K^ TOny se HeiiajKOBasnoe noxcnopBe Kb btouj 
cocraBJíHJi ero RypcB HCTopm pyccRofi juTeparypti. Knera nua 
xoponio. CeMLfl ero, npaBAa, ohchb snaHHTeJiBnaa, — xyTB . h en> 
cotfcTBeHHUfl jíjbmy h a^th jiihreŘ, T.-e. BHyRH, — iiorjra setb 
He TOJTBRo 6e36ÍAHO, HO H CB nLsÁeiBuiíb ROH^proMi — na Bce 
AocxaBajio. IIo cjys6i aíjisl o^ctoajh TaR»e RaRx HeJiBSfl jnynnie. 
PoRTopi aRaAeMÍH. no^xenHEifi nporoiepeň, BOcneranHERi Tot »& 
RasancRoň aRa^eMin, oahhm-b RypcoMi tojibro ero ciapme, — ero Apyr^ 
B npiflTejiB. Bjrasafimifi noneneTe^B aRaAOnÍH, RadancRÍd apxiepefi, 
He MorB TaRxe Ceitb ri HOHy HefijiarocRJiOHHUMi, ne oxjip^aTB 
ero. HBany t&ROBjeBBHy ocr^BaiocB na crapocTH jAt% tojil.co oja- 
roAencTBOBaTB n MeHTaiB. flfly h MenraTB. H y crapaROBib axa cia- 
6ocTB ocraercfl, n ohi MeHTajn. Ha BonpocB Hofi: htď ohi AyMaen* 

o HOBOITB H HOBiftmeMX nepÍOA'& HCTOpÍH pyccRofi JiHTepaTypBi H 

(JyAerB jh HHcaTB ero? Oh*b OTB^najn mhí, hto — Aa; ^to y nero- 
co6paHi H noATOTOBjeni HaTepíajTB jtfisRe j^jís roroJieBCRaro nepíoxa 
jHTepaTypu, h tto y nero ecTB crpacmoe sejiame aobocth naia- 



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H3% AAJERAro nponLiAro. 309 

loe fiikio AO ROHqa. Bon tíujia ero Hevra. HacBOJBRO yAaiocb 
•eny ocymecTBHTb ee, — He sHaro. 

Ho, roBopflTb, HTO nojHaro CHacrifl y zjojifiíL HHRorxa ne (5u- 
saerB. B'b oahoitb hsi cbohxi nnceirB, nepe^HCiHBi mh% bcIx^ 
^eHOBx CBoeft ceMfiH, ohx namen: „TasiiMi oSpasoirB, bu bh- 
^ffre, ^TO y mbra cenBfl ÓóJBmafl (bx to Bpenfl tíujio Bcero 9 qe- 
jiobíbi). BoTi noneMy a ea^e 0CTaH)CE na cjiysói, HecMOTpji na 
«BOK> crapocTb. Mhí yace 63 ro^a; nooii ST-j^Toeft cjiystfti nopa 
6u Ha noBOft, ho Héq^irB tíyxerB ropmhtb cenbio; nencifl y Haci 
MaieHBRafl — no crapoMy ycxaBy, ho to, ^to b% yHHBepcHTer^. MesAy 
tími, npHHuia coBepmennafl crapocTb: syÓOBi yse a&bho wbn; 
mm oTRasuBaiOTCfl xoahtb, a rpy^B ne buhochte coBepmeHHO fjB^jBie 
10-rpaAycHaro xoJOAa"... 

^a, 9T0 xyxo, noAyMajTB fl, npoTOTaB^B 9th CTpoRH. TyTB ne- 
C0MH'fiHH0 yrpoasaeTB tíjiHSRifi, BSipasaflCB cJOBaMH noRofisaro Ko- 
Kopesa, ,,npoBajrb'' cyn^emyK^n^eicy nacrBK). SI npHnoHHHJTB, qTO 
fisani iSROBJíeBHHi 6wrb h bi mojoaocth saopobba neBasnaro, 
ROTopoe OHX coxpaHflJTB H noAABpsHBajii TOJBRO erporo B03Aeps- 
HOK> H peryjTflpHOK) shshbh). a TenepB oh^b crapi, Aase h 
xoxhtb MOserB He tfesi Tpy^a, ne MOserB buhocetb xojio^a 6ojiBnie 
10 rpaAycoBX. KasanB — ne lÍTajria, h AaaRO ne IleTepCyprB; 

TaiTB BJHMarB ROHTHHeHTaJEBHIlfi H XOJOA^B O^CHB OCHOBaTeJB* 

HHi. IlepBafl cypoBBfl sHiia jierRO MOserB hoarochtb ero. A 
CBepxi Toro, 3T0TB ^ejioB^Ri cb h)hocth paÓOTaerB nocToanno h 
HejTOMEMO roJlOBOK). Pa6oTa necoMHŠHHo yBJíeRaTOJiBHafl. MoseTi 
<$iiiTB, fítb APyroft paÓOTu, ROTopas 6ii HHorAa Aasajia TaRifl hh- 
ayru HaciiasA^Hifl, RaRi dTa. Ho saTO Bíbirb hh oahoS, ROTopaa 
TpeÓOBajia 6u TaRoro crpamnaro HaopaseHÍfl mucííh, sejia tíu ri 
TaRoiiy nepeyTOHjeHÍH) BOo6n^e yncTBeHHBixx chji h TaRi paspymn- 
TejBHO Ai^ficTBOBaia na 4^B3HqecRÍ& opraHHsirB qejOB^Ra, oco6eHHO 
BB jrbTaxi npeKiOHHEixx, — RaRx yiiCTBenHafl. HoTony b^b na- 
lOHxi CBŠTCRHxx saBeAeHÍflxi BecBMa npeAycMOTpHTejíBHO nocra- 
HOBjeno BaROHOHi, HTO vh yHEBepcHTOTaxi cpoRi ciystíu nojia- 
raercfl He Óojrite ABaAi^aTH-nflTH jt&tb. 3a'6cb A^tse h TaRofi cpoR'B 
pafioni CHHTaeTCfl ne A^a BcaRaro no CHJiaMx. HoaTony a&Jibh'^^- 
mee npetiiiBanie na Hpo4>eccyp6 npoAOcraBJífleTCfl tojbro t^itb h3x 
sejiaion^Hxi, Roropue yAOCToenti 6yAyTB aToro npoAo:iseHÍfl bu- 
<k)poirB ocrajiBHiixi cbohxi TOBapno^eft hjh cob^toitb yHHBepcH- 
TBTa. TaRÍe npoýeccopa hocatb HasBanie 3acjiyseHHux'B h nojiy- 
HaiDTB ABa npo^eccopCRHXi saJiOBanBA: oaho wb Ra^ecTB^ s&io* 
BaHBfl 8a HacTOflHJiyK) cayatóy, APyroe — b^b Ra?ecTBÍ nenciH sa npo- 



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310 BfiOTHHBl EBPOnU. 

ciyaseHHoe ;(BaAi^aTHnflTHJÍTÍe. Híhto noAOÓHoe xanofi cnpaseAJiHBoft 
npeAycHorpHTeJBHOCTH o HenepeyxoHJieHiH HeyiitpeHHOK) yMCTBeHHOK) 
paÓOTOK) JiH)Ae&, saHHMaiomHXCfl HajKaiiH, hosho, noisaiyfi, hexoahtl 

H Bl AyXOBHHXl aREAeMiflXl OTHOCHTeJIbHO ^po4>eCCOpOB^ H3% JIHI](1^ 

MOHamecTByH)ii^Hxi. Tanie npo^eccopa ^epesi nsTHawaTb, ABamaTB 
:iÍTBy a HHorAa h pasBine, nojyqaiorB M^cra peRiopoBi ceMHHapifi hjh 
asa^enifi, a jt&tb ^epesi 25, a HHorAa h paHbme, apxíepeficRÚi 
BaeeApu. ^se iri^o peBTopa sHaqffrejBHO OTEJtesaeri nejiOB^Ba 
orb Heyif^peHEofi yMCTBeHHOfi pa5oTii, Boaiaraa na Hero iiHOsecTBO 
pa3HootípadHux'b oCasaHEOcref, Koropuji nacro ne HBf£H)TB HHKasoro 
OTHomemfl ri yHCTBeHHOHy Tpy^y h cocTaBJiflH)rb CRopbe otaoxi, 
^íbwb saHflTÍe. A Rpoiii xoro, peRxopi, no BiiÓopy, HOserE bsati^ 
AJfl saHflTÍfi TaRofi H3% ÓorocJOBCRHxi npexHeroBi, ROTopnft eiiy 
no fiynrb h no BRycy, Moseri orpaHHHHTb npenoxasame b% Rjac- 
carB TaRHiťB ROuiecTBOMi lacoBi, RaRoe HatAeri y^o^EHMi ajs 
coBM^n^eHÍJi ch xpyrHMH CBOHMH oÓflsaHHocTflMH^ a vb cjiyna^ 
ycMorpiHHofi HMTi HaAotíHocTH — H02KeTB, CB coB3BOJieHÍfl ifkTrHaro 
apxiepefl, h cobcími OTRasaTBCfl on npeno^aBanifl. Ror^a se no- 
HainecTByH)ii^fi upo^eccopi A^aeica apxiepeem, ohi ae o6fl3Bi- 
Baercfl t^mi caHuiii hh kl RaROMy HanpflxeHHOHy h qK)HHOHy 
yMCTBeHHOMy xpy^y. Otb ^pesMi^pnaro yifCTBeHHaro HanpjiseHifi 
ero y^epsEBaiOTB h nocxoflHHo OTBJíeRaiOTB ero npaiiufl oÓasaH- 

HOCTH, B Vb 0C06eHH0CTH MHOFOCJIOKHUfl OtfflBaHHOCTff ynpaBJíeHiii 

BBipeHHOH/ eny enapxieH) n coexHHeHHUfl cb othitb padJiH^Hiis 
iiHCBHeHHtifl H jiaqHUfl CHomeHÍfl Cb ÓesHHCJreHHiiirB iisosecTBOM%> 
jnjsb paBHux'B sBaHÍfi h cocroflEÍft. Bce aio Tpe($yerB xaRse hb- 

B^HIIXI BaÓOTB H pa3M£lIIUeHÍftf HO HO yTOMJIfllOII^HXX, a upB 

oÓesneHeHHOiTB MaiepiajBHOirB j^oboactbí, npa canocroflTejiBHOiťB^ 
HesaBHCHMOirB H Aase BjiacTHOirB noiosemn — CRopibe pasHOoCpa* 

BfllI^HX^B SH8HB H, CI^AOBaTeJIBHO, AOCTaBJfllDII^HXl HSBtCTByH) AOJK^ 

caiioyAOBJíeTBopeHifl. 

GoBC&iTb HHoe nojioaseHie xpynixi npo^^eccopoBi vb aRaxeiiiH; 

VJLT^ ynaCTB — tíUTB nOCTOflUHO Vb SaBHCHMOBTB nOJI02ReHÍH, CROJIBRO 

6u OHH jňTb HH ciysHjm, OTB qacTO nepeMŠii^aH)n^Hxca nanaiB- 
HHROBi, h6o ntoTO poRTopa aRaxeiÓH, saHHMaeiioe o6uRHOBeHHO mo- 
HamecTByion^HMH jHi](aMH, octb ji,jiíl nocrbABHXi ae 6oxle RaR%. 
RpaTROBpeneHHafl nepexo^Haa CTynenB na apxiepeficRyio Raee^py; 
Bi HanajiBHHRH HHorxa uomLjífijOTb ik>ah h ho oco6eHHO jia- 
pofiHTue, H He ocoóeHHO 6oraT£ie sHaniaMH, a ecjH npo^[»ec* 
copi ciysHTB AOJm>, to, no npHxoTH cjaiÓu^ nonaAaH>Tca HHorji^a 
Bi ero Ha^aiBHHRH ^ase h ne jynnrie hsi ero fiuBniHxi cjiyma- 



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H31 AAJTBKArO UPOIIUIArO. 311 

Teieft, — JH)AH pasHHXi xapaBrepoBi h TeMnepaneHTOB^, sHorAa ne 
oeo6eHHO& MflrBOCTH. A uu beaíjh, ?to pesTopx, no ceoeMy 
ycMOTpiHÍK) HJiH BaiipH3y, MOPB j opoj^eccopa OTHflTb KaeeApy, 
soTopyH) OHI 3aHHMaji éojiie a^cath járh, n nepeseciH ero Ha 
Jípyryro — no npeAMexy, eMy coBd&irB HeHSBferrHOMy. 

9to o;ího, a boto h flpyroe. IIpeAnojiosHBrB, hto laKOMy bíh- 
HOMy TpyseHHRy, nperoBopenHOMy cyAi»($OH) na caiiyK) xasKyio, 
xasAOAHeBHyio paspymHTejiBHyio paÓOTy, 6e8i BCflKaro npocsÍTa 
BoepeAH, ($63% BCflEoft HaAesAU na saBoe-HHÓyAB ABHsenie BnepeA'B, 
spoiri^ ABHseHifl no Ta6ejiH o paH^áxi, noBesjo, saRi Hameny 
Hnaný .SBOBJíeBHHy. Oni nepeaurjii foabi xaseiofi saBHCHHOCTH, 

CHaCTJIHBO H36toaBX HenpÚITH£lX'B CTOJEHOBemfi CB pasHUMH Ha- 

ítuBHHKaMHy— a y nero úujívl BCflEÍe, e HisoTopue A&J^eBO ne jih)- 
(SesHHe, — HTb rpbxB, TaoTB. Y nero, npaBAa, HanajiBHHBi aBa^enÍH 
6hji'b ero TOBapHuiiB, ÓJiHBKÍfi ero Apyrs h npiflTejiB; caiii onx cbohmh 
co^iHBeHiflMn cos^aii ee6i HSB^CTHoe ema h hírotopumi oÓpasoMi 
sasoesajiTB cefíib cbok) saeeApy, Tasí ^to ecjiEtfu saBTpa abejica h 
iaso&*HH6yAB noBufi, A^se o^eHb „upasnuS^ pesTopi, to h totb ne 
plniHjiCH 6u no csoeny ycMOTp^HÍio crojiBHyTB ero Cb dTofi RaeeApu. 
Ho saTO OHi» nojiosHjiT) na npiotfptxeHÍe noAO(5HOfi HesaBECEMOCXE 37 
Arb HenpepuBHaro TflaiBaro yMCTBeHHaro xpyAa, orb BOToparo cxb- 
ďajcfl coBCÍM'b nojiypaspymeHHBiMB HejiOB^soHi; eny 6ujio 6u h 
OTAOXHyrb nopa. ByAb osrb b% yanBepcHTert, ohi a&bho no- 
iynarb 6u noBumennoe saJiOBaHbe. ^a npETOirb, bi BEAy ero 
^HsnaHHaro nojiesHUMi ajisl yHetínbix^b saBeAeHÍtt xpyAa e b^ 
BHAy ero crpacrnaro sejiania npoAOJimaTb sTorb nojesnutt TpyAX^ 
se noauLs^E 6u AftTb e aRcrpaopAEHapHUfl cpeACTBa am coxpa* 
Henifl ero sAopOBbE n seshh. A lyrb neJOB^Ri cjiysEjrb 37 jrbvby 
BSfh cEJTb BHÓEJicfl — B HOJiyHajiB TO se caifoe sajioBaHbe. CEjrb 
npesHExi AftBHO yse nlrb, a yfiTE nejibsfl: yfiAH owh saBTpa, 
OHI BirlcTO 3.000 p. nojiyHEjrb 6u nencifo Bcero 700 p. A y 
Hero na pyRax'b 9 qejiOB^Rx. nojosenie tfesBu^^OAHoe e eABa 
jn cnpaBOAiHBoe! KaRi! cjiysEjrb qe^fOB^RB, RaRi roBopETca, 
B^t-npaBAot, HO n^aAHJrb CBoero BAopoBbE, ciajcb pasBajiEHoft, h 
BApyrb eny roBoparb: yMEpaft cz nepoMz ez pynaxb^ eje tu nps 

ZI8HE yBEAEHIb, RaR% CeMbfl TBOE tíyAeTb 6%ACTB0BaTb. 

Ho OWb He XOT^JTb BEA^Tb CBOefl CeMbE Bl 6%ACTBÍEy B Hanpfl- 

raib oeraTORi crapqecREXB ceíli, npoAOjacaa patíoTaTb. Pa($o- 
TEJti roA'b... paÓOTajTb ABa, Bce vh naAOiRA^, hto botb... botb... 
yBEAflTB E BafiAyTB cpeACTBa, qTO($£i bhojihš ero oCesneqETB h 
A«rb CMy OTAOXHyTB. ŮponiejrB en^e roAB — h e^^e toab. A nenciE 



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312 nCTBDKRB BBPOmi. 

FB 700 p. Bce ocraercfl o^na r Ta se. Ona xaR^ x^mobjiobi 
MeTB BHcíjia ufiKb ero mhcjbk) h rnajia CHOBa na pa^ory. GrapHB^B 
onflTB 6epeTCfl sa nepo, ho chxe 6ojiBine h^tb, nepo caiio Bajnrrcji 
H3X pyKi, — H offB yMHpaeTB... 

3AtcB H fl uaAy CBoe nepo h juojomo. SI Henory npexcra- 
BHTB ce6^ HT0(5ii laRoft jH)6fliitift H cepAe^iHiift ^ejiOBÍbisi, icaKx 
noBoftHuft IlBaHi flROBJíeBHTB IIop^HpBeBi, yMepi CB jq[»yrraiH cio- 
BaMHy a ne co ciOBaicH o6iqaro Bcenpon^eHifl h jih)6bh. He xony 
H fl cbohmh Banos^ajniMH c^TOBaHÍaMH HapymaTB rapMOHÍH MHpa, 
BaBin^aHHoft hitb na ero Morfuri^. 

FpHropift Ejihoeebi. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HOBHfl HCTOPHKT) 

COBPEMEHHOa ÍPAHIÍIH 



H. Tame^ Les orígines de la France oontemporaine. Le régime moderně. 

Tome I. Paris, 1891. 



IlflTHajmaTb jňrh TOM7 usíSd^A^j npHcrynafl ri HsyqeHÍK) hcto- 
piniecKiixi ocHOBi ccnpeMenHoft ^pani^ÍH, HnnojiHTB Ťewh oiŠAyH)- 
JBflWh oÓpasoiTB oiipex'J^HjrB cbo& MeTOA'B ^ CBOH) 3aAa^y{ „s no- 
cr^MUDCB moHHO onucamh crapuft nopa^ORi, peBOJiH)ipH) h HOBoe 
ycrpoftcTBO ^paHiÓH. HmsaRoft Apyrofi jslbm a He npecjit^yia. Hcto- 
pincy nosBOJHteibHO AMcTBOsaTb no o6pa3i^ ecrecTBOHcnuTaTejifl. 
S (m9U)CHMs K^ Moeů meMfh^ Kam naniypoAUcmh omnocumcH m 
MemoMcp^osfb nacmcoMCM. Co<$eitú[ takl HerepecHH, ^to caMB no 
telĚfb 8acJiysHBaH>TB natíjnoxeniji; ne nysno xasie ycoiia, hto6£i 
paacMaTpHBaib exi 6en sa^neft mucjih. CeoCodnoe Oím np^esH- 
MMO ffbweniHy Aiodmumcmeo npuHUMoemz HajfHHUů xapanmeph 
H coq)eAOTo^BBaeTca Bceic&io na nsy^eHin ciui, ynpasjíflion^Hxi 
yjPffiffrenHHMi nepeBoporoiTB''. TaROBU 6sjra naMwpenxR Tena — ho 
Re laRHMi ORasaiocB ucnoAuenie, Majo nafixercfl coHHHemň, vh 
ROTopiix^ aBTop^B yRjioHHJCii 6u TaR^ AueRO on CBoero nepBO- 
HimnHaro saMucjia. Yse b% nepBOirB xoirl, roBopa o AO-peBOjno- 
qioRHot ^pampn, Tewh ne Bcer^a ocraercfl cnoRofiniurb HRÓjno-* 
xaTejieiTB, Óescrpacmo hjh xota 6u tojbro ÓednpHcrpacTHO HBJía- 
TW^HirB pesyjBTaTB cbohx^ HaÓJUDAenifi. Kepeft^fl ri peBOJIK>^í^y 
OHI oROH^aTeiiBno uinaerb pojiB „HaTypajiHcra* na pojiB cyABH 
m oÓBHHHTejM — oÓBHHHTejiH sanajiBHBBaro h oxnocToponnaro. Oh*b 
iM^nmeTL, rpoMHTB, pasHOCETB, Bce Óoxbme h tfo^iBme osecroiaflCBy 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



314 raCTHHBl EBPOnH. 

Bce MeHLme h aieHBme cr&CHflflCB bi Bu6op^ BEipasenifi. Ockoji- 
BaMH ero re^Ba nopasaioTCfl y^eacA^HÍfl, rpynnu jiio^eft, ota^b- 

Htifl JIH^a. ^BOJTOBM H BOHJIh" — BOTl, HO QVO CIOBEITB, CO^ep- 

manie BasH^finiHxi sac^AftBÍfi ynpeAHTejiBHaro co6paHÍfl; cmpaaz — 
OAHHi HB^b rjaBHuxi ABHraTeiefi co6paHÍfl, nepasyMie-- OTJumuTejíb'' 
Has nepra ero pšmeflift. SaKOHO^aTejibHoe co6paHÍe — bto „c6opini;e 
yifOBi orpaHH^eHHuxi, ToponjiHBiJxi, Hani]ii]ieHH£ix'b h CJiafitixt, 
^a6pHBa rjiynocTefi, niROJia qy^anecrei h AeK^anai^iH, sojLsesi^ifl 
HHHero He pasMajiuBaioii^HXx c^iOBecHuxi iiejibHHi^i^. Hsi 750 njie- 
Eowb ROHBeHTa y mecTHCort-naTHAecaTH „cobíctb h yiTB HSBpa* 
menu TOJihRO Ha noflOSHHy" (y ocrajiBHUXi — HSBpan^eHÍe noJHoe 
H tíesycjOBHoe). Gtojib p^RÍe, pinrarejBESie npHroBopBi nocraHOB- 
jiflK)TCfl, oneBHAHO. noA^B BJiiflHieMi oómfii ujifiBy ApyrniíH ciosaMH — 
noA'B BjiflmeHi* „npeAB3flT0& mucjh", otb Boropofl Ten^B, b'b npe^H- 
cjiobíh bx „GrapoMy nopa^By^, xaBx ycepAHO saaBjífljix ce6fl cbo- 
tfoAHHMi. H A^CTBHTejiBHO, yse Bi noei^AHeMx (TpexBeirB) tomí 
9PeB0wIH)^iH'' axa H^ea, dxa npeABSflxaflMiicjiB BucrynaerB Haa^eHy 

COBepmeHHO jícho H OTBpUTO. MHHMUfi „HaTypaJIHCTB'' flBJIfleXCfl BJlikCh, 

no BpeMenaMi, ^aate ne hctopheoitb, a nyÓJiHííHCTOMi— nytfMi^CTOirB- 
AOBTpHHepoiTB, HpHBepseHi^eifB onpeA^eHHofi nojiHTHHecBoft h nojiH- 
THBO-dBOHOMHHecBofi TeopÍH. ^ďBOÓHHCBot oporpaMifl'' TeH'B npo- 
THBonocraBjflerB cboh>, ao BpaftnocTH orpaHHnHBaH)ntyH) RpyrB A^ft- 
CTBÍi rocyAapcTBeHHofi BJiacxH. Oxpana BHŠnmeft h BnyrpeHneft 
ÓesonacHOCTH — botb, cb tohrh splnifl Tena, eAHHCTBeHnafl sason- 
Hafl otfjracTB, eAHHCTBenHoe npHSBame rocy^apcTBa. Focy^apcTBO — 
BTO CToposeBafl co6aBa; pacmepETB ero BOirnereHi^iH) Aft^nie ecre- 
CTBeHHoft en rpanai^u — sHaHHTB npeBpaTHTB ero vh BOJBa. 3to Hnij- 
me ne HOBO; OHO Hifkio h nifteri san^HTHHROBi. TeHB e^na jth 
HTO-jratío Bi Heny npH6aBHjrB, e^Ba jh bx^ neiTB-jnÓo yrjiytfHJTB 
num yBp^HHjii ero ochobbí. CBople hosho CBasaTB, iro oho yiia- 
jsEJio Tena, boho^ho — toibbo bi toitb, vh hoitb oh'b noAHHHHJCfl 
ero BjacTH. IIoBTopflfl, ne (Jesi BHŠmHflro dj^^eBxa, ho 6esT> 6ojib- 
mofi y6'lAHTej[BH0fi chjiu, aoboabi TaBx-nasuBaeMoft HaH^ecrepcRoft 
niBOJni, Tenx cjHmBoirB qacro cranoBETCfl a^BOBaiOMi — h nperoirB, 
HHOFAa, aABOBaToiTB HenpaBt^ro A^a. Bcero tíojBme 8to sanílTHO 

HlfeHHO Vh HOBOMl, TOJÍBBO^^TO BUmeAHieirB 0TA^1% ero BHHFH, 

noTOMy qxo owh conpHBacaeTca sa^b cb coBpeMeuHOCTBK), cl es 
napTÍfliiH, ci ea sryquMH BonpocaííH. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HOBSlfi HCTOPESl. 315 



I. 



EABHCTBeHHbift BtuneAmiň jno chxi nopx tomi „Hoaaro no- 
pflABa'' pacnaAaercfl na ab^ lacTH: o^ea coAepsHTB bi ce6^ nop- 
Tpen HanoieoHa I, Apyraa — xapaRTepHCTHBy cosAaHHaro hmi crpoa. 
Hu HaHHeirB cb nocs'6AHeft, noiOMy hto ba^cb OTpasHjacB Bcero 
ap^e ysasaHHafl eaMH oco5eHHOCTB aBxopa. „Bi qeifi Basjuooraercfl, — 
aqmnraBaex^ ceóa TeHi,— rjasnafl yciyra, ORasuBaeuafl oÓn^ecxBy 
rocyAspcTBeHHOK) BJiacTBio?^ Orvbn ea btoti Bonpoci eaiTB yse 
H3BÍbcTeH%. ,OxpaHeBÍe otfn^ecTBa otb BH^moBxi BparoBi, HJie- 
HOBX odn^ecTBa — Apyn> orBApyra" — botb, Birjasaxi Tena, buc- 
mee h uoím eAHHCXBeHHoe HasHaneHie rocy^apcTBa* Bcasafl aíř- 
ciB^jomfis dua noA^HHeHa oj^HOMy ocHOBHOMy saKony: vbwb Jiymne 
ona npHcnocoCjieHa b'b onpeA']^JeHHOMy a*^? t^mi HeHBme oea 
roABa AJíSL BaEott 6u to hh 6uxo Apyroft paÓOTu. mwb coBepmeH- 
flie HexaHHBxi, rbwb orpaHHHeHHte c^epa ero npHMifleHÍfl. dra 
^pMyjia, nepBOHanajiBHO BucraBJíeHHafl A^aMOMii Ciihtoicb, pacnpo- 
crpaHeHHafl MasojieeiTB, MteJHi-dABapACOMi, TepCepTOirB Cnence- 
poiTB, HJiJiiocTpHpyeTCfl y Tena i^-íjiumí paaomi npHirlpoBi — h, fb 
KOHi^ EOHAOBi, noA'B Hce noABOAHTOi H rocyAapcTBO. PacmHpeHie 
o&iaGTH rocyAapcTBeHHapo BMi^maxeJiBCTBa ofiiflBjfleiCfl necoBictcT- 
HHirB CB npaBHJiBHHirB HcnojiHeHieirB oáflsaHHOcreft, cocraBJUflioiiiHx^B 
HenocpeACTBeHHyH), HacrofliniyH) saAany rocyA&pcTBeHHofi Eiacre. 
no OTHomeHiK) B% i^epBBH, B% BOcnaTaiejKBBUMX H 6jiaroTBopn- 
TeiBHuicB y^pesAemfliTB, no OTHomeniio B!b nayBi, ncByccTBy h 
npoMunueBHOCTH^ no OTBomenÍH) bi npoBHBi^iflHi, o6n]inBaM'B h 
ceMbflifB, rocyAapcTBy noAOÓaerB tojibbo oaho: naÓJiioAaTB, ^to(5ii 
ynpaBJuion^íji hmh npaBHja ne npoTBBopi^HJin ocnoBnuirb. i^- 
Jim rocyAapcTBeBBaro oÓmfimETisi h scnojBHJBCB 6e8^ napy* 
meflifl npaBi, Boiiy-JiBÓo npenaA^esan^axii. KaB^B tojibbo rocy- 
xapcTBo BiixoABTB 8a npeA'6^iu 9to& pojn, obo HAen vh pas* 
ptei ci CBoeK) BasEriftnieio otfasaBBOCTBH) n* HEiflercfl nJ0XHH'B 
KcnosHBTejieiiťB Ao6aBOHBOfi paÓOTu. Bmícto xoro, qxo^u o6e3- 
DeHBBaTB CBotioAy ^acTBoft A^TejBBOCTH, Oflo orpaBBqHBaeTB ee 
UH HacajBCTBeBBO BanpaBJífleTB ee Bib saBABaBnuMi e& i^íjiaitb; 
wbcto Toro, HTo6u Tpe6oBaTB otb ota&ibbuxi Jimsh tojbbo bo- 
o6xoAHMaro — neotíxoAHMaro bi BHAaxx cyn^ecxBOBaBÍfl rocyAapcTBa, 
~OBo BUBys^erB bxi bi noseprBOBaBiflMii, bbh^itb ne BUStiBae- 
MHiTB B Be oňpaBAUBaeHBíMi. OBApyrofi cropoBu, yBejiBíHBi, 6e8^ 
HaAo6H0CTH, HHcao CBOflxi saAani, rocyAftpcTBO bjih nepecraerB 

aaSBliaTBCfl BÍBOTOPHMB Bd*B BEXX, KBlVB CflBmEOlfB TpyAHUMB H 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



316 BftCTHHSl EBPOmi. 

CJHmsOHi Aoporo ctoioii^hhh, h;ih nsepan^aerL hxi xapaKreiTB, 
dKCiuyaTBpyfl hxi bi cmucjiÍ OAHOcropoHHeft leopÍH hih ysKO- 
noHflTaro rocyxapcTBeHHaro HHiepeca, hjih, bi jiyqmeMi> ciyuš, 
copaBJfleTCfl CB hamb Boe-KaK%, ney^a^HO h Heyiitio. Y Hero h^tb 
rbxi Moryn^ecTBeHHoxi ABHraTejteft, no^i Bjiflmeifb BóTopfiix'^ 
;(McTByK>rB qacTHUJi oÓn^ecTBa h qacTHUfl jini^a: Mtonaro naipio- 
THSMa, j[H)6bh Kh ÓmxBBWb, pejroríosHuxi B^poBamfi, Hay^Hoft 
jK>6o8HaTejibHOCTH. B:b ero npieMaxi ciHinsoMi mhofo nexanH^e- 
csarO; pyTHHHaro, ee iipHcnocotfjiflH)ii^arocfl bi oÓCTOArejibCTBairL. 
BoTB no^eify rocyxapcTBO flSJífleTCfl HHsyAa HeroxHEiMi npÓMuni- 
jieHHHBOifb, Byni^oiTb h seMjeA^bi^eiťB, AypHHMi peryjuropOM^B 
npoBSBOACTBa, M^Hii H noTpe6jieHÍfl, noq[)eACTBeHHiiirB axHHHHcrpa- 
TopoMi> npoBHHi^iH H o6ii^HHEi, BepasCopTOBHiTB j^iuaHTponoirb , He- 
soMnereHTHEiirB pyBOBOAnTejreirB i^epBBH h BOcnHraHU, HCByccTBi 
H HayBH. Ero o(5pa3*L a'^&ctbí&, bo Bcbsi> dnixi c^paxi, iiej^JiH* 
TeJieHi HJiB HeyKinosi, nopuBHCTi fum bajtl; j)bi> Aoporo ctohtl 

H MaJIO npHHOCHT-B, IipOXO^fl MHMO HCTHHHHXl HySX'B HaC&ieHÚl. 

Ero npo^yBTH — h^^to b^ poffi boctiomobx, cniHTtixi 6esi> npH- 
MŤpBH H oÓflsaTaiBHO HanfljHBaeMEixi na JuojfiŘ canaro pasjíEHHaro 
pocra, Bi caMyH) paaiHqHyio noro^y. A Mesxy tíhi, no vbpb 
pacnpocTpáHemfl rocyxapcTBeHHoft ^'^TejLHOcra, ciBÚ^evh qacTHafl 
H oÓn^ecTBeHHas HHHi](iaTHBa. Cyifica norepH csaraercfl ne toabo 
H9i Bcero TorOy Trb ne AOA^^ano hjh Hcnopneno rocy^apcTBOirB, ho 
H mi> Bcero Toro, wrh ocraercfl necjsjbJLHEBuwh Bopnopai^iflicH, otfn^e- 
CTBaHH, rpynnaHH BCAsaro po^ia, otaíjbhumii Jnii^aMH. 

nocMOTpHirb TenepB, BaBi iipHM'&HfleTC2 8Ta oón^as Hcxo^nafl 
TO^Ba Bi H'lBOTopuM^ OTA^BHiiiTb BonpocaMi, 3aHHMaK)mHirB TeHa. 
Otfn^HHa (cejiBCBafl hjb ropoACsas), xenapTaMeHTB, npoBHHi^ifl co- 
craBJífliorB, vb rjiasaxi Hamero asropa, o6ii;ecTBa oco6aro poxa^ 
cyn^ecTBeHHO (nm^Eusí otb rocy^apcTBa. Hxi saxa^H, rpaHHi^ii, 
cocraBi, ycrpoftcTBO — Bce 3to, coÓcTBeHHO roBopa, sapanše iipe;í- 
plmeHO MihcmHUMz iix% xapaBxepoirB, BsaHHHOio (Iihsogtbk) hxi 
uenoBi^. ^.To6u y6%AHTBCfl bt> btoitb, Bcero jyqme pascHOip^TB, 
um ^Hcia OAHopoAHEixi ejíjmEJi^hy HamfenBinyio, xaBi BaBi HMeHHO 
vb HeĚ HaHÓojrie 6jih3Bh nesAy co6ok) bíA cocraBHUfl ^acra. 3a 
TaByK) e^HEHi^y TeFB npHHHMaerB aomi, cocTOfln^ifi bi otin^eiTE 

6JiaA%HÍII HÍCBOJIBBHXI C06CTBeHHHB0B1&. OAHOMy H8% HHX'B — BaiTE 

STO ^acTO BCTpi^aercfl wh H)rO'3anaAHiix'B ropo^axi $paHi^H (naiip., 
B^ ÁHHecB, wb rpeHotfjí) — npHHaAJeaHTB oíHffB BxaaB^B, ApyroMy— 
Xpyrofi, xperBCMy — norpefii hjih qepxaBi; 6uB9L&rb h TaB^B, hto 
BTO-jra5o Hsi co6cTBeHHEBOBi BJia^^eTB TOJíBBO HacTBK) dxaaui, RasB- 

XUfi COÓCTBeHHHBIb Bl npBBŠ SaJIOSHTB, IIpO^aiB, SaBtn^aTB CBOH) 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HOBUft HCT07HBI. 317 

iaen>; ho Kor^a Exen p^hb o noAAepsaHÍH HapysHuxi ct^hi h 

SpumH, BCi C06CTBeHHHBH COCTaBJÍflIOTl OjlHO cojiBxapHoe i]c&ioe. 

OrciOAa ABCTByerB, hto BnojrH'^ cboóoahumi o^pasyenoe hhh TOBapHn^e* 
CTBO npHSHaxb HejiB3fl. CoxpaHflTb HenpHBOCHOBeHHOCTb AOMa, mi' 

HHTb CT^Hy H RpiimU OHH BC% 06fl8aHH. OcB060AHTBCfl OTB COUpfl- 

seHHuxi cb dmwh H3AepseK'B ohh ne MoryrB Aftse no ÓojibniHH- 
CTBy rojocoBi; eboÓxoabuus. nonpaBKH otfasaTejiBHEi} xota tfii Hxob 
Tp^Baji TOJiBBo OAHHi H31 coBJíax^&sBi^eBX. Bb cjryHa']^ cnopa^ 
CTOHMOCTB nonpaBOBi BtiCTOTUBaerca dscnepxoHi, onpex^flercfl cy- 
XOiTB H paasaraercfl Mea&Ay coBJíax^bi^anH, copa8M'ipHo ci i;'&H'- 
HOCTBK) npHHaAJiesaii^eft Bas^OMy ao^h. ^ajiBine dxoro otfflsaTeJiB- 
CTBa coBjia;(&iBi(eB% ee npocTHpaiOTCfl; hhbto ne Moserx sacraBHTB 
Hxii OTBecTH OAHy ROMHaxy noA^B ^acoBHK), fn> ROiopofi 6hL mojh* 
jiHCB otiHTaiejiii AOMa, Apyryio — no^i (ojBHHi^y, bi» Roiopoft 6u 
OBH JeHHJHCB, XpOTblO — DO^^B niBOJiy, fPh BOTopoft 6u o6y^ajiHCB 
HX% flibTR. BtiTB MOserB, Bj[aA^eA'B oahofo orasa He-xpHCiiaHHHB, 
BMSkjs!bjíeni> Apyroro — HMŠerB csoero AonamHAro AOBTopa, Bj[aA'&sei^'B 
Tpei'Bflro — (SesAiTOffB; sa^Mi Ke nepBony — ^acoBHfl, BTopoMy — 
ÓoJiBHHita, TpeTBeMy — niBOJia?.. GocraBJíflfl ^acTHyio co6cTBeHHOCTB, 

XOITB, pa3CMaTpHBaeMHÍ& TeHOHl^ HO COCTOHTB H HO JkOJL^eWL CO- 

CTOflTB Bi B^AeHÍH rocy^apcTBeoHoft BJiacTH; ero BJiaA£ju>i](Bi ne ea- 
xoAflTCfl iiOA'B oneBofi rocy^apcrsa h ne csyssaTB areHTaHH npaBH- 
TeJBCTBa. TaBHMi se tohho, no mhíhíio Tena, aojisho Óutb nojio- 
senie bcíxb xpynixi Mfbcmuuxh oOt^ecmez (sociétés locales), na- 
Hfraafl Cb otfn^HHHí h OBaHHHBaa npoBnni^ieft. SaBonnu h jifiujcmuu 
Bji^ TOJiBBO rb OTcrynjeHifl otb ochobhofo inna, Boropufl otfy- 
CJiOBJiHBaiOTCfl npocrpaHCTBOMB A^ficTBÍfl o6n^ecTBa h ^hcjomi ero 

yHaCTHHBOB^. 

EcTB fijA BaTeropia HHrepecoBB, o^nnaBOBO Basnuxx ajisí 
wbTh uenoBB oÓn^ecTBa h BusuBaion^Hxi, noaroMy, oGasaTejB- 
Hoe npHBďe^eme hxb bi> oÓo^hmi pacxoAaurB. IlepBafl Baxero- 
píii — 9T0 Bce OTHOcan^eecfl kb nyrflMi coo6n^eHÍfl (upOBe^enie n 
no5iHHBa Aopop; Banajiu, nunosu, BOAOcroHHUfl ipyóu, moctu, ipo- 
Tyapu, Momeme z ocB^n^eme yjini^i, h t. n.); BTopafl Baieropifl — 
Bce OTBOcan^eecfl b'b san^HTŽ otb o6iitecTBeHHHX'B 6tACTBÍft (nosa- 
poBB, HaBOAneHÍft, dnnAeMÍft, dnasoorifi h t. n.). BesB nyreft co- 
oÓn^eHÚi AepeBHfl hjib ropoA^B cranoBATCfl HeoÓHraeMBiMH — 6ojrbe ne* 
o5iiTaeMUMH, ifbith aou%, ípl BoropoMi npoxeBaeTB Bpuma. Besi 
nJipB npeAocToposHOCTH npoTHBi oÓn^ecTBeHHBixi 6tACTBÍfi ropoAy 
MJa AopeBHi jrpoasaeTB cepBesnaii onacnocTB— tfoj^ cepBesnaa, 
"V&cB Ta, BOTopoft noABepraercfl aomi* cb xpen^Hnami bb napym- 
0iix'B crínaxB. Rone^HO, BCflBÍfi Hosen ocyAHTB caMoro ce6fl na 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



318 raOTHBDKB EBPOim. 

HenoABHSHOCTB, Ha CMepTB OTi rojioAa, boah, orsa, sijifiBíĚTiixi> 
HcnapeHÍfi — ho hhbto ne wh npae^ npacysMTB k-b tomj xpjvwťhj 
HHBTO He B'B HpaB^ jBJíOHflTBCfl orB y^acTÍfl vb pacxoAt^ nojres- 
HOMi, Mesxy Hpo^HirB, E jifisi Hero eaHOro. ^.T0 KacaeTca jífi jiosm 
ynacTÍfl vb pacxOAaxi, to ona AOJSHa 6utb crporo ^po^op^io- 
naJiBHa nojiyqaeMHMi yciyraM'B (il fant que, poar chaque membre, 
les charges compensent exactement les avantages). 06t BaTeropie 
Heo6xoAHM£ixi pacxoAOBi, yRasaHHUfl Bume, yjyHniaK>TB, Ch oxnofi 
CTopoHU, nojoseHÍe jhiíi, Cb Apyroft — nojioseme Ben^ett. Ol nep- 
Boft ToqRH splHÚi wbrb HHKaRofi pasHHi^ii Mesxy 6oraTEurB h 6^A' 
Euwb; yjiHi^aMH, AoporaMH, ifocraiiH, BOAoapoBOAaMH, ocBŠn^eHieMi, 
nyÓJiHqHUMH ca^aMH, ó^bjkEui nojuBsyercfl ne MeHBme 6oraTaro, a 
MOserB 6eitb, Aase h 6ojiBme. OAHHaROBuirB, nodTOiiy, ^ojltrbo 
(5iiJio 6u tfuTB H o6jioseHÍe Goraruxi n 6'bxnux'h, ecinón H^e bto- 
pafl Toua sp^HÍJí. yjiy^menifl, bhochmuh bi nojoseme Benzen, 
hoiAe HyBCTBBTesBHti, Óojiie itÍhhbi a^jul jiiOAeft AOcraio^Hiixib, ^itb 
AJia CiAHflKOBX — a AJa (Jora^efi en^e HyBCXBHTejiBHte, eme i^nnie. 
O^jer^aa c6iitb h AOcraBsy lOBapoBx, noAHHMaa ctohmoctb seMiH, 
yBOJiHHHBafl yAOÓCTBa shshii, ohh 0T3iiBaK)TCfl Bi> oco6eHHOCTH 6iraro- 
npiflTHO na npoMEimjieHHHBaxi, Byni](axi, BpynHBix'B seMJieBJíaA^JB' 
ufix^j BanHTajracraxii. OiciOAa Heo6xoAiiMOCTB AByxi c5opoBi>: OAHoro 
— paBHaro wa bcíxx HjieHOBx ^irfecrflaro oÓmecTBa*", Apyroro — 
nponopi^iOHajiBHaro hojibsš, AOcraBjfleMOft „oÓn^ecTBOMi" Bas^OMy 
OTA^JiiHOMy CBOeMy «eHy. 

TaBHH^ o5pa80irB onpeA^aeMoe h noHHHaeHoe, „iftcTHoe oCn^e- 
CTBO^ ABJífleTCfl ne wbwb hhumi, saBi lopHAH^iecBHafB, rpasAftH* 
CBHM^B jHi^oMi, HacTHoll BOMHaHÍefi, qacTHuifB CHHAHBaToiťB (syndí- 
cat přivé). 61 ero ÓJiarococroflHÍH rocy^apcTBO saHniepecoBano ne 
6ojiBme, HiifB coBOBynHOCTB Bctxx ^paHi^ysoBi — vb SAopoBB^ BaBoro- 
.SH^o OTAi^BHaro j^paHi^ysa. OiHomeHie rocyAapcTBa bi „id^cTHOMy 
oÓn^ecTBy" hh^mi ho aojisho OTJH^aTBCfl otb OTHomeHÚi rocyA^- 
CTBa m» HacTHOMy jihi^; npaBO Ha BMŠmaTOJiBCTBO bi ofioHxi ciy- 
qaflX'B OAHO H TO se, OAHHaBOBUMH AOJiSHU 5bitb h ero npeA^Bi. 
EóJiBmafl cjioshoctb coeraBa BJie^erb 8a co6ok), OAHaBO, ffbcBOJBBO 
(SbiiBniyH) cjioa&HOCTB ^yHBi^ifi. FocyAapcTBO, no OTHomeniH) B'b m^ct- 
HOMy oÓqecTBy, aojisho oxpanfiTB ne tojibbo ynpaBjaeHEixi otb 
ynpaBHTejiefi e ynpaBHTejeft oti ynpaBJífleMuxi, ho h o6n^ecTBO, 
BaBi HOCTOflHHoe i^tjioe, OTB BpeMeHHQxi ero ynojHOMOHenHiixi. 
FocyAapcTBO aojisho onpeA'i^flTB oprannsai^iio oÓn^ecTBa, cnoco($% 
daB^A^Banifl ero A^aMH, Mšpy oÓflsaHHOcrefi h nparB BasAaro ero 
^ena. Bce 9to ne JierBo h ne npocro, ho Bce dro ne M^maerB 
„HŠCTHOMy oóíoficm^^^ OAHasAu ycraHOBJíeHHOHy, 6íitb ctojib se 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HOBtifi HCTOPHKX. 319 

OTJormuwb h HesaBHCHMtmi on rocyA&pcTBa, KaEi h jmCoe ^acx- 
fioe jiHi^o. RoHe^HOy ir&CTHUfl oÓn^ecTBa h rocy^apcrsa MoryrL no- 
Moraib Apyn Apyry, saHiíCTBOBaTB ApyrB y Apyra Hcnoj[HHTejie&, 
areHTOBi, wh Bo^axi yneabineHifl ^HCJia ^oJiaiHOCTHBixi jihecb, a 
ciÍAOBaTejiBHO H cyMMU pacxoAOBx. Ťasi Hanpmťlpi, rocy^ap- 
eiBO MOseTB npHfiflTB Ha ce6fl, bm^cto oÓii^hhu ejiii ^enapraMeHTa, 

B3HMaHÍe MtCTHHX'B CÓOpOBX— H, HaOÓOpora, UpeAOCiaBHTt 06mHH- 

HOMy Hjm xenapTaiceHTCBOMy coB^ry pacnpeA'ibjeHÍe rocy^apcTBeH- 

HUXl HaJOrOBl, BHíÓOPHEIHI ^OJiaiHOCTHUMl JIHI^aHl o6mHHU — HCnOJI- 

Heme H'bBOTOp£ixi iipoci;ifiinHX'B npaBHT&sbCTBeHHuxi 4>yHBi^iá. IIo 
AOÚEUB yejiyrH osasuBaiOTCfl rocy^apcTBy KanHiaHaMH Ryne^ecsaro 
KopaÓJfl, aAMHHHcrpaTopaifH HacTHOfi meJvbsEOŘ Aoporn, co^epsaie- 

IflMH MeĎJHpOBaHHHX^ KOMHaTb — HÓ dTHMl HtflfaJÍO He HSM^HfleTCfl 

qacTHHň xapasTepi nacTHiixi npeAnpifliift. Focy^apcTBO ee aojukho 
HH oxpeKaTBCfl OTB CBoeĚ BjiacTH, HH pacmiipflTb ee ^pesi if^bpy. 
Oho BnaAaeTB vb omH6By, Bor^a npeAOcraBJíflerL oCn^HHaMi co($H' 
paTb rocyAapcTBeHHue Hajioni, suÓHpaTB cy^efi hjih nojiai^eftCKiixi 

HHHOBHHROBi; npOTHBOnOJOSHOH), He UBBihe OIHHÓOHHOH) RpafiHOCTbK) 

jianaercfl BMŠmaTejibCTBO rocy^apcTBa b-l saB^AUBaHie oČh^hhhkimi 
fliiyntecTBOiťb, noHysA^HÍe o5n^QHHí bi ycxpoficTBy yneSnux^ hjih 
djiaroTBopHTeibHuxi saBe^eHÍft, npoHSBOJibHoe HadHaneHÍe h ysoib- 
Heme npeAcraBHT&sefi oÓh^hhu. 

Mu BHA&iH yse, hto Tchi npoBOsrjamaeT'^ npiiHi^HHib npo- 
nopiuoHajbHOCTH MesAy nJiaTesoMi h yc^iyraMn. Eny xoT'|j[OCb 6a 
CBecTH aroTi npHHi^Hni ki caiioU npocrtfiniefi ero ^opif^; H^e- 
ajn»Hofi opraHHsai^ied najioroBi, RaKi uicrnux-b, xaRi h rocyAap- 
CTBeHHuxi, owb CHHTajiii 6u Ty, ROTopaa noAXOAHJia 6u Bcero 
&iHse K^B AoroBopy crpaxoBaHÍfl. IIoaoÓho Tony, Raai CTpaxoBaa 
npeidsí noHHsaeTCH hjh pocrerb copasirlpHO cb CTpaxoBOH) cyn- 
Mofi, BOJiHqecTBO ynjiaHBBaeMHxi c5opoBi aojisho 6Ei.to 6u hohh- 

OSaTbCfl HJIH pOCTH COpaSM^pHO Cb HMyED^eCTBOMl HJiaTeJIbn^HRa, uo 

OTHomeniio R^b Roiopony rocy^apcTBO, ^enapiaMeHTi, o6n^HHa ab- 
iflDTCfl H*Mi-TO B-b poA* cxpaxoBuxx o6mecTB^. Cíporoe ocyn^ecT- 
BxeHÍe dTOfi ^opHyďEi, Óesi ca^ori h corjiameHift cb aMctbh- 
TejibHOCTbiO; caiťb Teni, OAHaRO, npHSHaexi HeBOSHOSHuiii. OH'b 
iiOHH]iaeTi») HTO 6paTb ci 6ŠAHaro, bi> BEjiih npaMoro Haaora, oxpo- 
carejíBHO ctojbro se, CROJbRO ÓepexcH eb 6oraTaro— 3Ha<iH;io 6bi 
osecTO^HTb H pasopHTb Maccy noiaTejibDíHROBi, ri aBHOMy yn^ep6y 
Wí 6jiarococTOflHÍfl h |6e8onacHOCTH rocyAapcTBa. On^b onpaBAu- 
Baei-b, noBTOMy, rt JibroTH, ROTopufl ncAaiHaa CHcreMa, ycraHOB- 
leHHafl HanojieoHoiťb I, npeAOcraBJífleTi g^AHMniHMi Rj[accaH'b 
HacaieHÍfl, RaRi wb otfjacra oÓn^erocyAapcTBeHHUxi najoroBi, xaR^b 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



320 BftCTHHK'b EBPOnU. 

H en^e 6ojňe vb odsacre m^hiixi cóoposi. IIpH HeyKiOHHOM'^ 
npoBeAeHÍH npHHi^Hna nponopipoHaJBHOCTH, noxenbn^HBi, sapaóo- 
THBaioii^ift Wh A^HB 1 $p. 15 caHT., luaTHJiii 6u rocyAapcTBj vb 
Toxh jífi 69 ^paHBOBx; njaxesH KpecTBflHHHa-coÓCTBeHHHsa, sewiA 
fiOToparo — noMHMO B&iaAUBaeifaro vb nee JiH^Haro Tpy^a — npHHO- 
CHTi AOxoAa He 6ojiie 100 ^paHBOBi, cocxaBJUUB 6u ffl 89 
^paHKOBi Wh roAi** TaBoe noioseHÍe a^i» 6ujio 6u čtou se 

HeBUHOCHMO, KaBl H AO-peBOJIK>i;ÍOHHlie nOpflAKH; BeCbMa OCHOBa- 

TejiBHO, nodTOlfy, hto cb noAeHBn^Hsa BdHMaercfl ee Óojrke 6 — 7 
$paHBOB'B, CB Mejisaro 8eifJieBJiaA'i^i;a — He6ojr]tel9 — 21 $p. b:b 
roA'B. Ho TaB'B Rasi sa Óíahuxi njaxATB AOcratoiHue h 6oraTiie, 
TO nocjrbAHie hh^ti npaBO na BOMneHcai^iK); HHa^e ciHiuBOirB 
ABHO ÓyAOTB HapymeHa cnpaBeA^HBOCTB. Bi c^ep^ rocyAapcTBen- 
Haro xosflficTBa xaBofi BOMneHcai^eft cjiysarB BOCBeHHue HajiorH. 
BsHMaeMHe cb npeAneroBi oón^aro norpeSjíemfl: cojh, Bflna, ca- 
xapa, TatfaBy, ohh ynaAaiorB npeHMymecreeHHO na naccy Haceje- 
HÍfl. B^B MtcTHUxi c6opax'B EoceeHHue Hajora Hrpaiorb ropasAO 
MéHBmyK) pojiB. TaRi-HasuBaeMBifi octroi (c6opi cb npoAysxoKB, 

BBOSHMUXl Bl A&HHyK) IT&CTHOCTb) CyH^eCTByeTB, BO $paH^ilI, TOJBBO 

fPh 1.525 oGn^HHaxi hsi 36 teicahi, h sHaHHTejiBHaA ^acTB ero 
BOSBpan^aercfl &bAWÍŘmiaM'b oÓUBaTejflM^B, nyxeMi ocBo6osA6HÍfl 
0T^ RBapiapsaro eajora {wb napHS'b otb aroro najiora HSiaxa 
Bci BBapiHpu, 3a BOTopufl iLsaTHTCfl ueiAe 400 ^paHR0Bi> vh 
roA'B). ApyrHMu cJioBami, wh AenapraMeHTŽ hjh vb oÓmflBÍb oahh 
H T^ se 6jara nojtynaiDTCfl oahhmh — 3a BOBBumeHHyH) njaxy, Apy* 
rHMH — no A^ficTBHTeJiBHOfi i;4h*, TperBHMH — CB 6ojBmoň ycrynBoĚ, 
HexBepTHMH — noHTH HJiu coBepmeHHO AftpoMi. Tasoe HepaBeHCTBo 
MOseTB 6iiTB ypaBHOB^meHO, vb cí^eýk ^iri^CTHaro oÓn^ecTBa^^ 
TOJShEO HepaeeHcmeoMb npaeb. (X^pasi^OBHifB, cb 9to& totch sptnia^ 
iipeAcraBJífleTCfl a-^^ Teea ycrpo&CTBO asi^ioHepHHxi ofin^ecTBi, b%^ 
BOToptix^B ^HCJio rojocoBi, npeAOCTaBjfleMtocB aaipoHepy, coorsfer- 
CTByeTB 60:1^ Hjra MeH'£e HHCiy npHHaAJiesan^Hxi eify aai^ift^ 
T.-e. jifijA yHacrifl ero wb BtiruAaxi h y6uTBaxi npeAnpijiTU^ 
T'&H'B Óojríte sejiaxejBEa, TŠifB 6oji%e neoÓxoABMa ^po^op^íoHaJLB- 
HOCTB npaB^B vb „mícthomi oÓn^ecTB^', o&serqann^eiii eeAOcra- 
ToqHax'B njiaTeJBo^HBOBi H o6peMeHflH)iíi,eMi») draiTB caMUMi, iLia- 
TeJBmHKOBT* 6ojri&e BpynHtixi. Teni co^yBCTByerB BnojBŠ npyccKoft 
TpexpaspflAHoň CHcreii^, aHrjiificBOMy „njiopajiHdMy" foiocobb ^); 
OHB ropa^o BOscraeTi npoTHBi BceoÓn^efi noAann rojocoBi, bx^ 



*) TaKi BasHsaerca cHcreiia, npexocTauaDmaji pisoTopiofi HSÓiipaTejui^b ncy 

HÍCKOIBKJ HSÓHpaTeJlBHXl rOJOCOBl. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HOBUft HCTOPHRl. 321 

oco5eHHOCTH npoTHBi npHMŠHeHÍfl ea bi ifi^ciHOMy caMoynpaBJíeHiK). 
Bx cpaBHemH c% eeK) eMy Baseica MeHbmHMi asoMi ^ft^se rocy- 
xapcTBeHHoe BMtmaTejiBCTBO bi a'^& „iriterHuxi oómecnwh^. B'b 
coBpeMeHHofi $paHi(ÍH OHI CTOTaerB ero „ĎMroA-tapieMi", npe^o- 
xpaHflH)ii^HMi oÓn^EHy h AenapTaMeHrB orb cjiinofi, rpyóofi BJiacTH 
TOJniu, OT-b noBTopeHia nacMift h 6*ACTBÍft 1790, 1791 h 1792 r. 



n. 

TaBOBu, vh oaBHuxi nepiaxi, TeopemecBÍe BsrjiflAu Tena, 

HaCKOJIbBO OHH BlipaSHJHCb Wb HOBOfi OFO BHHrt. Owb HOATBepS* 

j^aerb hxi MHoro^HCJieHHUMH ccuJUcanH na Ilojia JIepya-£ojib6 a 

Ha APyrHXl dBOHOMHCTOBl TOFO SO OTTJ^HBa. H A'bÍ}CTBHTeJIbHO, 

caHOMy TeHy npHHaAJiesHrb SA^Cb BecbMa neMHoroe; owb nojb- 
syercfl, 6í>jibnieH) ^acrbio, xo^fl^efi Monexofi ÓypsyasHofi aobtphhh, 
HHOFAa TOJibKO nepe^eEaHHBafl ee no CBoeMy, najiaraa na eee 6je- 
eTaII^ft niTeMnejb CBoero oópasearo CJiora, cbohxi ocrpoyMHux^b 
cpaBHeHÍ&. Hejibdfl, o^HaBO, HreopEpoBaTb ero 8BCRypcÍH bi o6- 
jacTb aAMHHHcrpaTHBHaro npaBa h noJiiiTHqecBofi 9bohomíh, noTony 

HTO Ch HHMH iribCHO CBflSaHU MHOFÍe H31 HHCJia HCTOpB^eCBHXl B£I- 

BOAOBii Teea. OniHÓOHHOft Baseica Haaii, npes^e Bcero, Hcxo^naa 
TOHBa aBTopa. yiBepsAaa, hto rocy^apcTBO tími xyse HcnojiHfleirb 
CBOH sahana, híwl ÓOJibme hxi na ceóa HaÓHpaen, Tewb cwb- 
nraBaerb rocy^apcTBeHeyio BJiacTb ci> OTA^JibHUHH ea opranaME. 
Bb BaBOfi 5EI creneHH hh 6uji9l orpann^eHa pojb coBpeifeHHaro 
rocy^apcTBa, ona Bce-iaBn ocTaexca Becbna caosHoft, ipeCyion^efi 
6ojn>moro, ApoÓHaro pa3A'i^eHÍa xpy^a. Hejibsa cooAHHHTb bi oah^xi 
pjRaxi Samary rocy^apciBa orb BHiraeax-b BparoBi — h npcAynpes- 
Aeflie npecryiuieHitt, coBepmaeMux^b Bnyrpu rocy^apcTBa; OTb npe- 
AjirpexAeHia npecryiueHifi fleMHHveMO aojisho fiuTb ota^oho hxi 
ni)eCdi']^AOBaHÍe, BOiopoe, bx cbok) o^epeAB, pfeso OTJiaqaeTca orb 
HaBasasia npecTynHHBOB'b. GoBpeMeHsoe rocyAapcTBO, A^se caMoe 
ynpon^esHoe, HyasAaeTca bi o^Hi^epaxi h cojiAaiaxi, B'b nojHi^efi- 
CBBXi HHHOBHHBax'b H ciysETOJiaxi, Bi cJť^AOBaiejaxi H cyAbaxi, 
B^ TiopeMHuxi HaABHpaxejiaxi h cxoposaxi. ^opny^iu Tena: 
^jAOBJíeTBopeTe^bHo mobího A^Jaib tojlbo oaho a'3^o — opyAie, xo- 
pomo npHcnoco5jeHHoe bi oaho& patfort, HeroAHO am Apyrofi**, — 
HenpHMŠHHMH Bi^ FOcyAapCTBy y»e noToiiy, hto a*^'b y rocyAap- 
CTBa BO BcaBOMi cjiyqa^b ropasAO 6oj[bme, h^mi oaho. H^BOJibBo 
Bri^BOB^ TOMy nasBAi* saAane rocyAapcTBa ÓujnUj Óesi cOMH^HÍa, h 
MaJio?HCJeHH<£e, h npoo^e, eesejB Tenepb; ho bto se pimsTca 

Towb I— HuBAPb, 1891. 21 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



322 raoTHHSi EBPOniii. 

jTBep^jsfiJhy mro ouo Tor^a Jiy^me cb hbmh cnpaBJífl^ocB? F^i un 

BHAHMl dĎJBmyiO 6e80DaCHOCTb JIBHT> lí HMyn^eCTB^ — BO $paHI(ÍH 

JIíCAOBHBa XI HJiB BO ^paHi^H jlyfl-$flj]inna, vh Aetmul BOHi^a 
npomjiaro B^Ka, tuin bi> ÁHrjrÍH FjiaACTOHa h CajiHcCepn, cb 
yABoeHHofi HJiH yrpoeHHofi BOM^eTeH^íeň rocy^apcTBenHofi BJiacni?.. 
„EojH, — roBopHTTB TeHx, — EaEoe-JiMfio ofin^ecTBeHHoe opy^ie (ins- 
trument sociál), HsroTOBJíeHHoe vb BHAaxi HcnojHenifl BaBoro-JuiÓo 
onpeA^jieHHaro A^a, cocahehitb cb hhm^b en^e Apyroe, to pa6oTa 
ero Óy^erB HeyAOBJíerBopHTejiBHa h xani, h Tyn; o&b $yHKiíÍH 
6yAyrB BsaHHHO BpeAHTB Apyn APyry, o^na h3'b hhxi pbniHTejrBHo 
nocrpa^aerB Hsi-sa jtpyrofi — a bt> 6ojiBmBHCXBÍ cjyqaeBi ney^aia 
nocTHrnerB h Ty, h ;ipyryH)**. Mu coBepmeano conacHBi cb dxaMi 
BaM^&qaHiem, ho moAiKO nodz yCAoeieán upuMrhnenin e%o ne K6 
tocffdapcmeyy a kz paaAUHuuMz npedcmaeumeMMz locydapcmeeH' 
uoú eAoCfnu. Eescnopno, aAMHHHcrpaxopi no^H Bcerxa ÓuBaerB 
HJioxHifB cyxBeio, cyABfl — moxHirB aAMHHHcrpaTopoM'B; ho pasffb 
0TCH)Aa cji'ÍAyeTrB, hto rocy^apciBO ne aojubho 6uih oóie^eno Rasi 
aAMHHHCxpaTHBHOK), laB^ H cjj^eÚEOío BJfacTBH)?.. Bcfl dxa qacTB 
apryMeHiai^iH Teea ocnoBana na abhom^b He^opasyiflniii; ona Óbctb, 
ecJiH MOSHO Taai BupasiiTBCfl, mhmo i^h, AOBasiiBaa bobco ne to, 
qrb xoT&TB AOBasaTB aBxopx. IIpHHAHni pás^liJieHifl Tpy^a ne ro- 
BopHrB HH Bi nojBsy, HH npoTHB^ pacmHpeHifl Bpyra A'i^ficrBÍft 
' rocy^apcTBa, no TOfi npocroft npH?HH'&| hto rocy^apcTBennafl BJiacrb, 
paacMampueaeMaH nam odno utbAoej nensó^no HM^erB aíao cb 
H^BOJBBHMti, cyn^ecTBeHHO-pasJuqHBíMH sa^anaMH, a optánu rocy- 
AapcTBennoft B^acra MoryrB 6iitb, no Mip6 HaAO($HOCTH, yMHOsaeMBi 
H npHcnocoÓJifleMfii b^b hobumi ^ynBi^iflBTB rocy^apcrsa. Bo3BMeMi>, 
AJfl npHM^pa, npaBHTejiBcrBeHHu& na^sopB sa ^aÓpaBaiiH. KaK'B 
TOJIBBO OH^B npesnaeiefl Heo6xoAHMBiirB h bboautca bi c^epy x^- 
TOJiBHOcrH rocy^apcTBa, ausl nero tot^bcb se cos^aeTca ocoáuA 
opraní — ^aÓpEHnas HHcneB^iJl. ^aCpennue nncneBTopa nstfnpa- 
H)Tca — MH, no Bpattnefi iiipS, aojishii h iioryrB 6htb HsCepaeMU — 
HSi HHCia Jíiijs;by noAroTOBjennux^B h cnocoónuxi bi npaBHJiBHOicy 
BeABniio BOBjaraeMaro na hbxi A'^a. IIpHHiiHni cnei^iaJursai^iH 
ocraercfl, TaBHirB oÓpasoiťB, wb nojinoft cvuA. HoBafl (f)yHBi](iff ro- 
cyAapcTBa BB^paeTca hobhi^b, BOMnereHmuiiB HcnojHExeJuiirB — h 
eciH rocyAapcTBenBafl BjacTB, cb tohbh spinia Tena, MOserB, ne 
napymafl CBoero npHSBanifl, nasnanaTB renepaaoBi, aAMHHHcrpaTO- 
pOBB, cyAofi, TO MU ne biiabm:b npHiHHU, no Boropofi ona ae 
Morja tfu HasnaqaTB (f^aÓpnHHuxi nncneBTopoBi. 

HTaR'B, ^opMyjioH) pa3A'ljieHÍfl TpyAa BonpocB o npoA^ax^ ro- 
cyAapcTBennaro BiiimaTejBcrBa ne npeApimaerca BOBce. 9x0, no- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HOBUft HOTOPHRl. 323 

BH^HMOMy, lyBCTByerB h TeHi, BUABHraa, b^ samexy CBoeft tcmh, 
nt-iuft paA'B AofíaBO^iHHxx aoboaobx. FocyflapcTBO — roBopnix ohi — 
HcnojiHflerB yxoBJíerBopHTejiBHO TOjrbRO cbok) ocHOBHyio, rjiaBHyio 
^a^a^; Bch ocrajiBnufl oho m6o HSBpaii^aeTB, m6o se HcaojiHflerB 
BOBce, j[b5o HcnojiHflerb njioxo. IIoATBepsAaeTCH 8to nojoseme 
HeMHorHMH OTfiíbjíhEUMa ^asTaMH, ROTopuiTb Herpy^^HO 6í2ao 6n 
npoTHBonocraBHTt Apyrie, AOKasHBaiomie cOBepraeHHO HHoe. %o6u 
He ycJiosHflTB Hameft apryneHTai^iH, ocTaneMCfl bi c4»epi npHH^pa, 
npHBeAeHiiaro Haiin bhiuc. $a6pHTOufí Ha^sopi cyn^ecTByerB b^ 
AHrjiiH yxe (Joiiie naTHAecara aítl. 3aM4%eTca jih bi hcmi ^to- 
m6o noxosee na H3Bpan^eHÍe — HanpoMi^pi, TaEoe npHiicHeHie 
^a6pHBauT0Bi, Koropoe sa^epsoBa^o iSu pasBuiie ^dLÓpn^uoŘ npo* 
MHmjeHHOCTH? MosHO JIT ynpeKHyTB aHrjiiftcKyH) ^aópnqHyH) hh- 
<;iieRi^ÍK) B^b 6edAMcTBÍ0, wb ocraBJíeHiH paÓOHHXi tfe3'B Tofi san^HTu, 
ROTopyio Hui o6iuífljn> sasoHi*? Meoro jih 6ujio CA^ano eio ne- 
yM^iix'B pacnopaaceHÍft, hc Aocraraioii^axi. i^-Ijth hj[h npBHOcan^iax^ 
Bpeji^b, BM-icTO nojiBdu? Ha bc6 dTH BonpocBi BOSMOsen^E tojibro 
OAHHi OTB^TB, 6jiaronpiaTHu& A^a HOBaro y?pesAeHÍa. Mu BOBee 
Qe CTOH&TB 3a 6e3npeA^BHOCTB rocyAapcTBeHHaro BiriniaTejiBCTBa, 
He CTOBMi Aa:Re sa pacmepeHÍe ero bo ^to 6u to hh crajio. Mnoroe 
^aBHCHTx ba^cb otb o6cToaTeJBCTBi» BpeiieHH H M^cra, ovl opraHH- 
S9,nm BjacTH, orB creneHH pasBaiia napoAa, otb cnocoÓHOCTH h 

npHBU^RH ero Rl CaifOA^TeJIBHOCTH. HHRaRHXl HenOABHďLHEIXl} 

BcerAa h bcsa^ o6a3aTejiBHBix'B upaBHJii bi dTO& oÓJiacTH 6bitb ne 
uosKeri; oahhx h37» HeAOcraTROBi ^opMyjiu Teea saRJHonaerca, no 
nameMy mh^hík), HMeHHO wb tomi, ^to ona cjihotromi a6coJ!K)THa. 
lí^ecooÓpasHO jih, wb AaHHyio MBHyry h wb AaHHOMX rocyAapcTBÍ, 
AaHHoe pacapocrpaHeBie c^epBi jsjkiLC^BiŘ npaBHxejiBCTBeHHOfi BJiacTH 
— 9T0 BonpocB, He AonycRaioniift iipeAB3aTaro, sapante nocTanoB- 
jeHHaro p^meHia. HaRaROMy cohh'íhíh) ne noAJiesHTB tojibro oaho: 
paAOifB Cb rocyAapcTBeHHUMi BM^maTejiBCTBOMi nenpeH^HHO aoji- 
zeB'B ocraBaTBca nxBpoRift npoCTop^B a<vh nacTHOfi h o6n^ecTBeHHOft 

HHBI^iaTHBEI. MHOFOe MOSeTB 6eITB CA'&iaHO TOJIBRO CB nOMOH^EIO 

TÍx'B ABHraTejiefi, tíxi no6y»AeHÍH, rotopeihh p^A^o h iiajio py- 
KOBOACTByeTca rocyAapcTBenBaa BjacTB. Tewb coBepraeBHO npaB^, 
Roria BacrauBaerx na rpoBiaAHOMi sHa^eBÍH „irlcxHaro naTpioTHSiia, 
jih>6bh Jffb 6jihshhm'b, pejiHriosHuxx B^poBaHÍft, say^noft jiio6o3Ba- 
lejiBHOCTB^. He cjriAyoTi, OAsaRO, nojiaraTBca HCRJiiOHHTejBBO h 
Bcei^^o Ba DTH ^yBCTBa. Bi Abfjiíh, Baopnif^pi, obh, ma* 
poRO pacnpoerpaBeBU h BecBsia HBTeBCHBBu — h Bce-TaRH a^o 
uapoAHaro oópasoBaBÍa Óticxpo h ycnšniBO nomjio bi xoa'b jiheib 
Cb r^Tb nop^, RaR^ b-b newb cTaJio yqacTBOBaTB rocyAapcTBO. 

21* 

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324 moTHHSB EBPOim. 

BaauMHodrbůcmeie rocy^apCTBa, ^btScthhxi oĎmecrob**, ^acTHBixi. 
Kopnopai^ifi, OTAÍJiBHux^ jHií^B — BOTL Jiyqmee ycjOBÍe ycntxa. 3a- 
MusatB FOcyAapcTBeHHyM) b^ctb, HeAOB^pqnBO h tfoflasHBO, wb 
c4»epy A'^TediBHOCTB „saH^apna'^ {juoŮEuoe cpasHeHÍe Teea) nirhy 
saRi HaiTB EassercA, EHRaso^ HaxoÓHOCTH. IlycBaft oea tojbro h& 
HAeTL 3% pasp^teib CB CTpeM.ieHÚDíH o6n^ecTBa h napo^a, nycnaft 
nonojHfleTB npoCliu, a ne yBeJHiHBaerB hxi qucjo, nyreirB ct&:- 
HeHÍft, ypšsBiBaHÍfi h sanpeii^eBÍfií. 

JÍpyryH), ne MeHÍe Ba»HyK) oraHÓity Tena, t6cho CBfl3aHHyK> 
CB nepeoft, mu ycHaxpHBaeirB vb ero OTHomemH kl „m^cthums 
o6ii;ecTBairB^: oón^nHairB, A^napiaMeHTairB, npoBHHi^iflifB. St&iaHÍe 
orpaHHqHTB h 3a*cb, KaKi MOKHO fiojiBrae, KpyrB AMcTBÍtt rocyAap- 

CTBeHHOfi BJiaCTH npHBOAHTB Teoa si flBHO-HenpaBHJBHOMy OTOXxe- 

CTBJieHÍK) oÓn^HHu H A6napTaHeHTa CB ^acTHOfi ROMnaHÍefi, cb „^acr- 

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B'B RaROMi dTOTB TepMffHi noHEMaeicfl rpasAaHCRHMx npaBOMi). 
BescnopHO, oón^ana (hjih A^napraHeHrB) ecTB lapHAH^ecRoe jhi^o; 
HO, bmÍctí cb tími, OHa ecTB H HtíTO coBepraeHHO HHOe. K)pH- 
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rpasAancRHXi npaBi — bi Ra^ecTBt co6crBeHHHRa h ROHTpareHia, 
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efl Ri qacTHBíMi Jui^aMi h oÓBiRHOBeHHiiHi qacTHuiTB o6n^ecTBaM'B). 
FocyAapcTBO, no CJi0BaH'B Tena, aojisho onpeA'&9flTB opranasai^io 
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npaBi H o6fl3aHHOCTeft RasAaro ero H^ena; rocyAapciBO AOJnRHO 
oxpaHflTB „MtcTHoe o6mecTBo", RaRi nocTOflHHoe A^Jioe, otb Bpe- 
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cojiHAapHOCTB MeaAy rocyAapciBOMx u „mícthumx ofín^ecTBOMi", 
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qxo Bi 6jiarococroaHÍH „Micrnaro oÓ^ecTBa** rocyAapcTBO BaHHxe- 
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HOBUfi HCTOPHR^B. 325 

jfikWb? Popáslo npaBHJiBHie Ówio 6u cRasaxB, hto 6diarococTOflHÍe 
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BaCTOJbRO 2Ke aasHO jí^usl nocji'&AHflro, eacROJibRO nasHO ajia 
BapoAa sAopoBBe Maccu rpasAAHi — hjih, jipyriíMH cjioBaMH, cočcmeeu- 
Hoe sdoposbe. 

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naHÍfl HJH iopHAH?ecRoe JiisnOy to r:b Heny, o^eBHAHO, HenpmftHHMa 
napajijejiB ci aomomi, cocTOflo^HMi bi o6wifim» BJiax^Hiii hícrojilrhxi 

^6CTBeHHHR0Bl. 0611^66 BJia^^HÍe — TaROft Ke HHCTHTyTB TOCTHarO 

upaBa, RaR^ h oÓiiRHOBeHHoe BjaA'6nie. Ero ocotfeHHOCXH aojishei ÓEiTb 
npeAycMOTpŠHu rpas^ancRHirB saROHoirB; Heo5xoAHMO onpeA'&9HTb 

BSaHMHUfl OTHOmeHÍfl eOBJlSLjl!bjlhJSfiBT>j HO H^rB HaAOÓHOCTH HaA^&SflTb 

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MaxejiflMH RBapTHpi FBAOM'£, npHHaAJesao^eMi OAHOMy BJia;r&3Bi](y. 
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Ha ci^eHy TaRifl npaBa h oÓssanHOCTH i^&iaro, TaRÍa npasa h o5a- 
saHHocTH OTfljbjíhEUTb evo H.ieH0Di>, o RaRHXi ne Moserb 6uTb h 
p^qH vh npHifÍHeHÍH ri doMy^ rx HacTHOiiy BjiaA'6HÍio. Tewh cra- 
paercfl npoBecTH aHaJoriio Mes^y oÓflsaHHOCTbK) coBJíax^^n^i^eBi 
yqacTBOBaTb wh pacxoxaxi no noqHHR'6 RpumH ejh napysnux^b 
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poBjíeHÍK) MŠCTHOCTH^ HO npexynpesxeHÍH) naBOAneHÍft hjih nosapoBi. 
fiaBTb Rasercfl, wto anajom 8A'6cb H^rb HHRaRoft, hh no co^ep- 
saHiio, hh no $opM%. CoyqacTHHRH bo BJia^iniH aohomi Moryrb 
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OTb ROTopuxi npflMO saBHCHTb AaJtbH^finiee cyn^ecTBOBaníe xoMa; 
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en^e neonpeA^eHHoe BpeMfl (Bosbueirb a^a npH&rlpa — fb nepenni 
caMoro Tena — xora 6u Tpoiyapu, moctobbw, BOAOCxoHHHa ipyón). 
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HeoÓxoAHMoft EBAepsRi^, Majio pimenifl, nocTanoBJíeHnaro 6oJiBnTnH- 
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Bi CHJiy nocraHOBjeHÍe H'6cTHaro npeAcraBHTesBCTBa, BeAyn^ee ri 
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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



326 B^OTHHfil^ EBPOIIH. 

ynacTia bi mícthhx^ o6mHHHHx^ cóopaxx caM^ Tem ctsehtl bi^ 

SEBECHMOCTb OTb COBORynHOCTH JCJiOÚi, 60Jňe HJH MeH'£e CJIOSHUX^. 

Hai paainqHuxi BsrjiflAOB^b hs caottCTBO h xapaBTepi „m^t- 
Hux'B oÓn^ecTBi^- BuxeBaiOTB coBepiueHHO pasjHqHEifl npaRTHqecBia 
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Hafl BOMnaHÍfl, to cjLamííOMi> oÓmsipHEi A^a^e t^ ^yhki^íh, cjiHm- 
mwb BejHKH Aftse tí npaBa, Boxopufl npHSHaer^B sa hhmi Ten^. 
HaofioporB, ecjH ^MicxHoe oCmecxBo" npejCTaBjíflerB co6oh) caMO- 
ynpaBJíflioii^yiDCfl e^HEBi^y, oÓJieHeHHyH), BieisAy npoqHMi, h'£eotopiíimb 
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ocHOBaHifl saMUKaTb ero fb t^chuh paiiSH, yBasBisaeiiufl Tohomi. 
^acTHUfl jiHi^a, BJia^žiomifl aomomi na npaBi o5ii\efi co6cTBeHHOCTH^ 
EOHe^HO HO MoryTx ycrpoHBaTB wb hcmi — óeai o6maro corjiada^ 
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en^e, OAHaRO, ^toÓbí aroro ne Morjia CA^J^axB o^n^Hna, ceiBcnafl 
HJiH ropoACRafl. HanpoTBBi xoro, efi 6e3cnopHO npEnaAJieiiHrB bto- 
npaBO, HMOBHO noTOMy, qxo SHa^eHÍe ea npocrnpaeTCfl ^a^eso sa 
npeA'&nu qHCTO-rpasAaHCKofi c4>e'pu. IIpeACTaBHMi ce6t Hame ropoA* 
csoe HJiB BOMCKoe caMoynpaBjeHÍe, JiHmeenoe bosmoxhocth OTRpu- 
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mROjru — H M£i nofiMeifB bck) npaRTHqecRyio BaxHOCTB omntfRH, bs 
ROTopyK) Bna^aerB Teni... BmícA cb npeACTaBJíeflieMi o „iÁct- 

HOITB Ofia^eCTB^** , RaRl O&h OAHOMl HSl BH^OBl qaCTHOfi ROMnaHÍB 

HJIH HacTHaro CEHAHRaxa, naAaeTB, A^^iBnie, h npeACTaBJíeHie a 
crporofi nponopAioHajiBHOCTfl Mes^y ycjiyrofi h niaTeiROMi, MesAy 
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aRAÍOHepHOH^B o6n^ecTB'6 (xota h sjíikch, o^uRHOBeHHO, ecTB qepra^ 
sa ROTopoŘ yBejHqeHÍK) qHCJa aRi^ifi nepecTaerB cooTB^xcTBOBaTB^ 
yBOJiHqeHie qHCJia roJOCOBi); ho ona bobco ne CBoBcTeenna yqpeiR- 
AeHÍK), Bi ocHOBanÍH ROToparo JiesHTB ny^jiHqnufi HHiepecB. yqacr- 
hhrh AoroBopnarOy qacTHO-rpasAAHCRaro corjiameHia Moryrt ortío-- 
BaTB npHHAHny: de ut des, facio ut facias— ho ho TaROBO nojio- 
senie sHrejrefi oÓn^HHíi, A^napTaiieHTa, hpobhhaíh. Ohh coeAHHeHu 
Bi OAHO i^^oe ne vb CHJiy npoHSBOJiBHaro aRTa h ne a^h npe* 
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HOMy, HO A&se npHÓJHSHTaiBHOMy BunHCJieHÍK). HanpacHa tftua 6hi 
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otcenie eeu^ú. H xo, h Apyroe ciHBaeTca fb oaho nepasA^BHoe 
Bjbjíoe. He acho jh, HanpHM'£pi; hto oti odjierqemfl b'b AOcraBRt 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HOBUft flCTOPHBX. 327 

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flBHOfi HaTflSKoft MoryrB tfuTB pasieAHHeHEi, pasjíomenu vb pasnne 
fln^HBff, npHHflTH sa ocHOBanie js^^sl AByxi pasjíH^Hux^E cnoco($06i 
otfjioseHifl. EcjIhÓii i^n^pa m^hhxi cfiopoBi AOJisHa Óujia cgot- 
BfoeTBOBaTB cyifM^ oÓycJiOBJíHBaeMBrxi hhh jjifiócmwh hjih npHHOCHMOň 
HMH nojiBSH, TO CB 6oj[BHoro, jiHmeHHaro bosmoshocth beixoahtb 
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ofPb yjiHi^auH He nojfBByerca— h HaotfoporB, cji^AOBajo 6u BsiiKaTB 
qwBHHTeiBHo ÓoJBine na noBpurie pacxo^OBi no RaHaJrH8a^iH 
ropová, noTOMy ^o ^hct£i& BOBAyxi fb aom% ocotienno Basem 
f^ísi JHi^a, npHROBaHHaro rx ROMnaTani. TaRmcB npniišpoBi mosho 
6iúo 6u npHBecTH MHOsecTBO, HO e^Ba jih 8to HyacHo; HCRyccTBeH^ 
HOCTB BsrjiflAAy npoBOXHMaro TenoH^B, GpocaeTCfl wh rjaaa caMa co- 
6ov>... M^bpHJOMi o6H3auHOcmeú^ jiesan^HX^ na mieni „irlerHaro 
oCn^ecTBa'', aojishei cjíysHTB ero cpe^CTBa. Ecsh ohh oneHB ne- 
BeJiHRH, cnpaBeA^HBOCTB TpeCyeTB coBepmennaro ocBo6osAeHÍfl ero 
OTB noxaTHoro 6peMeHH; ecjH ohh SHa^HTejrBHBi, cnpaBeA^iHBOCTB 
TpetfyeTi nporpeccHBHaro hxi otfjioseHifl. Hcro^^HHROiťB npaei^ npH- 
HaxJieauui](Hxi ueny „irlcrnaro o6n^ecTBa^, cjysHTi TŠCHaa cbasb 
ero ch iťicTHOCTBK), saHHTepecoBaHHOCTB BO BceiTB ToiTB, OTi Hero 
saBHCHTB esL 6jarococTOflHÍe. IIjiaTesi HŽcrnaro c(5opa— tojíbro oahhi 
fsarb noRasaTejiefi 8toř saHHTepecoBaHHOCTH, h a^^^ko ne caMHft 

BSlKHHft. 

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TaROt ereneHH CHMnaTH^HH Teny, hto owh asejiajii 6u npeAOcraBHTB 
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o TOIEB, ^0 HŠITB-TO Wh pOX% „TOCTHarO CHHAHRaTa^ HJH „K)pH- 

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pšmHTejiBHo, RaRi no OTHomeniH) r% „MtoHHBTB o6n^ecTBaifB^ . 
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a He A^B rocyAapcTBB, xotb MHoríe h8'b apryMeHTOB^B, npBBOAH- 
]rax'B Bi noATBepacAeme ero TesBca, uphiíÍhembi ri rocyAapcTBy 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



328 B^CTHHirB SBPOIQiL 

HH^yTB He MeHLme, H'6irB ri ^^ir&CTHOMy oÓn^ecTBy'. Tojilko o&h 
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juiercfl njiK)pain3BrB roJiocoBi q npyccRaa ipexpaspa^Haa cflCTeMa, 
H Bor^a A^aercfl nne charge á fond npoTHBi BceoÓn^eft no^aTO rojo- 
coBi. BuTb MOseTb, BO BTopoHi TOM'b „HoBaro nopfljtsa'' Tewh 
nofi^erB h AaJiBine, ÓescrpaniHO npoESHecen nocJiiAHee cjobo CBoeft 

AORTpHHH; nORaM^CTB OHO CIUmRTCfl TOJIBRO MeSAJ crpoRaMH H 

6epeTCfl Hasa^i, ne AOCTHraa OROH^aTejBHoft ^opMyjHpoBRH. IIo- 
cji']&AOBaTejiBHOCTB pa8cy»AeHÍ& ot^b SToro hšcrojibro crpa/iiaeTi, 
HO sa TO 6e3cnopHo BUHrpuBaerB BHyrpeHHflfl i^íhhoctb rhefe. 
^0 HSBto^Hoft creneHH oea craHOBHTca js,B,me opy^iem npo- 

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CJIHTeJIB OTCTyHHJTB nepe^^B RpafiHHMH pesyJTBTaTaMH CBOefi OCHOBHOt 

HAeH, TO He cjii^yeiTb aul saRJiiOHHTB oTCio^a, ^to bi neft CRpEi- 
Baercfl opHposAeHHBift^ neycxpaHniiufi, Rpyneufi He^ocraTORi? 

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rocyxapcTBa bi jiíkm ;iri&CTHBix*B oÓmecTBx* — ne sHaHHTi eme crano- 
BHTBCfl 6% pflABi npoTHBHHROBi M^IcTHaro caMoynpaBJíeHÍfl. Oho 
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jioriH ueTRAj „mícthbutb oĎn^ecTBOM-B" h „^acrnofi ROMnanieft". 
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qepRHBaeifi csobo: oneKay hto6u npeAynpe^HTB CM^j^meme es, ch 
HOHfnpoAeMZy saROHHEiMi H HeoÓxoAHMHHi — HeseiaTejiBHa H ne* 
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oÓmjiEVL HJiH npoBHHi^iH, a noTOHy, tto OHa ir&maerB mapoROiiy 
pa3BHTÍK) M^CTHuxi CHJi'B, cnoco6cTByeTx ^OpHaJIHBMy H pyxHHŠ, 
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rocyAapcTBeHHyK) HHBeciHTypy, en^e othioab ne cii^yeTi, ^To6fii 

oho AOJISHO 6W10 HCnOJHflTB HXl nOA'B AHRTOBRy rOCyAapCTBa, ABJIflflCb 

TOJBRO opyAÍeiTB 9ysoň bojh. He saTJ^irB 6ujio 6ei, fb TaRom 
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ycranoBJATB pasjíu^e MesAy o($ii^hhheimh ao^iirhocthbimh jiHi^aMH h 
ApyrHMH areHTaMH npaBnrejiBCTBeHHofi Esacre... Ob npaRTHqecROft 
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HHfi ToHOMi, npeAcraBJífleTi aboar^h) onacHOCTB: ohb ycxpanaeTL 
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CHTB Bi ero ycrpoffiCTBO A-nHHHyH) i^šnB npRBHjerift, 3aRj[H)?aK>n;3nK> 
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ne ^TO HHoe RaRi ^qacTHaa ROMnaHÚi", to ona AOJíSHa 8a(k)THTBCff 
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AaBafl RasAOMy ne no noTpe($HOCTflirB ero, a no ir&p6 ynacrifl ero 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HOBUfi HOTOPRITB. 329 

vb M^CTHuxi cóopaxi. EcjiH "ueHH ;,MtoHaro oÓn^ecTBa''— Bce 
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I^OBl, AOJISHO npHATH H DpHBeCTH TaBOe^^lrí^HOO OÓd^eCTBO^ — 9T0 

He Tpe6yeTB AaiBHŠfiinHx^B noflCHeHíft. 



m. 

Mu noROHqHJH Ob HaHMeHŽe npHBjieBaTejiBHO& nacTBiD Hamefi 
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npiflTHŠe ocraHaBjiHBaTBCfl na jiyHmaxi CTopoHaxi ero, ^^vl^ na 
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na^aja, sapoABímH onnosHAÍn, jí,jisí noAaBJíeHÍfl ROTopuxi noHa^o^H- 
iíoCB HCRasenie tojbro-^to co3AaHHux'B nopa^ROB^B. HecMOTpa na 
BpeMeHsyH) ycrajocTB, eai^ifl TanrB bi ce6t rpotfaAHii& sanace 
«BtoBxi CEJii>y npopuBaton^Hxcff eapysy, RaRi tojbro na^aerB 
HiinepaTopcRafl ABRTaiypa. 

Ovb oCn^eft xapaRTepHCTBRH nano^eoHOBCRoft CHcreMu TeH'B 
nepexoAHTx r-b noApofiHony H3yHeHÍH) es cpeACTBi* h i^fcieft. Ob 
dTofl ^acTBK) ero Tpy^a mu noseaROMHirB ^HTaxejeS bi^ cJiÍAyH>ii(et 

€TaTB4. 

K. Apcehbeb^. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



DPtEBX 



— Bi» noMATB C. A. DpBeBa. CÓophhk-b, Hs^aBSUft Apys&AiiH noKOífHaro. 
M. 1891 ((Tb nopTperoMx £)pBeBa). 



SaasysHBaexi scAKaro coqyBCTBÍfl mbicjib i^o& rpynnu nnca- 

TeJefi, nOHTH eCUlOHETeJBHO HOCRBHqefi, Ha^aiB CÓOpHHRl, KOTOpSlTB 

OHH xoT&iH aoqTHTB naMflTB Hxi Apyra, noRofinaro lOpLesa, h rjifb 
He MadiyK) ao^k) sanajiH HMeHHO hx'b BocnoMHHaHk o Heiii. 3to 
noertAHee, T.-e. co6paHÍe BOcnoHHHaHÍfi, Óujio rbu% Óojiie BcraTH, 
HTO lOpseBi, vb noc^i^AHie roAu CBoeft ahshh ^pesBEi^aftHO noay- 
jflpHuft B^b MOCROBCBHXi JiflTepaTypHBixi Rpyraxi>, crapuxi h mo- 

JOAHXly H M&IO HBBiCTBUfi BH^ MOCRBEI, A^^CTBOBaJIl Bl CBOeMl 

Rpyry, 6uTh MOserB, ne ctojibro CBOHHa coneHeHÍAMH, crojbro 

CBOHMH Óed^aMH H CBOHITB JHHHUITB BJlÍflHÍeMl. O^HHl H31 UHCa- 

Tejieft MOJOAoro noROJitniH, pascRaauBaioii^HXi sjí,1^h o&b K)pbeB£, 
BaMiHaeTx, ^to ecxB ABa lena ^hjeocoij^obi: oahh, yB'6pHBinHCb 6i> 
o6jiaAaHÍH BucoreH) hcthhok), nocBfln^aiorB shshb BBipafioTRt cbobxi 
neif OTAajifliOTCfl orB oÓn^eciBa h jiibíkcuBjíOT-b cbohmh jinTepaiyp- 
HHMH TpyAaHB; Apyrie 6BiBaH)rB CRpoHHŠe,--OHii ne c^HTaiorB cečfl 
HdLm^HTejiBHUMH odia^aTejaBíH AOcroB^pnaro sHaHÍa, bhaatb rpo* 
MBAHOCTB sa^a^H, nodTOHy Aase ne pimaiOTCfl HSjaraTB cboh BsrjuAu 

IIHebMeHHO, HO Bl TO se BpOMfl TaS^ OAynieBJeHU B^pOfi B'B HCIHHy 

H aasAoft ea pacRpuria, ^o ne MoryrB HOJi^aTB. „H boti bth 
HeyroMHMue ncRaxejiH hcthhu, — roBopnrB r. JIonaTHH%y npeAnpn- 
HflBinift H8JiosnTB BX i^BHoK CHCTeMŽ <{»HJOco<f»CRÍe BsrjiflAU tOpBeBa, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



336 BlOTHHKl EBPOmi. 

HHRorAa He co6paHH£re bi ic&ioe mwh caMHHib, — 9th HCRaTejiH hcthhu 
A^aiOTCE f6hhumh nponoB^AHHRaMH, Bcerxa ysjíesaioii^HMHCfl, sa- 
AymeBHUMn co6ec£AHHRaMH, ao6pobojii>hiimh jmsrejisjAa Bcix^b, kto 
saxo^eTB Hxi> cjymaTB. SHaneHÍe xaBHrB ^hjioco^obi onpeA^HTB 

TpyAHO, HXl CJIOBO yMHpaeTB BM^^Cli CL HHMH, a MeXAy TÍM'B 

BJiiflHie Hxi 6uBaerB HHOrAa rpoMa^HUMi. KjiaccHqecsift, bc^itb 
SHaBOMHfi, npHirbpi lOMy npeAcraBJífleirB CoBpaTB... 

gPyccRÍe ^HJoco^Bi xofi dnoxH, Bor^a BnepBue npo6yAHjiacB 
caMOÓuTHafl ^HJOCo^cBafl mhcib bi Poccíh, hotth bc£ npHHaAJie- 
2Baj[H Bx dTOMy nocji'£AHeMy paspa^y* HMena XoMflBOBa, CraHBeBHHa, 
EHp-beBCBaro, K)pifl CanapHoa HaBcer^a ocraHyTca b'b HcropÍH 
pyéCBaro npocB^n^eHifl; HanpaBJíeHifl, hmh ocHOBaHHUfl, Aocejií^ shbq 
iiesAy HaMH. A mhofo jih Aomjio otb hqxi ^hjioco^cbuxi nHcamfi? 
IIoBoftHufi Ceprift ÁHxpeeBHHi coeAHHflji'B bx ce6š canufl CHiína- 
THHBUfl qepTEi dToro nepBaro noBOJitHifl pyccBHX^ MucjrHTejefi. Ohx 
flBJíflJiCfl HacTOfln^HM^ xyAOXHHBOMi» ycTHaro CJiOBa; 6e8i npeyBejiH* 
?eHÍfl MOSHO CBasaTb, noMHMO ero tíeacnopHuxi jHTepaxypHiixi 
sacJiyrB, om^ ysRe ero ÓecbAo, 6um cepBesHUHi oÓo^ecTBeHHciifB 
CJiy2BeHÍeHi>. Kto OAHasBAU roBopejri cb hhitb, ee 3a6uBajii» ero 
HHBOFAa, a roBopHjii OH^B co bcÍmu, bto Bi Heny o6pamajiCfl, 
H roBopHJii OTB Bcefi AyniH. ApTHCTB, Ha?0HaK)ii\ífi nHcaxejiBy cry* 
AeHTB, eneAiajlHcrB-yHeHBifi, o6ii](ecTBeHH£i& A'^Tej[B eanpaBjfljiHCB b'b 
Heny, n BasAufi no^epnaji b^ ero ropflHHX'B p^qaxi qro-HHÓyAb 
TaBoe, qxb HaBcer^a coxpaHajo Henpexo^amyio uíbny. lOpBCBa HHxe- 
pecoBajiH caMue pasHooópasHue npeAHexEi h Bonpocu, Bce SHBoe 
H cepBesHoe cocpeAOxoHHBajo ea ce64 ero BiqHO-Óojpyio mucib, 
HO, HecMOxpa na xasyio MHorocxopoHeocxB ero yMcxBeHHHxi HHxe- 
pecoBt, Bx ero mhíhíaxx hc Óujio BHyxpeHHeft pasposnenHOCXH; 
OHI Bcer^a tíujix BÍ^peH'B cbohmi ochobhumi y6^7SíAeEÍswh, owh 
HHBorAa He npoxHBopiTOii ceói* (exp. 196 — 197). 

3x0 BJiiflHJe caMoS jih^hocxb lOpBeBa, ero Bcer^a OAynieBieHHoft, 
Aase BOCxopseHHoft ptqe, cnoco($ÉO& yBJíoBaxB h mojioauxx, h cxa- 
puxi, BcerAa npoHHBHyxoft HAeajiBHiiifB cxpeMJieHieirB bx hcxhh-I, 
Ao6py H Bpacox^, dxo BJiinHÍe nsotfpassaexcji bo bcšxx BOcnoMHHa- 
HÍflxi, nocBflo^eHHuxi eny mojioaumh ero ApysBSMH bi Hacxoflo^efi 
bhhfš. HaAO cosaji'&xB, hxo cxojibbo BocnoHHHaHifi ne 6ujio coxpa- 
Heno o ApyrHX'B HamHxrB A^xejflxx xoro me xapaBxepa, BaBx Ha- 

npHMŠprB GxaHBeBHH'& HJIH n. B. KHp'leBCBOMi: BX1» BJliflHie He 

nponaio bx o6iii.e& cyHM'& ncxopHqecBHxx pesyjiBxaxoBx, oxpasBBHiHCB 
H padBHBmHCb Bi A'^TejiBHOcxH Hxi HenocpeACXBeHHuxi npeeMHH- 
BOBx; HO, CB xoHBH 8pÍHÍfl 6iorpa4)ÍH, sajiB, qxo 8X0 BJliflHie ne 
onpeA'Í9HJOCb A<3fl HacB xoqnie, BaBi, Haapan^pi, onpeA^flexcfl 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



GEPI^fi AHAPfiEBH^TL K>PB£Bl. 337 

TenepB A^flTeJiBHOCTB lOpbeea jsm t&xi», rto 8Haji'B ero tokbro no 
ero ne^aiHUMi coHHHeHiaifB. Bi ycJiOBiflx^b eamefi shshh, ee jifkio- 
jofirh npocTopa HiieHHO js^si dxoro TeopernnecRaro pasBHTia im,ei, 
xase CTOJib cnoKofiHiaxi h yM^peHHuxi cb to^rh spbHÚi Hax- 

30pa, A^flTeJKBHOCTB TaRHXli ^HJOCO^OBX-npOnOBi^AHHKOBI^ CTaHOBHTCfl 

tíitb 5aate i^iHHoft, xota Ču h 6um orpaHHqeHU rb pasMŠpu, 
vb RaRHxi oHa coBepmajacB. lOpBesa, RaR'B 4>HJOco4>a*opaTopa, 
sHajra ToiBRO vh MocRB^y xoTfl 3H&IH b:b oqeHB padHOOtípaSHUXli 
spyraxi, ho Bcer^a sto óilii RpyrB npocB^iueHHux^B hjih HD^yii^HX'B 
npocB^n^eHifl JHO^efi, h RaR'B 6jiaroTBopHO 6ujio ero A^ficTBÍe na 
jMUj CBH;^TejBCTByK>rB ^eiLiBifl BOcnoMHHaHifl ero Apyseft, Cjihsro 

BHA'ÍBinHX'B ero A'ÍflTeJIBHOCTB. 

Co6cTBeHHo 6iorpa<{»HqecRHXi» a^hhiixi o K)pBeB% Haní Bcrpi- 
THjiocB B'b jiHTepaiypl o^eHB najio. lOpBeBii poAHJiCfl 13-ro naa 
1821 roAa, b% ceÁ BocRpecencROM^B, RaaflSHHCRaro yis^a, TBep- 
CRofi ry6epHÍH. IIocs^ AonamHaro BocnHraHifl oh'b ox^aai Ůujití 

Vb MOCROBCRÍfi ABOpflHCRÍft HHeTHTyTB (TenepB 4-fl MOCROBCRafl TEM- 

Hasifl), a OTTyAa nocTynHJTB wh MOCROBCRÍfi yHEsepcHTerB no BTopoMy 
OTA&seHÍK) ^HJOCo<|»CRaro ^aRyjiBTeTa (huh^ sto — HaTeiiaTHqecRift 
<|»aRyjn»TeTB), h rohhhjii RypcB vb 1845. Owh nocrynui cnanaJia 
na cjiys6y hhhobhhroitb ocoÓhxi nopynenift npn TBepcROifB rytíep* 
Haxop^, HO 9Ta CJiysÓa ero Hajo HHTepecoBasa, h qepeai mecxB 
Ji^^, FB 1853 roAy, K)pBeBi nocrynHjrB na mí^to acrpoHona* 
Ha6j[K>AaTejfl npa KOCROBCRofi yneBepCHTeTCROfi oficepsaTopin; pe- 
syjBTaToirB sthxi nayqHHXi sanATÍi abejihcb ab% cnei^aaBHBUi 
paóoni o&b acrpoHOMÍH, Bnoes^CTBÍH HanenaTaHEUE, ho 6ojrib8HB 
aacraBHJia ero noRHHyrB saHATÍa acTpoHOiciefi n, no coB'£Ty aorto- 
pOFB, OH'B yixaji'B 3a rpaHHi^y. Ohi nyTemecxBOBajii vh TepicaHin, 
Bo $paH^ÍH, cjymajirB jieRi^H b'b pasjínHHBix^B yHEBepcHTeTaxi, ho 
ocoÓeHHO EHTepecoBascfl JiETepaTypoft h TeaTpoMi. Onx Bepnyjcfl 
Vh PocdK) Vh nanajK^ nponuaro i^apcTBOBaHifl h CHa^aia yBjeRCfl 
A^oiTB HapOAHaro oÓpasoBanifl: Bh poaobom^ em^híe^ emie no ot- 
Kpurisi seiíCRExi hirojii, owh yerpoEJTB napoxnoe yqEjnmte, a TaRse 

E KpeCTBJiHCRÍ& TOaTpi, Ha ROTOpOHX CTaBEJIECB ÓUTOBHfl HBeClI 

OcrpoBCRaro e UEceiccRaro h coÓcTBeHHxiE ero nepeA&nsE napoA- 
Hux!b npOESseAeHÍfi; b% to se BpeMfl owh b% Tepeme AByx'B š^rh 
npenoAftBajTB MaTOMaTERy b'b RaHAEAaTCRExi& Rj[accax'B MOCROBCRaro 
HHRoiaeBCRaro EHCTHTyTa O- G'b GO-xi foaobi ohi* OTAaercfl ecrjik)- 
^HTeJiBHo ^ETepaTyp*! e lETepaTypnuirB EHTepěcairB. npeAMeTOM'B 



') Biorpa4>necBLi ysasaHk n sexpoiort A* flsHsoBa, „Hcropi^ecuft Bícthhsi*, 
1889, ^espau, cíp. 518—520. 

Tom L— AHBAn, 1891. 22 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



338 B^GTHHBl BBPOim. 

ero ocoÓJHBuxi Bsy^emň .n-kaaerca Hcnancraft Teaip^B— KajibAepoffB 
H JIone-Ae-Bera, a BnoorbACTBÍH lUeRcnHirb. lOpBeBi nepeBejii hí- 
CKOJiBBo nBecB Ha8fiaHHK[X'B nHcaxeJieft h bx 1877 ro^y coópajiii 
CBOH pa6oT£i no diony npeAMery vb BHHrš: ^HcnaHCRÍfi learpí 
i^B^Tyn^aro nepio^a XVI-XVII ri&KOKB*, Bi 1871 ro^y ohi Ha- 
^an HSAaBaTB sypnaai „BedbjífiL^. 3to Chuio Hs^ame CBoeoÓpasHoe, 
BBOAHBinee fb jniTepaTypy eanpaBJíeHie HOBaro THna, 6utb MOserB, 
TorAa He boojih^ BUAepxaHHoe, ho kb ROTopoMi Óhjto SHBoe, 
CB&see sepHO. IIo cuaAy cbohxi yCtsAenift, — a yO^sAesia 6buíh 
cymecTBOMx ero xapaBTepa, — lOpBeBx Cbiji-b bhojhí nejioBÍKi copo- 

BOBUXli rOAOB%, CKJ[0HHllfi Vb CJiaBflHO<{»iajrBCTBy, jraHHO 6jh8Rí& cb 

drniTB BpysROiffB, ta^ ero c^HxajH cbohmi; ho y nero 6Hja cboa 
caMOCToaTejiBHafl cropona, soropaji bi pasHHXi OTHomeniflxi BUflib" 
jifljia ero hsi HCBJOOHHTejBHofi mBOjra. Cnanaja rerejiBflHei^, no*- 
TOiTB nocjr&AOBaiejiB hoboS ^^hjioco^íh niejuHHra, oe% sihjii ne 
vh paMBi naii^ioHajiBHEix^B h TeojorH^ecBHxi npeAaBÍfi, a vb vbrb 
HAeajHCTHHecBHxx CTpeMJ[eBÍflX'B, i^eaipoirB BOTopsxx crajo HCByc- 

CTBO H BOTOpUfl B% APyrHXX 06jiraCTflX'B SH3HH HanpaBJflJIHCB BX 

ryMaHHOMy jiHÓepajHSMy. B'b CBoeifi sypnajt ohi HMenHO xot&tb 
nocraBHTB saAa^iefi pacnpocTpaHeme Vh pyccBOirB o6iuecTB% ^hjio- 
co4>CBaro Ayxa, cpaBHHxejiBHoe Bsyneme nameft sbshh napaoejiBHO 
Ci SH3HBK) eBponeftcBHxi HapoAOBi, ocoÓeHHoe Hsyqeme shbhh 
lapoAflofi H CJiaBflHCBofi, HO 6e3i Tofi HCBJíoTOTejirBHOCTH, Easaii 
nocTOflHHO OTJiHqaJia ero npesnift Apysecsift BpyrB. Ohx HMenno 
AyMaj['B, TTO MHoroe hsi ero o6mflii> HAet MoserB Ósitb BnojH']^ 
pasA^eno jiyHmHMH jiioabmh ApyrHxi raTepaTypHiixx nanpaBJíeHift 
H Toro HOJiOAoro noBOJ^HÍfl, Boropoe fb t^ toau Óujío en^e boc- 
npÍHHHHBO Bi HAeajTBHHifB npESUBaifB. GpeACTBa Ha HSAanie ^EecÍA&' 
AOCxaBJíeHii Cujih A. H. RomejeBuifB, h b'b tohi BpysBi npeAnojia- 
rajocB, ^TO HOBHfi sypnajKi AOJiseHB Óbitb npoAOJiseHÍeifB npesneft 
yPyccBoft Bec^Aii^- HoIOpBeBx nocraBHJi HSAanie cobc^itb Hnané, 
Basi HOcraBHJii opnrHHajiBHO h caiioe onpeA^eme CyAyn^aro xa- 
paBTepa sypnajna: nperpaííHa BSAanifl o6cysA&Jiack coo6n^a i(6jiumx 
BpysBOMi. crapuxi h mojoauxi HHcaTejiefi, BoxopBixi lOpseBi na- 
jílbsAca jswkrh cbohiíh corpyAHBBaMH. IIoBHAHMOHy, BaBi» mosho 
cyAHTB no BOcnoMHHaHÍjiMi ero Apysefi, mh^hía coÓec^AHHBOBx chjibho 
pacxoAHJiHCB, HO, bx bohi^']^ bohi^obx, K)pBeBi oÓiieAHHflďi pasHOpb- 
ma. mnpoBofi nocraHOBBofi BonpocoBx, npHqeHi AftBajCfl 6ojihmoŘ 

npOCTOpi JIHHHHMl Bapíai^iflMl MH^HÍfi. JI,MCTBHTewIBHO yse Ch 

BTHXx nopi owh npioÓp^TaerB ropflHHXi Apyseft wb caHOMi pasnooÓ- 
padHOMi Bpyry, HMenno axoft npeAaHHOCTBio HAei, Boropaa crjraaBua- 
Bajia npoTHBoptqifl bi BHAy mnpoBHxx HAeaJOBi, HOCHBmnxcfl b'b 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CEPr^ft AHAPEBBHTB K)PBEB1». 339 

ero MuciB. Eqtb MOserB, cairae npoTHBHHSH aojíshei CneaiH ycry- 
naTB nepeA^^ t&h% o^ymesjeHÍeirB, cb BaRHMi ohi» orAasajca CBoeft 
nponoB^AH. ^ypnajEi cyn^ecTBOBaj^B ne AOJiro, Bcero Asa roAa. Bs 
npoMesyTBi ao HOBaro HSAaHÍfl, lOpsesi BOdBpaxHJCfl onflTb bi 
čBomfB HcnaHi^aiTB h b'& IIIeBcnHpy; ^HraJiii ny^jra^HEift sypcí no 
HCTopÍH ApaMU vb AOM* EoinejeBiix'B (1878 — 1880), qHxajix jck- 
i^ia o H^MeuKoS jiBTepaxypi na Bucmiixii sencBHxi Bypcaxi»y 
0€aoBaHHux'B npo^ecoopoiTB Tepse; cb 1878 roAa ohi 6uji% npeA- 
ci^AaTejieirB MOCROBCsaro o6ii;ecTBa jiK>($iiTejie& pocciftcBofi caoBecHO* 
€TH (ao 1885), a no3AHÍte, no CMepra OcrpoBCBaro, tíujii npeAci- 
AaTejieMii o6ii^ecTBa pyccRHxi ApaMaxeqecRHXi nBcaiejefi. 1880-fi 
rojTB 6ujn» onsTb sHaMenaTejieHi bx 6iorpaýÍH lOpBeBa: cb dioro roAa 
Ha^ajiocB HSAaeie eoBaro sypeaia, ocHOBaHHaro no ero HHQi^iaTHBt, 

H BB TOlfB se rOAy npOHCXOAHJTB Bl» MoCBBt HSBtCTHUft IlyniBHH- 

CRÍft npa8AHHBi», BOTopuft, BBBii FOBopATB, MOFB npio6picrB xaBoe 
nmpoBoe oC^ecTBennoe SBaqenie HMenno ÓJiaroAapa dnepra^ecBiiirB 
crapaniflMi lOpBeBa. B% ^PyccBoft Mucib'', umi ycTaHOBiennofi, 
lOpbeBX paóorajii, BnpoqeirB, ne Aoaro, obojio naTB jsibrb: o(5cTOfl- 
TeiBCTea cjiosbjbcb tbbi, ^to ohi ÓujrB BueysAenx ocraBBTB 9totb 
sypnajii, crojnE»BO euj o5fl3aHHEift, b nocjríbAHie roAU, BpoM^ TarocTB 
pasoqapoBaHÍfl bi jiiOAflxii, Bcnsiraji b THrocxE KBTepiajiBEUB: owb 
yMepx, ne ocmBBBmB ceMeftcrBy ebbbbbxi cpeAcrBi (26-ro AeRaópa, 
1888 roAa). 

MucJiB noqxBTB naMBTB craparo Apyra co6paHÍeMi cbobx-b rpy- 
AOBB B pascsasoBi o6t> ero AiflTeJBHOCTB, jBiepaTypeofl b o6me- 
crseBHoft, saciymBBaerB BCflBaro coqyBCTBifl, saBi mu fobopbjib, b 
rbu% 6ojňe, wro ona Bcnoinena cb jik)6obbk) b TajanrOMi. Hesa* 
BflCBHO OTB CBoefi cnei^iajiBnoft n^n^ „10pBeBCEá& c^opnBBi" co- 
craBjjieTB jiK)6onuTHoe b npBBJíeBaxejiBBoe JiBTepaTypnoe BB^enie 

yse TtlTB CBOBITB O^B^BITB XapaRXepOMl, HTO, BOSBUCBSniBCB EaA^B 
M&IRBMl yp0BHeifB'X0AflHefi COBpeMeBHOCTB^ BBOABTB sacB Bl o6- 

<iiacTB BAeajsíBniix^B BHiepecoBib, cťoib saÓuBaeMuxi m> name tfes- 
cepAeqaoe b cyxoe BpeMB. Ecjb cani lOpBesi ao ROHi^a AHeft 
ocrajicfl BOCTopseHBCiMi BAeajiBcroMi, (SyABBmBMi Jiyqmifl crpen- 
^aenÍB bx oÓJiacTB hucjb b BCRyccTBa, c^opnBRi, nocBBn^eHHufi ero 
naiiflTB, noAAepsBBaoTB bto nacrpoenie, bi> RoxopoMi b cocxobxi 
Bacxofln^ee aocxobhcxbo JiBxepaxypn. 

C!ocxaBi RBBFB BecbHa pa3floo6pa3eHi b Bnxepeceni. Ha nep- 
BoiTB n.iaH'6 nBeca rp. JI. H. Tojcxoro, ^ILioah npocBtníeHia*, 
X&BBO BSBitosafl no cJiyxaMx b pyRonBcnuMi robíami, xoABBmBM'B 
no pyBaifB, b ba^cb, naBOBei^i, BBiBion^aflCfl ne^axno. M. M. Kosa* 
^eBCRift, BMtcx^ Cb lOpBeBuiix, OABBi mb neMBOrBxi, B8yqaBniBX'B 

22* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



340 BftCTHHKl EBPOnU. 

y HacTB HcnancByio JiHrepaiypy, f.ejvb craTBK) o „HapoA*^ bi> Apaiii^ 
JIone-A6-BerH: ÓBenift hctohhhsx'', ap^hš, HŠRorAa nepeBexeHHoik 
lOpBeBHMi. AjieKcbiL Hhb. BeceJOBcnifi nocBATMi nanfliH lOptesa 
SBBO H cepAeHHO HanHcaHHUfl BOcnoMHHamfl, h spoicř tofo HSAajrB* 
^OipuBEH H81 crapoft nepéoHCRH'' — nncbKa k^ lOpBeBy TypreneBa^ 
^ocToeBCKaro, CajiraKOBa, A. H. KomeieBa h H. A. ^aesa^ ct 
HÍKOTOpuME noflCHeHÍflMH. Kh. A. H. CyHÓaTOBi pascRasajii. no 
jiHHHUMx Bne^aiJitHiflHi, oOi OTHomeHÍflx'K K)pBeBa si cach^ sa 
nocJiÍAHÍe Tpn ro^a ero sh3Eh. F-sa JI. cootfn^aja cboh bocoo* 
MHHaHÍB o K)pBeBÍ. JI. M. JIonaTBHi AaJTb npespacHO HcnosHeH- 

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nuwb HanajflíbCTBOifb. TaRoe cjiyiaňHoe coBna^eHÍe HBBtcTÍft o j^iaTejih- 

HOCTH BUCmefi aAMHHHCTpai;ÍH OTHOCHTeAbHO AByX'b paBAHlHUX^b oTpac- 

jieŘ HapoAHaro TpyAa óujio BecbMa dHaMenaTejibHo h saBOAHJio na ni- 
BOTopiiifl MHCJiH H coo6paseHÍA, KOTopua nocxapancb SA^cb nsjíosHTb. 
MTaKi, 6uA0 npHSHano HeoSxoAHMUifb ycnoROHTb oTeiecTBenHyi) 
niK)MunijieHHOCTb, ^to AOXOAHOCTb eji HHCROJibRO ne yMeobniHTCA otb 
BaHaBmarocji cb aecHU BHa^HTOJibHaro noBumeHia Rypca nameft aa- 
jiDTiii. BMtcii CB rbMrb, OAHOBpeMeHHo, MU ysHajiH, ^To Hsy^enie cejibCRO- 

XOSHĚCTBeHHOĚ UpOMUniJieH HOCTH BH^e ne OROHHHAOCb, a HanpoTHBi, Ha 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



346 B%CTHHK1» BBPOnU. 

o^epe^B nocTaBJieH!B ^(tftcTBHTejibHo BecBMa BasHHft paóo^ifi BOQpoci. 
Břb cyn^HocTH, 9to coBnaxeHÍe tojibko cb H'bKOTopo& pejiBe4>H0CTBK> pn- 
cyerB HanpaBjíeHie Hameft 9KOHOMH?ecKoft nojoniTHKH, — HanpaBJíeHie xa* 
jieKO He HOBoe h a^bho ycBoeHHoe naniHMi pyKOBOAflu^HMi oómecTses- 

HUifB MHtHieMIb. CTapaTBCfl H8MÍHHTB Tb y6ÍSAeHÍA, Ha SOTOpUX^B 

ocHOBaHo dTO HanpaBJíeHie 6ujio 6u caMO]lHŠHieH^, b'b soropoiťB a ne- 
noBHHeHi, HO Bwhcrb cb t&mi, mh^ RasercA, ^to TaK'B BaB'B Hsyqe- 
HÍe cejfBCKO-xoBJíĚCTBeHHQft npoMunueHHOCTH en^e ne aasoH^enOy to 
AJiA sasAaro cejiBCBaro SHTejui BQOJiHt bosmosho h CBoeBpeMOHHo bu- 
csasaTBCfl o bjiíahíh HacToan^aro nojiosemA oTeqecTBeHHoĚ npoMum- 
jeHHocTH na cejiBCKoe xoaaĚCTBO h cejiBCBoe Hacejienie. 



I. 

BupaseHÍe: „mocsobcbíí (t)a6pHRaH'rB*', „MocBOBCKoe H3A'bJiie''— oco* 
6eHHo SHaBOMo HameMy npoBHHi^iiuiBHOMy yxy. O^^naBo, coóctbohho b'b 

MOCBB^ nOJlOSHTBJIBHO HÍTB HHBaBHXl lítCTHIIXl HpHHUHl AJUl pa3- 

bhtíji (t)a6pu?Haro npoH3BOACTBa: MaTepia^u — npHBosHue, paóo^e — 
npHmjiiie, toojihbo — Aoporoe. Koho^ho npiflTHi^e shtb bi BpynHO]i'b 
i^eHTp']^ HapoAOHacejieHiH hjh 6jih3bo oti nero, niwh wb BaB0Mi-jiH6o 
3axojiycTB'b, xota Tam h AonieBii dJieMenTU nponsBOACTBa. 9to BpflA'^ 
JIH BTO ocnapHBaTB óyAOTi. To^HO TaBse bpaa'^ jih 6yAeTi bto ocna* 

pHBaTB, VtO CaxaH B03M0SH0CTB pyBOBOJ^CTBOBaTBCA npHOCHOBaHÍH 4^5- 

pHBH HJH saBo^a JIH9HUMH BBycaMH HX'B BJiaA^Bi^a yBaBUBaerB Ha 
ocoóeHHoe y nacB nojoseníe oTe^ecTBennoft npoMunuieHHocTH. Hunt mu 

He TOJIBBO BHAUM'B 4>a^PB^H0e npOHBBOACTBO COCpe^OTO^enHUMl^ B^ 

Mocbbí h 6jiHsafiniHX'B bb OBpecTHocTflxi, ho BCTpiqaeiTB ero b'b i^ee* 
TpajiBHHx^ HacTJixi caMaro ropová. JI^ocTaTO^Ho ysasaTB na saBOJiu 
Quuaa. JlnorapitTa h TycTasa JlHCTa, xopomo SHasoMue cejiBCBHM'B xosae- 
Bam H HaxoAAin;iecfl: oahhi — na MacHHiiBofi, a Apyroft — npoTHB^B RpemiA, 
qero ne óuBaeT^ b^ caMiix'B BpynHuxx i^enTpax^ sana^^Ho-eBponeftcBoft, 
o6pa$OTUBaK>a]ieft npominiJidHHocTH. Bi stom^b oTHomenÍH na^o OTj^aTB 
HaiTB noJinyiD cnpaBOAJiHBOCTB,— Pocciii btb BopoTBoe speMA onepejcBJía 
EBpony. MocBBa H3ApeBjie óujia cepAi^eMi Poccíh, bi soTopoMi, Bas-b 
b-b <)K)Byci, OTpasajicA xapaRTep'B h HanpaBJíenie pyccBoS shbhh vh 
xaHHoe BpeMA. TaB0Buu'B ocTajiacB ona h uueí, OrapHHHoe BiipaseHÍe 

o líBiTymeM-B npOBHHIíiaJIBHOMl ropOA*, ^TO OH-B „ropOAOB-B — MOCBBH 

yrojiOB'B^ — B^pHO H HUHt. Bcjíbíř npoBHHAÍajiBHiiifi ropoA'B, HK^Dmit 
Majiiftmee ocHOBanie 6iitb ne tojibbo aAMHHHCTpaTHBHHM*B AeHTpoirB, 
HO hmítb cbod coÓCTBeHHyK) caMocTOATejiBHyiD SH3HB, npej^CTaBJíaerL 

EUWk TOTb se HCBJID^HTeJIBHO npOMUHIJieHHO-TOprOBIilft XapaBTep-B, HTÓ 



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XPOHHKA. — nOJlOaSEHlE IIPOMHIIUIEHHOCTH. 347 

H líocKBa. Bi HeifB, T07H0 Tasse, saRi h bi Mocrbí, npeo6jiaAaK>- 
n^HiiH HacTAMH HapoAOBacejeHk ^bjiadtca huhí, cb oahoí CTopoHii, 
QjiyTOKpaTiji, ch Apyrofi — npoJieTapiaTb) pa8yM']teTCA, bi» ÓojiLmeft hjih 
MeHbnie& CTeneHH uponopi^iQHajibHO cxoACTBy jannaro ropojca co cbohitb 
npoTOTHnoM'B. 06i <|)opiiu HacTOflmaro ropo^csoro nacejieHiA, njcyro- 
KpaTÍA H npojieTapiaTi»9 asjíeHie coBepmeHHO HOBoe jyb Poccíh. Heco- 
MHtHHo, wb ropoAaxi npesHeft Poccíh ÓUBaJiH h ÓoraTue, h &bM,^ue 
SHrejtu, HO TOJibBO nuwb mu bhahmi mHpoBoe, npeo6jiaAaK>a];ee pas- 
BHTÍe BunieynoMflHyTUX'B abjxi* thhobi*, h dTO ÓescHopno— -peayjiBTarB 
nojio»eHÍfl, npio6pÍTeHHaro oTe^ecTBeHHofl npoMuniJieHHocTbD B'b no- 
cjitXHee BpeMfl. H3i» CTaTHCTHqecBaro aTJiaca ropoAa Mocsbu (Bunycsi 
BTopoit, 1890 r.) MU ysHaeMi, hto skhjibi^obi, HaHHMai)ni;HX'E hs^ bto- 

PUXI pyR-B OTA'Í^JIBHUA ROMHaTU H ^aCTH ROMHaTB (yPJlu) B'b MoCRBÍ 

63.046 qejoBtRx, qró cocTBBJUierB hícrojkbro 6ojťbe 107o nacejienifl 
ofiuRHOBeHHUxi RBapTHpi, TOF^a RaRi Bi BepjiHH'^ HX'b MeH-^o odnoío 
npaueHtna. Ha^o OT^aTB noJiHyK) cnpaneAJiHBocTB, hto h othochtbjibho 
npojierapiaTa MocRBa bi RopoTRoe Bpena onepeAHJia EBpony. 

n3'B Toro se aTjiaca mu ysnaeMi, 7to aomob'b-oco6harob%, cocxaB- 
JUiDuiHX^B oAHy RBaprnpy, b^ Mocrbí — 2.359. Hsi hhxi bo bjira^bíh 
Ryni^OB^B H no^exHUXi rpas^aHi — 956; i^oxobuxti— 461; RpecTBflHi — 
245 H ABopAHi — 151. ď SHajii, h ohobb xopomo snaJTB MocRBy dbth- 
Aecjnm^ roAOBi, xaRi RaRi opoBejďB bi> Heft Ba cjiysót cjiHmROM'B 
BoceMB A^Tb ch 1850 no 1859 roA%. MocRBa Tor^a óujia coBepmeHHO 
ApyrHM^ ropoAOMi h bm^ctí aBJuuiacB o^eHB BjiiflTejiBHUMi, yMCTBeHHUMi 
i^eHTpoMi. noMHn oqeHB xopomo, RaRoe oÓaHHÍe opohsboahjih Ha Haci, 
TOFAaniHDD MOJioAexB, Tt RpysRH H jiHiia ÓoJiBmeft hjih MeuBmefi Be- 

IH^EHU, 8Ha?6HÍe ROTOpUXl 06yCJI0BJIHBaJI0CB eAHHCTBOHHO yMCTBOBHOfi 

AtflxejiBHocTBK). XoTJi TorAamHflA mojioaosb ycepAHO saHHMajmcB xan- 
iloBajiBHUMH ynpasHeHijiMH, ho Ha nefi Bce se orpasajiocB to oón^e- 

CTBeHHOe BjdflHÍe, — TOTB, eCJIH MOSHO TaRl BUpaSHTBCil, TOHIb, ROTOpufi 

npHAaBajiH MocROBCROMy oón^ecTBy xoro BpeMeHH xaRie jidah, RaR'B 
XoMAROBi, OaMapHHi, ARcaROBU, RnpteBCRie, HepRaccRÍe h np. ?acTB 
BHMu 1852—1853 r., homhid, a upoBejfB bi CMOiencR^ na abopahcrhxi 
BuSopaxii, npoAOJisaBHiHXCfl bi ri oxAajieHHUA BpeMOHa HecpaBHenHO 
AOJiBnie, q'bM'B huhí, h TaM^, b'b ryfiepncROMi ropoAt, & namejii or- 
ÓJiecRi MocRBU, — oTdJiecRi, npaBAa, cjiaóuft, ne flpRÍft, ho o6u;ecTBeHHo 

BHOJIH^ib TOSAeCTBeHHUft. 

HuH^ MocRBa AaBHo yse nepecTajia 6utb i^eHTpoMi sroft A^Tejn>- 
BocTH, HJIH, Jiy^me CRaaaxB, nepecTa;ia 6uTb i^bhtpomi yMCTBennoft a^- 
TejibHocTH npesHHro xapaRTopa. HacToau^ií xapaRTep'B, nacTOAmift rojio- 

PHTB SH8BH H A'bflTeJIbHOCTH CepAI^R PoCCÍH npOHHR'B H B'B yMCTBOHnyi) 

c4>epy Bi TOM'B BHA'b, Bi ROTopoMi OHa HUH'i npoABJíHercA. DpoaBjíeHie aro, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



348 BftOTHEKl EBPOmit. 

Wh CBOD OHepeAB, B03A'Í^flcTBOBajio Ha AepeBHD, npuBUKmyR) bt> eacTOHii^ee 
BpeMA B^b no^TOBue AHH BocnpHHHMaTB npHcujiaeMyH) eft ropojiiOM-B yncTBeH- 
Hyi) nHii^y. OrHocHTejiBHO rbTb noJioaceHitt, MHCJieft, Hax Koropuxi cocTas- 
MDTcai y6i»ieHÍa h, naKOHei^i, (|)opMHpyeTca to ujiu Apyroe nanpaBJíe' 
HÍe o5n;ecTfieHHaro MHteifl, na^o cosHaTbCA, 'HO a^pobha yopaBA^ers 
ropoAOM*B, a ropoA^B AepeBHett. 9to, nojiaraD, BipHo noBCDiy. EpyaHue 
ueHTpH HapoAOHacejieHia oahh TOJibKO MoryrB y^OBJíeTBopHTb toě na- 
cyniHofi noTpeÓHocTH Hamero BpeMeHH bi e^e/^neBEOM^ 03HaR0MJieHÍH 
co Bceoón^eft sthbhbh), KOTopoe AaoTB nepioAHqecKaa ne^aTB. T^bMi ca- 
uuwh dTH i^eHTpii npio6p'bjiH Óescnopno Mory^ee cpe^CTBo bjiíatl na 
HanpaBJíeHie o6n^ecTfi6HHaro mhíhíh xepeBHH. IIpesAe EHTOJuiHreHi^iA 

AepeBHH, ABOp^HCTBO, npOBOM 3MMy Bl> ropOAaX'B, MOrJia B3aHMHUM'B 

oómeHioM-B BupaóOTUBaTL CBOH coóCTBeHHue BsrjJiAU H y6isAeHÍH; 
huhí, Bor^a nysAa Baspi^aHJia sas^aro b% xepeBHi^ bt> CBoeiťb yrjiy 
H ycTpaHHJia ero Aase otb iftcTHHX'B, ^ocTynnux^, MejiRHXi i^eerpoBi 
HapoAOHacejieHÍA, a^P^beji OKOHqaTejKLHO no^najia bjiíahíd ropová. 
MocBBa copoKOBUxi H nflTHAecATUXi roji^ofi^ MM^a Óescnopeo rpoiiaA- 
Hoe snaqeHÍe bt> BeJiHSHX-B pe4)opMax'B nponiJiato i^apcTBOBaHÍA. B'b 
HeĚ, noA'B íioRpoBoifB o({)<|)Hi^iajiBHoň HapysHocTH, yMCTBeHHaA 0610:0- 

CTBOHHaH SH3HB BUpaÓOTaJia Tb CHJHU, KOTOpUA MHOFO nOUOFJIH aBpy- 

crbftmeMy ctpohtojik) shshh pyccKoft b'b ero A'&ATejiBH0CTH; ^a h bi 
npoBHHi^iajiBHUXi ropoAaxi» AO-pe4>opMeHHoft Poccíh BCDAy Haxo^H- 
jHCb jiK>AH, BnojiH^ noAroTOBJíeHHue AJia HcnoJiHeHÍA Toro, ^to npoA- 
Ha^epTaHo 6uj!0 npaBHxejiBCTBOMi. Huwk npesHflfl cbabb ropová c% 
AopoBHoft nopsajiacB: ropoxi) npio6pijii caMocToaTejibHyK), BjiíflTejiBHyD 
shshb; AepeBHJi paafiHJiacB na pasposHenHUH eAHHHAU. Emhofo bítl 
y^HBHTeJiBHaro npH xaKOiťB nojiosenÍH, qro ho tojibbo ho BCTpinaeTCA 

Bl AepOBH']^ npOTHBOA'Í^ftCTBÍfl T^Ml dROHOMB^eCKHlll y6Í^»A6HÍHU^, 

BOTopuA nojiosHTOJibHO spe^Hu ea HHTopecaMX, ho 9Th j6ixfifiEÍ& ro- 
paHO OK) pa8A'ibjiHK)Tca. H Bi AepoBHi^ BipyDTTB HUH% B'B rocy^apcTBOH- 

Hyi) HeOÓXOAHMOCTB OXpaHeHifl AOXOAHOCTH OTe^eCTBOHHOĚ npOMblHIJieH- 
HOCTH, H Bl AepeBH'b yÓiSAOHU HUH'b, HTO 9T0 0XpaH6HÍe — OÓasaHHOCTB 

HCTHHHaro naTpioTHSMa. Docmotphmi se, BaBOBa aoxoahoctb oxeqe- 

CTBOBHOfi npOMUniJieHHOCTH. 

HMnepaTopcBoe BOJiBHoe dBOHOMunecBoe oÓn^ecTBo paspaÓOTajio no- 
ApoÓHo xoAaTaftcTBa od^b nsMtHeHÍflxi b% pyccBoifb TaMo»eHHoui xa- 
pHil)^, H HBAaJio uxi oxAtjiBHoň 6poniK)pofi, vb Boxopoft crpynnHpoBajio 
Haccy BecBMa HHxepecHuxi ilH(i)p'B, cB^^AOBÍfi h MSucsaHifi. Bi hhx^b, 
B'B dXHX-B xoAaxaficxBax'B (exp. 150), DpuBe^eai pasMip^b ^Hcxoft 
npHÓuJiH Ha ochobboě BanHxajii AB']kHaAiiaxH npoMumjieHHUxi xoBa- 
pHiuecxBi sa 1887 roA^^ Bsaxuň hsi ooyÓJHBOBaHBUXi bi „Bi^- 
hhbí ^HHaflcoB-B" ox^exoB-B. HaHMeHBmiĚ pasMipx, 3X0— 15^/o (Poccift- 



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.XPOHHBA. — nOJIOaSEHlE nPOMBlIILlEHHOCTH. 349 

cKaa 6yiiaroopflAUAt>HJi bi neTep6yprb); HauóojibniiA— 45^/o (TOBapHU^e- 
CTBO mepcT. HaA^Jiifi TopHTOHa); cpeAHÍfi se sci^xi AB^HaAuaTH — h'&- 
CROJiBRO óojrbe 2 6^/0. HecoMHtHHo qacTHue ^6pHBH h sasoj^u, ne o($a* 
saHHue npeACTaejuiTL o44Hi^iajibHUX'E 0TqeT0B'b, noJiyqacoTb se MeHB- 
myi) npHÓujib; easoHei^i, camje OTHeru bi BHjty Tpex'B-npoa6HTHaro 
c6opa wb KasHy, cocTaanflDTCfl sipojiTHo ae cb uíjibd noKasuBaTs ne- 
cyu^ecTByDo^ie ÓapuniH. Bo bcakomi cjiyqat, cpej^Hfla i^H({)pa: dead- 
namh-iuecmb npo^eHmoe^ Hucmoů npuÓuMi — AOCTaToqHo BpacHop'&quBa, h 

AOXOAHOCTB OTe^eCTBeHHOĚ npOirUniJieHHOCTH CJltAyOTl DpHSHaTB BU- 
COROK). 

CeJiBCRo-xoaaficTBeHHufl rphshc^ ein;6 arbeo oTuepraJicR coBepmeHHO 
BJuaxejiBHUirB o6ui;ecTBeHHUM'B ]iH']kHÍeM'B; TenepB 0Hi>'npH3ďaeTCR, ho 
ARJieRo H6 óesycJioBHo. Jl^enapraMeRTB HeoRjiaAHUx'B c6opoBi» MHHHCTep* 

CTBR 4>HHaHC0B'B B'B OT^OTÍ CB06111 3a 1888 VOAT> BUCHHTUBaeTl HaC6- 

jieHÍe Poccíh sa stoti roA'B wb 114.800 T£iCRq'B Ayni^ h b% tomi ^Hďb 
roposaH'B 13.700 TUCAq'B Ayni'B; cjii^AOBaTejiBHo, 6e30inH6oqHo mosho 
CRRsaTB, qTO pyccRaro cejiBCRaro nacejieHiR cto mhjijiíohob'b Ayiii'B. 9to 
HacejieHÍe, saRTi dphshrho huh^, cxpa^aeTi ovh aoHHseHÍA i^^hi ea 
ero DpoHSBeAeHÚi. UpH^HEu dToro aaneHiR cJiyšarB apeAMerom cno- 

POBI, pa8'BRCHJilDTCJI paSJIH^HO, CMOTpR nOTOMy, RTO ÓepOTCR SR HXl pa8%- 

RCHeHÍe, — HO caMiifi ({)aRTBHe OTBeprReTca. B'&crhm'b AORRsaTeJiBCTBoiiob 
cyn^ecTBOBaHifl aroro 4>&KTa cjiysHTB yqpesAeHHaji TpH roAa TOMy na- 
saji* npH MHHHCTepcTB'b BHyTpeHHHX'B jíjbjrb rommhccír no noBOAy na- 
AeHÍH a^H^B Ha cejiBCRO-xoaaficTBeHHUR npoHBBeAeniii. G'b t^xi nopib, 
B^ HCTeRmie TpH ro^a, iltHii 8th ne h3M']^hhjuícb, h ocjih M^CTaMH no* 

BHCHJHCB, TO TOJIBRO TRM^B, T^i BCJltACTBÍe HeypOHUUI ÓUJia HaCTOHTeJIBHaR 
HRAOÓflOCTB B-B SOpHt. OtB TRROFO BpeHBHHRrO, CJiy^RfinarO HOBUmeHÍR 

— npoHSBOAHTejiH sepHR HHqero ne BUHrpRJiH, Aa h ne mofjih BHHrpRTB. 
B'B HeyposafiHofi m^thocth npoAaBaxB Óujio nevěro hjih ohorb Majio, 
a Bi yposaňHOÍ, sa OTcyTCTBieifB y HacB yjiyqnieHHUxi nyTefi coo($- 
nienÍH, HanpaBJieHH£ix'B ajia yAOBJíeTBopeHÍR BHyTpeHHnro norpoóJieHiR, 
HÍeu Ha iť^cTax^ ne mofjih 6utb bucorhmh. IIoJoseHie cejiBCRRro hr- 
ce^oHiR Bi> nocji^AHee BpeMR hhcrojqlbro ho yjiy^niHJiocB, Aa h ho mofro 
yjyqniHTBCR. PR3opeHHoe tph roAR Tony naaaA^B, oho en^e Óojiie paso- 
pHJiocB. MesAy tím^ dTo se caMoe padopennoe HaceRenie AocTaBHJio 

Vb 9TH nOCR^AHÍe TpH FOAa rpoiraAHUfi BI1B03'B cbohxi HpOH3BeAeHÍĚ 

sa rpaHHi^y. Uphhrto HaniHMi* pyROBOARn^Hiii oón^ecTBeHHuiťB uwb- 
mewh yRasHBaTB na BuroARocTB ToproBaro (Sajianca, RaRi hr eARHCTBOH- 
nyi) n/bjíh^ r^ ROTopofi aojishr ctpomhtbcr naníR dROHOMH^ecRRR hojih- 
THRR. ,11^ cero — noy<iRK)TX naci — hooÓxoahmo bcí^mh cpeACTBaMH orpas* 
AaTB Hanry oTe^ecTBeHHyK) npoMunueHHocTB cx t']^m'b, ^toÓh hh oahhi 
Ham'B pyÓJiB ho yxoAHJii* 8r rpRHHO^y, trri Raní oh:b yse ne BepnexcR 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



360 Bfkcnaoi^ ebpoiiu. 

vb Hax'B; a ^iwb Óojite mu coxpaHHirB py6jie&, tíut> Bume ÓyxeTB 
Hame oón^ee ÓJiarococTOflHíe. He CTaey ocnapHBaTb xaBoro dsoHOMH- 
necKaro y^enia; Hay^Hue CDopu Cb ccuisofi na Hayqflue aBTopHTeTU 
Bi TaKOĚ HayKt, RaBi nojiHTHqecKafl dBOHOMia, Jiajieso ne AocTHrmeft 
Dojosesifl To^Hoft HaysH, hh kx ^eiiy ne Be^yTi h Majio paa^bACHflinrB 
Bonpocu; j^a, HasoHei^i, HayqHue cnopu He no njieqy eaineMy opary Mfi- 
peBeHCBOMy asHTejíK). Mu bi AepeBHt HMteMi xbjío ci ^'bicTBHTejiB- 

HOCTBI), H o HeĚ TOJIBBO H Óyj^BMl FOBOpHTb. IIpeBpaCHO, — BUrOAHOCTB 

ToproBaro ÓajiaHca — rjiaBHax h exHHCTBeHHafl i^tjiB Hameft dROHOMHqe- 
CBO& nojiHTHSH; HO Bi Tasoui cjiyqa'6 bi neMi, b^ dTOM'b 6sjí8lec% ho- 
jiaraK), hmbto ne óy^erb OTsepraTb, ^to bbosi, aa KOTopui mu njia- 
THM%, cocTaBJífleTi oTpHi^aTejiBHyi) BejiH^HEy, a bubosi, sa Boropui mu 
nojiy?aeis%, — ooJiosHTejibHyK). Bubosi oahhi> xaen HaMi totb pyÓJiB, o 
coxpaHeHÍH H HaKoujieHÍM KOToparo mu TaB'B satSoTHMCfl, A& RaKoi en^e 
pyÓJib: MeTaJuiH^ecBÍft, sojiotoě. Bubosi se eami — aro HCBjiK>^HTejibHO 
sepHO, npoH8BeA6HÍe cejibcsaro HacejieHÍA, Meí KaaseTCA, vro rjiaBHUft 
4)asT0p% nojiosHTejibHoi CTopoHU eamero ToproBaro 6ajiaHca— cejibcsoe 
HaceJieHÍe, nojiy^HBinee sa cboh npoHSBeAeeiji totl MerajuiHqecBifi 
pyÓJib, KOToparo Apyrié BJiaccu ee nojiyqaiDrb — AOJiseHi 6jiaroAeHCTBO- 
BaTb. nocMorpHMi Teaepb, BuroAHa jih jí,Jía dToro 4>&KTopa npio6p'bTeH- 
HaH ero Tpyj^oMi Buroji^HocTb Hamero ToproBaro ÓajiaHca. 

Bx xoAaTaficTBaxi EMnepaTopcKaro BoJibHaro dBoHOMHqecsaro 06a(e- 
CTBa (cTp. 119) ocoÓeHHO HHTepecHa rjiaBa: ^ntrn oófbdnfbniji ectbXh haoc- 
co6h HapodoHoceÁCHVi. Uo npHBeAeHHUM'b bt> dToft rjiaB'b a&hhum% osa- 
BUBaercH, ?to cpe^Hee, roAOBoe noipeóienie xJi'fc6a na Aymy Hacejenui 
AOXOAHJio Bi jiecflTHJitTie 1870—1879 roAOBi opiiÓJiHBUTejibHo xo 16,98 
nyA., a B'b mecTHJitTie 1883—1889 roAOBi coKpaTHJiocb ao 16,81 ny^. 
EcjiH se nepesecTu ary UM^^y na cyroHEyi) nopAÍio, ee Tepán uz% 
BUAy) ^To B^b cocTaB'b OJI Bxoj^HTb BOCb xjii6i, He TOJbBO C'b'bAaeMud 
AymoD, HO H BUDHBaeMuň bi> nujífb BBaca, boabh, Óparn, HHBa, a Tanse 
cBapMJiHBaeMuft AOMamHHMi SHB0THUM'b, — to osasercfl, hto cpeAHAH 
pyccRaa Aynia noTpe6jiJierb b^b cyTKH Meufbe noAoetMtA cúJidamcnavo 
naůna, cocTOAOiiaro, Kasi bsb^ctho, spoMi^ npHBapoHHUXi A^Hen, nvb 
Tpexi* <|)yHTOB'b neneHaro xji'b6a. Cmí^jio mosho cRasaTb, ^to nami 6jie- 
CTHmiS xji'b6HUĚ dRcnoprb, AocTasjí^Dii^ifi Heo6xo;^iiMoe naM^b bojioto, 
ocHOBani ÓesycjiOBHo na nysj^i, na th«roí, óescnopnoft nys^*]^. Ecjhh 
iťb BTOMy npHÓaBHTb rb ysacHUfl, aHTHrHrieHH^ecRÍfl ycjioBia, vb ro- 
Topuxi sHBerb cejibCRoe Hacejienie, ocofienno TaMi, ta^ oho hcrjik)hh- 
TOJibHO saHHMaeTCfl 8eMJieA'bJii6Mi, to BnoJiH^b oohhtho 6yAerb, ?to npo- 
i^eHTi» CMepTHocTH Bi Poccíh yBOJiHHHBaeTCA, a ne ynenbinaeTCii, RaRi 
Bi Apyruxx cTpaHaxi. Qo BuqHCJieHÍAMT» npo({)eccopa TapxanoBa, B'b 
j^BawaTHJitTie 1779— 1799 rr. npoi;eHT^ 9tot% ne npeBumajiíb 20 ne- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHRA. — nOJIOSEHIE nPOM UmJIEHHOGTH. S 5 1 

jioB%K!b HaTUCJiqy Ayini, a bi 1865 -—1885 roAax:b oh'b cocTaBJíAjrb 36,6 
qeiOBteib. Bi CTOjribTie opoi^eerL cMeprHOCTH bi> Poccíh hytb ho jabohjica. 
SaM^qaTejiBBoe ABjíeHie, — ecjui npHHATB wh pascqeTi tí mbahi^hecbíjí 

CHJlUy Ty BOaMOSHOCTB ÓOpBÓH Cb CojtSHflMH, ROTOpafl óujia y HaCB 

CTO jAtl TOMy Ha3aA'B, h — TenepB. 

BumenpHBeAeHHBie pascneru otbocatca ro Bceiiy napoAOHacejieHiH) 
Poccíh; ho mu yse bha'1^jih, ^to cejBCRoe Hacejtenie cocxaBJíAerB rjaB- 
HyD, npeoÓJiaAaDn^yn ero ^acTB; naBOHei^i, vh ropoAax'B HaniHX'B, npn 
HacTOflHieifB ÓucTpoMX Hxx poci4, TO HX'B HacaieHÍe, BOTopoe o6pe?eHO 
Ha HeAOCTaTO^HoenHTaHÍe^ CByqeHHOCTB pa3M'bii^eHÍA, Óojiíshh h b'b boh]^'& 
EOHi^oBi na ycHJieHHyi) cMeprHocTB, — 6e3cnopHo vb se cejiBHaHe, ^arnan- 
Hue HysAOH) Bi ropoA'B. BcJitACTsie cero mu, nojiaraiD, b^b npaBŽ othocth 
HacTOimee oón^ee yMeHBmenie xjitÓHaro noTpeÓJieHÍfl, a Tanse h ycH- 
jteme cMeprHocTH npeHMyn^ecTBOBHO na cejiBCBoe HacejieHie. 8to se 
caMoe HacejieHÍe — upoHdBOXHTejB Toro sepna, cocTaBJifli>ni;aro o^hh- 
cTseHHO cepBeBHuft opexMeT^ namero dRcnopra, Bwbcťb cb t^mi rjiaB- 
HUĚ H — KOJiHqecTBeHHo — eAHHCTBOHHo cepBesHufi noTpeSuTeJiB npoHSBe- 
xeniň HameĚ oTe^eCTBennofi opoMunuennocTH. Bi tíx^b se xo^aTai- 
CTBaxi HMnepaTopcBaro BoJiBHaro dsoHOMH^ecsaro 06ii^ecTBa mu naxo- 
AHM'B HHTepecHyi) Ta6jiHi^y (cTp. 116 — 117)) b% Boeft BU^HCJieHo, na- 
CROJUBo Aopose y HacB uJiaTHrB noTpeÓHTexB sa HisoTopue npeAMeTU, 
cpaBHHTejiBHo CB tImi, ^tó cyn^ecTByeTi ai, ^hhjiahaíu, FepMaHÍH h 
ÁBCTpiH. Bepy un dToft TatfjiHi^u tojibbo ab^ CTaTBH, Bcero 6oji'be He- 
o6xoAHMua cejiBCBOMy HacejieHÍg), a hmobho cejiBCBo*xo3JiftcTBeHBUA 
opyxia H ÓyMasBUA TBaBH. 3a nepBUB— pyccBÍĚ noTpetfHTOJiB ujiaTHTi 
Aopose (t>HBJiBBAiia Ba 498 npoi(eHTOB'B, repMaBua — Ba 159 h aBCTpifii^a — 
Ba 119; 8a BTopuA — ^Aopose 4)HBJiflHAi(a na 105 npoAeBTOBi, repnaBi^a — 
357 H aBCTpiňi^a — Ba 445 npoiieBTOB'B. B^b ofin^eMi, no BuqHCJieBÍJiM'B 
rkTb se xoAaTaficTB'B (cTp. 123), oxpaseBÍe bucoboA aoxoabocth oto- 
^ecTBeBBoĚ npoMunueBBocTH pbbbochjibbo oÓJoseflíD bi ea nojEBsy 
pyccBott AyniH eseroABoft noAaTBi) bi 5 p. 77^3 bob. 

TOJIBBO-TTO npHBOAeHBUB MflOD i;H({)pOBUa AaBBUA BOABeprJIHCB 

yse o6cysAeBÍK> wh nepioAH^ecBofi ne^aTH h h^otopumh oprasaMH 
ea ocBapHBaJiHCB. CraTHCTH^ecBÍB AaBBua BCK)Ay, h oco6eBBo y Bací, 
AaxeBH oTb BenorpimflMocTH, h TaBaa i^H(t>pa, BaBi BaopHMtp'B 5 p. 
77V2 B., JierBOMoseTi 6utl ocnapHBaeMa. B% cyu^BOCTH OAsaBO Bejn>3a 

He npHSHaTB, HTO BBCBOJIBBO BUme HCByCCTBOBBO BOAHaTa CTOHMOCTb Toro 

HJU Apyroro Beo6xoAHMaro 4>a<^pHBaTa, BacTOJiBBO Aopose npHXOAHTca 
8a Hero BJiaTHTB noTpeÓHTOJiio. CjiiAOBaTejiBBO, mosbo ocna^HBaTB pas- 
MÍp:B oÓJEoseBÍa, a BHBaB'B yse se caMaro ABHseBia pyccBofi AyniH 
wb nojiB8y BucoBofi AOXOABOCTH OTe^ecTBeBfloĚ npoMuniJieBBóCTH. GoBpa- 
THMi i^H4>py 5 p. 77 Va B. Ha BOJOBHBy, Aaso 6ojite, xoth 6u ao AByxi 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



352 BlbCTHHKl EBPOIOá. 

pyfijieň CB AyniH, to h lor^a axo o6j[o»eBÍe ójJífiTb npeeumaTb Ty no- 
jt^ymEjiD noAaTL, BOTopyi) npaBHTOJiBCTBO npHasajio Heo6xo;i;HMUiťB ysii- 
HTosHTb. 6oo6n^e oÓJiosenie HapoxonacaieHifl Bcerj^a h BcioAy BetMH npH- 
SHaBajiocb BOMEHyeMUMi noc4tACTBÍ6M'B nospoBHTejiBCTBa npoMumjieH- 

HOCTH. O6UKH0BeHBO TBROe n0Bp0BHT6jlBCTB0, H OCO66HHO 8HaHHTeJlbfl0e» 

npeACTBBJUieTCfl BpeMeflHofi M'bpog, soropoft apeABOJiaraercA ci bufoa- 
BocTbH) BOSÓyAHTb BOHKyppeHiuK) wb noBpoBHTOJibCTByeMofi npoMunijieH- 
socTH H Ttifb yAomeBHTb ea npoHSBeAemji sa BHyTpeHneMi puHKt. 
QoBpoBHTejubCTBo OTeiecTBeHHofi opoMuniJieHHocTH — js/kJio fle flOBoe y 
sacb. ^ocTaTo^Ho yKaaaTb, hto ^hsii Many^^aKTypí* h BOMMepi^iH-co- 
bí^tbhbobi, a TBEse u Apyrk otjh^íb, Aapyeiifiu aa ycntnmyi) M,ia- 
TOJibHocTb sa nonpHn^']^ OTe^ecTBeHHoft npoMiiniieHHOCTH h ToproBJíH, — 
H3o6pÍTeHÍe AajieBo ae aamero BpeMOHH. HaBOHei^^b, nocjii^AHee BpeiCA, 
sor^a noBpoBHTOJibCTBO npuHBJío Óojile Htm BorAa-jiu6o SBavHxenBue 
pasMi^pu, no MHornicb (t)aBTH9ecBHMi> MfiLunwtb^ npHBexeHBUMi* tímh 
se xoAaTatcTBaMH iHMnepaTopcBaro BoJibHaro dsoHOiuiqecBaro Oóni^e- 

CTBa, HHCJIO 4>&6pHB'b H SaBOAOBl y BaClb BHGKOJbBO Se yBOJIHHiUOCb, 

a, BanpoTHBi, 4>&6pHHHoe npou3Boj(CTBo npHHajio 4>aKTH?ecRH MOHonojib- 
H116 xapasTepi. 

CoócTBeBHo AJUi cejibCBaro HacejiesiB oÓJioseme pyccBod jtjmu jljuí 
oxpaHeHltt BBicoKoft AoxoAHocTH OTesecTBeHHoň npoMunueHHOCTH — EUiJlO 
eme Apyroe, ne MeH'be Tassoe nocjiij^CTBie. Bi> BHxy noBumeHÚi na- 
niHX'b TaMosensiixi* nonunni, npHBBBmaro bi 1877 ro^y 5ojibniie 
pa3M'bpu nepoBo^oMi hxi cpaay cb bp6ahthoř na Merajuni^ecByiD bb- 
jiDTy, sarpaHHqHuň noBynaTejib Hamero aopna oó^ojbhjki ero wh 1879 
roAy AOBOJibHo yM'bpeHHoft nonuiHHoA. Ci tíxi nopi H8'b ro^a B'b rox^B, 
no Mtpt xoAaTaficTBi* nenocpeACTBeHHo saHHTepecoBaHHUxrb wb tom^b 
jram, MU noBumajiiH TaMoseHHUJi nonuHHU wb TaKoxi pasM^pt, hto 
OHt yTpa^HBBJíH CBož (t)HCsaiibHbiŘ xapaBxep^b, a A^ajHCb sanpeTH- 

TOJIbHlIMH, — CJl^AOBaTejlbHO^ UpaBETOJEbCTBO TepBJIO Wb CBOHX^ XOXOABX^. 

Bmíctí Cb Ttiťb BarpaHuqnutt noRynaTejib namero sepna yBOJiH^ujrb 
CBoiD nonuiHHy na nero. Uo HcqHCJD[eBÍBM'b MHHHCTepcTBa ^^BHancoB-B, 
ceAbCKoe HacejieHÍe yojiaTHJio bi 1888 ro^y HHOCTpaHHiiirb rocy^ap- 
cTBaifb sa CBoe sepno 48.400 thcbhi pyÓJEeft MeraJiJi. noniJUiHii. Pyso- 
Bo;(flniee oón^ecTBeHHoe MH'&HÍe pa8'BjiCHHjo, hto nonurana btb sroúu 
ynjia^HBaerCA npeHMyn^ecTBeHHO nosynaTejieiii; tto naAonie níkBU na- 
mero sepna ea míctbxx npoHSBOACTBa HHCsojibBo ne BaBHCflrx orb 
Toro, ?T0 bto sepHo oójioseno Kb noJibsy HHocTpaBHiixi Kasna^eficTBi^, 
a OTb MHofuxob ApyrHxi npH^HHi HHCTO MicTHaro xapaBTepa. TaRÍfl 
CTapaniji yMeHbniHTb Hjni CBpacHTb BpacHopt^HByi) y6']^AHTejibH0CTb 
i^H4)pi — jAao ho HOBoe BO BceiTb, 9T0 Moserb xoTb cjiersa noBOJie6aTB 
nacTOBD^ee nanpaBJíeHie nameft dBOHOMH^ecBoft nojiHTHBH. Yme AaBHo 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHRÁ. nOJLOSREETE DPOMEimJIEHHOCTH. 353 

nponoB']b;B(yeTCJi, hto HHOcxpaHHUii noniJiHHtí, kohmh o6jioseuo Hame 
sepno, HMtorB ^hcto nojiHTHqecBifi xapaRTepi, ?to ont ÓoeBUA no- 
mjiHHii, BCJE^ACTBÍe nevo jsfiJirb naTpioTHSMa ne noj^^HHATbc^ hh%, a se- 
CTH 6opb6y; bccth se ee mosho h aojisho tojibro noBiiiiieHÍeM'B Ta- 
MoseHHaro TapH({)a. JI^epeBH^, noA^B BJiiaHieifB yMCTBeHHoft j^i^ATejiBHocTu 
ropoAa, yB'bpoBajia bt> nojraTHqecRifi KOJiopHTi ?hcto dsoHOMHqecKofi 
6opB6u, H yói^AHJiacb, hto AOJivb naTpioTHSMa ynoTpeÓMTB tojibko npofla- 
BCAemA oTe^ecTBeHHOň npoMunueHHOCTH, saóUBajBí opn tomi, ^to no^ 
BynKa boiii^h, onjiaTHBniei BasH^ H3BÍCTHyD nomjiHHy, ropad^o nojiesste 
dToft BasHt, H^Mi npio6pi^TeHÍe TaBOBoft ase Beo^H, cjifkusLEUoi xoMa, — 
pa3yMtercJif npeAnojiaraA, ^to bi laBOBOMi j[,^jrb ecTB xajrbftinee ui- 
CTO jsfia naTpioTH3Ma. dBOHOMHqeciuui 6opBtfa h sejiacB y naci nocjri^A- 
Hee BpeMfl cb eeocjiaÓHoft deepriefi. ?yTB ne RáSAHft roA'B TaMoacen- 
HHft TapH(t>'B TO Ha TOTB, TO Ha Apyrofi 4>&^PHKaTi— noBumajicA, h cejiB- 
CKoe Hacejieflie Bce 6ojrbe h 6ojťke pasopajiocB. IIpaB^a, ;(oxoahoctb 
oTeqecTseHHoĚ npoMHinjieHHocTH, BaKi mu Burne bha^jih, osasajiacB 

OHOBB BUCOKOfi, H B'B 9T0MI 0TH0ineHÍH MU MOSOMl CSaSaTB, HTO OAOp- 

sajiu noÓ^Ay^ — H no6'bxy TÍwb 6oxbe snaMeHaTejiBHyi) h ÓjecT^n^yK), 
TTo, npH o6^jí,EÍmE noTpe6HTejui OTeqecTBOHHuxi ({)a6pHBaT0B'B cejiB*- 
CBaro HacejieHÍA, cóuvb npoH3Be;(eHÍ& oTeqecTBeHHoft npoMunueHHOCTH 
;i;oji2eH'B óuatm yMeHBniHTBCfl, a cjii^xoBaTejiBHO, h aoxoahoctb saTpy;^- 

BHTBCfl. 

Morjio JIH ceaBCBoe HacejieBie ne pasopHTBCii noA'B rHeTOM'B AByx'B 

TaBHX'B TflSBHX'B OÓJIOSOHÍfi? IIO B£IHHCJI6HÍflMl XOAaTa&CTB'B B. 6. 3. 

06n(ecTBa (cTp. 117), cejiBCBoe nacejieHie yojiaqHBaeTi uH0CTpaHHiiM'B 
Ba8HaqedcTBaM'B nonuHHU sa CBoe sepno 18 Bon. cb ny^a. Ci Apyroft 
CTopoHU, OHO HJiH HjiaTHTB B'B TpH-Aopora sa Heo6xoAUMiiA eMy npoHB- 

Bej^eHÍA, HJIH ^PJISHO Vh HHXl CBÓÍ OTRaSaTB. ^JIA npHM'bpa BOSBMeMX 

sejiiao, noTpeÓJieHie BOToparo — Jiyqmee M^pHjio dsoHOMH^ecBaro pasBH- 
Tia CTpaHU. Cpeji;HHMi qHCJioM'B (cTp. 17, TaMi se), y hbcb Ha xyniy 
HaceJienifl npHXOAHTCH Bcero ^/s ny^a sejiisa wh roA'B, Tor^a BaBi 
jyb repnanÍH 6oji'&e 5, bo $paHiúH obojio 6, a b-b AnriiH ao 10 ny- 
AobtbI PasM^pi HOTpeÓJieHiH seji'b8a y nacfB yBasuBaeTi ne tojibbo Ha 
ypoBeHB dBOHOMHqecBaro pasBHTiA Hamero cejiBCBaro nacejiefilA, ho h 

Ha B08M0SH0CTB, — TaRli CRBSaTB, Ha CTeoeHB B08M0SH0CTH TBROrO paS- 

BHTÍfl. EcjiH MU Ri dTOMy npH6aBHM'B oÓJioseHío 9Toro Hacejienia b'b 
HOJiBsy oTeqecTBeHHofi npoMunueHHocTH bi RaBOM'B yroAHO yMeHBmeH- 
HOMi pasMipš, TO H TorAa AOJisHU ÓyAeMi hphath B'b saBJíioqeHii), 
qro npH HacT0flni;eMi HanpaBjieHÍH Hameft aBOHOMH^ecBofi hojihthbh 
cejiBCBoe Hacejienie ne mofjio ne pasopHTBCJi, h TaRse, ^to homooiib 
aroMy HacejieHÍD Bcero Jierqe AOCTHrneTcn u8MtHeHÍeMi> dToro naopaB- 
jieniH. BfB cyn^HOCTH, AtficTBHTOJiBHaA, HarjiAAHafl opn^Hna na^enifl 
Tom I.—^HBAPb, 1891. 23 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



354 BftOTHHK^B EBPOnU. 

A^Hii Ha sepHo 7 HacB — nomjiHHa; ynjiaHHBaeMaji HHOCTpaHHUii^B Kasea- 
HeĚCTBaMi; ho dxa nonuiHHa Bse^eHa vb orvbvh Ha aaapen^eflie BBoaa 

K'B HaMl ^^AÓpEKaTOBl^ CJliAOBaTeJIBHO, orb HaCTB SaBHCHTIb boojihí — He 

CKaay — yHiiqxoatHTB axy nonurafly, ho yMeHbniHTB ee. Hccomhíhho, npa^ 
BHxejibCTBa, oÓjiaraDii^ifl Hame aepHO, c% paAOCTBD BCTynATB b^b corjia- 
menie c^b HaMH^ pas^ mu xotb CBonso-HHÓyAB otbophtb AsepB ajia 
c6HTa npouaBeAenífi hx'b <|)a6pHK'B. IIpeBpacHo, hq TorAa — BospaasrB 

Hail^B — HaCB QaBOAHflTB HHOCTpaHDUMH ^^atipHBaTailH. ECJIH A&2Ke TaS'B, 

6CJUI nocji'& CTOJiBKHXi xÍTb HOBpoBHTejiBCTBa Hama ore^ecŤBOHnafl 
npoMumjieHHocTB ne bi coctohhíh BOHByppnpoBaTB cb HHocTpaHHoft, to 
H TyiTB CTpamHaro HH^ero h^itb. CTOMHJuioHHoe pyccKoe cejBCsoe Ha- 
cejieHÍe CTaneirB fiojiie nojiy^aTB aa cboh npoHSBexeHifl u Mentě njia* 
THTB sa Bce, ht5 eMy hooÓxoj^hmo; o?eBHAHo, HeMHHyeMo ÓJiarococTOA* 

HÍe erO AOJISHO yBOJUI^HTBČfl H yBeJIH^HTBCH naCTOJIBRO, HaCKOJIBBO 

6ojrbe oho óy^exi nojiynaTB h Meeše naiaTHTB. BjiarococroflBie ase 
6ojU»nuiHCTBa wh rocy^apcTB^ h yBejiH^eHie aroro ÓjiarococToanÍH ne 
MoryiTB 6uTB Bpej^HUMu 3T0My rocyAapcTBy. nojioxeme bto HHKaBHMH 
apryMeHTaMH h ccujiKaMH na Hayqnue aBTopHTeTBi onpoBeprnyTO 6utb 
ne Mosen; OAHaso» oho onpoBepraeTCii. 

y HacB npHHATO roBopHTB, ^To ycHJieHHaH nocTpoftRa SeitSHHXl 
AoporB Bi niecTHAecaTBíX'B ro^axi hbcb pasopHJia, TaB'B saBi mh ne- 
penjiaTHJiH Maccy AenerB sa Bce neoóxoAHMoe jím dTUXB Aopon, ebri- 
to: pejiBcii, napoBOsu, Baronu h npo?. OrBOpraTB Heo($xoAHMocTB hjih 
xase nojiBsy sejiisHuxi Aopor'B bpha'b jih bto 6jjífiiTb, a saT^Mi, paas 
ohí h6o(5xoahmbí, to, mhí Raacer&a, juia cTpaHU, HysAaK)ii;eficH b^b hhxi, 

BeCB BOnpOCB CBOAHTCil B'B TOMy, HTOÓU HM^TB HXl Ha BOSkOSHO ÓOJíÍB 

BuroAHBixi ycjioBíiiX'B. KasHMrb oiSpasoM^ sanHTajiBHoe coopyseme, 
HMŠK>ii^ee otíni;enoj[eaHyD i^íjib h stoě uíbjui AOCTHrnyBmee, paaopHJio 
CTpany, pa3'B oho nocrpoeno xemeBO? B^b xoAaTaficTBaxB H. B. 9. 
OÓH^ecTBa (cTp. 242) ophboahtca npKMtpi, qTo Hanra pejibCBi Hunt, ne- 
CMorpA Ha rpoMBAHUA aaTpaTu npaBHTejKBCTBa ma^ BBexeHÍA hxi npoHS- 
BOACTBa y naci, ctobotb bi* 2^^ paaa Aopose MHocTpaHHUxi. EaK'B 

BSBtCTHO, npaBHTejEBCTBO O^HO BpeMA, HOMHMO HOBpOBHTeUCTBeHHOfi 

TaMOseHHoft HOHuiHHfij, BU^aBajio HonyAHyi) npenÍD aa BUA'i^jiiiiBaeMue 
wb HaHieM'B oreqecTBi pejiBcu. IIojiosHTejiBHo Tpy^no hohatb, BaKHM'B 
otípaaoMi sej[t3Ha£ Aopora, npHaBaHHaa npH Ha^JiesaniieMi peMOHrb 
cjiyaHTB B^qHO, npoBeAeHHan no pasptmeHiio npasHTejiBCTBa,— cjii^OBa- 
TejiBHO, TBMi, rA'& cjitAyerB, — u nocxpoenHaa no^T* naÓJiDAeHÍeMi npaBH- 
TeucTBeHHUXib TexHHBOB'B, — ^aHa^HTib, Tasí, Kaai cjii^yerB, — paaopnjia 
CTpaHy, HOTOMy ^to nocTpoena hsb fi^emeBUTb HHocxpaHHuxi Maxepía- 
jeobb; a to^ho Tasafl se Aopora, nocxpoennaji im 6ojte AoporBX^ 
ore^ecTBeHHUxi, T.-e. nocxpoennaH cb óbJShmimvL aaxpaTaMH, ofioraTHJca 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



' XPOHHKA. — nOJIOSEHlE nPOHUmJIEHHOCTH. 355 

<^TpaHj. En^e TpyAHie aro noHaTb, ecjiH mu bcdomhhitb, ^to nocTpoftRa 
sejiisHUxt AopoFi wb mecTHAecaTuxt roAax'B 6ujia npoH3BeAeHa ea 
saHflTue 3a rpanni^efi RanHTajnu; cji'&AOBaTej[BHo, HHRaK'b yase nejibSH 
yreepaK^aTb, ?to sanii* py6jiB ymejii sa rpaHHi^y sa totb hjih Apyrott 
naTepiajii, npio($pÍTeHHufi j^Jia ceft nocTpofiRH. Bce, ?tó mo»ho cxa- 
^axB, dTO — qTO HacTs saxJiDHeHHaro aaSiia mu nojiymuiu bi> bha'Í pejiB- 
isoBi, napoBosoB^, BaroHOB^b h npo?. Ho bí^ab ohh y nacx ocTaJHCs, 
MEi HMH noJEBsyeMCfl, H Aase raMi, rxb npoBeAeHHua »eji']^3HUA ao- 
pora AocTHPJiH nojEHOft npoH3BOAHTeJBHOCTii, HOjiy^aeMi oTi ynoxpeó- 
jieHÍA dTHxx sarpaHH^HBixi MaTepiajiOB^ BecBMa npnjiH^nu& aoxoa^b. 
Kasi se mosho yTBepsAaTB, hto nocTpofi^a xejii^aux!* jsfipovh b7> me- 
•CTHxecjiTiix^ ro^axi HacB pasopHJia? o^HaRO, sto yTuepsAaercfl, h 

:9T0My yTBepSA6HÍK) B'6pBT'B. 

Oahhi mT> FjiaBHHX-B apryMeHTOBi jihai, noAAepsHBaDiuHxi neoC- 
xoAUMocTB oxpaHeHÍfl BucoKoft AoxoAHOCTU oTe^ecTBBHHofi npoMunijieH- 
BocTH, dTO— ysaBaHÍe na tfucTpoe dROHOMH^iecRoe pasBHTÍe CtBopeoft 
AMepHRH, npoHcmeAinee aroóu eAuncTBeneo otl BucoEaro ypoBsa Tauo- 
aceHHUxi ea nonijiHH'B. AtficTBHTejiBHO, BOJiURafl ciBepoaMepHxaHCRaH 
pecnyÓJiHRa opeACTasjuierB o6pa3eA% saMt^aTejiBHaro dROHoMH^ecRaro 
ipasBHTÍJi; HO OHO tíojťie scero npoHSoniJio oti topo, hto oea, no cbo- 
«My nojioseHÍi), BSÓaaieHa ottb Ttx'B rpoMaAfluxi saxpaTB Ha Boopy* 
senie, otb soropux^ pa3opiiK>TCfl eBpoDeficRÍa rocyAapcxBa, h BCJi'bA- 
<rrBÍe cero HMtexi bo3mo»hoctb 6ojíie TpaxuTB na npoHBBOAHTOJiBHue 
paexoAU. MoasHO cm-j^o CBasaTB, qTO ona dROHOMH^ecRH pasBUJiacB h 
pasBHBaeTCA ne BCJitACTBÍe TaMosennoft CBoefi uojihthrh, a— BonpeRH 
<efi. C^Bepnaa ÁMepuRa apeACTaBJuierB coóod abí coBepmeHHo pasjHq- 
aufl lacTH: bocto^hub mraxu cb RyjiBTypoft, hhvími ho ycTynaDn^eft 
^naAHo-eBponeficBoft, h sanaAHue— cb HHCT0-3eMJieA']bJiB?ecRHM'B Hacejie- 
HÍeM'B, otfpaóoTUBaDn^HMi A^BCTBennyi) noqBy, npaB;(a, Bce óojvie to- 
pflDH^yi) OTB RyiBTypu CBoe npHpoAHoe njioAopoAÍe. IIpH cyn^ecTByE)- 
H^eM^ o6pa3t npaBAeHÍfl, HanpaBjíeHÍe m> nefi 3R0H0MH?ecR0ft oojimthrh 
3aBHCHTi> Bcei^i^o on Toro, bi pyRax'B npeACTaBHTejieft RaRuxi ehto- 
pecoB^ naxoAHTCA nojiHTH?ecRaA BjacTB b-b Aannoe BpeMji. B'b Amc- 
Phrí, RaRi H y Haci, dorpobhtojibctbo o6pa6oTUBaE)ii^eft npoMHnijieH« 
HocTH cocTaBjíaeirB oójcosenie Bcero HapoAonacejieHia bi nojiB3y ea, h 
TO^HO TaRse cejiBCRoe HaceseHie o^jioaseHO cyry(5oň noAaTBD, Raai bi* 
nojiB3y MtcTHofi oreqecTBeHHoft npoMuniJieHHocTH, Tasí h bi nojiBsy 
aarpaHHqnaro noRynaTejiH npoHSBeAeaift cejiBCRaro Hacejenifl; ho xaN^B 
TAFOCTB dToro ABofiHOFO o(5ioa6BÍH HecpaBHBHHo iBrqe, ^iwb y naci 
AJifl dToro ase eacejieHU. AMepHRaHCRafl npoMuniJieHHocTB yace AaBHo ao- 

CTHFJia TaROrO pa3BHTÍflf ?T0 OHa BnOJIH'b MOaceTB BOHRyppBpOBaTB C1& 

aaQaAHO-OBpoaeficRofi. Mu axo hhjsj^jíis. y ce(5fl; aMepuRancRie napoBosu 

28* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



356 NOTHHBl EBPOnU. 

eme He^asHO uoicynoJiHCb js,Jia HaniHXi sejitseuxi* Aopon. lípu Tofr 
BByTpeHHei ROBRyppeHi^iH, ROTopaji cyn^ecTByerb bi ÁMepsK^, a TaKse* 
BpH cyii;ecTByR)ii];e& TaiťB rpouaAHoft cíth yjiy^mesHiix^ nyTefi coo6- 
lueHÍJi, BOJibsoBaHie BC'bM'B HeoÓxoAHMimi* a^u noTpeÓHTeJui oójierneno 
HpesBuqafiDo; Tanse o6jierHeni> h c6htb BpoH3BeAeHÍft 3eMJieA'i^ABHe- 
CKaro Tpyxa. KpoMi Toro, b-b Ambphkí ToproBjía, BOo6n^e xjr66Haji, oco- 
66flB0 AOBe^ena jss> bucokoě cienesH coBepmeacTBa, TaR^ CR&saTb, fi'b. 
TexBHHecRoifB OTHomeflÍH, H Bul&cTk CB Tbwb dra ToproBAA CByilijUk 
pacmHpHTk c6uTb cBoero aepaa bi ÁHrjiiH, ne o6jiarai)n^e& noouiHHOft 
xji^Óa, u snaquTejibHO yMeHbniHTB na dTorn* puHRt cúuvb Hamero> 
sepHB, eecMOTpa na to, htó mbi TaMi HSCTapn óhjih rJiaBHiiixH nocTaB- 
ii^HKaNH xjiiÓHUxi* rpy30B'b. Bcji'bMfiTBÍe Toro 3eMji6A'Í^JibHecR0My nace- 
jieHÍD Bi, AMepHR'b ropa3AO Jier^e buhochtb cyryÓyR) tasoctb TaMO^ 
seHHuxi nomjiHHi, nl^wb nameMy pyccRoxy, ne nojiBsyDmeMycfl nojio- 

JKHTBJIbHO HURaRHMH, OĎJierHaDU^HMU 3Ty TASeCTb, otíCTOATeJlbCTBaMH^ 

BpflA'b JIH nocjii BToro uosho cocjiaTbca Ha Ci^BepnyH) ÁMepHRy saR'b^ 
Ha y6'bAHTei[bHuft apryMeniyb bi nojibay oxpaHeHÍH bucoroK aoxoahoctb 
Hameft oTe^ecTsenHofi npoMuniJieHHocTH. 

ySto^enie B'b neoSxoAHiiocTH TaROBoro oxpaHeHÍH noJioacHTeibRo 
yAHBUTejibHo y naci, tbri rbri uMeHHo y nacb o6jierqeHÍe TaMoseH* 
Huxi TapH(ÍK)B'b HeoAHORpaTHo HpoHSBOAHJiocb Bi Haniex'B ore^ecTB^ H> 
ocerAa conpoBosAajiocb ne xojibRo yBejiHHeHÍeM'b Bceo6n(aro ÓJiaroco^ 
cToaHÍA, HO H ycHJieHieiťb pasBHTÍH MOH^e oxpaHJieMofi oTenecTBeHHoft 
upoMumjieHHOCTH. B^b xoAaTa&CTBaxi> HMnepaTopcRaro BoJbnaro 8robo- 
MHqecRaro OÓn^ecTea (cTp. 124 — 129) pa3CRa3aHU 3aTpyAHeHÍH, ROTopua 
BCTp'bTHJia ERaiepHHa BejiHRaji bt> saAyMaHHOMi eK) iK>HHseHÍH npea- 
BuqattHo BUCORaro TapH4»a 1757 roAa. Tojibro Hacroft^HBOCTbD Hxne- 
paTpHAU 6ujio AOCTurnyTo naM^bqeHHoe eio noHHxeHÍe, h HecMorpa h& 
TO, qTO B'bR'b ERaTepHHU II Óiu^b juia Poccíh BÍR0M'b no^TH Henpe* 
Rpau^aBBíHXCfl BofiHi, ÓJiaroAapa noHHseHiio TaMosennaro TapH<{»a, tojv- 
roBHO ofiopoTH Poccíh b-b TpHAi^aTHjitTie Cb 1762 no 1792 roA* yBe- 
jiu^HAHCb Bi mpu cb noAoeuHoio p<i3a; hpohsboactbo se pyccRHXS 
({)a6pHR'B H saeoAOBi Boapoc^o — na 136Va npoo^eHTOBi. Huh*]^, RaR'b h 
TorAa, ocTaDTCfl rjiyóORo B'bpH£iMH yRa3aHifl, AaHHHH HiinepaTp. ERRTe- 
pHHofi Bi en HaRasi: „ho iioseTi* 6uTb hh HCRycHoe pyROA^Jiie, hh 
TBepAO ocHOBaHHaH ToproBJín, taL BeMJieA^JÚe bi ynn^HaceBiH". Hejcban 

H6 BCQOMHHTb 3aTÍM'b SaDHCRy ROMMepAÍH COB^^THHRa UDHOBa, BHdBRB- 

uiyg) B^b 1844 roAy coópanie oco6ofi, Buco^afime yxBepsAeHHofi rom- 
MHCCÍH noA'b npeAC^AaTOiibCTBoiii rpa(t>a OpjiOBa. Bi axoň 8anMCRÍ» 
MesAy npoHHMi, CRasaHo, ^qro juis. pa3BHTÍH namefl ToproBJía h npo- 

MUUUeHHOCTH BpeAOHl HO OpHHI^Hni HORpOBHTBJIbCTBa, a HSÓHTORl ero^. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — nOJOmBHIE DPOMHIIUIBHHOCTH. 357 

BpjiAx jiK nuni drovb hsóutob^b MoaceTb 6biTB noABeprnyTi MajiM- 
oieMy comhíhír). 

nyTB Ki noAHaTiio ÓJiarococToanin CTOMHJwioHHaro pyccKaro cejib- 
CKaro HacejieHia bhoibí aceni: — o6jier?HTb jí^ň Hero, no BoaMoaHocTH, 
T^rocTB oxpaHeHÍA BucoKofi j^oxo^HOCTH oTeqecTBeHHofi npoMumjieH- 
HOCTH. mwb CBopi^e 8T0 Ďj^eTb CA^Jiaso, tím-b CKop-fee 3T0 Hac^JieHÍe 
onpaBHTCfl OTB HacTOflioaro CBoero o6íahíhía. Ri> HecqacTBS), nacTpoe- 
flie pyROBOAHn^aro oÓn^ecTBeHearo MH^HÍfl ne ^aerB ocHOBaniA ea- 
j(^TBCA Ha TaROByi) nepeiiiHy wb Hameft 9ROHOMH?ecKofi nojiHTHBt. 

B'B o6mecTB'& qacTo aoboahtca cjiuniaTB 60^*1^6 hjih Men^e ocTpo- 
71ÍHUA HacM^niBH HaA'B Tpexji^THHHH xpy^aMH romhhccíh, no noBOAy 
€iaAeHÍA ^iH^ na ceJiBCKO-xosflftcTBeHHue npoAyRTU, — rpy^aMH ao cuxi> 
aopi ne AOCTHrmHMH hh js,o KasHxi nojio»HTe;iBHUxi h cepBe3HHX'B 
pesyjiBTaTOB^. Bi eyn^nocTH, 9th HapeRaniH DpjiJCB nn MoryrB 6iitb 
iipn3HaHii cnpaBe;(JiHBiiiMH. TpyAHO BTopocTeneBHUHH MipaMH Bpa?e- 
BaTB He^yrii, xorjia npH^Mna ero ocTaeTCJi HeH3iiÍHHoft. Bi neqaTB 
npoHHRjiH cvbjífiEia o M'&pax*B, npe^nojiojReHHUxi ROMMHcciefi; naRo- 
Hei^i, H caMOi) nenaTBi), TaR^B cRaaaTB, caMOCTOATejiBHO paapaóOTUBa- 
JHCB H npejtJiarajiHCB Mípu R'b no^BJiTii) y nac^B cejiBCRaro xosflfiCTBa. 

floCTapaeMCA CRaSaXB H']bCR0JIBB0 CJIOBI o HtROfopUXl* H3% HHXl. 



11. 

Heo6xoAHMocTB ynopflAo^eHifl xji'b6Hofi ToproBJíH BpaAi jih HUH'b 
uoxerb emje 6utb npe^MeToui RaRoro-JCHÓo o6cy»AeHÍA. O cyn^ecTByio- 
ii^Hxi naRjiaAHHxi pacxoAax'B btoA ToproBJíH QHcajiocB h fobophjiocb 
^qeHB MHoro H OHeHB AaBHO, a bth pacxoAU Bce se ocxajiHCB h ocxa- 
DTCA r^MH se, RaRHHH 6uj[iH. OsH^aBmeecA 3HaHHTejiBHoe noHMsenie 
TapH<|)OB'B sejitBHiixi AoporB Ha xjvkCnue rpysu coctoajocb, ho b% 
spafiHe orpaHH?eHHux'B pa8M'&pax'B; ocHOBanifl sthxi TapH({K)Bi, no 
spafiHefi ir6pi wh nameft itícthocth, ocTajiHCB rb se, RaR^B h npesAO. 
ToHHo TaRse, RaRi h npesxe, TapH^)^ xbrovi* noHHsaercA, htoóu ot- 
BJie^B rpysu otb Bojírn, h 3hmo& noBumaerca, Ror^a ROHRyppeni^iA 
BoJirrH ycTpaHena. To^ho xaRse MicTHufi TapHi})^ bucori, u to^ho 
^aRse, RaRi h npesAe, na ropotrhx^ pascTOAHÍAXi rysesax AocxaBRa 
ycn^HiHo ROHRyppnpyeTB ci> sejitsBoS AoporoJBí. Bnpoqeui, hooóxoah^ 
MOCTB ynopjiAo^eHifl %jA6eoř ToproBJíH hhr'ÍM'b ne oTBepraercfl, a cji^- 
j(OBaTejiBHo ocTaeTCH tojibro nosejiarB, qTo6u sto ynopnAO^enie rhwb 
HJiH ApyrHM^B nyTOHi CA^nojioch coBepmHBmHXCA ({)aRTOM'B. Hsi npeA- 
jtaraeMuxi 3aTŠM'B b^b noojii^nee npex^ u-ip^ jí,na hoahatííí Hamero 
•«ejiBCRaro xosjíficTBa, HaHÓojiBniHiťB BHHManieM^ oón^ecTBennaro VHt- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



358 BftCTHHK!B EBPOIUl. 

HÍfl nojii»30BaJHCk A^i^f & HHeHHo: HeoÓzoAHMOCTb A^fl c^jBCKaro nace* 
jieHÍfl HayHHuxi cDei;iajiii>HUX'B ctAjí,emŘ Ana npaBHJibHOfi o6pa6oTRii 
nojiefi, H Heo6xoAHMocTB aah tofo se HacejieHÍfl bi AemeBovb h ao- 

CTjnHOlfB RpeAHl4. norOBOpHMl se o HHX'B. 

Hhrto He CTanera 0TpH^aTI^, hto noieBO^CTBo y naci naxoAHTCA 

Wb SaJIKOMl COCTOaHÍH. ^^OCTaTOHHO CRasaTB, ^TO MH 60^6 HO BUIOJIH 
H8'B TpexnOJEBHOfi CHCTeMU, H ^TO BJlOAOCM^HHaJI, KHOrODOJIBHafl RyJIL- 

Typa flBjifl6Tca y naci p^akhxb, BecBMa p^arhm^ HCRJiD^eHieMi. Tqtoo 
TaRse, nojiarai), scaRift CRaserB, hto pacnpocTpaHeHie, caiioe mHpoRoe 
pacnpocTpaHeHie cejiBCRo-xo3flĚcTBeHHaro cnei^iajiBHaro sHaHia bo bc&x^b 
ero poAax'B a BHj^axi bi> BUcmeĚ CTenenn sejiaTOjiBBo. IIpHHiiHaiaiBHa 
OTO — TaRi, HO Ha^aBinee y Hacb yjiy^maTECfl c^ejikCRoe xosflftcTBO CTajio 
naj^aTB bi nocjiiAHee naTHJiiTíe h naj^aTB BCJibj^cTBie CBoefi óesAOXOx- 
hocth; Bonpocx, sea^HTi, cobcími ho wh tox^, ttó HysHo amh yjiy?- 
meBÍA RyjiBTypu, a RaR'B yBejin^RTB aoxoahoctb btofo xoBsĚCTBa. Bcjii^x* 
CTBíe cero upaBHjiBHoft nocTanoBRofi Bonpoca ÓuJia 6u cjit^yDn^aa: ne* 
o6xoAHMO JIH BHanie jí,Ma jBejm^ema aoxoahocth ^annott npoMUimeH- 
HOCTH? Xo^aTaScTBa HMoepaTopcRaro BojiBHaro dROHOMH^ecRaro Oón^e- 
CTBa WH)rB cJi-i^yDn^itt otbítb. Tam (crp. 149 — 150) mu ?h- 
TaeMi: 90<ÍNf>Hi(iajiBHO-co6paHHua b% 1887 roAy AaBHUH noRaaaJiH, ^to> 
mi* o(5ni;aro ^HCJia 21.810 jihi^b, aaBi^AUBaBniHxi bi Poccíh 4>a(SpHHH0- 

SaBOACRHMl np0H3B0ACTB0M'B, TOJIBRO 6,8 DpOI^OBTOBB BOJiy^HJin TOX-^ 

HHHecRoe oÓpasoBanie, a& h vb btomi HHqTosHox'B HHCJit 6oji%e TpeT» 
npHXOAHJiocB Ha AOAK) HHocTpani^eBi; ocrajiBHue sarbMi 93,2 npoi^eHT& 
ne hmí^jih sa co6ofi ne tojibro TexHH^ecRofi, ho xase ajieHeHTapHoft 
Hayqnoí noAroŤOBRK**. BHCORan aoxo^hoctb ore^ecTBenHoft opoMunueH- 

HOCTH H3B']^CTHa, H CM^O MOSBO CRBSaTB, ^TO CeJIBCR0-X03JI&CTB6BHaS 

CB HeoDHcaBHofi paAOCTBH) yAOBOJiE»CTBOBajiacB 6u qeTsepTott H A&se- 

MeHBHieft qaCTBD 9T0& AOXOAHOCTH. IlaTOJlOrHqeCRÍfl ffBJI6HÍfl nojiHORpo- 

bía h MajiORpoBifl óqeHB cxoAHU Mes^y co6ofi: roJCOBORpysenie, xan- 
pHSHHfi anneTHTB, saiieAJieHHaji A'6ATejiBH0CTb rjiaBHUX^B 4>yHRi^ift op- 
raHHBMa — MoryirB hpohcxoahtb oto coBepmeHHO npoTHBonoiioaHHxib npH- 
m/iEi>, TaR'B H Bi A&HHOMi cjiyqat: OTe^ecTBennaji npoxumieHHocTB h& 
HysAftercA wh cnen^iajiBHOMi SHanin, TaR'B Raai ona h 6e8% nero no- 
xj^BjeTb rpoMaAHue aoxoau; cejtBCRO-xosAficTBeHHoft se bto BHanie ne- 
nocHjiBHO BCJiiACTBÍe efl o6tMjsfkma. OrcyTCTBÍe SHanU vb o6íhxi r^as- 
HHx-B OTpacMXi Hapo^Haro Tpyxa — ABJíeHie bdojh-í cxoAHoe, Tos^e- 
CTBeHHoe, HO npnqHHH btofo aajienifl AiaMerpajiBHO hpothbohojioshuji. 
BticoRaa xoxoahoctb h yCuTOHHocTB hmídtb coBepmenHo oARHaROBOJC 

JlQCJťbMfirBiH. 

Cnei^iajibHoe BHanie, caMo no ce6i, ÓesB npHJioxeHiB, ne HiiierB- 
cnei^íajibnaro SHa^eHía; jí^xa npHjioseoia se ero bi cejibCRoii-B HnenHa 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — nOJlOSEHIE nPOMUmiEHHOCTH. 359 

xo3flftcTfii Tpe5yDTca sarpaTu. OcHosaHÍe nojieBoj(CTBa HeMHHyexo — 
xopomafl naxoTE. Kasi 6u hh BocxeajiajiH bcabía ycoBepmeHCTBOBaHHUA 
P0AHU4I cozH, HO owb HO uoTjTb 3a]iÍHHTB caifaro njioxoro n;iyra, 6ez% 
KOToparo hítb xopomeft namoH. Yxy^meEnua se cejiBCBo-xosjiftcTBeH- 
HUfl opyxifl noOTH Hej^ocrynniii no nini jífiíMe jsjia cpe^Haro xosaft- 
CTBa. Ohh o5jioseHU y nact BecBMa bucoroS TaMoseHHofi nonuiHHoft, 
H, pasyxieTCAi Tyseiraoe dpohbboactbo xepsHTca niwb, ROTopufl o6y- 
cjiOBJíHBaDTCA aToft nomJiHBofi. BcTopífl BBeAeHífl en oqeHB HHrepecHa. 
^0 1885 r. npHBOB^b cejnbCKO-xo3irficTBeHHUX'B u^mmwb h opy^ifi 6ua% 
6ednoniJiHHHH&, ttó hhcrojibro ne noiri^inajio pasBHTii) cejBCRo-xoaaft- 
CTBOBHaro MamHHOCTpoeHifl vb Poccíh. 9to AORasuBaDTB i^H4>pu. Hhcjio 
MexaHH^ecRHx^ BaBej^enift x MacTepcRHXi, saHHMaBinHxcA aTHiťs a^- 
jioiTB vb 1862 roxy, ee npesumajio 64; r^l 1886 r. ono B03pocjo xo 436. 
XoAaTaftcTBa oreqecTBeHHoň npoiiunuieHHocTH, saHimaDiiieficfl coibcro- 

XOSflflCTBeHHUlťB XaiDHHOCTpoeHieifB, Otft yBeJfHqeHÍH 6A AOXOAHOCTH 

MBHo nocTynajiH Ry^a cjAjíjerb ni nepejcaBajmcb vb y^peaR^aeiiUA na 
ceft npeAMen roiihhccíh. O^Ha hbi TaROBiix'b upnaHajia Heo5xoAFHUM% 

OfilOSHTb CeJIBCRO-XOBAĚCTBeHHUA MaiDHHII M 0pyAÍA TaiI0S6HH0fi UO- 

mjEHHoft Vb 30 Ron. cb nyxa. TorAamsift mhhhctpi 4>iiHaHC0Bx (reee- 
pajrB-aAiDTaHTB rpefira) jiaji^ BaRjiDHeHie, ^to npH coBpeMeHHOMS co* 
ctoahíh ceJiBCRaro xoBAfiCTBa b'b Poccíh e^Ba jih 6ujio Óu cnpaBejpiH-* 
vawb o6jiaraTB pyccRoe seifjieBJíaAiHie RaRRMi-jiHÓo hobumi najioroM^. 
3aRjii)q6HÍe MHBHcrpa Óujio hphhato rocyAapcTBeHHmťB cobítomi h 
yxocTOHJiocB BucoHatmaro 0A06peHÍA 3-ro iw)Jia 1880 ro^a. TaRoe bob- 
3p'bHÍe rocy^apcTBeHoaro coB-iTa ne hbuíhhjcocb h npn nepecMorpt Ta- 
pn^ Vb 1882 roxy. IIoJioseHie pyccRaro 86MJieBjiaA'ÍHÍA cb Te^eBiem 
BpeueBH BBCROiBRO Bo yjiyHBíHJiocB, a BanpoTBBi, BocTeneBBo Bce 6o- 
sie yxyABiajiocB; npaBHTOJiBCTBo, oxbbro, nepeiiiBHJio CBoft BarjiBAino 
ceny Bonpocy, h bi 1885 roAy oÓjcoshjio cejiBCRo-xosflftcTBeBBUfl na- 
mBflu B opjAÍB TBMoseBBoft BOfliiBBoft 3% 60 Roo. MOTaji. cb By^a, a 
Vb 1887 r. nomjiHBa dxa 6ujca noBumeBa Mfi 70 rob. Meraji. cb sy^a 

B006n^6y a Cb JIOROMotfRJieftfC&BBlIXlBpeCCOBl, SXUXOApotfHJORlfSepBO- 
ApofiBJlORl, R0pB6pÍ80R'B, I^eBTpo6tSBUX'B CJfBBROOTA^JIHTejiett, MAJIOR^B, 

TpenajioR^, pyqBUXi* mojibbhi^i b BJieBaiopoBi am mojiothjiori — ao 
1 p. 40 X. neraji. c% nyxa. 9to oÓJioseBíe pyccRaro 36MjieBJiaA'ÍBÍfl co- 

BnaJIO CB ApyTHlTB, BPHBBTUHI repMaBCRBlťB BpaBBTOJIBCTBOMl Vb TOWb 

se 1885 roAy, a HMeHBO cb BOBUBieHieifB BomjiflBii Ba Bame sepflo 
c% 30 Ba 50 iiapoRi. no3BOXBTejieB'B sonpocB: ^'iftcTBHTejnbBO jra tpe- 
6yeTCB CBei^iajiBBoe BBRBie, Ror^a sarpy^BJíeTCB ero npHxiBeBÍe? 

no npaBHTexBCTBeBBHM^B BpexnojioseBiAiirB, BcrpiqeBfliiiii BecBMa 
co^yBCTBCBBo otín^ecTBeBBuiTB MB-iBieiťB, yqpesAaDTCfl 7 BacB bbbbiía 
ceiBCRO-xoBBftcTBeBBiiB fliROJiu, — H Rpoiit TOFo, npenoxasaBíe RpaTRBX^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



360 BftCTHJSBS EBPOHU. 

Heoóxo^^HMHXi cejikCKO-so3AflcTBeHHUX'B nosHaHÍfi TeopeTH^ecBH H npas- 
TH^ecKa npiypo^HBaeTCJi ki cymiecTByni^HMi c6J[bckhm:b yqHJUnniaiťB. 
JIocjvbM,Bee HaM'B, AepeBOHCKHifB acHTejiaiTB, Bsymaerib ni^ROTopoe He^o- 
yH'bHÍe. 6*5 uícthoctax'b qHCTo-8eM.ieA'kib?ecBHx%, fa*]^ HHeHHO cejib- 
cBO-xo3AficTBeBHUH, A&se dJieMeHTapHHii nosHaHÍA Bcero6ojr&e Heo5xo- 

AHHU, SaHATÍA fi'b CeJBCBHXl yqMJIHII^aX'B HaqHHaiDTCfl OHeHb nOSAHOt 

no OROHianÍH nojieBuxi pa6oirb, h npespamiaiOTCJi cx Haqaxoiťb hx'b. 

npH OpOHaBOACTB*]^ dSSaMeHOBl, Vb 3THX'b y^HJIHII^aX^B BasAoroAHO 

cjiuniHa BciDAy o^ea h Ta se s&io<5a y^HTejiBCRaro nepcoHajia, tto 
MHorie Hs^B yHeHHBOB'B He MorjiH abhtbca bi> dRsaMOHy, xaBi Basi, tot- 
Haci 00 BCRpúTÍH nojiefi otb cH']bra, 6ujih bsetu na pa6oTH. IIpH na- 

CTOAO^eiťB OÓ^JíMÍBÍB RpeCTBAHCTBa, petfOHOBl, AOCTHrmift B03M0SH0CTH 
6UTB DOJieSHUHl, DO-HeBO.lt ^OJISOHl SapaÓOTaTB CBOň XJI-iÓl, HJIH B'B 

poAHTejiBCBOMi> aomí, hjh oT^a^oft FB ^ysoft. UosBOJiHTejBEo ee^o- 
yMtnie, RaBHMi ofipasoMi npn TasHx^B ycjoBÍaxi ycxpoHrca Ta hahi- 
míEj peBOMeHAyexaa mhofemh, o6t> ofipasi^OBoiťB nojvk h ca^t npH cejiB- 

CBOlťB yqHJIHII^i, BOSA^JUBaOHOMl yqeHHBaMH nOA^b pyEOBOACTBOM'B y?H- 

Toju. ^To se sacaoTC^ cneKÍajiBHuxi> cejfBCBO-xosaficTBeHHHXi mBOjrB 
HHsmaro paspjiAa, to oqeeB b^poatho, ecjra HacTOAQ^ee nojioseHie 
3eMjieB^aAÍHii( ae hsxíhhtch B'b JiyqmeMy, hto óojibhihhctbo oboh^hb- 
niHXi b'b HHXTt BypcB ne Haft^erB bobuoshocth BocnojiBsoBaTBCJi npi- 
o6p%TeHH£iM'B SHaHÍem. Bootfn^e, wb nocjitAHee BpeMfl, yqeÓHua aase- 
xenÍH, y^pesAfteiiua cb cneAÍajiBHOD ii'bjiBH) y^OBjíerBopeHia Toft hih 
xpyroň noTpeÓHocTH, Bas^-TO ho AOCTHraiOTib y naci CBoeň u^íjíh. 
HejiBSH CBasaxBy ^toóh mu CTpaAajiH hsóutbomx cnei^íajiHCTOBi, a HeasAy 
TÍM'B o^iOBB qacTO npHXOAHTCii BCTp'&qaTB JiDAeft, 3aHHMai)iii;HX% cne- 
lUdJiBHUii AOJisHocTif, coBC^Mi HecoFJiacHUfl CB HayqHoft nOArOTOBBOfi, 
HHH noji[yqeHHo&. IIosbojie) ce6i npEsecTH oahbi npHMibpi. IleHaeHCBoe 
ryÓepHCBoe seiíCTBo otbpuao bi 1867 roAy (t>ejiBAniepcByH) msojiy xjie 
otfesne^eBía ryÓepHia b'b HHdmeifB moahi^hhcbomi uepcoHajii^. Gi 1867 
no 1889 roA^B Bunyn^eno Óujio hs^b btoř mBOJiu 1 65 ^ojiobíbi, co SBa- 
HÍeM'B (j[>e;[BAniepa. IIo co5paHHUM'B vh i¥)x^ 1889 roAa CB'bAeHÍJ!M'B, 
H3'B dTHX^B 165 qejiOB']^Bi n% y^AHBix^B aoMCTBaxi ry6epHÍH coctoajio 
Ha cjiys6'6: ((>ejiBAniepaMH 39 qejioBÍ^B'B h npn ryÓepncBofi aeMCEofl 
ÓojiBHHi^i^ 10. 06'B yqacTH ocTajiBHUxi 116 to^huxx cBiAenift ne Hiri^- 
jeocb; ho ^acTHUir^ oópasoirB hsbíctho, ^to MHorie h3i» hhx'b cjiysarB 
Ha sejitaHOĚ Aopori, — tojibbo cobcími ne b'b BanecTBÍ 4Í)ejiBAniepoB%. 
MesAy T^Mi, npH pa3($pocaHHOCTH naniHXi cojibcbhxi nocejieHiĚ na 
orpoMHOMi npocTpaHCTB^, npH qacTOifB noflEJienÍH b'b hhxi bcabhxi 
6ojiiÍ3He& H npH HaniHX^ rpyHTOBux'B Aoporaxi, noTpeÓHOCTB b% MeAH- 
UHHCBOMi nepcoHaji^ BCABaro poAa, xaB^ CRa3aTB, ÓesrpaHE^na. Ki 
Hec?acTÍi), o6cTOETejiBCTBa BiiHysAaiOTib seMCTBa ne pacniEpaTB, a CBysE- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHBA. — nOJOSRBHIE nPOMUniJIEHHOOTH. 361 

BaTB CBOD ;(%ATej[BH0CTb. Cb ;^pyroft cropoHu, mh bhahmb coeepineHHo 
npóTHBonojiosHoe ABJíeHie. Gi BBexeHieirb asipiSHofi CHCTeMU 4>aRTH- 
^ecRH noTpe6oBajiCA Bucosift ypoBeHB TexHHSH BHHORypeHin. IIpH cyme- 

CTBOBaHÍH 06fl8aTeJ[bH0& HOpMU BHSypRH HSB^^Haro ROJIH^eCTBa 6e3- 

BOAHaro CDHpra evl AAHHaro Btca xaTepiajia, RaRi* npeasnÍA bhho- 
sypHH, TaRi H npesHíe BRHORypu oRasaJiHCb HenpHroAHUMH. HHRaRHX'B 
cneiúajiBHiixrE saBe^eHíft juia npHTOTOBjieHÍji MexaHHROBi h BHHORypoBi 

He tíUJIO, OAHRRO 0«ieHB CROpO OTCTpORJlHCB HOBCD^y BHHORypeHBHB SR- 

BOAH, ROTOpue BB TexHifqecRoirB oTHomeBÍH Haio qtvB ycTynaiDTi 
3anaAHo-eBponeAcRHMB; hbhjihcb trrso h cneuiajiHCTU-BHHORypBi, Bnojini 
yAOBJíerBopHTejiBHo cnpaBJADn^iecR cb TpexrB-cyro^iHHKB ($poaKeHÍeM'B, 
ROTopoe en^e HeARBHO cqHTajiocB HeBosxosHHiťB h HeMucjiHKuirB, h heofo 
BHHORypeHB AemeBHXB, BnojiH^ npHroAHUxi rrrb ajka Rpynnaro, xaRB 
H jí,Jía Mejncaro npoHSBOACTBa. HejiBdfl oao6phtb KaoBTajiHCTH^ecRaro 
HanpaBJíeHiji, AaHHaro b'b nocji^AHee jspeun BHHORypeHÍE), ho TaRse 
vejiBSfl He CRasaTB, ^to BHa^ajrb aRi^HSHaa cHCTOMa ÓJiHCTaTejiBHO 
paspbniRja o^chb cjiosHyi) aa^any: oea bqcoro noAHii;ia TexBHRy bhho- 
sypeHHaro npoHSBOACTBa ÓeaB rrrhxb-jihóo aaTparb co CTopoHU npaBH- 
Tejn»CTBa, h bm']^ctí AOCTasHJia, cpaBHHTeJiBHO cb npesHHirb, rpoMaj^Hiift 
AoxoAB RasH^. HejiBSii TaRme, nojiaraK), ne CRaaaTB, qxo ea PycH Bcer^a 

4iBJMK>TC£ HeOÓXOAHMUe BOAXO^flOlie JIDAH, ROrXa BB HHXB AifiCTBH* 

Tejn>HaH sa^oÓHocTB. 

Oahhmb pacnpocTpaHeHieiTB cejiBCRo-xosflftcTBeHHUXB no3HaHitt ne 
orpaHHqHBaercH pyROBOA^n^ee o5n;ecTBeHHoe mbíbío bb CBoefi chctb- 
MaTH^HOfi aaóOTJIHBOCTH o nOAHATÍH ypoBHii RpecTBflHCRaro 6jarococTO- 
MEÍH. PacnpOCrpaHeHie TeXHHqeCRHXB CBÍ^A6HÍft HdOfiXOAHMUXB RpeCTBAH- 

CTBy BB ero RycrapHONB npoMHCJit h noon^peHÍe bt^fo npoMucjia saHR- 
vaoTB ero eo^e 6ojrbe. Ecjih bsatb bcd nepioAH?ecRyiD ne^aTB sa canufi 
KopoTRÍft nepioAB BpeMeHH, to HenpeiftBHo bb neň ORaKerca, uosa- 
xjŘ, H ne OAHa ctotba o RycTapeoMB npoMucjrt. H^tb BucTaBRH, Ha 
ROTopoň He Óajio 6h cnei^iajiBHaro OTxtjia h cnei^iajibHUXi npeNift j(,jia 
BToro npoHucjia. JI^McTBHTejiBHO, npH HacTOJi^eirB o6n;eMB nojioseBÍH 
^eiueBJíaA^Hiii, seMJiR HOserB npoRopMHTB RpecTbXHCTBo; ho HHRaRB yse, 
pawb sa HajiHira HCSJíD^eHiANH, ona ne ynjiaTHTB Jiesan^HXB na homb 

O^SRTejlBCTBl. Cjt^AOBaTeJIBHO, OÓASaTeJIBCTBa 9TH A0JI3RHH ($UTB BSpa- 
SenU RpeCTBflHHHOKB OTAÍJIBHO OTB SeXJIH, OCOÓUMB TpyAOMl, R HO- 
TOMy DCe, HTÓ HOmeTB HOAHíITB, nOOn^pHTb DTOTB Xpy^B, RBJIReTCA hgthh- 

HUVB 6jiaro;i*bRHÍeHB; ho ocyn^ecTBHMo jih 3to ($JiaroA'i^RHíe? BcRsoe 
npoH3BoxcTBo, AocTHrmeo 4>a6pHqHaro xapaRxepa, HOMHHyeHo AOJimHO 
y^HTB pyqHoft TpyAB, 3aHHMai)Di;iftCR oAHHaROBiiMB jsMowh. OSHARHie, 
Tře (^AHHft RpecTBAHRHB-RycrapB MoserB ROHRyppnpoBaTb cb ÓoraToi 

OreieCTBeHROft npONHmJieHHOCTBD, H ROHRyppHpOBaTB XOTA CB híroto- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



362 vhCTBSOffb EBPonu. 

poft BHPowftj — Bpajs,% JIH ocymecTBHMo, OcTaeTCji, sa-rtM-b, sa aojik) ny- 
CTapeft yxoBJíeTBopeHíe HeaaT^ftjiHBHXi HysA'B N^Tnaro HacejieHia; ho 
ryrb rjiaBHUirE, xase exHHCTBeHHQHi oceoBaHÍeMi ycntniHofi a^^atojik- 
BOCTH BycrapHofi npoMunrieeHOCTH óyxeri Tpe6oBaHie HacejieHÚi ea es 
npoHdBeAeeifl; RaBOBoe Tpe6oBaHÍe B'b cbod onepeAb saBHCHTi otb óojib- 
ineft HJiH MeHBinefi njiaTesHofi cnocoÓHOCTH nosynaTejiA. IIoflCHK) dTO 
npHNlpoiTB. JIíti UATb, mecTB, TOKy Ha8aA'B, b% Hamei MtcTHocTH, 
roTOBys) KpecTBAHCsyi) Tejitry, Rasrb roBopHTca, na zo^yt HejibSfl ($hjio 
EyDHTB AemeBJíe 9—10 py6jieft, pa8yM'6eTCji, ce HeniHHOBaHHHMH ROJie- 
cauH, 6e8'B ihkbopha (no 3A'9bmHeKy, cepAeHHHsa), h BooÓn^e 6e^^> me^ 
Jiisa, a TOJiBBo OAHo xepeBO. TenepB Ta se caiiaA TOJiira oxotho npo- 
xaercfl sa ujitb pyÓJieí h xase xemoBjíe. Mtl hatb, mecTB, Tony 
HasaAiB, o noon^penÍH BycTapHoft npoNHmeHHOCTH ^to-to ho óbuío cjiHinHo» 
a Tejr&sHHBH ÓJiaroAeHCTBOBajiH; huhí, Borj^a npHAynHBaDrb BCJiRÍa 

MipU El nOOn^peHtl) BTOS npOHUSIJieHHOCTH, TaxtlUHBH 6^QlBJWTh. 

Hys;(a b'b TOJiiraxi ocTajiacB Ta se, ^ase yBejiH?HjiacB, HapoAOHace^ 
jieHÍe 6e3ycjiOBHO pocTerb; i^lna se HZ'b ynajia eAHHCTBenHo noroMy^ 
^To tíjiarocoeroJiHie HacejieHia ynajio, h CtAHOCTb sacTaBjíiien ero orpa- 

HH^HBaTb JÍS> HeBOaVOSHOCTH CBOH nOTpe^HOCTH. 

SI nosBOJii) ce6']bTenepb eetíojibinoe oTCTynJieHie orbnpHHATaroMHOo 
njnana. IIocjilAHee BpeHA mhofo roBopHJiocb h nHcajiocb o Mtpax^ si 
npeRpan^eHÍK) rbvb onycTomHTejibHHxi nosapoBi, BOTopue A^ficTBHTenHO 
cocTaBMDTi BCJiHBoe (SiACTBÍe AepeBHH. Mesxy hhmh 6oite Bcero 
peBONeHAOBaJiHCb cejibcsoMy HacejieoÍK) HecrapaeMun, pasearo po^a^ 
Rpiinra, — H HeopHBflTie mi^ o6iJiCHflJiocb EocHocTbD BToro HEcejieHiii. 
TpyAHOCTb óopoTbca ci AepeBeHCRHUH noasapaMH, coBepmeHHO BipHo^ 

SaBHCHrB 0Tb COJIOVeHHlIXl Spiim^b KpeCTbAHCBHXl H3(h» y XBopoB^ 

^iftcTBHTejibHO, npH cyxofi noroAt h npH cjibl6ou% Aase bítp'6, 6ii- 
cTpora pacnpocTpaHeHiH h CHJia orná B'b na^ajit nosapa TaROBH, ^to 
nojioSHTejibHo HH^ero nejibaa c^iJiaTb. IIoEa ropflTi cojioMeHHHH spuma 
— na 20 casen'b, j^ase óojite, nejibSH noj^ollTH si nosapHmy. DpaB^a^ 
BTo npoAOJisaeTca o^enb ne^ojiro, cojiova crapaerb 6ucTpo; ho exHH* 

CTBeHHaa BOSMOSHOCTB 6opb(SH, BTO— Cb OOABiTpeHHOft CTOpOHU aaJIHBaTK 

BpumH, eii^e HerpoHyruH nosapoiťb. OqeBHj^Ho, hto aaiitHa cojiiOMeH- 
Hux'b Epuin'b ApyrHMH, CBOJibRo-HHÓyxb 6ojAe orHeynopHEiMH, 6Hjia óu 
Bceo6ii;HM'b ($jiaroAtaHieH^ ho bto neBOSMosHO. BcAsair, Aase caMBjí 
AemeBaHi yjcyímeHHaA spunia, Bce se cxoHrb ^TO-HH($yAb, tofae Rarb 
Ta, KOTopaa Tenepb y EpecTbHHHHa, HH^ero ony ne ctoht^ KpoM& 
Toro, y EpecTbaHHHa xpuma nysna ne amh oaho& touko h86u, b% 
jcoTopoft OH'b SHBen, ho h jíjiSL ABopa, HaxoAfln^arocH ch Hsfiofi bi 
OABoň CBA8H H HpexcTaBJíJiDn^aro, cpaBHHTenHo 0% hbúoŘj Hjioni^aA& 
BpHniH vb xecflTb H Óojť&e pasi 65jibHiyK). IIoBpHTb HSÓy yjiyqnieHHoi 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOnHBA. — nOJOSEHlE nPOMKinunSHHOCTH. 36S 

KpumeŘ H ocTaBHTB ABopi DOA% eoJioMo& — HH Ki ^oMy 6h se noBejio 
oTHOCHTenHo uoxapa: KpuTB se Bce CKOJibso-HRÓyAB orHeynopHoft spu- 
met — 9T0, oco6eHHO huhI, nojiosHTejiBBO deBoaiiosHo A&ace'AU Kpe- 
CTLflHHHa CDpaBHaro. Heo6xoAHMo npHHJiTB en^e bi cootípaseHÍet hto 
ocTOBi— csaseinb — xpusiH noAt cojioiioft coctoeti hsi sepj^eft h AOpe- 
BHmeRi, rA% nysno Bce CBasuBaTb No?ajio&, Bor^a Kpuina ne boblkovb^ 
Easi npHHdTo H3o6pasaTB RpecTBaHCsíJi hbóu, a ropas^o 6ojte pac- 
DpocrpaHeeHiiiM^ y naci marpom. DpH BcaRoft se Apyroft cHCTeir& 
noTpe(5oBajiHCB 6u CTpooHja, pimeTBHsi h, HasoHeiiTi, sejiiso,— Bce 
Tasafl pocKomB, Koropafl Buwb ne^ocTynna 6ojiBinHHCTBy cejiBCBaro 
HacejieHiji. Ilpn HacToan^eNi BBOHOMH^ecRom nojioseBÍH ^HCTo-aeNJie- 
X'i^HecRaro cejiBCRaro HacejieHiii, BoopocB o HecrapaeMUXi jíjia nero 
Rpumaxi na^o npM«iHCjiHTB r'b rbwb ÓjihVBWh nosejaHiaiTB, ocyn^ecrajie- 
Hie ROTopux^ B03U0SH0 ójjifiTb TpAZBfb TOJiBRO vb oTxajieHHOM^ 6yAy- 
mfiwb, H TO noA'B ycjioBieMi ($jiaronpiATHaro jt^Jia dToro HacejieHia hsh^ 
HBHifl Hameft dROHOMH^ecRoft nojiHTHRH. DoRa eAHHCTBefleaa Boaiíos- 
HOCTB 6opB6u CB ^^epeseHCRHHH nosapaMH, dTo— pacnjaHHpoBRa ceieHÍft 
ch i^^jiBK) AOCTHrHyTB, TaRi CRasaTB, (|>aRTHqecRoft jiosajiHaa^iH orHn. 
IleHaeHCRoe ryÓepecRoe aeiicTBo nocranoBJíeHieirB cbohitb 10-ro AeRafipa 
1879 roxa H3xajio npaBHJia o nocrpofiRaxi vb cejieHiiixi BeeaeHCRoft 
ry5epBÍH. B'b cTaTBi 19 bthx^ BpaBHJi cRaaaBo: „Bi cejiealaxi, ycTpoB- 
BaeMUXi corjiacBo njiaBy, bcí bpoíbah h spovesyTRH Mesxy rBftsAaMB, 
AOJiSBU 6uTB sacasesu no o6'b CTopoBU, Ba^Haaii otb yjui^u, bo bcx> 
rjqr^HBy ABopoBi, BucoRo pocTvn^HNM AepeBBAMH JHCTBeflBoft nopoj^Uf 

HJH, CMOTpB no yXOSCTBy, BOTJIOBUMH ROJBHMH, Vb qOpTt OCÍAIOCTB 

RpeCTBBBi, fla cqeTB Bcero oÓniecTBa; aa seujiaxi se ^acraux^ BJia- 

AtjlBI^eBl — CBMB BOCJf^XBBVH". 

HecoMB-^bBBO, pacnjiaBHpoBRa cejoBÍft TaRHMi o6pa80M'B, hto(Sii Mos^y 
rflibaAaiffl wh ABa mjh Tpn ABopa Baxo^HJiHCB ujom^aj^RH, sacaseBBua 
AepeBBinifl, Baxo npB3flaTB, npB Bacroan^em noJoseflÍB cejiBCRaro sa- 
cejeBÍJi, sa canyi) Jiyqniyi), eARBCTBesBO BpaRTHqecRyx) iťbpy npoTHBi^ 
cBjconiBuxi nosapoBi. Ecjih6ii nocTaflOBJíeBÍe nesBescRaro seMCTBa 
1879 r. cTporo BcoojiflajioeB co BpeueBH ero Ba^aBÍH, to, BecoNBtBBO, 
KU ae BB^ajM 6u Ttxi ysacBuxi nosapoai, RoropuNB osBaNeaÓBa- 
jocB nocjiftABee acTeRmee jíto bi aamefi ryfiepala; ao obo ae acnoi* 
BHJCOCB. Haxo ESLfiíbancB^ qTo npH npexoTOAn^eft seiiCRoft pe4>opiri^ 
flpoBHBi^iajiBBaji nojHi^ia nepecraners cqaTaxB xm ce6si o6b;^bhm'b 
BcnojiBeBie seacRHXi nocTaaoBjíeaíft, a 6yxerB oRasuBaTB to aeoóxo- 
ARMoe coA^CTBÍe, Óeai Roroparo bo iiaoraxi OTpacjiax'B cBoefi xtB- 
TOJiBaoeTH seifCTBo Be KOserB o6oAraeB. ynperB RpecTBBVCTBy bi roc* 
aocTH aaAO npaaaaTB noJlosRTejiBBo aecnpaBeAJiBBUiiT); aaBpoTHBi, oao 
o($JiaAaerB 8aH%qaTejiBflo& cnocotfaocTBH) yjia^Bo npaataaTBCJi ri Tpyx- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



364 BI^CTELHRTb SBPOIQI. 

HHSTB yCJIOBiAMl CBOefi »H8HH. TaSl H B^B MÍ^Jtk npOTHBOAMCTBÍfl UO- 

sKapHHMi yÓHTsavi. Ben bcakhxi noyqeHÍft h noHysAemft, cemo co6oft 
ycrpoHJiocb b^b nocii^^Bee BpeMJi, hto ^tb ne b'b kesraoki ABop^ cyiae- 
<;TByeTB aH6api» h3i cspi^eBoro KHpuH^a, HasHBaeMiift HasaHsoA. Bi 
3THX'B va8aHRax'B xpaHjm^a^&B RpecTb^HCRaA abh^hvoctb ocTaeTCH 
($ÓJiBsi6K) nacTBE) coBepmeHHo HeBpeAHHofi bo Bpeuii nosapa. Ey^B tíJiaro- 
cocTOAHie cejiBCRaro HaceJieHiii xotb h^crojibbo, neMHoro Jiy^me nacTOA- 
ii^aro ero o6ÍM,uimay CRopo noABnjracB 6u h orHeynopHHA RpumH. Bi 
Hameg m^cthocth KHorie RpeCTBAHe yK^DTB otjih^ho rphtb pmaHUMH 
cHonHRaHH, oÓHo^eHHUMH B% pacTBopi^ rJiHHH, TTÓ cocTaBJUierB upe- 
xpacHys), no^TH coBepmenno H^crapaeMys) Rpumy, h 6ijs,nocTh ojrna 3a- 
<;TaBJiAeTB AepsaTBCii b'b otomi OTHomeniH npe;RHflro nop^AKa Ben^eft. 
06iuecTBeHHoe mh^hío BOSJíaraeTi Óojihmisi Ha^esAU na Rpe^HrB 
BCflRaro poxa, bi ROTopoux oho BviwTb Moryqee cpe^cTBo yjiy^nieHifl 
y HacB RaR'B cejiBCRaro xosAficTBa, TaR'B h ÓJiarococTOiiHiii ceJiBCRaro 
HacejieHiii. Ecjih B'bpHTB raseTHuiTB cjiyxaMi, o6jier<ieHÍe Rpe^nra co- 
CTaBjíirerB oxHy hsi uipb, BHpa($OTaHHUx'B RovMHCciefi, HaxoAflm^eftcfl 
nojcB npeActAaTejbCTBOM'B ceaaTopa Djiese. JI^McTBHTejiBHO, AOJirocpoq- 
HUft seMejBHuň Rpej^HTb euie He^aBiio cyn^ecTBOBajrB y naci othoch- 
TejibHo cyMMH ccyjíu peaJiBHo nojiy^eHHoft, nai TaRHX'B npoi^eHTOB'B, 
ROTopue npesAe iio saRony c^htejihcb jiHXBeHBUMH h noAJiesajiH npe- 
^jf^AOBaHÍD. Ho ne o^Hoft ÓanROBoft, TaR'B cRasaTB 0(l)4)HiiiajikHoí, bh- 
j^HKoft orpaHHqHBaerc^ sa^ojiseHHocTB seMjieBJíajc&Hiji b'b HacTOHiaee 
BpevA. Ha RpynHoiTB 3eiíJieBJiaAÍHÍH, a TaRace sa RpecTb^HCTBik, Tiise- 
jnAWh rHeTOMi jie«Hrb eni^e HacTHa^ sa^ojiseHnocTb cb upoiieHTOHi 
HecpaBHeHHo óojť&e eni^e be[corhm'b. Il|'bjiiii& j)AXb jiítb hh3rhx'b h^e^b 
Ha aepHO npH nocreneoHO noHHSHBine&cjr ypoa&a&HOCTH aeMJiH npHBe;['B 
ZTi 9T0Ny pesyjibTaTy. F^OBJíeTBopeHíe ah^hhxi noTpe^HocTeft RaR'B b'b 
specTbaHCTB'b, xaRi bi RpyneoMx 3eMJeBJiaA'i^HÍH, jioBejtfiuo Tenepb no- 

JIOaCHTeJlbHO Jí,0 MHHHMyiia, H JífiLJl^e BI dTOM^B OTBOmeBÍH RATH HOBOS- 

jiosHO. IIpH HacTOHn^eft HeBOBtrosHocTK SBHJIH ynjia^HBaTb jiesamÍA na 
Hefi 0(t>4>ifiiiajibHHA TiirocTH npoHCxoABTB OAHO issrh AByx'b: hjih HM'6HÍe 
npoAaercji cb ayRuioHa, a OTHocHTOJibHo RpecTbflHCTBa npHHHMaioTCji sa- 
ROHoiTB ycTaHOBJíeHEUA ifbpu npoAasH ABH»HHaro HMymecTBa, or^aiH 
vb pa6oTH H, HaROHei^T., OToÓpaHÍA HaA'bJia hjih yBejiH^enie ^acTHoft sa- 
AOJUBeHHocTH Ha Becbiia pa3opuTejibHiix'B ycjioBiflX'B. Mícthh6 RyjiaRH, 
€BynaDmie KpecTbAHCRie na^i^ii hjih óy^yn^íe ypoasan bo Bpemi b3h- 
vaHÍA HOAaTeft — HBJíeHie coBepmenno oAHHaROBoe cb tính BaoHTajiH- 

CTaHH H TOprOBl^aHH, ROTOpue BUA&K)TB AeHBFH nOA'B BTOpUA saBJíaA- 

HHH RpynHOM y 3eHJieBJiaA'J^HÍK) h saRynaDTB y nero xJťbói b'b toti no* 
KeHTB, Borj^a na^o BHecTH b% 6aHR'B 3a HM^Hie, o6%iiBjieHHoe b'b npo- 
Aasy. y nacB npHHaTo, mo oÓJier^enie B3£icRaHi& cpo^HHX'B (SanRo- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHUKA. — nOJl02B£HlE nPOMUIQJEHHOCTH. 365 

Buxi njaxesefi h no^aTefi eej^erb tojdlbko ei yBejiu^eHÍK) sa^oJUKOH- 

HOCTH U HaB0nj|6HÍK) He^OHMOK^. 8X0 COBOpUieHHO B^^pHO; HO upH Ha- 

CTOfloíHx^ ycjioBÍflX'E 3eMjeBjiaj(tHÍB CTporocTb B3ucKaHÍfl o4»4^ai^iaju>- 
Huxx TarocTefi, jiesan^uxi Ha seiiJii, BeA^xi ki ycujieHÍK) TiacTHoS 
saAOJUseHHocTH H vb KOEu/b KOHi^offb K'B HOJiHQuy pasopeHÍK) cejiECsaro 
HacejieBÍH. BupasHTB dxy sa^ojisenHocTB oAHoň o6íafik 4>opiiyjiofi, oah- 

HBKOBO BtpHOfi ff,JUí BCerO 3eNJieBJiaAÍHÍlI, HeB031IOa&HO. nOCTOflHHUfl H 

BpeMeHHUJi ycjioBÍH axoro senjieBiiaA^HÍA ao tofo pasHooÓpasHU a&s^ 
vh caMoA orpaHu^eHHoň m'&cthocth, ^to bosmosho tojibko o6o6u]^eHi& 
nojioseHÍA 6ojiBniuHCTBa> hhckojibro hb HCKJi]DHaK)ii(ee npoTHBonoJios- 
Huxi flBJ6Hifi, — yBU, KpafiHe p^AKHXi. HeAaBHo saspuBmeecfl name 
H-^bcTHoe, y^AHoe seucKoe coÓpaHÍe oÓcysA&Jio Bocbiia o6cTOATejiBHO 

MOTHBHpOBaHHUň AOKjiaA'B ynpaBÚ o H606X0AHM0CTU HCXOAaTaftCTBOBaflia 

ccyAiii Aiui npoAOBOJiBCTBia MtcTHaro HacejieHÍB; a MesAy TtH'B c6op^ 
noAaxeft HAeri no ytsAy cpaBHMTejiBHo noAypHO. Cauo no ce6i ^BJienie 
AOBOJiBHo jiE)6onuTHoe: rojioAOBRa on nojinaro Heyposafl, Tpe6yDDi;aA 
HCUDHHTOJiBHUxi K^pb jí,jui HapoAOHacejieHÍa — H HOCTynjeHie DJiaToseň 
ooTB Toro se HapoAOHacejeníii. Hoiihko nojosHxejiBHo BHpxyosHOCTH b'b 
A^Jii BSBiCRaHía noAaxeň, iipoaBiuie]fo& bi Hacxofln^ee BpeMH nojiu- 
i^iefi, ycn:&niHocxB BSucRanÍA saBHCHrB u oxi ]rbcTHUX'B npH^HHi, 
rjiaBHoe se, ox^ bosmoshocxh 8apa6oxKa jh^humi xpyAom h otl bob^ 
MosHocxH oojiy^BXB euifi qxo-jiH6o HC£JU)qHxej[BHoe OTb seMJiH. Bnpo* 
^ewh^ OAHa BOAOcxi* Hamero y^bsAa BHecjia hojihocxbk) bc^ cjitAynniliA 
ci> nefl njiaxesH qncxo orb seujieBJíaA^nifl. Bi nefi hc&ohh b'b o6niHp* 
Huxi pa8M^pax'B pasBOAHTca xanycxa, KOxopaA KaKi pa3'B &*& nacxofl- 
H^eMi roAy, orb aacyxH, HyrnsH u qepBii, BCOAy ho^xh nponajia, — b^ 
dxott se BOJiocxu A^Jia oopaAO^Hufl yposaň. I^tna na Banycx; no occhh 
Óujia ^pesďUHafiHo Bucosa, h bojkocxb ev) ÓJUicxaxejibHO pacnjiaxHJiacb. 
vb cA-bAyionilHxi ci HeA BdHocaxi. Cb Apyroň cxopoHU, oaho coc^AHee^ 
xopomo MH^ sHaBOMoe Bpecxb^HCKoe o6n].ecxBo cAajio tíax^eBHMsaM^b 
noAi naniHK) na Aaa roAa copoBi-xpH aocbxhhu cbouxi jiyroB'b na 
p. MoBorb, HOJiy^Hjio sa roA'B BnepeA'B A^HbrH — h Bce se ocxajiocb vb 
KpynHoA HeAOHMB^. 

Bupasuxb qacTHyK) aaAOJiseHHocxb 3eMjieBJiaA'bHÍJi bi HacxoAfl^ee 
BpeMfl OAHoň o6u^e& <|)opMYAofi — HOBoaMosHo; ho ohb HecoMH^HHo cyn^e* 
CTByexi uTasse HecoMatHHo pocxexi eseroAHO xbmi, ta^ cyu^ecxByexi* 
SpecxbaHCTBO sasoHoiťb ao Htsoxopofi cxeaeHH easfi orpasAOHo oxi> noji- 
Haro paBopenifl, Kpynnoe se aeiuieBJíaAtHie — HMCSoJibEO. Uosa seMJifl h& 
HS^bJíxa en^e oxi nacxoAu^aro BJiaAiuibAa, Ha Hež j[esHX'b dta saAOJi* 
seHHOCXb, npoHcmeAmaA orb HH3BHX'b 1^'bH'b npoH3BeAeHÍfi axofi seujiH^ 
Hinu axH HocjiiAHeo speufl ne xojibKo ne noBucHJiHCb, ho rpoaBxi en;& 
6ojAe noHHsuxbCA, BCJi:&AcxBÍe noBumeHÍfl Bypca Hameů bbíidxu. %ó 6u 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



366 BftCTHHS^b EBPOmi. 

flH roBopHjH o Kypct H CB Kasofi 6(1 CTopoHH ero HH o6cysAajiH, ho, 
<$e3cnopHo, noBHineHie ero aoisho OTpasaTBCA HiRoropoe BpeM«, npo- 
;(OJiiseHie KOToparo BnepeA'^ onpeA^JiHTB HeBoaiiosHo,— nponopi^ioHajiB- 
HHifB DOHHseHieiTB opo^asHoft i^íhhocth cej[bCKo*zo3aftcTBeHHUX'B npo- 

H3B6AeHÍft. I^tHU Ha dTH npOHSBexeHÍH, npH HOpMaJlbHUXl 7CJI0BÍiiZ'B 

cCSiiTa, oopeA'i^JiiiK)TCfl sarpaHHqHHirb oKcnoproiTB, sarpaHHqHHM^ xpe- 
<$0BaHÍeirb, cjitAOBaTejiBHO Ha MerajiJiHqecBie pySíH. Bcjr&ACTBÍe cero, 
^iMTb Bume BypcB, rbn MeHBme BpeAHTHUxi ÓyMaserB DOJiy^iHrB 
<^e;iBCBo-xo3Ji&CTBeHHuft npoHSBOAHTOJiB, a OH'B HMH pacDJia^HBaeTCA no 
cBoefi saxojiseHHocTH. 3a'ícb, wh HameiťB y^A^^i b% nacTOJiii^yD ocohb 
MH bhaíuih TOMy HarjiflAHufi npHM^pi: b'b nponuioMx roAy cypeoKa 
opoAaBaiacB y HacvB ocenBi) no 1 p. 20 b. — 1 p. 30 b. sa nyAx na 
wbcrb] HUHB^e 675 b. h ropasAo xemeBne. I^ina ejn A^^ftcTBHTejiBHO nt- 
cBOJiBRo uoHH3HjiacB wb KeHHrcóopri; ho ecjiHtíti npomjioroAHift BypcB 
&ame& BajiDTU coxpaHUJicfl, 3a cypenBy nojiy^HJiocB 6u wb HacTOfln]ieH'B 
roAy He Menie 1 p. 10 b. sa nyA^B Ha Mtcri. ToBoparB, qxo BypcB 
60(6 6ojt6 noBUCHTCfl; roBopATB, qro on^ AoftAerB ao alpari, T.-e. ao 
HOJiearo cpasHema MerajiJiHqecBaro pyÓJia cb BpeAHTHUirB, — 5e3cnopHo, 
aro 6ujio 6u o^obb 3<tNÍ)eBTHUMi ABJíeHieBťB; ho Tasse (Seacnopno — 
i^iHa Ha cejiBCBO-xo3flficTB6UHUA npoH3B6AeHÍH AOJiSHa eu^e noHH- 
bhtbch b'b TaBOMi cjyqai. Ecjih cejiBCKoe nacejieHie ne Morjio, nps 
nacTOflii^HX^B HHBBHXi i^iflaxi na npoHSBeAenui CBoero tpyAa, jnerso 
ynjia^HBaTB jiesan^ia na HeM'B otíasaxejiBCTBa, — BasHirB otípaaoMi 6y- 
AerB OHO ynjiaqHBaxB yBejH^eHnufl otíaaaTejiBCTBa npH en^e Ůojrke hh3- 
BHxi i^ÍHax'B? BcaBoe se pacmHpenie BpoAHTa ysejiH^HrB HeuHHyeMo 
pasMtpi dTHX^B cpoqnuxi oSasaTejiBCTBi. 

rjiaBHUH'B ocHOBanieNi RpoAHTa BCJiRaro poAa, bohh^ MOserB noJiB- 
dOBaTBca sevejiBHaH cočCTBennocTB, cjiysHTB sex Jia, ea i^tHHOCTB h aoxoa* 
HOCTB. KaB^B Ta, TaBi H Apyraa, ne tojibbo noHH3UJHCB, ho aojshiiI en^e 
oonHSHTBca BCi-^bACTBÍe opeACToan^aro noHHsenia nfknu ea npoHSBe- 
Aeníft. Hecotf híhbo, nacroaii^ift ceJiBCBo-xosaficTBenHuft bphshcb Aoasen^B 
<$yAerB eu^e óojite o6ocTpHTbca. KaBÍa <j[>opMu oh% npHTOMi npHMeirB — 
<5e3pa3aHqH0 Aaa nacToan^aro BODpoca; ho bo BcaBOMi cayqat i^'6hhoctb 
K AOXOAHOCTB seMaH en^e Óojrbe noHH3aTca, a BMtcTt cb rbM'B h bo3- 
voshoctb BpeAHTa a-ia BeMeaBHoft ccÓCTBennocTu coBepmeHHO ynHTro- 
SHTca. H'6cBoaBBO atrB Touy Ha3aA'B, AemeBufi, AOCTyanuft soMeaBHHft 
speAHTB, BaB'B Aoarocpo^Huft, raai h spaTBocpo^nufi, noA'B nenpeM^n- 
Huxi yeioBÍOMi Apyroro naupaBaeHia namefi aBonoMH^ecsofi noaHTHSH, 
norB 6u co3AaTB 6jarococToaHÍe ceaBcaai^o Haceaenia, nacToabBO npo^- 
Boe, ?T0 HUBaBÍa neBaroAU ne ($uaH 6u exy nenocHaBnii; bi nacroan^ee 
me Bpeiia BonpocB o pacnupeníH speAHTa aroMy uaceaeHiio Aoasem 
<$UTB Taase npHqucjieH^ b'b Heocya;ecTBHMUM'B fiaaruMi no2eaaHÍaii'B» 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — nOJlOSEHlE nPOMUm.lEHHOCTH. 367 

Gypooafl AMcTSHTejibHocTb, Bnpo?eM'B, yse huh^ yRaauBaeTi ho pac* 
niHpeHie, a CTiceeHie seueJisHaro spe^HTa — u wh cyiuQOCTH coeepmeQHo 
npasHjiBHoe. Bc% seMOJibHue ÓaHSH, b% tomi micjih h rocy^apcTBen- 
Hut ABOpaHCsifi, noHHdHjiH HopMajibeyiD oi^^besy ^enejb. Do HameMy, 
xoRmaHCKovy, HanpuMÍp'b, yd^Ay — HopnajibHaA oi^tHEa seMJiM B'b abo- 
pflHCKOHi ÓaHRt 6ujia 100 H 60 py6jieft aa AecATHoy, CMorpn no MtcT- 
hocth; cb IS-ro se ceeTflÓpfl 1889 r., axa oi^iHBa nonuseea na 75 h 
50 pyfijiefi sa A6CATHHy. HejibSfl opu 9T0M'b ho aaMÍTUTb, ?to ajh mok- 
maHCBaro, no KpaflHefi Mipt, yba^a óhao 6u cnpaBeAAHBo, coo.6pa8Ho 

C% M'bpOfif, npHHATOň ABOpAHCKHHl 6aHB0M'b, UOHHSHTb U OI^tHSy Cyjífiú- 

naro B'6A0MCTBa no BaHManíK) nomjiHuu 3a (5e8M6»ADuft uepe3LQA'b co5- 
i^TBennocTH, a to ona ocrajiacb — KaKi h npeacAe — eoceMhdecHrm py(5jiefi sa 
AeeATHuy óeapasjíHqHO co Bcbxi senejib yts^a. 

Pa3'b roBopHTCA o Mtpaxi, bouhu npeAnojaraiorb y naci no^naTb 
cejibCKoe xo3iificTBo H ÓjarococTOflBie cejibCEaro sacejieHifl, TpyAHO ne 

CSasaTb XOTb B']kBOJIbBO cjiobi* o MUeHOTepCTB'^ .SeMJIOAtjIíil H TOprOBJIU, 

wb yHpe»AeHÍH BOToparo opránu neqaTH Beixi* 0TTtHB0B'b bha^tb hci^'&- 
jnenie ne^yroBi SToro HacejtenÍH. HecoMU']kBHO, cb to^bh aptaifl bamh- 
HHcrpaTHBHoft CHMMeTpÍH óyAOTB 3HaqHTejiLHafl BuroAa, ecJiM Bce, qTÓ 
OTHOCHTCH AO dBOHOMHqecBoft »H3HH CTpaBU, 6yAerB cocpeAOTO^eno B-b 
OAHON'B yťbcrb. Ecjih TOJibEO oAHHMrb npaBHJibnuM'B OTnpaBJieEÍeM'b noAJie- 
samHXi A'&JrB orpaHH<iHTCA HOBoe, Jiy^me CBaaaTb, sejiaeiioe MHHHCTep* 
exBO, a HanpaBJíeHie namefi BBOHOMHqecBoň bojihthbh QHCBOJibBo ne 
H3MtHUTCB, TO dTO ÓyAOTi yBejH?eHieM'B ?HHOBHu«iecTBa, BOToparo y 
Bacrb, cjiaBa Bory, h óeai Toro AOBOJibflo. Ecjih xe hobob MHHHCTep- 
CTBO nofiMeTX CBOK) saAaqy niHpoBo h aaflHeTCfl ne tojebeo BpaHeBaHÍeM'b 
HOAyra, noposAGHHaro npomjiuMi, no óyAerb Ayvaxb h o (Syiyn^oM^b, 
T0 nojiosHTOJibHo ono MosoT^b npHHecTH rpoMBAHyi), cyn^ecTBennyH) 
noJb3y Hameuy ofimHpaouy u Bce »e, necMOTpfl hh na ?to, 6oraTOMy 
{{yAyn^HOCTbD ore^ecTBy. UaTOJiorHqecBoe cocTonnie cejibCBaro nacejieBifl, 
u BCjitACTBie Toro H cejibCBo-xosflficTBeHHoil npoMumjieHHocTH, nojiaraDi 
OHOBHAHo; HO H OTe^ecTBOHnaa npoNumjieHHOCTb naxoAUTca jífinieKo ne 
Fb HopMBJíbHuxi, 3AopoBUX'b ycJIOBiAX^. IIohatía o6'b oxpaneHÍM BblCO^ 

BOň AOXOAHOCTH 9T0& npOMUmJieHHOCTM H O npBBHJIbHOHl pa3BUTÍH eH 

— HH?ero oón^aro MeacAy co5oft ho íítAv>Tb. Kbbo^o ace 3to pasBHTie — 
yBasHBaoTi naM^b HnaceropoACBaA flpMapsa, Aanu^aA caMoe Btpnoe no- 
HATÍe o nojioseBÍH namero BByrpennaro puHBa, BOTopuMi xojibBO u 
nojtbsyeTCA oTeTiecTBeHHaa npoMumjieHHocTb. Ha nefi rjiaBnuM'b npH- 

BOSHHlťb TOBapOM'b, HO ÓÓJIbmefl I^'&HH0CTH CpaBHHTOJIbHO ďb APyrHMH, 

BcerAB úujin H ecTb 6yMaacHUA h nojiyÓyMasHUH hsaíaía. Bi 1881 r. 
dTHXi H3A'6Jiift 6ujio npHBedOHO Ha flpMapBy na 637^ MHulona pyójeft; 
Vb 1882 r. — Ha 49 mej-jBI 1884 r. — na 45 mhji. p., a B'b 1890roAy— 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



368 VhCTHSUffb EBFOmi. 

Ha 28.713.000 py6Jieft. Jl^pyrHHH cjiOBaMH, npHB08'b 9Thx'b mjs,iJLÍŘ wh 
iLOCjAnEee Mfica^^nLniTie nocTeneHHO coKpaTHjicji 6oji^e 9ÍM'b na nojio- 
BHHy, H Bi dTo se ;^6CJiTHAÍTÍe ÓJEarococTOflHie cejiBCBaro nacejieHÍfl no- 
CTeneHHo na^ajio, h, pasyMibercfl, nponopi^ioHajiBHO coKpamaJiacB ero no- 
Kynnafl cnoco6HocTi». CoRpan^enie cóUTa óyvaacHUxi BSA^Jiift, bto — e^H- 

HH^HUň, 4>aBT1» BďpBaHHUfi H3'B A^fiCTBUTeJIBHOCTH, 6e8yCJ[OBHO AOBaSU- 

BaK)iue& B'B CBoe& coBosyneocTH nojiHys) cojiHAapHocTB uHiepecoB^B icaBi^ 
OTeqecTBeHHofi, TaKi* h cej[i>cKo-xo8fl&CTBeHHo& npoKumjieHHocTH, — pasy- 
Htercji, npn npaBHJibHofi HSLfb nocTaHOBsi. npoMiímjieHHOCTB h ToproÉjU3[» 
6jiaroAapji Hay^HOMy aporpeccy, AocTHrjiH b'b name BpeMA HsyMUTaiB- 
Haro pasBUTia; ho oh^ j^s^jieKO ne CRaaajiH en^e CBoero nocAt^Haro 
cjOBa. HecoMH^BHo, HeaKAynapoxHoe oón^enie aojisho co BpeMeHeM'B 
Bupa6oTaTBCJi b'b Apyrú* hobuh 4k)PMH, oiipeA^jiHTB BoropuA cb toh- 

HOCTBK) BpajLl^ JIH UUWb B08H0SH0. HeC01IH']bHH0 TaiUBO, ^TO dTHUH HO- 

BHMH <i>opiiaMH BocnojiBsyDTCJi CBop^bo, jjiy^me, BuroAHie rb crpaHu, 
BOTopHfl oBasyTCfl B^B Toxy óojvbe no^roTOBjíeHHUMH. Poccifl, nepas- 
'puBHo conpHBacaDU^aflCJi cb ^eTupBMa otbputumh MopaMH, AaH)niHMH 
HaTypajiBHHň bu2loa'b pasHootípasHUMi ea npoHSBeAefliflMi, no o^HOMy 
CBooMy reorpa4>H^ecBOHy nojioseníK) npHSBaHa b'b MÍpoBOMy bbohomh- 
HecBOMy snaHeniio. AaTB bosmoshoctb CTpani socnojBSOBaTBCA cbohm^b 
nojKoseHÍOM^, oshbhtb Bct HacTH h cToponiii dToro rpoMa^Haro nai^o- 
HajiBHaro A^a — boti i^&ib, npn ocyn^ecxBJíeHiH BOTopofi Bcb bhah na- 
poAHaro Tpyxa Hafi^yx^ ce6^ nojinoe y^OBJíeTBopoHÍe, ne crbcnasi Apyn 
Apyra,— HanpoTHB'B, ozB^UBtna BsaHMHyH) noMon^B. 

Kh. }Í,U. JI,P7i;K0fi-G0K01kHHBCElff. 

c. 3HaMCHCKoe, ueus. ry6. 
5-ro BOJiÓpji 1890 r. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BHYTPEHHEE 0B03FBHIE 

1 JiHBapfl 1891 r. 



SencKÍic yípesAeHÍA Ha py6es/b ciapiixi h eobutl nopa^KOVL. ~ Boapoci* 
o6b HsóBpaeMocTH FB ropo^cKíe rjacBue. — HysHo ih yveHBOiHTB HHCjeH- 

HOCTb rOpOACKHX'L XyiťB H OrpaHHHHTB CaMOCTOAieiBHOCTB rOpOACKOFO OÓJ^eCTBeH- 

Haro caMoynpaBjeBia?— lÍHpKyjflp-b qepHHroBCKaro rydepnaTopa.— B-feciH bb^ npo- 



Bi BHyTpeHHeň »m8hh Pocciu MHHyfimifi toa^b oseaMeeoBajiCH ;(ByMa 
coóuŤíflMH: BseABEÍeWL Bi A'bficTBÍe, wb mecTHaAUaTH ry6epHÍAX'B, ho- 
Buxi cyAeÓHo-aAMUBHCTpaTHBHUxxyqpeaKAeHiň u o6HapoAOBaHieM'E ho- 
Baro BOMCRaro nojioaceHÚí, nojiaraH)iuaro rohoi^i i^ijioft aooxt seu- 

CKOfi »H3HH. Hh K*b TOMy, HH £*& APyrOVy H8'B 9THXI C0(5UTÍft MH 

TeoepB B03Bpaiii.aTbca ne ÓyAeMi. 3aMÍTHN'B tojibko, ?to seMCTBO, ro- 
TOB^n^eeca coíth co ci^eHH, BOBce ho noxoace ea Tumejio 5ojibHoro 
ujiu Ha yMHpaH)ii(aro. Oho npoAOJiacaeTi paóoraTb, RaR'B 6yATo 6u bt> 
ero ycTpoficTB^, wh ycjioBÍJiX'B ero A'&>iTeJiT>H0CTH bobcb ne opeACTOHjio 
HopeHHoň nepeMÍHU. nocjitAHÍ& nepioA'B ero HCTopiH Bcero 6ojibiae Ha- 
noMHHaeTi co6ok) nepBuň. TenepB, RaK^ h TorAa, oho CTaBHT% hobha 
saAa^H, oTRpuBaen hobub nyTU, to^ho OBa6oHeHHoe ríu^h, qTo6u ne- 
pe^aTB CBOHMi npeeMHMRaMi no boshoshocth 6oraToe nacjitACTBO. 3a 

HeMHOrHMH HCRJIK)HeHÍHMH ^), OHO CTOÉTB BH^ C^fU MOAHUXl B^aBÍft, H 



^) RcraTH oói HcuDHeBÍiixt. J^sa icicAiita Tony HasaA'^, in> OÓiuecTBeHHoft Xpo* 

HHKdb, MH ynOMJlHyJIfl, co CJIOBI MŠCTHOfi raSCTH, o KBfTb MEJIO OTpajIHHZl nOCTEHOBJíe- 

■iaxi cepxoócKaro yisxHaro seiíCKaro codpaBÚ: orsasi b'e He^oj&moft npe^asKi »uo- 
MHifl HáHÓoiie saciyjceflHHiťb HanaiBHHirL yHETeiam h HasHaieHÍB sBaHETejBoaro bos- 
HarpasA^BÚi oASony bsi ?x6bobi y^BJíamBaro cobítb, b'b B03MÍiiieHÍe pacxoxoai, no- 
BeceBBHXt HMi npH o6o3pÍBÍH BanajibBHxt yqBjnimii. Teneps Bani* nflmyn h3i Cep- 
XOÓCBa, HTO npBÓaBsa xaioBaHBjí y^HTeJunn ae orsiOBOBa, a toi&ko oriosesa ao 
(kuiAe diarÓDpuTHaro BpeMeBH; hto Racaercfl xo BosflarpasxeBÚi bi 600 pyóiei, to 
OBO Hassa^eBO se oxflOMy vvh aeMCSBXi ueaoBrB ynBJBn^Haro coBÍTa, a ueBy on 
MHBBCTepeTBa BapoxBaro opocBin^eniji, vh muu^ KOTOparo yze bíckojibbo jAvb cpajkj 

Towb L— fluBAPB, 1891. 24 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



370 B1&GTHHB'B EBPOIILI. 

eciH H He líjífiTb ch HHMU upflMo wb paspts^, TO He noAAaercfl hzi bxúí- 
híe). B'e noouTRax'E nepenecTH hxi na seNCKyK) no?By Bivh He^ocraTBa, 
HO 60JIB111HHCTB0 rjiacHUX'B no^Tu Bcer^a h ho^itm Bezjii coxpaHAerB B'bp- 
HOCTb jiyqniuM'B seMcsHMi Tpa^HiiUirB. BecBMa xapasTepHCTHHeHi, cb 
dTOĚ TOHBH aptnia, (^Jiijí.jvymji diÍH30A'B, uM^Bímft mícto wb HHsero- 
poMfiKoň rytíepHÍu. Ecjiu b^phtb ^GapaTOBcsoMy Jt.eeBHHsy'' (Ji 250), 
rjiacHU& rop6aTOBCsaro ytsAnaro sevcKaro co6paHÍfl 06tjishob'b Bupa- 
SHJťB MH'&HÍe, qxo Bcii ycujiifl rocy^apcTBa h aeMCTBa Ha noapnn^t paa- 
bhtííi rpaMOTOocTH H o6pa30BaHÚi cpeAU specTbJíHi^ nsjíHmHH h xase 
BpeAHBi, Tas'B Kasi spe^na, ajlr KpecTi>AH'B, caifafl rpaMOTHOCTB. 9to 
iiH'bHÍe Hamio aoAAepssy co CTopoau rjiacHaro niBaHBH^ia, saaBHB- 
mářo, tito rpaMOTHue HOBo6paHi^iii — Kasi ohi jó^jsjínca wb npOAOJise- 
HÍe AB^HaAi^aTHJiiTHeĚ cjtysóu yJbsAHUiťB bomhcbhmi HaqajiBHHBoirB — no 
^OJiBmeft qacTu 6e3HpaBCTBeHHii6 copsani^u h jid^h npoflan^ie. FjiacBui 

HSl BpeCTBJiHl* C']bpilKOB'B, COCTOIIBniii ABRATB JLÍTh ^JieHOlTB BOHHCSarO 

npHcyTCTBifl, HanoMHHJi'B riiacHOMy IIlBaHBHqy, tto uocji'bAHÍft BcerAa 
^uji Bi BocTopri OTB rpauoTHUxi HOBoópani^eBi, naxoAfl hx'b h yMH'&e, 
M HpaBCTBeHH^e, H noHBTjiHB'be HerpaMOTHUxi. npoTHB'B HpeAJiozeHia 
yHH^TOSHTB BCD seMCByH) accHrHOBBy Ha HapoAHoe o6pa30BaHÍe rop^qo 
BOBCTajiH MHorie rjiacHue h HHcneBTop'B napoAHUXi y«iHjiHa]^'B, u oho 
Óujio OTBeprnyTO rpoHaAHUM'B ĎojiBmHHCTBOMi roJiocoB'B. BaxoAKa ne- 
MHorux'B peBHHxeJiefl HOB^secTBa nocjysHiia, TaKHHi o6pa30H'B, tojibbo 
«ib TOMy, qTo6u sícwbe BMCTaauTB Ha bha'^ co^yBCTBennoe OTHomeHÍe 
roptíaTOBCSHxnb 8eiii^eB'B vh A^jiy o6yqeHÍA HapoAa. 

HapoAHoe o6pa30BaHÍe — OAna h3'b t^xi saAa^i, naA^ soTopuMU 
seMCTBO CTajDio TpyAUTBCfl Bcero paHBme u no KOTopuHi oho CAliJiajio 
scero ÓojiBme. 9to o<5HapyaKHJiocB en^e pa3'B bo BpeMa nocjrbAHefi ceccÍH 
KOCKOBcsaro ry6epHCBaro co6paHÍa, accHrHOBaBmaro 22.500 py6jeft — na 
BUAany Bi» 1891 r. nocoóifi h ccyA'B ajui nocTpoftKU cejiBC]CHX'B msojTB, 
13.110 pyójiefi — Ha BOAroTOBsy aeMCsuxi y^uTejefi h yquTejiBHHi^i, 
32.000 pyójiefl — na Ao6aBoqHoe BOSHarpasAenie yquTejiefi h yviTeu- 
Hun;^, Bi> bhaí npunjiaTU £*& sajioBanBi), noiiy^aeiioMy hmh h8:b y^A- 
Buxi seMCBHXi cpeACTB'B, 30.000 py6jieft— na BOSHarpasAenie sasoHo- 
yqHTOAefi 3a ypoBu no sasony Eomis) bt, seucBHXi niBOJiax^, 1,900 p. 
— Ha nocoóifl HtsoTopuMi y']k3AHiiM'B 3eMCTBaM'B no coAepxaHiK) AByx- 
BjmccBUXi yTiHJDLHui.^B, 3.500 py6jiefi — na hirojibhuii 6H6jdoTeKH h BJiaccu 
pucoBanífl, 1.500 py6jefi-~Ha coAepsanie Anyxi ry6epBCRHX'B 3eMCBHX'B 
yqH^Hui.'B, a Bcero, no pasnuKi* CTaTBmťB, BacaDu^MMCA HaqajiBHaro 



4K>q)eAOT09eB'L, de £ftcto, Baxsopi sa aeiicuiMH msojaiim. 0% yAOBOj&CTBieM-^ orjamaem 
9T7 noopaBKy, xota ne uamewb ne saMiniT^ <tio orcpo^Ea sine die uenBonkb otih- 
^A&scA orb orsasa, h ^to 600 pyČJiefi, BHxaBBHe THHOBHBsy y^eÓBtao BiAOMCTBa, ci 
4^MhmeŘ nojiB3ofl MoriH 6h óhtb o(^paiiieHH ea bocoóu ůixabŘmawh yiHreimi. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — BHTTPEHHEE OBOSP^HIE. 371 

oóy^eeifl — oo^th cTo-nflxb TUCflq'B py 6jiefi. ^asHo HaMtqeHHua híjle 
<opecji%AyH)Tca seMCTBOMi CB npesHHVi 7cepAieN'B — h wb to xe speMA bi 
uiiwb npHCoeAHHAK)TCfl Apyriii, ee Henie oamHUA. Do o6pa3i;y nepoAO- 
BUX'B seMCTBi (MocROBCBaro, nepHCBaro, xepcoHCBaro), MHorÍA ry6epHCKÍA 

JI yt3AHUiI 36MCRÍ1I Co6paHÍfl npeAnpHHHMaDTB pBA^B Mtp'B JS4ÍI nOAHH- 

TÍa dsoHOMH^ecKaro ÓJiarococTOfloia HaceJieBÍH. Ki qHCJiy TaicHX^ sencTBi 
npHHaAJiesuirB, uB,ufiiuiph, capaTOBCsoe ry5epHCBoe, TpyAau'B Koroparo 
Bi dTOM'b BaapaBjíeHiu eii^e ee^aBeo OT^ajii cnpaBex^HBocTL M'&CTHuft 
ryCSepeaTopi (BHb pinn, opoHsneceHHoft 7-ro ^eBaópa npH OTspuTÍH cc(Spa- 
HÍfl). MocROBCBoe ry6epucBoe seifCKoe co5paHÍe CA'6jiajio, b'b opo^ojise- 
HÍe nocjiiAHeň cecciu, Becbua Baseuft marB Bnepe^^B ea nyxu pa3BHTÍH 
seMcaaro xosflňcTBa. HyacAajicb bi cpe^crsaxi a-ta ocyii^ecTBjíeHiH mupo- 
BHXi u jaHOBi, npoHURHyTUX'B aatíoTJiuBocTbK) o HapoAHoiťB ÓJiart, ry6epH- 
•CRaa yupaea npeAjHOXHjia coópaeíio npHBJíeqB r'b seMCROMy o6jioseHÍK> 
npovumjeHHUH h ToproBua noM'bii;eflifl ropo;(a Mocrbu, ocTaBaBinincH js,o 
<iíTb uopi CB060AHUMH OTi> seMCRaro c6opa. SeMCROHy ÓD^sexy dTO o6'b- 
ji^aerB npHfiaeRy bi ABbcTu-ABaAi^aTb-n^Tb tbica^i pyójiefi. UpeAJiose- 
HieynpaBU BCTp'bTUJio ropa^ls Buspa^ceHÍA co CTopoHU npeACxaBHTejieň 
MocRBU, Roxopux-B B^ co6paHÍH ABaAi^axb-qexupe. XapaRxepi B03pa»eHÍ& 
<Sujii oxqacxH lopHAHHecBift, oxqacxH npaRXH^ecBifi, SHxeftcRÍft. ^obo- 
AOBi; ocHOBaHHUXi Ha 6jKwk saROHa, mu paaÓHpaxB ee cxanoHi, no- 
TOMy ^xo 3X0 sacxaBHJio 611 nacL RocHyxbca BonpocoD'b cjiHmR0M'b coe- 
ipaJibHuxii. 3aM'&xHM'b xojibRo, 9X0 B'b HamHXi rjiaBaxi npaso rytíepn- 
<^Raro seucxBa oójiaraxb MocRBy ne noÁJiesHrb HURaROuy comh^híe); 
IIexep6yprb, RaRi coeepmeHHo npaBujibHo 3aM']bxHJix npeACÍAaTe;ib 
MocROBCKofi ryÓepHCRofi ynpaBU, AaBHo yace yqacxByexi bi ry6epHCB0M'b 
3eucR0M'b oóJioseniH eapaBHt ci yj^s^aMH nexepóyprcRoS ryóepnig. 
FjiaBHUMi apryMeHX0M'b apoxHBHHROB'b ynpaBU Óujio oxcyxcxBÍe ocho* 
BaHÍS R'b o6jioseeÍH) ctojihi^u wb nojibdy ry6epHÍu, HHqero ne ^'bjiaiD- 
D^efi A<sfl cxojHi^u. UpeacA^ b^b dxoMy apryMf^Hxy ^acxo npHótraiiH 
npoAcxaBHxejiM IlexepÓypra bi nexepÓyprcROMi ryfiepecROMi 3eMCR0M'b 
co(5paHÍH— H líwh npHXOAHJiocb 06'bJicHAXb, Hxo nocji%AOBaxejibHoe upu- 
M^HeHie uxi BdrjiflAa cA^Jiajio 611I HOBOdMOSHUHi cyu^ecxBOBanie bcaroS 
€R0AbR0-Hu6yAb BpyBHOfi caMoynpaBjiflE)iii;eflcH cahehi^u ^). Tpy^uo 
opoAcxaBHXb ce&h ryóepHCRÍfi hjih yib3AHiift pacxoA^b, oduHaKoeo Racas)- 
nU&cji Bcixi qacxeft ry6epHÍM mjiu y']^3Aa. ^oporoD, npuHHMaeHOK) na 
3eMCRÍ& cqexi, 6j[Hsafiniee Hacejeuie nojib3yexcii 6ojibnie, niui> oxAa- 
jiOHHoe; Bi seMCRyK) fioJibHHi^y tfAyn apoHMyiuecxBeHHo sutojih xož 
M^cxHocTu, B'b Roxopofi OHa oxRpuxa, B'b 3eMCR0& BiROjri yqaxcA npe- 
uMyu^ecTBeuHo A'bTH coc'bAUHX'b flCHxejieft. HHROMy, oahbro, ho npuxo- 



*) Cm. BsyrpenHee 06o3pÍHÍe f& J^ 8 „BicTHBsa EsponB** sa 1882 r. 

24* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



372 BftCTHHK^b EBPOnH. 

XsiTh Bi> rojiOBV yTBep»AaTb, ito seMCTBo He urA&srb npaBa TpaTHTb. 
AeHbrH Ha msojH, ÓojibHHUH, AoporH, TaKi Kast npHHiiHni TeppHTo- 
piajbHOCTH TpeÓyerb BoajoaeHia bcíxx pacxoAOBi no 8T0My npe^íMery 
Ha cpe^cTBa oT^tJikHoft bojiocth hjih oTj(']bjisHaro cejibCEaro odmecTBa..^ 
He noweařHTb, npHTOM-b, HHKaKOMy comhAhíi), hto CTOjHi^a noJibsyeTca 
ycjiyraMH ryÓepniH h ^to hx^ HHTepeCH bo MHoroirb coBepmeHHo co- 
jiHAapHM. Ho cnpaBeAJHBOMy saMt^aHÍi) OAHoro hsx rjiacHUx^ (A. A^ 
OaeHHHa), caHErapnaa A*«TejibHOCTb ryĎepecKaro seMCTBa orpa^nja^ 
MocKBy orb ^yvu poraTaro CRora, yuenbniHJia pacnpocTpaHeHÍe sapas- 
HHXi 6ojit3Heft. A^porH, coAopaHMHa ryÓepHCKHM-b seMCTBOMi, cjyaaTb- 

nOA'b'fe3AHHllH nyTailH AJÍH CTOJIHIIH. y^HTOJia H yqHTOJIbHHI^H, noAroTOB- 

jjieHBie Ha aeMCKÍft cnerb, npeno^arorb, KonenHO, ne TOJíbRO bi 3eM- 
CKHXii, HO H Bi ropoACKHXi HiROJiaxi. Bo8A*flcTBÍe ry6epHÍH Ha cto- 
jiHi^y npoflBJíAeTCii wb cauuxi* pasHOOÓpadHUxx ({^opNaxi, h yqacríe no- 

CJA^EeŘ Bl> 3eMCKHX'b Ctíopaxi* AOJI^HO 6UTb UpH3HaH0 fiesycjiOBHO- 

cnpaBeAJKHBHHi. Mu bhojihí co^yBCTByeMi*, noaTOny, p'bnieHÍD nocrob- 
csaro ryfiepHCKaro soMCKaro co6paHÍa, yTBepAHBinaro, ÓojibniHHCTBOM-b^ 
38 roJiocoBx npoTHBi 22, npe^JioseHie ryóepHcnofi ynpaBH. 



npe»Ae Hiin> lipoAOJiacaTb nanaTuit HanH bi» npomJOM'b ro^y pai- 
6opi A^ttcTByDíii.HXi ropoACKHXi nop^AKOB^b, AonojiHUM'b HaniH zslmíhb,- . 
híji o ropoACRofi H35upaTejbHoft chctomí oahhmi jidóohuthumi ({)aK- 
TOM'b, TOJibKo HeAaBHO oFjianieHHUiii B'b oe^aTM. Do cjioBaMi TbepcRoro- 
RoppecooHAeHTa „PyccRHXi BiAOMOCTefl", oón^afl cyNMa ropoACRMx^b 
c6opoBi, cjiysaiii.HX'b hctohhhrght* HSÓHparejibHaro opasa, cociaBJíaerb 
Bi* Tsepn oROJio 30 tucami pyÓJiefl. OAHa xpexb sthxi cÓopoBi* yna- 
Aaerb na odunHodnanih HsfiupaTejiefi (ÓÓJOLbrneiD ^acTbio—Rpynnux^ <))a6- 
pHRaHTOBi), ROTopue H oÓpasoBajiH, AO CHXi nopi, nepBUfl HSÓHpaTejib- 
Hufi paspjiA'^, HSÓHpaa TpeTb AyMu, T.-e. 24 rjiacHUxi*. 6o BTopoMi 
paspflA'^ HHCJiMTca OROJio 175, B^ TpexbeMi— ORoao 1.500 H36HpaTejieft. 

yMOHbHIHTb CTOJIb ABHyH) HeCOOÓpaSHOCTb NOFJIO 6u npEM^HeHÍe CT. 25 

ropoAOBoro nojioseHÍA, AonycRaK)ii;eft, npH MajioHHCJieHHocTH H35HpaTe* 
jiefi HJIH OAHopoAHocTH HX'b cocTaBa, saMiny Tpexi paspjiAOBi — AsyMa 
(no xoAaTaficTBy ropoACRoit Ayvu h cb pa3p']^nieHia MHHHCTpa Bnyrpeu- 
HHXi A^i*). TBopcRafl ropoACRaa ynpasa opeAno^Jia nofiTH ApyrHNi 
nyTeifb; onupa^cb na RaRoe-To cTapoe pa3'bflCHeHÍe (?), ona Hamjia, qro 

MOSHO 9AO H']^R0T0p0fi CTenOHH" H6 CT^CHJITbCA, npH A'Íb<ieHÍH HSÓHpa- 

TOJiefl Ha paspAAU. cTporMM:b co^jmAOBÍem* ct. 24 ropoAOBoro nojioHce- 
nia. Ha dTom ocHOBanÍH ona npocTO nepeqHCJiujia hst* BToporo pasp^Aa 
B'b nepBuft BoceMHaAi^aTb HSÓnpaTediefi. Oahhi hsi rjiacHuxi npH8HaJi'b> 
TaRoft cnocoĎi* cocTaMenÍH chhcrobi neupaBHJibHUUi m 3aM'bTHJi%, ^ra 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — BHJTPEHHEE 0B03MHIE. 373 

ecjiH AtňcTBHTejiBHO cyiii;ecTByeTB paBiacHeme, ocBoóosAaDUi^ee 0T'b 
Hcnoj[H6HÍfl 3asoHa, Tocjii^AOBajKO 6u AoaycTUTBen^eÓoJbmee yBejiHieHÍe 
^Hcja HSÓHpaTejieft nepBaro paspu^a- Ynpasa Ha 3to corjiaciiJiacB h 
nepeHHCJiHjia hs^ BToporo paspa^ft bi nepsufi en^e OAHHHaxi^áTL h86h- 
paTejieft, TasrB ^to hxb ucítb oBaaajiocB copofcb. Ynjia^HBaKyrB ohh, 
Buicrb BSATue, okojio 45o/o ropoACKHXB cÓopoBi. Mu chjibho covwk- 
BaevcA BB cyn^ecTBOBaniH pasiflCHeHÍa, AOSBOJiADii^aro HapymaTB saBOHi, 

H BHAHMB BB o6pa3Í^ A^fiCTBÍfl TOpO^LCROft yopaBU TOJHBBO HOBOC AORa- 

daxejiBCTBo TOMy, ao saBoficTeneHH Heo5xoAHHO HSM^neHie HSÓHpaTejB- 
Hofi cHCTeMu. npeAocTaBJíeBÍe odímnaduamu HSÓHpaTe^iaHB, hsb qucjia 
mucjtKU-eeMucarmi HSÓHpaTB utjiyjo TpeTb rjacHHXB— hítto ctojib ne- 
HopMajiBHoe, ^To MU He yAHBJífleMCA nonuTKaiTB TBepcsoro ropo^^CEoro 
jnpaBJíeHifl cMflr^HTB, xaRB njin HHa«ie, ary aHonajiiio. He BocnojiBSOBajiocB 
oHo^npaBOMB, BUTeBaDn^HMB H3B CT. 25 ropoAOBoro nojioseHifl, no Bcei 
B^pojiTHocTH noTOMy, ^To dTo SHa^HJio 6u nepefixH otb aosaa Aa bb 
BOAy. npH jiíbjíeEiii HSÓHpaTejiefi na ABa paspa^a, nepeoMy paspA^y, 
DxaTJiii^eKy noJOBHfiy ropoACKHXB o6opoBB, opHHaAJieftHTB npaBo HSÓH- 
paTB noJOBHHy rjiacHHXB. Hsb Toro, ^to copoKB HSÓnpaTejieft, bb Tbcph, 

DJiaTHrB OKOJIO 45®/o ropOACKHXB c6opOB'B, MOanO SaKJHOqHTB, ^TO npH 

<;yii(ecTBOBaHÍH ;i;ByxB pasp^AOBB nepBuft pa3pAAi> coctoajib 6h, npHÓjiH- 
BHTejiBHO, H3B fiHtnudecjiinu HSÓnpaTe^iefi. dra ropcTE BpyoHUXB njia- 
TesBn^HBOBB OBasuBajia 6ii Ha hcxoab B&i6opoBB tohho xasoe se bjiía- 

HÍe, BaSB H BTOpofi paspAA'^, COCTOAII^ifi H3B OCTaJIBHUXB mUCSHU-tUe" 

^mueofm-nmnudecHmu HSÓHpaxejiefi. IIonpaBRa, TaKHMB o6pa30MB, npn- 
Bejia 6u KB qeify-To eme xy^meMy, iímb AMcTByK)iii;ifi nop^AOKB. 
Jl.tficTBHTejiBHyK) DepeM^Hy kb jiyqmeMy MoaeTB npoH3BecTH, o^eBHAHo, 
TOJiBBo Hooafl udÓHpaxejiBHaH cncTena, nocTpoeHHaH na ApyrnxB, fiojii^e 
enpaaeAJiHBuxB HanajiaxB. Hh bb ^eify ne npHseAyrB hojibíji bo^hhkh 

B^B p0A'b T^XB, Sa KOTOpUfl BUCRasajICfl HeAaBHO „RÍeBJ[flHHHB^,— Ha- 

npHM-bpi, yBejiH^eme qHCJia paspa^oBi, cb cexpaneoieMB npHHiiHna 
rpynnupoBBH H36HpaTejiefi no BOjra^ecTBy nJiaTHMLiX'B huh c5opoBB. 9Ta 
vlpa yneHbniHJia 6u H']bcBOJiBKO nepeB'bcB RpynHUXB njiaTejibii^HBOBB 
HaA'B fiojrbe MejiKHMH, ho saTO o6ocTpHJia 6u Apyroe sjío — BpaftHioD 
IfajioqHCJieHHocTB H36HpaTej[6& BB BUcniHXB paspflAaxB. HsjíeqHTB namy 
rjiaBHyi) ropoAcsyH) Óojiíshb uoryxB to;ibko paAUKajiBHUJi jieBapcTBa. 

nepexoAHMB TenepB bb ApyrHMB BonpocaMB, CBASaHHBíHx cb pe4>op- 
iio9 ropoAOBoro nojioseaiji. IIo ct. 36 3Toro'3aBOHa, Kas^oHy paspa^T 
fisÓMparejiefi npeAOCTaBjn^eTc^ BuÓHpaTB rjiacHUXB KaR'B hsi coóctboh- 
floft cpeAU, TaKB H H3B ^HCJia HBÓHpaxejiefi, npHHaA^eacan^HXB bb Apy- 
THHB paspjiAftMB. Ha npaBTHK'b H36paHÍe hsb cpeAU Apyroro paspnAa 
BCTp-tHaeTCfi AOBOJiBHO lacTO. Bb nerepóyprcKoft ropoACKoft aJmí 3act- 
AaK)!^, HanpHifibpB, MHorie HSÓHpaiejiH TpeTB^ro paspflAa, Bu6paHHue 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



374 vhcnann dpoiih. 

vb riacHue nepBHirb paspjiAoirB. 6% ry óepHum KieBCRoň h ^epHHroB- 

CROfi, BO BpeHH CeHETOpCSOft peBH3ÍH, OROJO 25 ^/o BCtzi FJiaCHIiIXl- 

6uiH H36paHH He Ha CBoeM-b paspji;^'^. IIpoeKToiii KaxaHOBCRoft rokmhc- 
cíh BHRaR&x'b nepeM^iTb vb droiTB nopflAR'9b ne HaM^qaJiocb. TenepB^ 
CKOiBRO HaiTB ESstcTHo, cyluecTByerB MH^HÍe, RjiOHameeca RiorpaHH- 
HeHÍK) H36HpaeNOCTH. HaMi Rasexcfl, tto BCJiRoe noxoÓHoe orpaHii^eHÍe 
6ujio 6h maroiTB eaaajCB, b'b oco^obhocth npH AÍjieHÍH Há paspjiAU, 
ocHOBaHHOM'B Ha ROJiH^ecTBt BJiaTHVux^ c6opoB%. IIpeACTaBHMi ce&ky. 
wb caKOMi A'bjrb, noioseHÍe paspa^a, vb RoropoMi ^hcjio HSÓHpaTejiefi^ 
saHeceHHUXi vb cohcrh, — a ríwb 6ojiie hhcjio HSÓHpaTejieft, aMctbh- 
TejiBHO flBJtflDH^HXCH Ha BUÓopii, — cjTBa npesumaeTL hhcjio noAiesa*^ 
n^HX^ HSÓpaHÍK) rjiacHUXi. Bi HacToan^ee BpeMa TaRaa vajioHHCJieH- 
HOCTb HdÓHpaTeiei ypaBHOBtmHBaerca xotl cROJiBRO-HHÓyAb MHoroiH- 
cjieHHOCTBK) JiHi];^, Hdi cpe^u ROTopiiixi MoaRerB 6uTb DpoH3Be;(eHa 
HaópaHíe. 7hh?toshtl dvovb dpothbobí^cb, npiypo^HTb HaÓHpaeMOCTb^ 
R^ ysRHKi paMRaNi paspa^a, snaHHJio 6u, bo mhofhxi cjiyqaflX'B, noon^- 
pHTB c(iMau36paHÍe, T.-e. xy^niyK) 4K>pMy BuóopoBi. Bi MHoroHHCJieH- 
hhx^ coópaHiflx^ HeyxoóCTBa orpaHHHeHÍA ne TaR^B sau^THU, ho eAB& 
JIH ueEie cymecTBeHHu. RoHy xano HSÓnpaTejibHoe npaBO, Ton npeji- 
nojiaraercH chocoShumi nojn»30BaTi»cH HifB cosnaTejibHo h pascyxHTejibHO. 
EcjiH OH'B yfiisAen^, ^o HHrepecu ropová Jiyqme Bcero ójmt^ oxpa- 

HaeVH H3BtCTHUMl,.npaBOCnOC06HUirB JIHKOM'b, TO Htrb HHRaROft npH- 

^HHbi sanpeniaTB evy no^aBaTs roJioci sa aro jihao, tojibro b^ bhaj 
npHHaAJie»H0CTH nocjttxHJiro r'b Apyroft HaÓHpaxejibHoft rpynn*]^. ^^e- 
HÍe na rpynnu npeAnpHHHMaerar b'b BH^y npaRTH^ecRMxi coo($pa«eHÍ&^ 
OTHDAB ne ycxpanaa cojiHAapHOCTB — ecjiH ne bo BceM'b, to, no Rpaftneft 

Vbpiy bo MHOrOM^ — BCix^ ropOACRHX'B SHTOJiefi. HeJlbBJI TpeĎOBaTbOTL 

H36HpaTejieft, hto6u ohh bí^phjih tojibro ijieHaMi CBoefi rpynnu, sa- 
6uBaji o cyn^ecTBOBaniH ApyrHXi corpas^ani, óniixe mwb snaRO- 
MUx^Y H Bi) 6dibnieA crenenH nojibsynn^Hxca hxi AOBtpieM'b. KaRot 
6u npHHi^Hni HM 6uji'B nojiojR6H'b Bi ocHOBanie jifyieEm na paspa^u — 
HMyiuecTBeHHufi hjih no;iaTHoft, cocjiOBHuft hjih TeppHTopiajibHufl, -^ 
nojiHaro oón^enifl MOSAy BSÓupaTOJiHME oahofo h tofo «e paspa^a, 
oco6eHHo Bi ropo^axi CROJibRO-HHÓyAb oómHpHuxi, Bce trkh ho óy^erb. 
BecbMa B08M0SH0, Hao6oporb, ^to nsópanie nojiesHaro oÓo^ecTBeHHaro 
A'6HTejiH óy^erb coapaseno cb HaHÓojibniHMH TpyAHocTayu HveHHO bi 
ero co6cTBeHHou'b paspa^ib. IIoroBopRa: nul n'est prophéte en son pays 

npHMtHHNa, AO Hi^ROTOpOŘ CTenOBH, H Rl HOÓOJIbmHMli eAHHHI^aill^ 

otípasyexiuťb ropoxcRHHH cocjiobíhhh, RBapTajiaMH, RaTeropiaiiH nuaTejib- 
mHROBi. Hluťb niHpe rto-jíh6o CMOTpHTb na npH3BaHÍe rjiacnaro, ^twb- 
óojbme CHHTaen cetia oéssaHHUifx Ai^ficTBOBaTb na nojibsy i^^Jiaro, a 
He Tofi HJIH Apyroft oTA^bHoft rpynnu, t^mi MeHbme mancu nsópania 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA.. — BHTTPBHHEE 0B08P%HIE* 375 

ero HveHHo stok) rpynnoft, vh oco6eHHOCTH ecjiH ona yse HM^Jia cjiy- 
HaŘ yÓtAMTBCfl Bi ero óeaHpHcrpacTÍH, b^ ero HesaBHCHMOCTH ot:l Kpy»- 
KOBUX'B BjriflHift. OrpaBHqeme HSÓHpaeMocTH Jierso MOseTb saspHTb 
j(0CTyni» Bi ropOACRyD xyvy UEonwh vivh mucxs, TÍxnb, soro Bcero 
seiaTejiBHie Óujio 6u nmxbth uemjij rjiacHUMH. Oóhhbhmx apryves- 
TOVb npoTHFb CBotfoAU H36paHÍA H3% cpe^u ApyrHX'B paspAAOBTi c^y* 
smrB ysejiH^eHÍe ihcjui saHj^HxaTypí, ycHieme Hs6HpaT6JiBHoft ar^Ta- 
i^íh, HSÓHpaTejibHUxrE npoHCKOB'b. 7B6uiH^eHJe HHCJia KaHAB;!(aTyp'b, cairo 
no ceůt, BOBce ee onacHo; nanpoTHBX Toro, oho oo^HHifaeTi maHCU 
y^a^Haro BUÓopa. HysHo toako cosHaTenioe oTHomeHie H8($HpaTejieft 

Vb KaHAHABTaNl, HySHa B031í0»H0CTB CpaBHHTeJIBHOfl OI^^HBH — a M^JIH 

dToro, B'B CBOH) o^epe^B, Heo6xoAHHo, Tro(5u sas^oify H86HpaTeJiBHOMy 
€o6paHÍK) npeACTOJiJO H36paTb He6ojn»inoe ^hcjio rjiacHEixi. TenepB, 
Kor^a sasAHt MsSHpáTaiBHuft pa3pflA'B HafiHpaerB ors agcath ao bocbmh- 
XecATH-qerupexi rjiacHUX'B, H86HpaTejiaM'B ^pesBmaftHO TpyxHO hjto 
Jiase 009TH HeBoaKosHo noj(o6paTB HaxJiesaio^ee ^mcjio jihi^i, aMctbh- 

TeJIBHO HK'B H8B^THUX1» — H USBtCTHUXX CB XOpomefi CTOpOHU. OhH 

BUHysAeHH, cajiomb u pa^oHi, rojiocoBaTB hjih na yxa^, hjh no 
cnncBy, cocTaBjíeHHOMy ROHOBO^avn Tofi hjeh Apyrofi „napTÍH*. Ha Ta* 
ju>ft uohjA paci(BÍTaDTi» h npoi^BibTaDTB BCflKaro poxa HHrpHrH-- h 
6jxíTb npoi^B^TaTB, xoTH 6u HsónpaTejiH o^Horo paap^Aa h (Shjich jih^ 
menu npasa By6BpaTB H86HpaTejie& xpyrnxi pa8pAX0B'B. rapanriK) 
c03HaTejiBH0CTH BUÓopoBi HysHo HCKaTb He wb orpaBHqoHÍH HsSHpae- 
vocTH, a B'B ycTaH0BJi6HÍH HetíojnniHxi TeppHTopiajibHUX*B ospyroB^, 
H9B KOTopux'B Kasjíuft HSĎHpajťb 6u Hefiojibmoe ^hcjio rjiacHHXi — na- 
npEM'bpi, ne Óojiie nniH. 6i TasoH^ ospyri HBÓnpaTejra Morjra 6u 
noAaBaTb roiocb cb nojiHHii'B 8HaHÍeM'b h noHHM anioMi A'&Jia — Bce paBHO, 
npHBBj^JiesHirB jih Ran^Hj^arb vh rjutcnue vh nocTOflHHUirb jRUTejaitb 
oBpyra. MesAy ropoxcBHNH o6niecTBeHHHMH j^ianejiavu Bcer^a naft^ercfl 
ne xajio TaxHXi, H3BÍCTH0CTb BOTopHX'B ne orpaHHHHBaeTCA npeA^aini 
BBapraja, cocjiOBifl hjih Basoft-JiHCo HHoft HsfinpaTejibHofi rpynnii. Ecjni 
RpecTbaHCBÍe HstfnpaTejibHue cxoau, npH ^^ftCTBÍH nojrosenia 1864 r., 
HB^HpajiH HHorAa aeMioBJíaA^bi^eB^, SHByn^Hxi bi> Apyroft nacTH yi8ia, 
HO ci>yifÍBniHxi sacjiysHTb AOB'ipie Bcero y^a^naro nacejieniH, to eiue 
^lanie anajiorH^HUfl HBÓpanÍH iioryTi BCTptqaTBCJsr bi ropoxaxi, BaBOBa 
6u HH 6bm 9jííkch rpynoHpoBBa HSÓHpaTOjefi. 

Mu TOJIbBO-HTO ynOMHHyjH o BOMCBHXl BU($OpaX'B, npOHCXOXHBIHHXS 

Ha ocHOBaHÍH BaBOHa 1884 r. B'b hoboki sohcbomi noJiosenÍH crporo 
npoBeAeH'B npHHi^Hn^ orpaHHqeHHoi H3(SHpaeK0CTH; sa CHJfOR) cr. 38, 

BOMCBÍe HaÓHpaTBJIBHHe COÓpaHÍA H Cl^AH MOryTIb HBÓHpaTb TOJIbBO 

jiHi^i, HM'6K)n](HXi npaBO rojioca b'b tomi caHOK'B co6paHÍH hjih ď&BA^, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



376 vhCTEsneh ebpoiui. 

rxi BUÓopi npoMSBOAHTca ^). He cji^^yeTb Jni BHji;tTB b'e aroví npex- 
P'bineHÍe Boapoca h no OTHomeHii) k-b ropoACBHM'B BH6opaMi? Mu Ay- 
MaeiTL, TTO wbrb. Bt> ocHOBaHÍe Hosaro aevcsaro ycTpoficTBa nojiosevs 
npHBqHnr& cociobhocth, e^sa xr — Rasi nosaaaHO naMH b% npexiHJiy- 
jnfiWb o6o8ptHÍH — npHirbHHMiifi kb ropoACBoiiy cavoynpaBjíeHiD. IIpH- 
BHJierHpoBaHHaA o6oco6j[eHHocTi> ABopHHCTBa, cocTaBji[flK)ii](afl oAHy nvb 
rjiaBHHXi sa^aTb He^asHefi aeMcsoft pe<))opMii, ne Horjia 5HTb aocth- 
rsyTa HHaqe, sasi uplypo^eHiem ki cocjiobhooth ho toubo asTHB- 
naro HsÓHpaTejiBHaro npaBa (T.-e. npaBa HSÓHpaTB), ho h naccHBHaro 
(T.-e. npasa 6htb nsÓpaBsinfi). Bi ropoiaxi e^sa jih bobmoseo bu- 

A^JlOHie ABOpXHl ESTi CpO^U OCTaiBHOFO HaceiOHiS — H COBepmeHHO HO- 

HiiejiMMo npexocTaaieHie mmi rocDOACTByH)ii^e& pojra; a<ji dToro hxi 
cJiHiiiBOVB vajio, j(a h cavoe BJiaA^Hie ropoxcBOi) Hej^tíHSHMOi) co6- 
CTBeHHocTBi) (hjih, t^vb Óoj^bo, oÓJia^aHíe npovHinjieBnnjirB hjih Top^ 
roBími saBeA^HÍem) bobco ho HniieirB Toro xapaBTepa, Boroput npu- 
nHCUBaeroi XBopAHcsoMy 3eHjroBJiaA%HÍD wh yltox^. Monno yrBepsxaTB, 
xoTA H cb 6ojiBiHoft HaTHSEOt, ^TO seiueBjíaAtJiei^i ne hsi XBopaHi, 
no 0TH0III6HÍI) Ri 3eMieBJiaAÍ^Bd;airB-j[(BopaHaM'& — ^qejioB^Ri qysoft, He* 
<2aoco5Huft HH noHATB, HH oTCTaHBaTB ADopAHOBÍe HHTopecu; HO Vh ro* 
pox^ „ABopancRHXi HHrepecoBi'' Htn bobco, h TpyxHO npeACTaBHTB 
ce6^ TaBoro ropo^CBoro oÓHBaTejui, BOTopuft, bi CHjiy CBoero npoHc- 
xosA6HÍfl, óujťB 6u COBepmeHHO ^ysjCB BcbvB rpynnam ropo^cKoro 
HacejieHúi^ Rpoiri^ o^Hofi. E ci dToS to^bh 8p'bHÍfl, cjoAxoBaTejiBHo, 
HHTTO He niniaeTB coxpanHTB, vb hoboifb ropo^oBOMi noJioseniH, rf 
iHHpoRyi) CBo6oxy HS^HpaeifocTH, BOTopaa cy^ecTByero vh ropoxaxi 
Bi HacTOAni;ee BpeMA. 

Gyni;ecTBeHHinrB He^ocTaTROMi iMcTByDn^aro ropo^oBoro nojrose- 
hía npH3HaeTCfl HHor^a cjiHmBOMi VHoro^HCjieHHHĚ cocTani ropo^CRHXi 
Ayvi. MHHHvajiBHoe ^hcjio rjracHuxi — bi, Tbii> ropo^axi, paí ne 60- 
jLie TpexcoTB HBÓHpaTejiefl — mptíduamh; aaTtMi Ha RasAue cto-hatb* 
fificarb HsfiHpaTOJiet npHÓaBJíflercA no nrecTH rjiacHuxi, nosa o6mfié 
Hxi qHCjio ne AOCTHrneri cevEAecaTH-AByxi (ncRjiD^eHie cocTaBiArorB 
TOJiBRo nerepíypn, r^t 252, h MocKBa, ta* 180 rjiacHUXi). HTaxi, 
rÁi 6ojvbe THCflqH-TpexcoTB-oHTHAecflTH HSÓnpaTejieft, TavB qHC;io rjiac* 

HUXl AOXOAHTl AO MaRCEVaJIBHOfi HH(|)pH — a TUCaqi-TpeMCTaifB-flaTH- 

AecATH H36HpaTejijnrB cooTB'bTCTByei*B, npH6jiH3HTejiBH0, HaceJienie bi 
15—20 TucsíWb. EABa jih Moano yTBep»AaTB, qTo ropoAy ci raRHiTB 
HacejiemeMi tpjaho na&TH 72 AOB^^penniixi jiHqa, cnoco^nuxi 6utb 
ero npeACTaBHTejHMH; eABa jh, cb Apyroft CTopoHH, co6paHÍe, cocroa* 
n^ee m% h^xoíibrhxi AecaTxoBi ^jiohobi, npoACTaBJífleTCA cjinniROVB 



O Cm. BHyrpeHHee DÓoiptnie n Jé 8 „BicTHEsa Esponn" aa 1890 r., crp. 818. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — BHyrPEHHEE 0B03MHIE. 377 

XHoroqHcieHHUMi ajisi upaBiLíBHaro Bej^eHÍA j^íxa. OnHTHOMy npe^ci^- 
xaTejíK) eerpy^Ho cnpaBHTLCA j[ase c% Tasnui cpaBHHTejiBHo-MHoroJiiDji- 
Buwb co6paHÍeM'B, KaKi MOCROBCsas HjiH neTep5yprcKaji ropoACRaA AjMa. 
H A'lĚcTBHTejibHo, H31 VHCJia ÓesqHCJieHHBixi, qacTo cnpaBe^JiKHBUXx, 
eu^e qam,6 HecnpaBeAJinBE>ix'B sajioói na A^ATejiBHocTB ctojih^hiix^ 
j(7M'B, HH o;(Ha, BaseTCA, ne 6ujia voxHBHpoBaHa 6e3nopaAoqHocTBK) a7H- 
«KHX'E 3aci;(aHÍfi, HeBosMOSHOCTBio pyROBOAHTb npeHÍflira, RpafiHeK) pas- 

;(po5jieHHOCTLt) lIHŠHÍfl — OAHHMI* CJIOBOMI, He^OCTaTKaMH, OÓyCJIOBJIH- 

BaeMHMH HHorojiiDXCTBOMi co6paHÍa. OrpasH^enie HMCJia rjiacHuxi sa- 
TpyAHHJO 6h AocTyn^B bx jywy wa JiD^eft cbocoChhxi, A-fejibHHX^B, 
^ecTHiix'B, HO Majio BjriaTejii>HHX'b, GTOHiniHXi BAajiH oa*B HaÓHpaxejiBHoS 
arHTai^iR hjih tojbeo-^to BUCTynaDmHxi* Ha o6ni;ecTBeHHoe noDpHni;e. 
HiifB MeBbme óujio 6k[ M'bc'rB bi> j(yM'b, rbui* Rptn^e AepsajuHCB 6h 
aa HHX-B rjiacHue, 0AHa»Au hxi> sanaBniíe, rbm^ oxecToqeHH^e 6ujoa 
6u Bu6opHaa 6opB6a, rbwh jier^e — o^pasosaHÍe b% caHoft aju^ ne- 
(SoJBHiBXTi rpynnx, pyEOBOAHMHX-B ^hcto-jihihhmh CTpeMJieHÍflMH. Otho- 
CHTejiBHaif MHoroHHCJieHHocTB cocTasa HM'berB em<d o^ny nojiesHyK) cto- 
poHy: ona nosBOJiflen o6xo;(htbch óesi 00HyxHTejiBHHX'B vip% s^b 
HcopaBHOHy nocin^eniH) sac^^anift. lípa n^THAec^TH, mecTH^ecaTH, ce- 
XHAecATH rjiacHuxi mosho pasc^HTUBaTB, Bi> ÓoJiBniHHCTBt cJiyqaeBi, 
^To co6paHÍe coctohtca (js^jisi A^ftcTBHTejiBHocTH sacbAaHÍA ropoxoBoe 
nojio«eHÍe 1870 r. Tpeóyen npHcyrcTBia owoft TpeTH, a b-b CTOJiHiíax^B 
— OAHoft HflToft BC'bx'B rjiacHUXii). BcTptqaDTCJi, RoneqHO, h TenepB 8a- 
c^A&hía, He coctoabbiíacji BCJ^xcTBÍe HenpHÓuTÍfl aaKOHHaro qncjia riac- 
HHXx — HO ne HacTOJiBKo qacTo, íToÓH OTO Toro CTpaAaJio ropo^cKoe 
xo3a&CTBO. npH SHaqHTejiBHOMii coBpani;eHÍH cocTana ropoACSHxi lyMX 
npHHiJiocB 6u JiHÓo AonycTHTB pimenie x^bjíx hh^tosbumi ^hcjiomi ro- 
jtocoBHb, jih6o cosAaTB cHCTOMy noHysAeHÍft, apeACTaBJiflK)ni;yi) BecBMa 
cepBOSHHfl HoyAoÓcTBa. BasHo ne to, ^toÓu rjiacHHft chj^íjtb na cbooitb 
m4ct4; BaaiHo to, mto6h ohx npHHieji'B b-b Ayny AoópoBOJiBHo, cx na- 
vibpeníeiťB cjAjs^ETh sa xoaoitb fi,^jvb n othocthcb cosnaTejiBHO h Ao6po- 
coB^CTHO K'B KasK^OMy Boopocy, npejtJiaraeMOMy Ha pa8p'bmeHÍe AyuH. 
Onacenie ^enesHaro mTpa4)a HO»erB ysejiHqHTB ^hcjio rjiacHUX'B, 
ABJífllDn^Hxcfl BT> saci^anie, ho ho ^hcjio rjiacHiixi, npHHHMaion^Hxi k'b 
cepmy ropoACRÍe HHTepecu. ?to Taxoe, naRonei^i, caMaA ABRa bi sa- 
ci^tanie? He ^to hhoo, RaRi oTMtxRa 2% cnHCR* najiHqHHxi rjiacHux'B. 

EcnOJIHHBTi 9Ty ^OpMaJTBHOCTB (HO XapaRTepHCTHIHOMV 4>PaHiíy3CEOMy 

BHpaaeHii) — ayant fait acte de presence), raacHHŘ MoaeTi ytxaTB, 
yftTH Wh RypHTejfBHyi) ROMHaTy, saHHTBca ^Tenieni raaeTOE* hjih paaro- 
BopoMTi CB coci^AflMH. Oti ofo TaR'B-Ha3NBaeMaro npHcyTCTBÍH Ayna, 
Bo Bcix^ 9THXX cjiy^ajixt, BHHrpaeTx o^HnaROBo MaJo. EAHHCTBeHHaa 
;('&&CTBHTejiBHaA rapaHTLfl dneprÍH rjiacHuxi — 9to npaBHJiBHaji H36Hpa- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



378 BftCTHHBl hSBOlSU. 

TejiBHafl cHCTeMa, npHSttBaDiAaji b'b xy^y Jiy^nrifl chjiu sacejieHifl, h 
BOHTpoiB oóu^ecTBeHHaro mh^hía, npe^cTaBJíAeMaro, nesAy npo^nfb^ 
HesaBHCHMos) M^CTHOK) upeccoft. 

rjacHHe ropoACBofi ajuu — jik)ah, 6bxhmev) nacTbio, saniiTue; HejtBBJí 
TpeÓoaaTb orb hhx'e, ^To6u ohh OTAaeajiH j^yvb snaqHTejiBHyiD ^acTB 
cBoero BpeveHH. BecBMa Ba»HO, nodroiiy, qTo6u 3acÍAaHÍji xyMU Ha- 
sHa^ajiHCB He cjhbikomi ^acTo. PerjiaiieHTMpoBaTb hx'b qncjio nyTeM'B 
oÓJisaTejiBHaro npeAnHcasiji se npe^cTaBjíAeTCA, GAHaBO, HHRaBoft bob- 
^osHocTH. Hejn>8ji npe^ycMorp^TB sapasie hh ^Hcjia, hh BaseocTH 
MfbJihi noxJiesaiAHX'^ pascMorp^HÍK) AyMu — a ors bthxi AByxi> ycjioBift 

SaBHCHTb, rjiaBHUM'B OÓpaSOMl, 6ÓAI>HiaA HIH MéHBmaH yTOII^6HH0CTB 8a* 
C^ABEÍft. Bce, 9T0 MOSHO OOpeA^bXHTB SaSOHOlťB— 8T0 MHHHMBJlBHOe «IHC1<> 

co6paHÍft (HanpHM^bpx— AB'&HaA]^aTB bi Teqeeie roxa, T.-e. no o^HOiiy 
Bi> uicau,i>). FopasAO ÓÓJiBinaro mo»ho ^ocTHrHyTB ApyrHifB nyTeiTB^ 
Baiťb^eHHHiťB BxnpoeRTi RaxaHOBCRofiBOMMHCciH— yBej[HqeHÍeM'BqHCjia 
BonpocoB'B, noxJieiKaii^HZ'B OKOH^aTejiBHOMy pa3p'bineHÍDropoACRofi ynpaBU. 
BecBMa BasHo, tbeso, Óuio 6u nosa($oTHTbCfl o tomi, nTo6u rjacHue 

MOrjIH ABJíaTBCH Wb SactABEÍe jf^OCTaXO^HO nOXrOTOBJíeHHBIlIH K'B cjiy- 

inaHÍK) oqepeAHUii jcfajťB. ^jih dTorp cjiijioBajio 6u ofi^saTB ropoxcsia 
ynpaBU safijiaroBpeMeHHO pascujiaTB vsHCEUWb ne tojibbo cohckh a^i-b, 
HasHaqaeiiux^ b:b cjiymaHÍK), ho h AOBJía^u, no Rpafineft Hip'& no xbr 
M8íU% HaH6oA'be nasHUMi. 9to npaRTHRyoTCA h TenepL bo MHorax^B 
sevcRHXi co6paHÍJiX'B h wl h^rotopbixi ropoACRHXi AyMax'B'- ho, RaR'B 

BHAHO H3% AaHHUX'B CeHaTOpCRHX'B peBH8Ífi, JífiJíeKO ne BO BC'bX'B. IIpeA' 

BapHTOAHoe pascMOTp^Hie ropoACRHX^B pocnHcefi h ot^otob-b ropoACRofi 
ynpanu, no AÍkflcTByK)u^eMy Tenepb BaRony, Mooiceim 6utb BOSJíoseHo 
xyMoi) Ha oco6yK) rommhccík). Bto npaso cji^^AOBajio 6bi npenpaTHTB bi 
oÚRsaHHOcmh^ noTOMy qxo b'b hojihomi cocTani AYMU OTqoTH h pochhch 
EHRor^a H6 MoryT'B 6utb noB^penn TaRi o6cTOJiTejiBHo h no^poĎno, 

RaRl B'B He60JIBniOft ROMMHCCÍH, J(ORJiaA'B ROTOpofi CJI^AOBaJIO 6u, RO- 

HeqHo, sapan^be coo5uiaTB BcbMi rjiacHuifB. BÓJiBmaA no^roTOBienHocTB 
rjutCHux'B otfesneqHjia ($u ho tojibro 6oji'be npaBHJiBHoe, ho h (oji^be 
Óucxpoe pa3piknieBÍe TeRyu](HX'B aí^j^b, h cnocoócTBOBajia 6u, TaRHirB 
otfpaBoifB, yMeHBmeHÍK) qncjia n npoxoiXHTejiBHOCTH AyvcRHXi aac^Aa- 
HÍfi. R-B Tofi se T[,im. Morjia ($ii npHBOCTH h Apyrafl Mtpa, yRaaaHHafl 
RaxanoBCROD ROMMHCcieio: 6oji%e Toqnoe onpeA'i^Ji6HÍe rbxi 4^pMajiB- 
H£ix'B ycjoBit, EOTopuMH AOJisHO 6uTB o6cTaBjieHo BosÓysRAeHÍe Bonpo- 
coBi OTA^bjíBHUMH rjacHUMH. Ha ocHOBanÍH A^ficTByH)n(aro saROHa, rjiac- 
Hufi, sRejiann^ift CAtjiaTB bi^ sactAaHÍH Ayxu npejdoseníe, o6ji3aH'B 

H3B'bCTHTB O TOMl ropO^CROrO FOJlOBy SR TpH AH£ J(0 8aC']^AftHÍfl. Ilo 

npej|Jio»eHÍK), CA'bjiaHHoify óes^ npeABapHTejiBnaro BSBin^eniji, MoryrB 
6htb Aonynienu npeniji, ho cb OTcpoqROK) ORonqaTejTBHaro p'&HieHÍA 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — BHyTPEHHEE 0B03P4HIE. STO' 

j,o OAHoro H3'B cjitAyDn^uxi aaci^xaníft. BTopaa ^acTBdroro nocTanoE- 
jieBifl napajiKsyen,, oqeBHUHo, AtfiCTBÍe nepsoň. Dpemfl no npeiMeTy, 
R'b KOTopouy HHSTO, Rpoiflk EBTopa ope^Jiosemj!, ne noAroTOBjieH'B^ 
aBiňvoTca, wb óojibniHHCTBb cjiyqaeBi, 6e3njiOAHofi noiepeft BpeMesH^ 
T^ifB óojite, HTO Bi cji-j^Ayion^eMx saci^MBÍH Ayuu, nepexi npHCTynoM'B^ 
vh rojiocoBaBÍR), ohh bohth HeMHByevo aojishu bo3o6bobhtbci[. 06%^ 
OAHOMi H TOM-B se Boopocik BpHxoAHTCA, coBepmesBO Hanpacao, toji- 
soBaTB ABft pa^a. FopaaAO Jiyqnie 6hjio 6u AonycEaTb npesifl — h ne- 
ueAJieBEoe p']^meBÍe— TOJibBO no TaRHH'B npeuioseBÍBMi, KOTopuH Ba- 
paste coo6n;eBU ynpaB*]^ h Bsecenu eio bi pasocjiaBBUt rjiacBUirs 
cnticoRi o^epeABUxi J^,tJ^^. ^ajibBMmyK) perjiaMeBTai^iK) 8anpocoB'B h 
npeAJioxeBÍft, bhochkuxi oTAtjiBBUMH rjiacBUMH— 'HanpHM'bp'B, Tpe6o- 
Basie, qTo6u obh 6usvl noAnHcasu se Meabme q^Mi onpeA^JieBBUiii' 
HBOiowb rjiacBuxi — mu c^HTajiH 6u nesejiaTejiBBOK). B'b BaniHXi ro- 
poACRHXi Aynaxi (sa HCRjnoqeBieM^ cTOJiHqBuxii h en^e BeMBornxi^ 
ApyrHXi) JiH^Bafl HBHi^iaTHBa, npeABOJiaraion^aH BSBicTByn CTenenb 
cavocTOBTejiBBOCTH H 9BepriH, npeAcxaBJíBeTCB en^e ABjeniewh sacTOJiBRO 
piXKHMi, qTO ee nysao CRop'be noom^pATb h BU3UBaTb» híu% orpasH- 
qHBBTB H cAepaHBaTb. 

^OBOJibBO pacnpocTpaseBBUKB soAocTaTROifb ropoACRoro ynpaBji6BÍA 

BBJIBeTCA, RBRl BHABO HS-b AaBBblXl CeBaTOpCRBXl peBHSifi H H81 APy* 

THXi CB^A^BÍfi, BecBoeBpeMeHBoe npeACTaBJíeBie Aynii, a cji^AOBaTejibBa 
H BecBoeBpeneBBoe yrBepsA^aíe eio topoacrhxi i»ocnHceft h orqeTOBi^ 
no Bxi HcnojiBeniiD. SaBHCHTb 8to, 6uTb Moserb, oTqacTH orb Toro, 
qxo cpoRi Aza npeACTaBJieBÍB pocnucefl h 0TqeT0B'b onpeA'i^JiBeTCfl, no 
AMcTByioo^eMy ropoAOBOMy noJioseBÍR), caHBMH Ay^aMH. HnqTo se u^- 
majio 6u, noBHAHMOMy, ycxaBOBHTb aa stotb cqoTi ToqauB npaBHJia 
Bi caHOHOb saRoai — h saT&Mi* Ba6jiH)AaTb aa CTporaiťb hxb hcuoji- 
aesieMB. Cm^tu, aanpHM^pi, Morjia 6u 6uTh bbochmu b% Ayxy ae 
no3se RBRi 3a ABa uíceusl ao saqajia cHtTaaro roAa, oTqexu— ae 
noBse RBRi qepoBi qeTupe vi^cBi^a no ORoaqaaía oTqeraaro nepioAa. 
SaMeAJeaie wb tomb hjih ApyroMB, 6e3i ocaoaaTejibBofi npHqHau, aojisbo 
6ujio 6u HM^Tb nocJiiACTBieMi cyAeÓayx) OTB^TCTBOBaocTb qjieaoBi ro- 
poACRofi ynpaau. 0TB'bTCTB6aH0CTH nepoAi cyAOMB, sa aapynTeaie cB0HX'b 
o4>4>Huiaj(baux'b oÓBsafiBocTeft, MorjH 6u noAJiesaTb, aapaBat ci> aojís- 
aocTBHMH jiBuaMH TopoACROFo oÓn^ecTBeBBaro ynpaBJíeBifl (t.-o. q^e- 
aaHH ropoACROĚ ynpaBU, ToproBofi AenyTauiM, rommhccíh a^a oi^taRH 
BeABBSHMUX'b HMyn^ecTBi* a Apyrax^ acnojiBaTejibauxi ROMMHccifi), h 
qjEeau noAroTOBBTejibBbixi ROMMBCcifi. HeBosaarpaABMUMi jAapoifb ajia 
ropoACRoro caMoynpaBjíeaiA 6ujio 6u noAqaaeaie ero npoACTaBHTejieft 
AHCiMinjiHBapBoft oTB^TCTBeanocTH B'b nop^Ast aAMaaHcrpaTBBBOMiy 
nepeA'b ryfiepacRHMi no ropoACRHMi A^^aMi* npacyTCTBieM^ a Mana- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



380 B1^CTHHB'B EBPOnU. 

cTepcTBOMTi BHyxpeHHHXx ji,iji%. Oeo HeMHflyeMo noBjíeKJio óu sacoóoD 
BOHEseHÍe ypoBHfl ropOACRoro ynpaBjíeHia. R&EÓojrke HesaBHCHMue 
rjiacHue CTaJiH 6h yRJioHATLCJi otb npHHflTÍfl aa ceÓA BaBHXi 6u to 
HH ÓujBto AOJisHocTeft, HcnpaBJíeHÍe soTopuxi Óujio 6hi conpAsceHo cb 
onacHocTbH) npoH3BOjn»Hiixi vbponpiATÍfi. ^to6u yÓ^bAHTbCA b% stoitb, 

•CTOHTl TOJIBRO npHnOMHHTB, ^TO Bl> SpyFB „AHCI(HnJIHHapHUX'E^ Rapi 

BBeAeBo, ci> H']^ROTopux'B Bopii, ydaÁ€HÍe otm doAo/cHOcmu. 

SOHTPOJIID aAMHHHCTpaii;ÍH nOAJieSHT'i AO CHX^b nopi nO^TH HCRJID- 

HBTOJiBflo saKOHHocmh AifiCTBÍt ropoxcROFO oÓB^ecTBeHHaro ynpaBjeHÍA; 
TOJiBRo Bt HtROTopux-B, pÍARHX'B cjiy7aAX'E pascMorpifliiD ryĎepHCRaro 
no ropoACRHMi jí,iJiuM'h npHcyTCTBÍA, ry5epHaTopa hjiii MHHHCTpa BHy- 
TpeHBHXx jí,iji% npejíocTaBjíaeTca tmÁecoot^asHocmh AyMCRHxi nocTa- 
HOBJíeHÍS HJiH pacnopaiReHift ropo^CRoft ynpaBU. BecbMa bosmosho, tto 
nepecMOTpi ropoAOBoro nojioseniH bhocot^ b'b stotb nop^AORi pa^H- 
fcajiBBUji nepeM^HU, no o6pa3i^y rixi, ROTopun npoHSBeAeHU se^aBEO 
no oTHomeniio ri 3evcRHM'L yqpesAeniAMx. Bescnopno, cyD]^ecTByiDn^ee 
ropoACRoe caMoynpaBJíeuíe HecBo6oAHo otb ne^ocTaTROBi, RoxopHxi mu 
Be CRpuBajiH orB naniHXi ^HTaTejiefi; ho ctojib se HecoMH']kHHÓ, b'b 
HaniHxi rJia3ax'B, h to, <ito oho AORaaajio cbok) coocoóhoctb kt» npa- 

BHJIBHOMy pa3BHTÍH), a CJI'bAOBaTeJIBHO H CBOe OpaBO na CaMOCTOATeJIB- 

HOCTB. npH oi^íhrí bcofo CA^JiaHEaro— h, Bi oco6eEHOCTH, Hec;!;^- 
jiaBsaro — HamHMH ropoACRHMH AyMaHH, eooÓxoahmo eomehtl, ^tó TaRoe 
6ojiLniHHCTBo namifxi yÍ3AEUX'B ropoAOBB. Msoríe nsi^ ehxi npeA- 
<rraBjiflK)TC£ ne ^íiai> hbumi, RaRi 6ojiBmHMH, a EHor^a e eo o^eHB 
6oJD[BniEUE A^peBSHMH, cjiy^afiso B03BeAeEsuME Ea CTenesB aAMEEE- 

€TpaTEBBUX'B neETpOBl. CupaBO^JIEBO JIH ÓUJIO 6I1I Tpe60BaTB 0TT> Jífi' 

poBEH, jDcase cpaBEETejiBEo oÓniHpfloft n óoraToň, htoÓu oEa saMocTEJia 
H ocBtTEJia CBOE yjiEEiiJ, BciOAy npoBOJia HECTyK) BOAy, npHEHjia Mipa 
vh osAopoBjíeEÍK) Bcixi CBOEXTi saRoyjiROBx? CapaBOAJiEBo jIe 6ujio 
^u ocymAaTB RpecTBjetECRoe cejiBCRoe ynpaBJíeEie, eb EcnojiEEBniee 

BCibx^ 3TEX% 3aAa?'B EJIE AaSO BOBCe R% SEMX HO npECTyHEBEiee? 
OopaBOAJIEBO JIH E OCEOBaTejIBEO JIE ÓBTJIO 6u BBTBOAETB E31 OFO 
líeSAtftCTBia Ee06X0AHM0CTb B3aTÍa aepeBBB nOA'B aAMBBBCŤpaTEB- 
HUfi npECHOTpX EJ[E Vh aAMEEECTpaTEBEyi) OnORy? He ACEO JIE, HTO 

zjiich EtrB BBHU, a ecTb TOJBRo EecopasMtpBOCTB Me»Ay noTpeó- 

HOCTflME E CEJiaME, yCTpaSEHaA JIEBIL MeAJeflHKIlťB, nOCTeneHEUlTB B03- 

pacTanieM^B noca^AHExi? To ae caMoe cat^yeTi CRasaTB b o ropo^axi, 
npfl6jiEsaK)n^EXC^ rx ^epoBOBCROMy TEoy. JS^jia eex^ — Aa e eo jí,jie 
HEX-B oAEEXi — cymecTByerB eme oabo cepBCSBoe onpaBAaHÍe: dTo — 
noAaBJiADni;ee Ópena oÓBaaTejiBEUxii pacxoAOBi. IIpEnoMEEMi, hto bo 
BpeMfl ceEaTopcREXi poBESift OEE npeBBiniaJiE, bi hhuxx ropoAaxi, 
bch) cyMMy oóURHOBeHEUxi AOxoAOB^. H Bil 6oj[BniEX'B ropoAaxx (sa- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHSA. — BHVTPEHHEE 0E03P«HIE. 381 

iipuir]kpi, B% Ro3jIob%), h ffb ropoAaxi cpeAHeft bcjih^hhu (nanpHMipi^ 
Kb KopoTOJis-ib), coAep»aHÍe uojihi^íh, nosapnoft KOMaHAU, xDpeMi h 
KasapiTB norjiomajio HHorAa ÓoJite nojioBHHiii Bcero ropoACRoro 6ida- 
sera. Htrb HHKasoft npH^HHu xyMaTB, ^ito sa uocjiijLEm AecaTbjrbrB 
vh dToifb noJioasenÍH a^'b opoHSomjia cyn^ecTBeHHafl nepeiť&Ha. Ob 
TaBHMH nyTaMH na Horax:b, ropová ne mofjih óucTpo ABHraTBCA Bne- 

peA'B, H MOHHO TOJIBRO yAHBJUlTBCJi, ^TO H^ROTOpUMl H3'B HHXl BCe- 

TasH y^ajiocB ca^^tb Becbua MHoroe. Hapy»Hoe ÓjiaroycTpoficTBo bohtb 
Buvxb ae HaxoAHTca yse ea HHsmefl CTeneHH paBBHiifl; Roe-^To npex- 
npHHATO, B% dTOMB HaopaBjeHÍH, Aa»e fitAHUHH, HajieHBKHHH ropo- 
xaííH. EcTB ropová (HanpHiťbpi, onHCaHHyfi HaMM b% ortaópbcroitb 
o6o8p^BÍH ropoAi N), ycn^Binie oÓsaBecxHCB moctobumh, (i)OHapiiMH^ 

óyjBBapaifH, COtfCTBeHHUMH SAaHÍAMM — H BCe-TaRH COXpaHHBinie HJH 

Aase npiyMHosHBmie cboh lenexEne RanHTajiH. Eii^e sHaqjBTejibH^e 
sacjiyrM ropoACRoro caMoynpasJíeHifl vb oÓJacTH napoAHaro o5pa30- 
BanÍH. Grojibro HaqaABHuxx ibrojii, h b'b RaEOMi Bnxkf nojiy^HjíK 
H3'B pyK'B yqeÓHaro B'bAOMCTBa o&h ctojihuu h RaRHxi ÓJiecTiiii^Hxs 
pedyjibTaTOBi, ROJiHqecTBeHHUxiH KaHecTBeHHuxi, 0H'b na axovB no- 
npHn;']^, BT* KopoTBoe Bpeua {c% 1877 r.), aocthfjih — bto Haran ^HTa- 
TejiH xopomo SHaDTB. MeH']ke HSBŽcTHa, ho e^Ba jih Menie saMtna-- 
TejbBa AikaTejibHOCTb H^bRoropuxx Apyraxi ropoAOBi, nanpHii^bpB — 
CapaTOBa. naTep6yprB, ct> oohth BocbMHCorb*TUcaqHUMi HacejienieMi, 
míijn>, AO BCTynjieHiH ropoAa bi saBiAUBaHíe Ha^ajibHUMi o6yqeHieMi, 
tuecfnnadnafnt Ha^ajibHuxi niBOJi'B, bo bcíx'b OTHomeHÍHxi njoxo no- 
craBJíeHHuxii h o^craBJíeHHuxi; bi CapaTost, cb HacejieHÍeMi wb cto 
THcaix, TOCJiHJiocb, no^TH BB TO so caMOO BpeMa (bb 1880 r., T.-e. 
^epesi* BoceMb jitrb nocji^ BBeAeHia ropoAOBoro nojiomeniA), deaduamh^ 
HaqajBHUX'B lEBOJiB, opeRpacHO noMin^eHHUxi, AocxaTo^HO CHa6«eH- 

HUX^ BCilAVL yqeCHUMH n0C06ÍAMH H pyROBOAHMUX^B OUUTHUMH, 6ĎJIB' 

met) HacTBK) cnei^iajiBHo noAroxoBJíeHHUMH yqHiejiBHHi^aMH h y^HTe- 
juuiH. IIpaBAa, HO Bedjí^i saóOTAHBOCTb o6i yqeÓHOMi a^jiI^ npoABjíA- 
lacb Bi> cTOJb pasyMHUxi j^opnaxi; niROTopue ropoAa Óojibme AynajiH 
O rHMHasiaxi, npoFHMBasiiixi, peaiibHux'B yqHjrHD^axi, ^ímb o na^ajib- 
Huxi niROJiaxB— HO pacxoAU na cpeAHee o5pa30BaHÍe, bo bcaromi cjiy- 
^fki, ne MoryTi 6utb HaaBaHbí npoHSBOAHTOJibHbíHH, h npHTOHB qpe3- 

KtpHUfi HXB pOCTl» HaXOAHTCA BB npJIMOfl SaBHCHMOCTM OTB COCTaBa 
ropOACRHXl AyMB, T.-e. 0T1> HBÓHpaTeJIBHOĚ CHCTOMH. EOHaTHO, ^TO 

HCRyccTBeHHoe npeo6jiaAaHÍe HaH6oj['be óoraTUXB RjiaccoBB HacejieHin 
HO Morjo 6jiaronpiflTCTB0BaTB none^eHÍK) o^tíx^b y^eÓHuxB saBOAeHÍflxi, 
ROTopufl cyn^ecTByiDTB opoHMyn^ecTBenHO a^^ Maccu. Mošno TOJibRO 

yAHBJlATBCJI, ^TO AJIA OOCJIÍAHHXB BCO-TaRH 6UJ10 CA^JiaHO HO MaJIO^ 

a Roe-FA^i^ Aase h o^chb mhofo. JlyqmaFo AOKasaTejibCTBa SHSHecno- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



382 B^CTHHKl EBPOnii. 

<;o6hocth ropoACKoro caMoynpaBjeBia EeňhdH ce6t h npeACTaBHTb. ^ero 

^HO, npH CEOJIbRO-HHÓyAB XOponiHX'B yCJIOBiflXl, MOSen AOCTMrHyTB 

Bii c4>ep'b oxpaHeHia napo^earo 3jiopoBbA — 06^ dTOM'B mosho cyAHTB 
no óucTpoMy npespau^eHÍK) neTepóyprcKHXii ropoACRuxi ÚojíhBiAiyh, cb 
tíxi nop^, saKi onib, mecTb jiítb TOMy nasa^^B, nepemjiH bi pysH 
ropoACKoft jiyMii. Botb it6 roBopHTx, no axoMy noBo^y, nHcaxejiii, 

KOTOparO HHKaRl HeJIbSa SaoOAOSpHTB Wb MSJIMinHeMl CO^yBCTBÍH B'b 

^aifoynpaB^ieHiiD, bb raseTt, ctojib sse cboóoahoA oti noAo6Hux'B no- 
A03p'bBÍ&: „1-ro cesTA^pii 1884 r. nepe^ana bb Bi^enie ropová 0<$y- 
xoBCEaa óojibHUAa. HeMeAJeHHo bcji^js^t, sa 9thmi pacmnpHJiHCB, pac- 
naxnyjiHCb OKHa, ao Toro uajiUA, TiDpbMoo6pa3nufl h, sao^nb co cbí- 
TOMB, AoxnyjiB Bi 6ojibnH[iy h c^tmň. sosAyxB. Qo Tu^aTe/ibHOMi h 
Ao6pocoBÍkcTHOHi HSCJitAOBaBÍH (5ojibHue CTajiM nojiy^aTb Bce, qTÓ hm'b 
•cjitAOBaJio; HcqesjíH snaMenHTue cynu, uapuBmiecH hsi oahhxb TOJbRo 
KocTeft, xMpa, acHJiB h o6p'b3KOB'B; Hcqe3Jiif SHaMenHTUJi ceiib JioxanoRif 
Cb ceMbH) KjiaccnHecKHHH npa^RaMH, huboihhh Bce ROJioccajibHoe rojih- 
qecTBo óojíhmefo ^acTbH) sapasnaro ó^nbn; HcqesjíH sHaMenuTue y3jiu c^b 
jioxMOTbAMH^ nepliAKO npoAaBaBmiecA h B'b iioM']kn](eHÍe ROTopuxi nejibBn 
4ujio BoftTH 6e3'b Toro, HTo6u ne 6uTb noRpuTUifb THCA^aMU naci^Ro- 
jibixi; 3aH'bHeHiii Tor^a se hobumh ApeBHÍA orohbua panu, nocroanno 
npoMepsaBoiia 3umor). QoBcsDAy HyBCTByeTcii h bhahtca BBeAenie a^^hh- 
4>eRi^iu, A^a EOTopoft npeasA^ HHKaRHXB p'bniHTejibHo apHcnocofiaeníft 
ne cymecTBOBajio; ofioraTHJica HHBeHxapb XMpyprnqecRHX-b HHCTpyMen- 
T0B'B AO coBepmennofi uojihoctu h npn Majrlbftmeft Heo6xoAHMOCTK n^OApo 
H 6e3ocTaHOB04no nonojinaeTCH; ucqe3'b B03MyTHTejibHU& nopaAOR^ na* 
($jiK)AeHÍfl 3a AHCi^HnjiMnoK) MesAy 6ojibHUMH, BOTopuxi, 3a napymenie 
ea, caacajiH na OBcauRy hjih saRjiDqajin bi óesnoRofinoe oTA^jenie. 
OpoACTBa na coAepsanie óojibHuxi snaqnTejibHO yBejin^enu, yBejmqeno 
<30Aep»aHie npHc;iyrH, nponaBeAenu BanHTa;ibHíaa nepecTpoftRH— nanpn- 
Mtpt, AepeBannaro SAania bo ABopt 6o;ibHHmí, o(5pan^eHHa^o wb Jiyq- 
mift mb Bcixi AepeBannuxi* ^apaROBii 6ojibnni;u; b^ ÓojibmnHCTBt 
^AaHÍft ynopaAoqeai cnoco6x yAajienia neqncTOTi h ycTpanenu ycjiOBia 
Aaa aarpasnenia noqBH h RanaaoBi qpeai nocpoACTBO jiiorobb, npesA© 
cyn^ecTBOBaBmHXTí bi ainx-b sAaniaxB. HoBexonbRH h H3o6HJiyiorb cbí- 
TOBfb M B03AyxoM'b onepai^íoHHaa u nepenasoqnaa; noJinoH) hobushoh) 
OTJiMqaeTca h aoTCRa. Bce, qxo Morjo 6wTb CA'feJiaHo b^b KopoTKifi npo- 
MeacyTORi* BpeMenu BaBtAusania (5o;ibHui;eK) ropoAOMB, tó CA'i^iiftHO» 
He cpasy, Roneqno, mosho HcnpaBHTb AOJiroe, xponuqecRoe oicyTCTBÍe 
BanHTajibnHX'B peMOHTOB-B, ne cpasy AOCTMrneTca ©qn^enie noAnojbnaro 
npocTpancTBa h ycxpoftcTBo xopomeft BeHTHJiai;ÍH, ne cpa3y pacnin- 
pHTca noMtn^enie Óoabnuxx, pascqnTannoe na 965 qejioBtRB, a npn- 
HHMaromee ao 1.100; ne cpasy ynopaAoqHxca b-b Ronei;'B n AesHncjřOR- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHSA. — BHyTPEHHEE 0B08P«HIE. ' 383 

i^íji — 6ojibHoe mícto 6ojihEHiíM\ ho h tó, qTo y«e cA^^ano, sacjiyaH- 
BaeTB nojiHMmaro npHSHaHiai. IIo orsuBy jno^eft cnei^iajiBHUxi, 6ojib- 
HHi^a HeysHaBaeMa h CTpaniHaji ea penyraiufl ee TOJibBO otxoahtI) ho 
H OTomjia Bi 6uioe". JijBJíhme habotb eocTopseHHoe onHcaHÍe xpyroft 
íojibHHiíH — AaeiccaHApoBCKoft (Sapa^Hoft,— nocTpoeeeoft h ycTpoeHHoft 
BenocpeACTseHHo caMHifB ropoj^oifs, a bi> BOHi^t cTaTbH noj[(BOj[(ATCfl 
oóii^ie HTorn caHHTapHoft ^'^TejibHocTH nerepĎyprcBaro ropoACKoro 
o6n](ecTBeHHaro yopasjíeHi^. Co BpeMeHH ocyu^ecTBjrenifl caHHTapHO- 
dnHAOMiojiorHqecKaro HaA3opa — b'b 1881 r., yqpe»A6HÍA msojibHO-caHH- 
Tapuaro aaj^sopa h ofiiue^ocTynnoft noMomn AyMCKHXX Bpa<ie& — bi> 
1882 r., nepexoAa 6oJibOMB[x m> Bijíeeie ropojía — b-b 1884 r., 3a6oJi*- 
BaeMocTb H CMepTHocTb no rjiaBHtdniHMi h onacHtfimMMi Óojiíshami 
yMeHbfflHjracb seaHHxejibHo. Bi nuTMJitTie cb 1869 no 1873 r. 3a6ojii- 
fianÍH th4)03humh ((>opMaMH aoxoahjiii, bi> cpeAHeMx, jifi 1 4 tucahi, B'b 
oothíAtíh ci 1)374 no 1878 h cb 1879 no 1883 r.— ao 21 thca^h 
•eseroAHo; bb nsiTUJiirie cb 1884 no 1888 r. hxb cpe^HAA eseroAnaa 
i^H4)pa ne cocTaBJífljia ^ase eocbMU mbíCJlH^y xota nacejienie QerepÓypra, 
bb nepBoe hsb qeTupexB yKasanHuxB nATHJi'bTÍft upocTupaBmeecA ao 
^96, Bo BTopoe — AO 774, bb Tperbe — ao '853 THCfl^B, bb npoAOJiacenie 
qoTBepTaro AOCTHrjio 890 TucnqB... CraTBa, h3B KOTopoft nu saHMCTByeMB 
Bc/b 3TH BHBOAH H (|)aKTH, npHHaAaexHTB K. K. CjiyqeBCKOMy H nOMÍ- 
měna bb JV? 5097 ,,HoBaro BpeMenM" sa 1890 ro^B. 

Mo«HO JIH naftTH hto-jikóo oojioónoe bb ncTopin npeanaro, 3aBM- 
^Hvaro ropoACRoro ynpaujienin hjih xota óu bb ncTopin aAMHnncTpa- 
THBHO-xo3HBcTBeHHHXB y^pexc^eHÍfi? He flCHO JIH, HTO CTpeMJienie sne- 
pejcB, dHeprnqnafl 6opB6a cb opennicTBiAMH, fotobhoctb ne »aji'bTb 
HH Tpy^a, HH cpe^CTBB oÓycjiOBJíHBaDTCA, npesAG Bcero, cosnanieMB 
•CBoCoAU H conpAsennoft cb neio upaBCTBennoil 0TB'6TCTBenH0CTH? Ajimh- 
BHcrpaTHBHuft ROHTpojiB, npocTHpauu^ificA ne TOJibRO na saKonnocTb, 
HO H Ha ufhAecoo6pa3Hocmh AyMCKHXB nocTaHOBJíenift, nHEor^a ne cjiy- 
SHJix H He Ďy^eTB cjiy»HTb cmuMyjioAn Kh dtbJímejihHOcmu. Ohb mo- 
serB TOJibRo nperpaxcAaTb rb hjih Apyrie nyTH, no ho BUÓnpaTb hxb; 

OHB MOSCOTB TOJIbKO daMe^JIATB ABH»eHÍe, HO HO HaupaBJIATb OrO BB 

sejiaHHOfi i^tjiH. HejiB3A osn^aTb, noaroMy, qTo6u ycHJienie a^MHHH- 
-CTpaTHBHaro na^sopa ycTpaHHJO OAnocToponnocxb, BOTopoft ne qya^o 
HHorAa coBpeMennoe ropo^CBoe npe^cTaBHTejibCTBo; nejibsa oan^aTb, 
qroóu oHo yjiyqniHJio nojiosenie MaccH, ynejiHqHjio saíoxjiHBocTb jí,yuu 
o 6'&AH'bňmHX'B acHxejiAXB ropová. 3aR0HB 12-ro íboha 1890 r. npe^o- 
•CTaBJíAeTB ryÓepnaTopy nepenocHTb na pascMoipinie buchihxb HHCTan- 
Hift nocTanoBJíeHÍa sewcBHXB coópanift, mho napymaiomiH unmepectA 
MfbcmHaxo HoceMHiH. 3A'i^cb, oqeBHAHo, n^exB p'bqb TOJibBO o napyme- 

BÍAXB HeCOMHtHHíJXB, HO HOAJie^BaU^HXB CHOpy H npUTOMB BpeAHUXB 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



384 BftCTHHRl EBPOnKl. 

AJifl Bcero HacejieHia, a He ajka Kasofi-HMÓyAB OAHofi en rpynnu. MesLjLj 
rbwh Bi apaBTHRi ropoACSoro caMojopasJíeHiA mu BCTp^qaeMCfl, óojib- 
mev> qacTBD, ci HapymeHÍAMH cobc^mi Apyroro CBoflčTBa. HoacEHUS 
Hamy mucjb npHU^poiťB. Jí^oaycTHM'B, qxo ropoACKa^ AyMa nocTanoB- 
jULerb oTAaTB qacxB ropoACKofl seifjiH b% apee^y Ha ycjioBÍflxi spatné 
HeBaroAHUXi AJifl ropoxa — sa HecopasiitpHO-HHBKyK) njiaTy, 6e3'B 8ajiora» 
6e3i orpaHH?eHÍA bx cnocofiaxi* o6pa6oTKH, tfesi oSasanHocTH coAep 
saTB BT> HcnpaBHocTH uajiOf,am,iaca Ha seMJi^ nocTpo&KH. IIobjítho, qxo 
TaRoe noGTaHOBJíeHie Morjio 6u 6utb onpoTecTOBaHo aAMHHHCT|>a^ieI), saRi^ 
HBHO HAyn^ee bi paap^i c% HHTepecaMH Bcero ropoACKOro HaceieHia* 
Bi^ ApyroifB cjiyqai ropoACKan naxaTHaA aeMJiA, pasA^JieHnaa na H'b- 
CROJibKo Rpynnuxi yqacTROBi, 6epeTCA wb apen^y h-j^crojibrhhh BnojiHt. 
cocTOflTejiBHUMH cieMoíHRauu, sa BucoRys) apeHAHyK) njiaTy, c% o6e3- 
neqenieifB ropová npoTHBi bcarhxi bobmo^huxi* y6uTR0B'B. 3a'í^cb, cb 
BaHHMaDii^efl uaci TenepB tohrh spinia, wbTb HURaRoro noBOAa r^b 
npoTecTy. HHiepecu ropoACRoro BacejieHÍa, pascHaTpuBaeMaro RaR'B 
OAHo níkjioe, orpaaRAeHU BOOJiHt; nocTanoBJíeHie AyMu HanocHTi yAapi^ 
TOJiBRO TÍwh Mikn^aHaiťB, ROTopue, SHBfl HCRjno^uTejiBHo líjiiá npeHMy- 
n^ecTBeHHO xj['66onaniecTBOM%, Morju h »ejiajiu Óu caMH o6pa6oTUBaTB 
ropoACRyfi) naxaTHyK) seMjiio, pasA^jieoHyio na MejRÍe, AocTynnue am 
Hux^, yqacTRM. BuÓopn^ MesAy AsyM^ hjih ntcROJibRHMH caocoÓaMH 
9RcnjiyaTai;ÍH ropoACRofi aemiu, oAHnaROBo BuroAHUMH xjia ropoACRoA 
RasHu, He BUdUBaerB h ne oapaBAUsaerb BMtmaTejibCTBa aAMHHH- 
CTpaiuH; OHI* saBHCUTi Bcei^tjio otb xoaaHHa seMjiH, T.-e. oti> ropoAa. 
^Jifl Toro, HTo5u HanpaBUTB 3toti> Bu6op'B Ha nojiBsy Maccu, nyacHa 
He pacmHpeHÍe aAHHHHCTpaTHBHaro KOHTpojifl, a RopenBoe HaM-bneHÍe 
HSÓHpaxejibHoit cHcreMu. FopoACRoe npeACTaBHxejikCTBo, HaxoAumeecA 
Bi pyKaxi He6ojiBmoro MeHbuiHHCTBa h ocTaBJiHK)iiiee bi CToponi Ma^cy 
ropoACRHxt aHTejnefl — boti KapeareH-B, r% paapymeHiiD ROToparo mu 
BOSBpau^aeMCA hoctojihho, noioMy qxo bi Eewb oahom'b saRJiDqaeTca 

rJiaBHUfi HCTOHHMRX sjía. 

KpHCMOTpHMCfl ao6jIH»e Rl T^Ml CTOpOHaM'B ropoACRHxx nopflAROB'B^ 

ROTopuMH, o6uRBOBeHHOy MOTHBHpyexcii Heo6xoAUMociB óoJi^fee CTporaro 
HaASopa co CTopoim aAMHHHCTpai^iH. GsoAa npHHaAJiesuTi, npesAe 
Bcero, Hecopac ' :.uo BUcoRaji, 6yAT0 6u, i;H[({)pa pacxoAOBi Ha jiuuufi 
cocTaBi ropoACRoro yopaB^enia. KorAa, roAa xpn TOMy nasaA*, uoAro- 
TOBnajicH nepBuit 0({)(t)Hi^iaJiBHuŘ npoeRTi) aeMCRofi pe4)opMU, MUHHCTep- 
CTBo BHyTpeHHHXi A^A'E npeAQOJiarajio, Mea&Ay npo^UMi, ycTanoBHTB 
HOCTOflHHUA HopMu AJiA saJtoBaHbfl HpeActAaTejieň h ^JienoB-B seMCRHXi^ 
ynpaBi. B'b ocHOBaHÍH dioro npeAnojioseHÍn Jiesa^a, EOHe^HO, mucjib 
o5'B H3JiHmHe& u^eApocTH seMCTBa b% BOSHarpasAesin cbohx'b aoas* 
HOCTHUXT* jiHui. H HTo ac? KorAa mu noACíHTajiH, hto uoJiyqaiDTTi, bb. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — BHyiPEHHEE OBOSraHIE. 385 

o6nifiŘ cjiosHocTH^ npeAciAaTejnH h ^jieHU 3eMCKHX'B yapasi, no aasHa- 
leHÍD seMCKHicB co($paHÍft, H TTÓ nojiy^ajiH 6u ohh sa ocHOBaHÍH npoesTa, 
TO osasajiocB, qxo nocjvíjíflasL cyMMa óujia 6u 6ojiBnie nepBoit ^) 06% 
onpeA^^HÍH nocToaHHUxOk Hopvx aui coj^epsaHÍA ropoACBHX'B rojioBi h 
ueHOBi ropoACBHXii ynpaBi, csojbbo eaiTB HBB'bcTHo, hítb h p^^h, ho 
Jiiicjn> o npeyBOJiHqeHHOCTH aroro coAepsaHia hocomhíhho hochtca wh bo3- 
XJTb. BecBMa b^poatho, ?to to^hua ]^H4>poBua a^eeue o6HapysHJiH 6u 
ea noiHtfiniyK) HecocTOATejiBHOCTB h sacTaBHJiH 6u ee otoAth bi o6jiacTB 
TkTh HeonpaBAaBmHXCH ranoTesi, b% Koropoň oorpe6eHa Aora^sa o 
HpesMipHoi BemmiBfk sexcBaro „nHpora^. B'b stoitb y6isAaK)Tb Haci, 
Mesjíy npoHHiirB, CB^b^emfl, coÓpaHHHJi coHaTopcKOD poBEsiei) ry6epHift 
neBCK<^ H qepHHroBCBoft. B^ ytsxHHxi ropo;^ax'B KieBCBoft ry6epHÍH 
Tpoe H3'B wcjia ropoACKHi^B rojiOBi noJiyqajiH no 1.500 pyÓJiefi bt> voai>, 
wcnoJLuaňf óe^h ocoóaro BosHarpas^eHÍfl, a o6fl3aHHOCTH npeAcij^aTejui 
eHpoTCftaro cy^a; oahhi nojiyqaji 1.200 pyójiefi, XBoe — no TucAq'b, o^hhi 
— 750, ABoe — no 600 pyÓJiet. Bucmaa AH<|)pa sajioBanBA ^ena ropo^CEot 
ynpaBUy b'b t^x% se ropoAax'B, npocTHpaJiacB ao 800 pyójieft; ee no- 
jiyqaji'B TOJUtBO oduHb uem ynpasH, h8i» ABaxi^aTH-BocBMH. ^Boe no- 
jyqaiH no 600, ABoe — no 250, nernepo — no 500, mecTopo— no 400, 
HeTBopo— no 300, Tpoe — no 280, aboo— no 250, woe— no 200 pyfijiet 
vb roA'B; ABoe, naBonei^i, HSKaRoro sajioBanBA no aojukhocth uena 
ynpaBu ne nojiy^ajni. B:b ?epHHroBÍ ropoxcBofi rojioBa nojiyqajrB 3.000 
pyójefi; ^erupe ^Jiena ropoACxoft ynpaBci cjiysHJiH 6e8'B sajioBaHBA, 
ABoe nojiy^ajiH no 800 py6jie&. Bb HtoHHt ropo^cKofi roJOBa nojy^ajrb 
2.000, wb FjiyxoBi— 1.000 py6jiefi; bi ocTaABHiixii ^ecaTH yisAHHxi 
ropoj(ax'B qepHHroBCKoň ry($epHÍH, o KOTopuxi ceópaHu 6wíe CBij^ema^ 
ropoACsofi rojiOBa nojtyqajTB or^ 600 ao 200 pyóiefi. BoceimaAi^aTB 
uenoBi ropoACKHXTk ynpaBx, hbi nflTuxecaTH o^noro, cjiysiuH 6e8!B 
BCAKaro BosHarpasA^Hia; ocTajiBHue nojiy^ajui ne 6ojAe 600 py^jiefi, 
a vh 6ojn>niHHCTBÍ cjiy^aeBX — 300, 250, 200 h A^use 150 pyÓJieft. Butl 
Moser^ c% TÍx'B nopB co^epsanie ropoACBHXi fojiobi h ?jieHOB'B ro- 
poACBHX'B ynpaBi h^cboabo noBUCHJiocB, no npEse^enHUJi naHE i^H^pu. 
ocTaiKTca, rbwh ne Men'6e, necBMa xapaBTepHCTH^HUMH h bobco ne co- 
rJUtCHUMH Cb OÓH^HUHH npeACTaBjieHÍAMH o ropOACKHX'B oBJía^axi. 
EcjDióu, Bnpo^eiťB, vb 9thx'b npeACTaBj[eHÍfiX'B h Óujia nŠKOTopaji ^ojia 
npaBAH, TO jforH^ecBinrB buboaoitb hbtb hhx'b 6hjio 6u ne pacnrapenie 
axHHHHcrpaTHBHaro soerpou, a ycTaHOBjíenie MascHMajiBHuxab nopMi 
coAepsaniJi (ne HenoxBHSHHXi, a npHcnoco6iJiK>n^Hxcji s% i^$p$ ro- 
poACBoro HacejieHífl hjih ropoACBoro Ódasotb). Ectb eu^e o^ho cpe^- 
CTBO yxeHBniHTB pacxoA'B na jih^huS cocraBi ropoxcsoro ynpaBjtemfl, 



<) Cm. craTLD o aeiiCBoft pe4K)p]rt kb J# 3 ^BicTHHsa Espom" sa 1888 r. 
ToMi I.— ^fiEBAPi., 1891. 25 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



386 B^CTHHK^ EBPOEU. 

H6 pacnpocTpaHiiJi o6jiacTB aAMHHHCTpaTHBHaro yeto. Ho A^ficTByion^eMy 
ropoAOBOMy nojioseHÍi), bi He6ojn>mHX'B yitoAHUX'B h 6e3ytoAHUx'B 
ropoAax^B, a Tasse b-b noca^ax^, npe^ocTasjuieTCA ropoACSHMi AyiiaifB, 
He yqpes^^afl ropo^cKoft ynpaBU, BoajiaraTB ea o6s8aHHOCTH (c% paspt- 
meHLfl MHHHCTpa BHyipeHHHXtB A^Jii) e^KHOJiH^Ho Ha ropoACBoro ro' 
jiOBy. y^JCHue ropoAa, HacKOjBRo HaM'B HBBitcTHO, ^pesBuqaftHo pi^so 
noj[b3;H)Tca stemi npaBOMi; B'b RieBCRoft h ^epHHroBcsofi ryóepmjixi, 
paapHifbpi, He 6ujlo, bo BpeMfl cenaTopcKoft peBHBín, hh oAHoro y^BX- 
naro ropová, wb ROTopoMi m^cto ropoACBOfi yopaBH saerynan 6u eAHHO- 
jiHHHO ropoACBofi roioBa. A Mesj^y Tiwb wb dTHXi ryóepniflxtB ecT& 
y^BAHue ropoxa oneHB HesnaqHrejiBHue h ho BacaneHHOCTH, h ho paa- 
M^paMTi ropoACBoro 6K>xseTa: TasoBa, HaiipHMipi, RaHeFb, PaxoMfircjrb, 
FopoxHJi, OcTep'B, CocHHi^a, Cypasi, Rosejiei^i. Bi HiRoropmi m% 
HHX'B pacxojuHuft ÓiDAsexi ne upesumajiib hath, xase qeTupex^s th- 
csini> py6ieS — ho ynpaBa Besj^^b HM^JiacL na-JiHi^o, vh cocTaB^ Tpex'B h 
6ojAe qjieH0B7». Haní Raserca, ^to bi> 3aR0H'b MoriH 6u 6uTb onpe- 
A^enu ycjioBia, npH HajiHqnocTH Roropuxi ropoxcRoe ynpaBji6HÍe oÓh- 
acmeÁWO cocpexoToqHBaiocB 6u b'b pyRax'B o^Horo ropoxcRoro rojiOBu — 
padB']^ ecJiH HaftxyrcH sejutH)H(ie necTH SesBOBMeaxHO ofiasanHOCTH ue- 
H0B'B ropoxcRoft yapaBU. 

ApyrHM'B HeAocTaTBOMB ropoACRoro caMoynpaBJíeHifl, noAJieaRaDíHM^ 

yCTpaHOHÍK) C7> HOMOn^BK) aXMHHHCTpaTHBHarO Blť&HiaTeiBCTBa, npM- 

BHaerca, o6uRHOBeHHo, cjihhirom-b mHpoRaa CBofioxa ropoxcRoft xjuu b% 
pacnopasenÍH ropoxcRHMH HMyn^ecTBaMH h ropoxcRHMH q)ej(CTBai[H. 
?To6u cyAHTb o npaBHJDLBHocTH dTOFo hhíhLi, hooÓxoahmo 6ujío Óu 
SHaTB ero ())aRTHqecRia ochobu. ^slebusi^ hbvb AOCTynnuji, ne aaRJiH)- 
qaDTB Bi ce6i HHRaRHXi yRadaníft na pacToiHTejiBHocTB ropoACRHXi 
xyiTB. npaBAa, octb ropoxa, RaoHTajiu Roxopuxi, co BpevoHH Bsexenifl 
B^ A^ftcTBie ropoAOBoro nojiosenÍH 1870 r., hícbojbro yxeHBHiHJiHCB; 
HO ne o6rBJiCHfl6Tca jih sto, rjiaBHUMi oÓpasoMi, BHCORofi qHcfipoS o6a- 
8aTejBHUX'B pacxoAOBi, Ha noRpuríe Roropux^B ne BcerAa AocxaTO^HU 
o6ttRHOBeHHii6 AOXOAU? Cb Apyroft CTopoHH, Hcyiii^OMy BeAOHiH) ropoA- 
CRoro xoBflflcTBa cnoco6cTByerB cocTaBi ropoACRHXi AyiTB, 6íahu& 
HHTOJUHreHTHiíMH CHjaMH H cjiHniROHB 6oraTufi 3jieMeHTaMH, saHHTepe- 
coBaHHUVH B'B noAAepsaHÍH BacTOfl H pyTHHH. He cjiyqa&Ho& sRe, b^ 
caMOMi k^jA, npeACTaBjaercji HecopasH-bpHo-HHSRaa oi^íhrb ropoACRHxi 
Hiiyn^ecTBi h oóycjsEOBjíHBaeMaa ex) HesHaqHTejiBHOCTB oii'bHOHHaro c6opa; 
ne cjiyqafiHo h HH^TOsnoe ^hcjio xoABTaftcTBi o BBOAeHÍH RBapTHp- 
naro naiora, SToro npeAB']tcTHHRa HaÓHpaTejBHoft pe^^opvu, nesejia- 

TeiBHOt AJlfl HUH^niHHXB ,,X03AeBB HOJIOJReHÚl", HO HOOÓXOAHlIOfi A^JI 

A^ftcTBHTejikHaro yjiyqmeHia ropoACRoro xoBaftcTBa. Ecjuďbi ycHJieme 
aAMHHHCTpaTHBHaro ROHTpoM oRaaajiocB HOBSÓisHUMi, TO Jiyqmeft jí^a 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHRÁ. — BHyrPEHHSE OBOSPftHIE. 887 

flero <f»opiíofl 6ujio 6u, Kan> heitb RaseTca, vbEOTopoe ysejH^eHie 
^HCJia cjiyHaeBi, wh KOTopuxi nočTaHOBJíOHie ajmu ooM^surL npejf^ea- 
pMTejiBBOMy yTsepsAemi) aAMHHicTpaTHBHofi BJiacTH. TaE'B EanpuM'bpi», 
<noM MosHo 6ujio 6u oTHecTH ornyx^eHie ropoACKoft zeujivi h oT^aqy 
efl Bi apesxy na iipoxoJiSHTejiBHue cpou. 

06mfie sauD^ieHíe Hame noBonpoey o ropoACsoft pe4K)pift nomerb 
6uTb ^pMyjiHpoBaHO TasHiTB o5pa8oifi: noj[H'btin6Í n6peA'itjiBH TpeóyerB 
TOJiBBo ropoACsafl vaÓMpaTejiBHaH cHCTeiia; bo bc&xi ocTajn»HUX'B otho- 
ineBÍax'b AOcraTO^Ro BHecTH wb ropo^OBoe noJioseHie 1870 r. jiHinb 
fleóojBmifl, qacTHHA nonpaBBH, cozpanaii BeopHBoevoBeeHUMH rjiaBHua 
«ro ocflOBu. 

Get^eHia o x^tojibhocth sesfcsHxi ea^aiBEHKOii^B, noaajuiDfl^iaca 
vb ne^aTH, DpoAOJisaK>rB 6utb BecBxa CRyAHUirH. IIoai HMeseirB cetb' 
deuiů MU noHHMaeiTB, aoBewo, to^bha if^^^^^^^^^K^ ^aHEiia^ a ne 
o6ii(úi M'bcTa, EHqero h6 CTODin^ia h h6 AOKaaHBaioiii^ia. Oópaai^oiťB tb- 
KHx*B o(5ii(HX'B wbcTh MoseTB cjiysHTb cjrbAyi)ii(ee yB^penie neTep6ypr- 
caaro soppecnoBxeHra „Mocbobcrhx'b MAOMOCTeit^ (K 344): „bcí CBt* 
jieflia H8i» ryóepHífi, wh BOTopux'B BBexeHa pe4»opMa, cBHXÍ^Tejn>CTByH>rB 
o nojiesHofi A^aTejbBocTH HHCTHTyra seiíCKHXi Ha^ajBHHBaBT>, Boopeas 
TeHA6Hi^io3HUMi ciyxaM'B, pacoycBaeiunis speva ot% BpeMeHH pera- 

BUMH npOTHBHHBaMH pe<t>Opi[U, KOTOpSe paSAyBBDirB H80 BCiX^B CKJTB 

Tb HeHsfitsHua oojiomBocTH H Hexopa»yirbHÍa, BoropHa HeHSĎisHB bo 

SCflBOlfB flOBOlTB H CJIOSflOMl A^^^"- 9X0, 076BHAH0, TOJIBKO KBEI^eJiap- 

caaa oruHCKa, maÓJiOHHoe CBHX^TejiBCTBO o Ton, ^to ^bco oCctobte 
<6jiaronojiyHHo''. ?to<$ii oshbhtb cboo cooóoieHie, BoppecnoHAeHTb mo* 
•CKOBCEoft rasern npHÓaajiaeTi si Heny vaieflBByi) BUjuBsy nponiBi 
^jiHÓepajioBib*. Bi fla^ajťb ocobh, — roBoparb oh%, — „CTOJimHlie JM6e^ 

pajni BOCHJIHCB RaB'B CB nHCaHHOD T0p60& CB OAHHITB H31 BOMCBHXl 

HaqaiBHiiBOBi ^epHHroBCBoft ry6epHÍH, yBOJiOHEinfi otb aojiseocte sa 
ero fiesTasTEOCTB, xora, b% cjOBy csasaTB, Eamsii^B iHfiepaiairB ote 

BTOfi ECTOpiH Cjrí^AOBaJiO 6u HOJIUTB, e6o STOTB 3eHCBÍ& Ea^aJIBEHB^ 

osaaajioa qejioB^KOMi CBop^ m^-h hxi jiarepA, emoseo noci^AOBaTO- 
jeifB ACEonojaHCRofi MopajiE. &b rjiaaaxi JiD^efi ÓesEpHCTpacTEuxi h 
aApaBOMUCjan^x'B, dra TaR^-flaauBaevaa ^epERPOBCRaa HCTopia cbe* 
jťbrejiBCTByeayB tojbro o tom'b, tto a^toibeoctb. seMCRHXi eb^bjebee- 

SOB^B nOAJieSBTB CTporOMy ROETpOXK), E qTO OEH BOBCe Ee 6e80TB'bT- 

'CTBesEU 8a CBOfl A^ftcTBia''. HaiťB o^esb EpaBHTca cBoeo6pa3saa Jio- 
TRRa RoppecnoE^^eETB. „Jln^epajiaMi^, no ero msíeík), cjitxoBajio 6u 
YKOjraaTb o HopEHroBCRofi flCTopifl, noTOMy HTO yBOJiesEufi (yBOJieBEuft? 

nu AyMBJIB AO CBXl nop-b, ^TO r. H. TOJIbRO BpeMeBEO VABÍOEI OTB 

AOJisflocTH) 36iicRÍfi EaqajbEHR^b oRadajKC^ nocJitAOBBTejieiťb JlbBa Toji- 

26* 

, Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



388 15'btTHUK'K EBPOUU. 

CToro. Popáslo npaBHaBHie 6ujid 6u ycMorpi^TB wb 9Towb jusmnitL no- 
BOA'B roBopHTB O ^^epHHroBCsoft HCTopÍH*'. O^sa im xapaBTepHCTHqe- 
cBHXi ea ocoÓeHHOcrefi cocTOHn HueHHO vb tomi, ^to rjiaBHttirb no- 
BOAOMi El 7AaJi6HÍD BOMCsaro HanaJiBHHKa nocjiysHXB h6 ero oSpcíd^ 
dfbúcmeiúy a o6pa3^ MucMút se cronBo, npHTOiTB, AOBasaEsui, ckoibbo 
npexnojiaraeMuft. HHBpHMHHHpoBaHHua dfbůemsiji aeMCcaro Ha^aneHKa 
daBJis)qajiHC& HCBjfDqurejiBHo wb ycepAHom naisopi sa boiocthumh 
cyxaiíH, ch i^^BD orpaAHTB HHTepecu 6ÍAHMmaro h HaHÓojťite npH- 
'ÁcHaeMaro Bjacca HaceieHU; Bcb ocTaJiBHue oÓBHHHTenHiiie nyHRTU 
uonHJDicB exHHCTBeHHo Wb Tony, qTo6u BUCTaBHTB T. ?. „HecorjiacHo- 
uucjiamj!iu%^ . Mh h TenepB npo^ojiasaeiTB Ha;(ÍATBCfl, tto „qepHHroB- 
CKaji HCTopía" nojyqHJia hjih nojiyqurB ne totb hcxojcb, na aoropuft 
HaveRaerB BoppecnoHxoHi^úi „Mocbobckhxi» Bt^oiiocTefi''. 

Xopomee Bcer^a ocTaercA xoponiHMi, wb sasoft 6h cílfe^i oho hh 
coBepmajiocB. Jíjml mícsiusl Tony HasaAi vu ci yj^OBOJiBCTBieifB saHecjis 
Vb Hame o6o3ptHÍe i^Hpsyjupi HHséropoACRaro ryÓepnaTopa, npe^o- 
CTeperaBnrift 8eiiCKHX'B Haqajn>HHBOBi npoTHBi ib^utva ycep^Ui b'b 
HcnojraeHÍH iipHroBopoB'B boiocthux'b cy^oBi; TenepB mi ctojib se 
oxoTHo aaHMCTByem h3i ,?epH«roBCBHXi FyÓepHCBHX^B Bij^ouoctet^ 
BecBMa uHrepecHiift n^HpByjuipi ^epEsroBCsaro ry6epHaTopa. ,^o cb^* 
xenifl Hoero xonuo, — nHmerB r. AHacracBeBi,— tto uhoiíh bojiocthua 
npaBjíeHÚi BBipeHHoft mh% rydepnin othocatca Cb jierBOMUcjieHHofi ne- 
ópesHOCTBH) El BUAaqi nacnoproBi jrai^airB cejncEaro coctojihía. Eo 
mk qacTo nocrynaDn saAO($H Ha HenojiyqeHie oitb boj[octhhx'b npaB- 
jienift nacnopTOB'B wb Te^enie HŠCBoiBEHxrB uicEnfivb, Jlerso ce6i npex- 
CTBBHTB TO saTpyAHHTejiBHoe nojtoseHÍe, Vb EOTopoMi HaxoAJnx^ spe- 
CTBflHe, nociaBmie vb po^Hyi) bojioctb x^ia otfM^Ha CTapuft nacnoprb 
H ne nojiyqanmie na ero mícto BOBaro. 8th BpecTBJíHe aojubhu qacTo 
jramaTBCA to& pa6oTH, EOTopyD hmídti na qysoft cTopoHi^, hjih ne 
HM^TB B08M0SH0CTH HaHflTBCJi Ha pa6oTy 3a 6e3HacnopTHO€TBD. RpoMi 
OTofi MexJieHHocTH BOJiocTHux'B HpaBJíeHifi, Aomio AO voero CB^^^xenU h 
en^e xy^mee: apecTBane oÓABaHU njiaTHTB sa roxoBofi nacnopn 1 p. 
45 Eon. — HexAy TbM% ohh HocujiaDrB wb bojiocthua npaBJíeHÚi no 
2 p. H ÓoJiie, a nojiyqaDTi HHorAa jihhib nojiyroAOBue nacnopru, 
CTODHÚe 85 B., H noj[yqaK)TQ&, saBi cBasano, HHorxa no npomecTBÍH 
'h^boxbbhx'b Mtcai^eBrB. Sthvb nyreiTB ro^osofi nacnoprB BpecTBHHHHy 
o5xoAHTca Vb 4 py6., T.-e. na 2 py6. 55 son. xopose. Tasíe nocTynBH 
BOJEOCTHUXi npaBJíeHifi cyTB npecTynnoe juxohvctbo. B% BH^y aToro, 
npexJíaraH) ssMCEHirB HaqajnHHBairB CTposaftme npHBadaTB bojiocthum'b 
npaBJteHÍAirB BBtpeHHHX'B hitb yqacTBOKB, qTo6s pinrarejQíBHo HH^ero 
noxotinaro HHBorAa ůojrbe ne ďblio; npHBaaaTB: 1) qTo6u Bcasifi nac* 
nopTB BUA^BajiCA Vb Teqenie Tpexi xnefi co BpeMeHH sajiBJíeHÍfl o ero 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHSÁ. — BHyXPEHHBE OBOSP^HIE. 389 

BHAaq'6; 2) ^To6u sa nacnopTH BSHMajiacB jiumB Ta q^Ha, Roropa^ x^i" 
€TB0T6jii»Ho cjiisjerb; 3) ttoÓu, bi» cjr^qajixi npoveAJieHiA bi BU^ani 
Bacnopra, o 3aR0HHNX% npHneax^ TasoBoro aohochjiocb bojiocthums 
npaBJíeHiflMH seMCKHMi Ha^ajibHHBaifB. SI npomy seMCBHX-b Ha^ajiBHH- 
kob'b otfpaTHTB cBoe oco6oe BHBMaHÍe ea sron Bonpoc^, BuacavLth 
BOJiocTHOMy Ha^ajiBCTBy, qro sa^epsHBaTB o6wkE% nacnopra fieseoBicrno, 
a 6paTB jiHXBy sa BH^a^ ero npecTyoHO, ^to sa jihxohhctbo bhhob- 
Hue uotjíjrh noA'B cyjicB, vro oĎHsaiorB ohh b'b aroM^ cxy^aii cbohx^b 
deuMSKovb^ Tepnflo^Hxi, 6htb Hoserb, 6ifl,j na qysofi CTopoHi b^ to 

BpeiLfl, EOr^a ohh ho XOTHT^ HCHOJIHHTB HXX SaSOHHHX^B npocB6'B. 

BecBMa HOJiesHO bujichhtb bojiocthumi cTapniHHaiťB, tto Kor^a ohh wb 
i^epsBH octHJiDrB ceÓH RpecTHHHi» SHaMeHÍeirB npn MOJiHTBt o CTpan* 

CTByon^HXl Ha 3RTeHÍH, TO OHH MOUTCH H Sa BTHXl CBORXl SOMJIH- 

KOBi, jRHBy^Hxi jsfijieKcy 0Tb po;i;Hofl j^epoBHH, T'&x'B cainix'B aeMJu* 

KOBli, o KOTOpHXl OHH, HpHAH Bl BOJDÍOCTHOe npaBJEeHÍe, HO XOTATTB HO- 

8a6oTHTBCfl, Aa en^e h oÓnsaroTi hxi bshtíomx jihxbh. H yB-bpeffB, 
qro 0THiiH'b neaBsypaTHocTB b'b Biij[(aq'b nacnopTOBi» óy^erB ptxsHMi 
HcuDHenieM^B, 3a KaBOByi) neaRRypaTHOCTB npoAJiaraK) aeMCBHMi na- 
qajibHHRaifB cTposaftme BducEHBaTB cb bhhobhuxi^. Buojih^ coqyB- 
CTByA dTOMy pacnopaseHÍD, mu coMHÍBaeMCji tojibro bx i^'bji6Coo6pa8- 
HOCTH oj^Hofi H8'B Mtpi, peKOMOHxyeinncB Bi* BHj|ax'B To^iHaro ero hc- 
HOJiHeHJA. CoeAHH6Hie yrposx, ocHOBannux^B na aasoni, h yB-j^n^anift, 
ocHOBaHHUX'B Ha pejiHrÍH, Bcer^a npoussoAHTi T^sejioe BoenaTJiiHie. 

EaSAUfi H3l 9THXT> cn0C060B'B 'B03A'btCTBÍH TOpaS^O A'bfiCTBHTeJIBH'66 

csíWb no ce&by vkwb bi cbhsh (tb xpyrHMi, npoTHBonojio»HttMi>. Pasi- 

ACHHTB BOJIOCtHIIM'B CTapHIHHaMl, ?T0 HCnpaBHOft BHCUJIKH DaCHOpTOB^B 

Tpe6y6TB OTh HHXi ne tojibro oónsanHocTB hxx SBanifl, ho h xpncTÍ- 
ancRift AOJirB, Bcero Jiy^me, 663% comhíhíh, uos&eTb cBiin^eHHHRi. Owb 
Haft^erB ajih OToro apryMeHTS 6oji^e cHJiBHHe h y6'bAHTej[BHiie, ^iwb 
npHBo;(HMi)ie b% rydepnaiopcROM^B i^HpRyjiAp^b. BucjnymaBi yRadanie sbm- 
CRaro HaqaJiBHMRa, hto MOJniTBa sa CTpaHCTByK)n(HXi oÓHHMaerB co6od 
H oTcyTCTBynmiHxi, sHBymiHxi xa^iBRO otb poAQoft jf^epeeHH, bojiocthoA 
CTapmHHa mohotb CRasaTB caMOMy ce6i, hto cTpaHCTBoeaTB — sna- 
qHTB nepexoAHTB cb iri^Ta na iťbcTO, h ^to RpecTBBHHHi, mhofo 
jrbrB cpiiAy 6e3Bir68AH0 SHBy^ifi vb ropo^^, ej^Ba jih npHHaAJie* 

8HTI> R'B HHCJiy T^Xl, O ROITB rOBOpHTCA Bl AaHHOlťB UÍCTÍ 3RTeHÍH» 

IIpaBHJiBfo JIH TaRoe pascyaj^eme hjih nenpaBHJiBHo — bto Bce paBHo; 
CB HameĚ ToqRH spinia, ^ocTaTo^HO ycTaHOBHTB, qro oho BaojiH'b bos* 

HOSHO. 8RCRypCÍH Bl 0($JiaCTB, HO EUiV^UÍJV) HH^OFO OÓH^arO CB aj^MH- 

HHcrpaTHBHHMH TpeóOBaHíflifH H RapaKH, MosoTi, TaRHHi o6pasoMiy 
He ycHjHTB, a ocjia^HTB xMcTBÍe Ha^ajiBHHqecRaro sHymeHÍa. 

FadeTHaH arHTai^iA bi noJiBSy yBejiH^enÍH co^epsanifl somcrhx^ 
HaqajiBHHROB'B Bce en^e ne npoRpaTHJiacB, ho opoTHBi hoa na^HnaoTB 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



390 BtCTHKKh E^ponu. 

pas^^aBaTBCA rojioca j^ase b'e peasi^ioBHiixi opraHax'b ne^aTv. Bif 
,MocKOB€KHx;b B'bAOMocTax'b*' (ft 340) aoflSHjiocB nexasHO nHCBMo sev- 
csaro HanajiBHHBa, uporecTyon^ee npoTHsi HeopHJUiHHHXi rphkob'b o 
npHÓaBS']^. Ycjiobía AÍjrrejibHOCTH seMCBHX'^ na^ajiBHHBOBi eme vajio 
BUflCHeHu; npes;i;eBpeMeHHO, noaTOMy, fobophtb o He^ocTaTo^HocTH hx'& 
CQjiepsaHU. y^^jui SH3HH vb MfiTfBBwh^ — saM^^aerB aBTopi, — 2.20O 
pyfijieft — dentAu xopomis\ npH HvymecTBenHOM^B i^enst 3eifCKHX'B na- 
^ajaHHKOBi, ara cyrnia aBjíflercfl oqenB He^ypnuirB noAcnopBeMi bi. 
xoBflficTBt. Si TyTB, BOHe^HO, Hv%K) 3'B BHxy HopMaAhWáú mum aeM- 
csaro Ha^aiBHHsa — ii^cTHaro noirbniiHBa''. Ha dro nocx&AHee o6ctojí- 
TeJiBCTBO 6hjio yRasaHo h b'b HameMi npeA'BHAyii(eMi o6o3ptHÍH, KaRi^ 
Ha OAHHi H3i apryMeHTOBi npoTHB^ nasHa^eniH aeMCRHXi Hanaju^HH- 
BOBI. PasÓMpafl, lajiBnie, oÓn^Hiifl if^pasu o rpoMaT;HHXi, Óy^TO 6Ur 
pacxoAax'B seMCBaro Ha^ajiBHHBa, o HafiM^b Aoporo-CTOV)ni;HX'B ceBpera-^ 
peft, nHCBMOBOAHTejefi, paacujiBEHXif asropB AOBasuBaerB, Bno^H'6. 

OCHOBBTeJIBHO, B03M0SH0CTB CBeCTH BCfc 9TH paCXOAU B'B UH(Í)paM'B BeCBMa 

CBpoHHUiTB, ne npeBHinaiDii^HM^ niiTHCOTB py6jiet. Bi bohi^'6 nHCBua, 
OAsaBo, BHCTynaerB eapysy Tenj^^eni^ifl coBepmeHHO bhofo CBoficTBa. 
He npeAiaraa, TenepB se, npHMoxo yBejiEHeHÍA co;^epsaHÍfl aeMCRHxs 
HaqajiBHHROBii, aBTopi BUCRasusaercA sa Koceennoe eosetatuenie ero,. 
CTOiB se BuroAHoe jufl 3eMCBHXi> na^ajiBHHKOBir, cbojibbo neójiaro- 
npÍATHoe jí,jisi HacejieHiA. Ohi noJiaraeTB, «ito otb naftMa pa3cujiBHux'B 
seMCBÍfi Ha^ajiBHHBii Mori 6u 6utb HBÓaBJíeui BOMaHAHpoBBoft K% Heny 
Ha A^sypcTBO, no o^iepexH, cotcbhxi h aocatcbhxi ero y^acTBa, cjiy- 
san^nxi, o($UBHOBeHHO, na sajioBanBi h poBHO HH^ero ho A'^j[aiDn^HX'B. 
noAOÓHHA AesypcTBa „npaBTHByiOTCA h Tenepb npn ybsxHUxi hojih- 
iieficBHX'B ynpaBJieHÍAXi h CTanoBuxi npHCTaBaxi>', h caMH coTCRie 
^corjiacaTCH na hhxi cb yAOBOJiBCTBieMi". Saícb ^to hh cjiobo, to 
omHÓRa. BecBHa MHorie xecHTCRie cjiysarB b'b nacTOBU^ee speva Óes^ 
saJioBaHBa; dxa j^ojishoctb Hii^erB, cojioihb h phaom'b, xapaRTepi na- 
TypaJiBHofi noBUHHOCTH, OTÓUBaeMoft no o^epe^H n Heo6peMeHHTejiBHO& 
TOJiBRo noTOMy, ^To ona ne Tpe6ye'rB oTJiy^eRi hsi MtcTa sHxejiBCTBa* 
OÓasaTOjiBHoe ^esypcTBO npH 3eMCR0]rB HaqajiBHHR'b coBepmeHBo . hshí^- 
HHJio 6h ea SHa^eHÍe h noBJneRJio 6u 3a coóofi neoÓxoAHMocTB Bosna- 
rpasAenia, ROTopoe Bceft CBoeň TasecTBio o6pyniHj[ocB 6u na RpecTB- 
HHCTBO. CoTCRÍe HOJiyHaDTi saaoBaHBe, ho HHRaRi nejuBBa CRaaaTB, 
^rroóiii OHH HH^ero ne A^jiajm; oópan^enie hx^ bx pascujiBHUxi sev- 
cRaro Ha^ajiBHHRa yifeHBHiHTx MicTHyio noJiHaeficRyx) oxpany, h fiesi 
Toro yse Rpa&ne Hesna^HTejiBHyD. Ki CTanoBUMi upncTaBaMi* corcRie 

H XeCHTCRÍe A'bíCTBHTeJIBHO, Bl H'bROTOpHXl M'bCTHOCTaXl, ROMaHAH- 

pyroTca na ^esypcTBO, ho bto Bcer^a c^iHTaaocB h CHHTaerca sjíoyao- 
TpeÓJieHieMi, na Roropoe ^acTo h mhofo saaoBajiocB Hacejenie. „Yao- 
BeaBCTBie**, ch RoropuMi coTCRÍe npHxyrB na ce6a HosyK), xpyxHyK) h 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XPOHHBA. — BHFTPEHHEE 0B08MHIE. 391 

OTBiTCTBeHHyK) o6fl8aHHOCTb, opeACTaBjíAeTCA Ham, no MeHbmeft Mipt, 
BecBMa coMHHTejibHuirB... JÍ,pjToe opeAJioseHie aBTopa sasjíUHaeTCA b'B 
ToiťB, HTo6u seifCRBirB HaiajibHHBaifi upeAocraBjíeHO ówio npaBo 6e3- 
njiaTHaro npo'b3Aa na seMCRHxob jiomaAflxx. 9to npaBO 6ujío 6u paBHo- 
CHJibHO 3K0H0MÍH FB H'lcROJiBKO coTB pjójieft jí,Jia seifCRaro HanajiBHHRa 
H BOBOiiy paexoAy b'b hícrojibro TUCAiob j^Jifl MicTHaro 3eMCTBa. 

H8B'&CTH0, ^0 nOJIfiOfMSLSl DOBHHHOCTB H TenepB J7&Q jieSHTB TflSejaiM'B 

ópeMeHBiťB Ha 36mcrhx'b ÓDA&eraxi; ecTB ytsi^u, b'b Roropuxx ona 
norjfou^aen otb ^U ao Vs BC'6x^ seMCRHX^b pacxoAOBi. Tafoctb aju 
HacejieHiA ne CTajia 6u MeHbmeft on Toro, tto npH6aBRa 6iiJia 6h 
CA'&jiaHa ne r'b rocy^apcTBesHifirb, a ri 3eMCRHM^ cÓopaMi... ?to6u 
OuTb boojihí HocjiiAOBaTejiBHEiiťB, coTpyAHHRy MocROBCRoft raasTU OCTa- 
Bajiocb 6u TOJibRO CA'ibjiaTb eo^e oahh^b niar'b b'b toitb »e HanpaBJíeHiH 
H opeAJiosHTb, HToÓu AOJisHOCTb nHCbHOBO^HTeiiA HJiH ceRperapji npH 
seMCROMi HanaibHHRi HcnpaBJuuH, no o^epeAH h 6e3B08Me3AHO, bo- 
jiocTHue nHcapfl ero yqacTRa. Cob noMon^BH) Bctxx aTHXi MaHHoyjiAi^iit, 
auuiOBaHbe seMCRaro HaqaxbHHRa B03BUCHjiocb 6u, aa caMoirB jífbjrb, 
noHTH Ha TUCflHy pyÓJieí, — a Mesjty T'6M'b mosho 6ujio 6ii yTBopsA&Tb, 
cb noMon^bK) TaR'B-Ha3iiBaeM0ft réservation mentale, qro Ri BOMy se 
npHÓaBJíeHO hh oaho6 RonifiRM. 

PjiJlOMl Cb TaRHMH HaHBHUlfU (|)HHaHCOBUMH COOÓpaseHÍAMH, HBl 

npoBHHi^iu aocTynaiorb h j^pym H3B']^CTÍJi,CBHA'ibTejibCTBý]Dii^ÍJi,no RpaftHeft 
uíp% o Toii'B, qTo BCflRie HOBUfl y^pesA^HÍfl, ne hm&í bi caMHxi ce6t 
rapaHTift, to^ho onpeAtjiflfóii^Hxx c(t)epy BJiiiiHifl, Moryirb 6uTb HHorxa 
nocraBJíeHu b'b 3aBHCHH0CTb oti jiH^HUx^b xapaRTepoBx HTeMnepaMeH- 
TOBX. GidKHnaseMiseMCRaroHa^ajibHHRa, yqacTOR'b Roroparo npHJieraerB 
Ri ryóepHCROiiy ropový, CTOJiRHyjiacb, eh Hepnm topoda, lejiira RpecTbA- 
HHHa B., oóuinaBmeLrocAf no dxoHy noBo^y, HtcKOJibRHMH Rp'bnRHMH cjio- 
BaMH c^h RynepoMX scMCRaro sa^ajibHURa. IIocjitAHifi Bumejix hs^ dRHnaaca 
H npHRa3ajrb RpecTbjíHUHy oropaBHTbCJi na Tpn xua nojcb apecTi vh 
BojocTHoe opaBJíeHie. KpecTbjiHHH7», wb nepBufl pa3x BHA^Binifi sencRaro 
HaqajibHHRa, BupasHJii coMHÍHie bt> oóJiaaTejibHOCTH oói^BJíeHHaro 
BMy pacnopaseniji. Tor^a 3eMCRÍti eaqaJiBBHRX casaerb ero bx CBoft 
dRBDasx H Beserb vb BOJiocTooe npaBJíeHie. Torqacb se cosuBaerca 
BOJiocTHoft cyAx, ROTopoMy 3eMCRÍtt Ha^aJibHHRi opejuiaraeiTb npHroBO* 
pHTb RpecTbaHHHa B. Ki irbjíecHOMy HaRasaHÍs), 3a óyicTBO. BojocthoA 
cyA^B HcnojiHJierb dTo Tpe6oBaHÍe, xotji npocTynoROb B., ecjiH 3Atcb no- 
šen 6uTb p^qb o npocTyoR'6, 6ujvb coBepineH'B bi ropoA'£» T.-e. Bwk 
Rpyra A^fiCTBÍfl bojiocthofo cy^a. HcnoJiHeHie npHroBopa, no HacToaniK) 
sexcRaro naqajibHHRa, cjii^yen HenocpeACTBenno 3a ero nocTanoBjíe- 
Hieiťb, xoTfl B0JI0CTH0& CTapmHHa H npeACTaBJíJiJix seMCROMy HaqajiB* 
HHRy, qTO Heo6xoAHMo BusAaTb BCTyniieHÍA npnroBopa b'b 3aR0HHyD 
CHJiy. KpecTbHHHHii B. no^ajii xpH jbmjíoúu — y43AH0My CbisAy, ryfiepn- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



392 lAcrHincB EBPOim. 

CKOMy npHcyTCTBÍK) H npoKypopy ospyasHoro cy^a. O peayjiBTarfe 3THxt 
TĚUJio&b Eivb cBtjieHifi. Ha míctš se j^Mctbía xoahtb cjijTb, hto »a- 
jioón^HKa CTapajHCb csjíoHHTb ri^ npespamemK) j^tjia, ho 9to e^ea jih 
B^pHo, noTOMy qTo caMoe a^jio ne npHHaAJiesHirB s^b qHCJiy Ttx^b bo- 
TopuB MoryTL 6uTi> npeBpan^eHU no npocb6i noTepniBmaro. HeB'bpo- 
ATHiíMi Ba»eTCH H Bce pascBasaBHoe HaMH co6iiTÍe, ho HeB^poBTHoe 
6iiBa6TL HHorAa BoojiHt HCTHHHHiťB. He tíojfbe npaBAonoAOÓHU óujih 

H3BtCTÍfl, COOÓn^eHHEIB B'B DO^aTH, npHcysj^eHÍH Kl po3raM'B'3a nAO- 

nyn^eHÍe ce6fl bi> npnBOAy no dTany*", 3a BHHy Majiojr^THBro 6paTa, sa 
HeynjuiTy He^oHHSH. A nesjíy ríwb bcí dTH cooón^enix ocTaiOTCJi xo 
CHXi nopi HeonpoBeprnyTUMH. Bi .Mocrobckhxi BÍAOMOCTax'B^ (J6 289) 
He TaK'B ABBHO noABHJiacb CTaTBii, osarjiaBJíeHHaa: „BoúiocTHofi crap- 
muHa— Bonpoci RpecTLAHCKaro caMoynpaBJíeHÍJi'*, hsi BOTopofi bhaho, 

HTO HCnpaBHHBaM'B CJLJHHBTCa H TenOpB COÓCTBeHHOpy^HO jfHUmh.., 60- 

Áocmubíxb emaptuuml Ilpas^a, dro yneute (yu^i^a, BaK'b bhaho, Aase 
TepMHHOJioriA RpinocTHofi dnoxH) npoH3BOAHTCfl npH 3aRpiiTUX'B ABepaxi, 
6e3x cBHA^Tejieft, ho 3aT0 AMcTBynn^HM^ jhi^ovb BBjuieTCA HcnpaB- 
HHR'B, T.-e. niíOfit ne oÓJieqeHHoe ocoóhímh nojHOMoqÍBMH, a CTpaaRAyn^HMi 
jiHi^oM^b — BOJIOCTH06 cTapmHHa, T.-e. nepBUfi Mes^y mícthumh RpecTBA- 
HaMH. He^aesee xocROBCKoe a^jio oROJioro^naro ToxJieBCRaro cbea^- 
TejibCTByeTi, BnpoqeMi, o tom^b, ^to HeMUCJSEHiioe coBepmaeTCji HHorxa 
n B'b cTOJiHi^axx..! 

TojibRo-HTO OROHqHBmaacA ceccia y'b3AHux'B seMCRHX^b co6paHÍfi 
ÓUJia nepeoK), B'b npe^oJiaseHie ROTopoft seMCRÍe naqajibHHRH, cocToaniie 
rjiacHUifH, sacJ^AaJiH paAOMi cb cbohmh noAiHEennuiiH — bojiocthiimh 

CTapniHHaMH, CeJIbCRHlIH CTapOCXaMH U ApyrHMH RpeCTBBHaMH. KaRi 

OTHocATca Apyn K% Apyry JiHi^a BJiacTb HM'bK)n;ia h no^BJíacTHua, co&- 
ABCb Ha HeňxpajibHoft noqB'b, vh RaqecTB'b paBHonpaBHuxx, no HMenn, 
oómecTBeHnux-b xkuTeneti — bi raseTaxi Ham ne BCTpinajiocb ehrb- 
RHX'b CB^AeHitt no dxoMy npeAxery. Mu cjiumajiH TOJibRo, hto bi 
OAHOM^b H3X seMCRHX^b co6paHÍ6 HOBropoACRoft ry6epHÍH 8eMCRi& Ha- 
qajibHHRi 3aMtTHJi'b, o6pan^aflCb ri AByn BospaaRaBniHxx ony BpecTba- 
HBMx: „Bu 3a6uBaeTe, qTo a Bami seMCRÍft HaqaJbHHRi**! BnpoieMX, 
3eifCRÍň HaqajiEbHHR^b h H'bROTopue Apyrie rjracHue saflBHJiH, ^to 9to 
6ujii qacTHUĚ pasroBopi. B'b ApyroMi BexcBoxi co6paHÍH to& se 
ryóepniH rjiacHui-BeMCRifi naqajibHHRi cnpocHJii rjacnaro-BOJiocTHoro 
CTapmHHy, na rbromi ocnoBaHÍK ohi npHcyrcTByerb b^b coÓpanÍH, 
Tor^a RaR'b eny npeAnHcano 6ujio HaxoAHTbca b'b TaROMi-To cejii? 
CTapmHHa 0TB'&qajii, ?to 0H'b^ RaRX rjiacHUĚ, c^HTajii ce6ji oónsan- 
HUMx ABHTbCJi Bi co6paHÍe. TorAa sexcRift HaqajibHHRi HanHcajrb 
npHRadx o&b apecTOBanÍH CTapmHHU, ROTopuň h npocHAi^'b hoa^b ape- 
CTOHi AO oROBianifl ceccin. Ecjih dXH <|)aRTU (naifb nasuBajiH mšcthocth 
H HMena) AOCTOB-bpnu, to cjiíaobs^io 6u AonoAHHXb noBoe seMCRoe 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHBl. — BHYTPEHHEE OBOSP^HIE. 393 

nojioseHÍe sanpem.eHÍeifB apecTa rjiacHuxi-BpecTB^Hi, bo speH^ cec- 
cíh hjh nepeA'B caxuxi ea OTspiiŤieMi, sa.npocTynBH no ^ojishocth 
H BOo6iii;e b'b CHiy AHCi^Hnj[ňHapHo& BJiacTH seiiCRaro HanajibHHsa. En^e 
npaBHJiBHte, uoxeTb óutb, 6ujio6u bobco ne AonycsaTB H35paHÍA seM- 
CKHXi Ha^ajiBHHKOB'B B*B seMCKÍe TjiacHue, noAOÓHO TOMy, Kas^B ne Aony- 
csaeT&a BUÓoprB bi rjiacHue vbcTHHxi nojiHi^eĚcBHXi ^hhobhhkobi h 
juíni^ nposypopcBaro Hajcaopa. 



IIjitb M-icflueBx TOMy nasa^B mu nepene^aTajiH bb BHyTpeneeMi 
o6o3p']bHÍu noAJiHHHuž TOKCT^ Buco^afimaro MaHH(j[)ecTa o no^TOBoft ^acTH 
bx ^hhjiahaíh. Ha AHAxrB pacnyÓJiHKOBaHB Apyroň MaHH4)ecT:B (otb 1-ro 
(13-ro)AeKa6pfl), ne Menie BasHUfi, Koxopufi mh, nosTOMy, xaRse npH- 
boahmb óysBajiBHo. 

„Bb BHAaxB ycxpaneHifl ney^oficTBi h sarpy^HeHÍft, roh o<5ycjioBjiH- 
BaK)TC« ^pe;^CToaI^HM'B 20 ^ORaSpa 1890 ro^a (1 aHBapa 1891 r.) 
npHBeAeaieMB bb A'^ficTBÍe Hosaro yrojiOBHaro yjiosema seJiHRaro rha- 
secTBa (j[)HHjiaHACRaro h AonoJiHHTejBHUXi) rb ceMy yjioseHÍio ysaRO- 
Henid, Mu bobjoshjih na MHHHCTpa dcthi^íh h rjiasHoynpaBiiaiDii^aro 
ROAH({)HRaiiioHHUMB OTA'íjioirh npH Focy^apCTBeHEOMi* coBtrb BofiTH bb 
CHomeHÍe cb renepajiB-ryóepHaTopoMB u mhhhctpomb cTaTCB-ceRpeiapeM^B 
$HHJiflHAÍH oTHOCHTejiBHO oupejí,'íjiem& MtpB, ROTopuH HaA-sesajio 6H[ 

npHHATB A^H AOCTH»eHÍA OSHa^OHEOÍ uíhjun. 

y,EuB% oAo5pHBB 8aRjiK)iieHÍe, BupaÓoTaHHoe no ceMy npe^MOTy 
B^B OC060MB coBtni;aHÍH hsb ynoMJinyTUxrB Bume jihi^b, Mu npESnajiH 
sa 6jiiaro noBeji']^TB: 

,1) 06b H3H'bHeHÍH BHOBB HSAaHHUXB JÍ,JÍH $HHJIJiHAÍH yrOJIOBHUXB 

ysaROHenifi, bb qoMX cie BusuBaexcji Heo6xoAHMocTBK), npe^JiojRETB som- 
CRHMB HHHaMB co8BaHHaro RB 8 (20) AHBapa 1891 roAa ceňMa. 

„2) IIpHBeAeHie BB aMcTBÍO CHX^B ysaROHOHift npiocTaHOBHTB Bnpej!(B 
AO yTBepsAeeiA HaMH npeACxaBJíeHiA seMCRHXi ihhobb no yRasannoMy 
Bi npeAmoAmeM^B nynRTt npe^JnoseHÍio. 

„3) DocTaHOBJíeHifl A%fiCTByK)ni,HXB saRononojioseHifi, RacaiDni,iJiCfl 
npoH3BOACTBa A^B no npecTynjieHÍAMB h npocTynRaMi*, coBopmaeMUMrB 
B^B HMnepÍH SHTejiHMH BejiHRaro RHAsecTBa (j[)HnjiAHACRaro h bb ceMB 
spa*]^ sHTejiflMH HMnepÍH, coxpanHTB bb cujií h no sBe^enÍH wh ohomb 
HOBaro yrojioBHaro yjiosenifl, cb iímb, ^to6u npHcyTCTBennufl M^xa 

H AOJUBHOCTHUA JIHI^a $HHJIJiHAÍH, npH nOCTaHOBJíenÍH H HCn0JIH6HÍH 

npHFOBopoBB o sHTOJUix^B HMnepÍH, npHHHMajiH BB coo6paseHÍe npasa 
H npeHMyn^ecTBa, rohmh oÓBHBneMue nojiB3yK)TCJ3i no saRonaMB HMnepÍH**. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



394 BMrrBHKb sBPomi. 

OBOPOTU M OnEPAUlM KASHbl Bl 1889 VOfíy 

no 0THBT7 rOOyXAPCTBBHHÁrO ROHTPOJIfl. 



Othctl rocyAapcTBeHHaro kohtpojia no HcnojmeHÍs) rocy^apcTBenHoft 
pocnncH sa 1889 roAi, CBepx'B HenocpeACTBeHHUxi uu(j[)poBUX'B ^aHHuxs 
no HcnojmeHÍK) cmíthuxi npeAUOJios6HÍfi dToro ro^a no AOXOAain> u 
no pacxoAaMi» ^), npeACTaBJUíer^, no o6uRHOB6HÍK),^3a oTqeTHUĚ roA'^ 
CBOAi^ o6opoTOBi rocy;iapcTBeHHaro saaHa^e&CTBa, a TaK«e pesyjiB- 
Taxu no óojite KpynHUM'B OTpacjiAMi^ rocyji^apcTBeHHaro xodflflcTBa. 
TjiaBniftniHMH hb^ hhx'b npeACTaBMK)TCfl: HcnojmeHÍe wh 1889 roAy 
pacxoAOBir no rocyAapcTBeHHiiM'B pocnncAMi ApyrHX'B jikrh^ RaR'B no 
pocnncH 1888 ro^a (bi Teqenie JiErornaro cpoRa), TaR'B h no BaRJwnen- 
HUMi> pocnHCJiM'B npesHHX'B jvkT%; ABHseHie cyMHi rocy^apcTBennaro 
RasHaqeňcTBa bx 1889 roAy (cquTaA cb 1-ro iinBapH no 31-6 ^eRaópa) 
Cb BUBOAoiťB CBOÓoAHoft HaJiHqHocTH rocy^apcTBOBHaro RasHaqeflcTBa r'l 
1-My íiHBapjai 1890 ro^a; cocToanie ^oJiroBHx-B cneTOBi rocy^apcTBen- 
naro Rasna^eflcTBa bi* 1889 roAy; ABHsenie rocyAapcTBeHHux'B AOJiroBS 
H ABHsenie B^b ne^oniiRaxi RaSHH u bi AOJiraxi eft. Bi npHJOseniK 
Ri oxqery noMŠn^eHu: bíaoicocth, no ryÓepniflMi h o6jiacTJíirB, no- 
CTynjieHÍJi oRJiaAHuxi c6opoB'B m iJiaBHiňmuxi uai HeoRjiaAHUXx^ 
H H'6ROTopue Apyrie cqeTU, b% tomi HHCJit Bt^oMocTb o nojtoseHÍB 
pascHCTa npaBHTBJíBCTBa cb sejitSHUMu AoporaMH h b^^aohoctb o6opotob'b 
no cneAiajiBHUMi cfiopaifB h RanHTajiaM'B. 

Il3'B ynoMflHyTBixi pyÓpnRi ocoóeHHaro BEHManifl 3acjiysHBaK)'r& 
HecoHE^HEo cBt^enifl o coctoahíh AOJiroBux^B cqeTOBi rocy^apcTBennaro 
Ra3HaqeftcTBa. 

Do AOJiraMi KaBHu sa 1889 tom> npoHSomjiH cjLi^yiomA uBM^Heniji: 
SI 1889 roAy lOJiroBUXT* oóflsaTeJiBCTBi rocyAapcTBCHHaro RasaaqefiCTBa 
cocTOHJio: 

1) Ha oón^erocyxapcTBeHHHii norpeónocTH d.629. 145.412 p. 

(bi Towh HHďl ÓesnpoueHTHaro xojira no 

RpeAHrHHMi ÓHJieTaMi 568.559.743 p.) 

2) 00 oÓiHrauúmi xeji'l3HHxi xopori 1.367.161.883 p. 

8) 00 cneipaiBHiuii safiiiaiii BHKyoHoft onepaKÍE 469.041.150 p. 



B c e r o . . 5.465.348.445 p. •) 



*) „BicTHHKi EapooH**. xesaÓpB 1889 r.^ crpaHEi^a 846 h cjAx^ 
>) B'b othctí 00 HcuoaHeHÍK) rocyxapcTBeHHoft pocoHCH sa 1888 rox^ rocyxap- 
CTBeHHue xoira kt, l-My4iHBapa 1889 roxa 6hjh ooKasaoH bi cyímt 5.631.117.475 p.^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. -OBOPOTH KA3HU Wh 1889 TOJSJ. 395 

K'B 1-My flHBspA 1890 roAa cqeTU npeACxaBjíJiJiH AoiroBi* KasHu: 

1) HA oÓn^erocyxapcTBeHHHfl norpeÓaocTH 8.594.731.183 p. 

(ilH(t)pa Aoira no RpexHTHHMi» ÓHieraMi ocrajacB 

Ta se, KaKi h n npexmecTBOBaBineMi roxy) 

2) no oÓjraraiqflMi xejiitHHXi Aopon 1.465.879.248 p. 

8) no Busynnofi onepai^H óuBmaxi noirbitHHBBxi RpecTBdHi. . 465.129.650 p. 



B c e r o . . 5.525.240.026 p. 

ůojťbe npoTHBi ocTaBaBmaroca k-b 1889 ro^y ea 59.891.581 pyójiB, 
npHqeiťb AOJirb na oón^ÍJi rocy^apcTBenHUA noTpeÓHOCTu yMeHbinHJicji 
Ha 347^ M. p., AOJirx no BUKynnoi onepai^ÍH — noiTH na 4 m. p., a 
AOJirB no o6jiHrai^ÍAMrb »eji'&3HUXi> Aoporx BospocB na 98 mhji. p. cjihid- 
soiTB. Ho dTo ysejiuHeHie, no o6'KacHeHÍK) rocy^apcTBennaro ROHrpoJifl, 
He npoACTaBjífleT^b noBaro ópeMeHH jí^na rocy^apcTBenHaro RasHa^eftcTBa, 
a, HanpoTHBX, nocjiy«HJio ex ero oÓJierHeniK) BcjrtACTBÍe npoHSBeAeflHoft 
Bi 1889 roAy KOHBepcÍH (saM-inH) naxHnpoi^eHTHHXt ^oaroBi b-b qe- 
Tupesnpoi^eHTHiie. ^McTBHTejibHo, RpeAHT'B na ynjiaxy npouoHTOBB h 
norameniji no rocy^apcTBenHUMi AOJiraiťB, Ha3Ha'!eHHB[& na 1889 ro]s,T> 
wb fsauipb 272.568.839 p. h HspacxoAOBaHHUň b'B stomi roAy bi 
cyMMt 270.692.892 p., b-b pocnHCH na 1890 ro^t ne npeBHinaeTB 
266.146.192 p.; npH stoitb cJit^yeTB osHAaTB, hto j^McTBHxejiBHaro 
pacxoAa 6jjs,eTb ueute dxoň cyMMU, h b^b spe^HTi btomb oRaseTca 
ocTaxoKi, sasB oKaaajicA oni h bb 1889 roAy, k'b KOTopony Bnepoue 
6uJiH npHMtneHU Buco^aftme yTBepsAenHUfl 1-ro iiona 1890 ro^a 
npaBHJia o nopAAK'^ saKpuTiji ocxaTROBB otb accHrnoBaHÍfi no ch']^tí 
CHcremi rocy^apcTBennaro RpeAHxa, ao Toro BpeiieHH OTnycRaBmHXca 
6e3cpoifl() H saRpuTÍH) H6 noAJiesaBmnx^B. 

Bi* Hucjíi AOJiroBuxx o6fl8aTe;iBCTB'B rocy^apcTBennaro RaanaHeĚcTBa 
SHanaTCA 568Va mhji. p. no RpeAHTHUiťB ÓHJieTaMB. Go6ctb6hho Rpe- 
AHTHUXB ÓHJieTOBX HaxoAHJiocB Bx oópam^OBÍH Bi 1888 H bb 1889 ro- 
xaxx óojiBme, HMeeno 780.032.238 p., ho AOJiroMi noRasana jiHmb cyiiMa, 
Ha ROTopyD ROJiuiqecTBo o6pan;aiDin;HXCJi ÓHJieTOBi npeeumaeTi xpaHJi- 
n^ificfl BB rocyAapcTBeHHOMB 6aHR^ „HexajuiHHecRiů (j[)oha'b^, npocTH- 
panmiflca bb yKa;»aHHue roAa jlo 211.472.495 p. (sojiotom^b 210.346.812 p. 
H cepeÓpoMB 1.125.683 pyójia). 



6oJÍe npoTHBi biíh'1 noKaaHBaeifofi qb^h na 166m. p.PasHHqa bi nosasaHinrb npoHC< 
zoxHTi on paaHHi^H bi> Bypcaxi, no KoropHMi nepejiosenH MerajuHiecKÍe xoitb 
(noHTH noATopa irajixiapxa) vb RpexHTHHe py^jra. Ho ycraHOBjeeHOMy xu pocnHcefi 
1888 r. sypcy ohh 6uie nepejiomenH no ciery 1 p. 80 kou. Kp. sa MeTauH^ecuft 
py6jiB, a Fb otečtí sa 18:59 r., x^ narjiflXHOCTH cpaBnenúi, nepesexenH no Rypcy,npH- 
HiiTOMy x^fl pocnncH SToro roxa, t.-c. no 1 p. 70 b. sp. sa ]ieTajiJin<[ecRÍfi pyÓJiB. Mh 
yxe saMi^iajra, vto bh tou, hh xpyrofi Rypci ne cooTB^TCTBOBajii x'i^ftcTBHTejibHOMy 
OTBomeníK) aoxororo py6jji ri RpexRTHOMy. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



396 MCTBOOKL BBPOini. 

JlfiCATh jriTTb TOMy HaaaAT*, kx 1880 roAy, KaKi 3to bhaho h3x 
OT^eTOBi rocjAapcTBeHHaro KOHxpojia, KpeAHXHUx-B 6HJieT0BX hexo^h- 
jiocb Bi otípan^eHÍH sa 7I6V2 mhji. p., a iieTaJuiHiecRift ^oejs,% paBHfljicfl 
173 MMJi. p. cb HefioJibniHiťb, TasLi qroAOJiroifB cqHTajiocB orojio 543V3 
HHJi. py6jie&. B'B tom'b se nojioseHÍn npnÓJiHSHTeJibHO cocrofljia dxa 
qacTB rocy^apcTBeHEaro J^OJl^a m.o 1887 rojía h jranib ki 1888 ro^y 
npoHSomjio HBMtHeHie ao yRaaaHHUxi Bume i^H({)p%, T.-e. sojiH^ecTBO 
Rpej^HTHUxi ÓHJieTOBi yBOJiHqHjrocb Ha esVa m. p., ao 780 m. p., ^ofLAT> 
Ha 38 V2 MHJi. p., AO 211 Va m. p.; AOJiri* ao RpeAHTHUM'B ÓHiieraMi 
BospocB, cjďŽAOBaTejn^Ho, na 25 mhji. p. 

RojiHqecTBo Bunyiii.eHHuxi bi oópan^enie kp6Ahthuxi» 6ujD[eT0B'B 
BospocJio, saRi hsb^ctho, bo BpeMA nocjíiAHeň xypei^Roft boShu, oAnaRO 
He B^b TaRoň cxeneHH, RaR^ 9to o6uRHOBeHHo nojiaraeTCfl. IIo oTiexaifi 
rocy^apcTBeHnaro ROHxpoM, bx nepioAi 1867 — 1886 roAa RpeAHTHuxi 
ÓHJieTOBrb 6ujio Ha 566 m. p., uewke npoTHB'b 1880 ro^a Bcero jiHmb 
Ha 150V3 M. pyójiefi. l-rojiHBapA 1881 ro^a nocji'lAOBaji'b Bucoiaftmift 
yRaa^b o6rb ynaart rocy^apcTBenHOMy 6aHRy bx Teqenie 8 jitTi 417 m. p. 

H 06% yHHlTO»eHÍH RpeAHTHUX^ 6HJieT0B'b, no Títpi HaROnjeHÍA HXOb 

Wh RaccaxT* 6aBRa h no cooópaseHÍBO cx noTpe^HocTbK) bi ^enesHOMi 
o6paiii;eHÍH. Bi yRas^ onpeA^^^Jiacb h ufkjih dTofi iiipu: „ycTaHOBHTb 
6oAie npaBHJibHU« oTHomenU rocy^apcTBenHaro Rasna^eŘCTBa rx ro- 
cyAapcTB6HH0My 6aHRy h cnoco6cTBOBaTb nocTeneHHOMy ynpoHeHÍiD jsfi- 
HesHoft e^HHHi^u, óez^b Bnesannaro crbcHeniji AeHesHaro puHRa n 
npoHcxoA^n^Hxi* OTi Hero npoMunijieHHiix'b h xoproBuxi sarpy^Hemfl*. 
UepBafl qacTb noBeji^HÍfl, x.-e. ynjiaTa óaHRy, (j[)opMajibHO HcnoJiHeHa 
wb HasHáHeHHuft cpoRi; b^b A'&ftcTBHTejibHocTH Ao HacTOAn^aro roxa 6aHRy 
ynjiaqeHO 267 M. p., a HaocTajibHye 200 h. p. BneceHU bi ÓaHRi* neTupe 
cepÍH HenpepuBHo aoxoahuxi ÓHJieTOBi, ne noA^esaii;HX'b peajiHBas^iH. Ho 
RaR^b BHAHO H8i^ npHBeAeHHUx'B i;H(j[)pi HaxoAAn^HXCA B'b o6pan^eHÍH 

RpeAHTHUXX ÓHJieTOBX, ROJIHqeCTBO HXl ne TOJIbRO HO yMeHbniHJlOCb Ch 

1881 roAa, a Aase yBejiHqHJiocb. Bupasaa HeoAHORpaxHo cosajiime 
no noBOAy Toro, hto BTopaji noJioBHHa Buco^afiniaro noBejitHix IroHH- 
BapA 1881 roAa — ynn^TOsaTb RpeAHTHue ÓHJieTu no uipk HaRonJieHÍA 
Hxi B'b óaHRt — ocTajiacb neHcnojmenHoio, mu ho pimviJiiiCh Óh, o^naRO, 
ynpcRHyxb wb Hacxoani.ee npena MHHHCxepcxBO (|)HBaHCOBx B'b bxomi* 
HeHcnojiHeHÍB. YRaBannoe B-b noBejitniH ynpoHenie A^nesnoft eAHHHi^ii 
Morjio danepniHXbca oahhmi nyxem — oxRpuxieMi cBo6oAHaro oóiť&Ha 
RpeAHXHHXi ÓBJíexoB^ na SBOHRyio Honexy al pari py6jib sa pyójib h 
npHxoifb na sojioxyio, xaR'b RaR'B i^'6HHocxb cepeópanoft MOHexu, cpaB- 
HHxejibHO c*b aojioxofi, npoxHBi npesHaro SHa^HxejibHo noHHSHJiacb. 
AÍTb AecflXb xoMy Ha3aA'B oxRpuxie CBo6oAHaro pa3M'bHa h cxaBHJiocb 
utjibK) MHHHCxepcxBOMrb (j[)HHaHcoB'b^ xoxA 6u Bi oxAajieHHoft nepcneR- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKÁ. — OBOPOTU KA8HU KB 1889 TOJIJ. 397 

THB'b. Gi rbxi aopi> o6cTOflTejii>CTBa SHa^HTejibHO hsmíhhjihcb, h mucjb 
06^ ynpoqeHÍH AeHesHoň oahhhi^u nyroMi HtponpkriĚ, noBHAHMOMy, 
ocTaBAeHa. He cAjLj&rb ynycnaTB hsi BH;(a, ^to npH ycTaHOBiesÍH 
pa3MÍHa A^Jio mjio 6u ne touko o 780 m. p. xpeAHTHUXx óhiotobi, 
HO H o MHJiJuapj^axi i^íhhux^b óyMara, HanHcaHHHxx bi speAHTHoň 
Bajuori, no ROTopuMi npoi^eHTU h norameme npHmjiocB 6u ynJiaqHBaTB 
vb sojiOTofi Bajinrb. IIpH aroMi ycjiOBiH Ha'BjiTÍe H8ib'o6paii^eHÍJ9 vh 

BHaHHTeJIBHOMrB ROJEH^eCTB^ RpeAHTHUX'B pyÓJEet, npeACTaBJIJiK)1]^HX% 

CK0jn»K0-HH6yAB ycTo&HHByiD AonesHyK) e^HHHi^y mm BHyrpeHHaro 
puHBa, osasajiocB 6u BecBMa Hey^oÓHum. BosM^n^eme HeAocTaTsa hxi 
SBOHRoft MoneToft, CTOK)ni.ei na Rpej(HTHue pyójni ceroAHfl ho to, hto 
CTOHJia B^epa, CToromeí h% oahoitb m*ctí ho to, íto ctohtx bi* jípy- 
roM^B, nopoAHJio 6u, 6iitb mosoti, en^e 6oJiBiaifl dROHOxiraecRÍA HeypA- 
XHi(u, sesejiH RaRÍJi BosHHRanrB TenepB h3i> nocTOAHHaro ROJieóaHÚi 
Rypca. Ho 8th nocji%ABifl uejfňjsjmjjL o^eHB BejiHRH b ri ycxpaBOBÍio hx^b, 
T.-e. Ri ynpon^eBiiD naniei AonesHofi exHHHipi, HecoMHÍHHo BOCBMa 
HacTofiqHBo AOJiSHa 6utb HanpaBjíeHa Hama 4>HHaHC0Bafl nojuiTHRa. 

HedouMKu KOSHU u doAím locydapcmeeHHOMy KoanaHeůcmey Vb 
1889 roAy TaRse SHaiHTOJBHO bobpocjeh: 

Ki 1-My flHBapA 1889 ro^a ux'b ^hcjihjiocb: 
a) no c^eTam KasesHHxi naiaii, Kasna^eftcTBi h 

pacnopnxHTeiBHHxi ynpaueflift 179.861.828 p. 

6) sa oCjofiCtBBMM xejisHHxi xopon 1.198.688.598 p. 

Bceio. . . 1.878.586.426 p. 

Ki 1-Hy HHBapfl 1890 ro^a hxi ORasaJiocB: 
a) no c^eram KaseHHHTB naian, lasHa^eficTBi h 

pacnopflXBreibHHXi ynpaueaift 184.784.762 p. 

6) sa oómecTBaiiH soiíuihhx^b xopon» 1.287.609.900 p. 

Bcero. . . 1.422.294.662 p. 

BoJite npoTHBi npe^mecTBOBaBniaro roj^a na 43.759.236 p. IIo 
nepBOMy h8t» yRasaHHUxi^ nynRTOBi yBejraneHÍe nexonMORi h ^oxrowh 
HO AOCTHrjio 5 M. p. H oRdsajiocB npeHMyni.ecTBeHHO no BURynniorB 
HJiaTesaMi cb 6uBniHX'B rocyxapcTBeHHH[X'B RpecTBHHi (na 4.088.254 p.) 
H no noAaTHMi no^ymnoĚ h oópoinoft h no noseiiejiBHOMy najiory; no 
BTopoMy nyHRTy AOJirH yBOJiHqHJiHCB botth na 39 m. p. 

PaacHemu npaewmeAMmea e^ Hacm/iwkMU oioeMibSHadopooiCHUMu o6m^ 
cmeamu, jífinrh ROTopuxi RasH^ XocTHrob jsrb 1890 roxy MUÁAiapda ch 
HemeefmMO^ npeACTaBJUDTi HanóoJiie Rpynnyx) 4>HHaHC0Byi> onepaipi) 

H Bl TO se BpeMA HaH60JIÍe CAOSHyD. 

y^acTíe npaBHTOJiBCTBa b^b aRejritono^oposHiixi npexnpiATÍAx^ 3RC- 
HJiyaTHpyeMuxi lacTHUMH oón^ecTBaMH, BupasaeTCH wh rapaHTÍu hs- 
BicTHaro Aoxo^a cb saTpaieHHUx^B na npe;(npÍHTLi RanHTajioKB, pea- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



398 BMrHHRL EBPOnH. 

juraoBaHHUxi caMHMH oón^ecTBaxH; Vh peajiHsauiu caMHVB opaBHTejib- 

CTBOWb 3a C^erB SeJli^HOAOpOSHUZl p6lI^eCTBl HtCKOJIBKHXl Cepift SOHCO- 

jiH^HpoBaHHUX^b oójiHraaift H 8% BUAa^^k seji^sHOAoposHUirB o(5n(e- 
CTBam pasHUxi j(eHesHi>ix'B h naTepiajibHiixi ccyAi»« 

Oóo^aji cyMMa rapaHTHpoBaHHtíxi iipaBHTejiBCTBOH'B aRiUft h oÓJinrai^ift 
z% ] -ny jiHBapji 1890 roxa cocTaBJAJia 2 MHJuiapj^a pyÓJieft, npn ^ewh 
npH nepejiosemn M6Tai. py6jni nepejiosenu b% RpeAHTHue ne no Rypcy, 
HpHHflTOMy AU pocoHCH 1889 r. (1 p. 70 Kon. Rp. sa Mer. pyÓJiB), a 
DO A*ftcTBHTejiBHOMy cpe^HeMy Rypcy 1889 r. — no 1 p. 50 Ron. Rp. aa 
MeT. pyÓJiB. CBepx'B Toro, htoftb ccy^i, BUAaHHuxi* meM^bswauH Aopo- 
raMH vb Tony se cpoRy, cocraBJíJijrb 272 m. p., Óeai Ha^HCJtenÍA npH- 
HHTaBniHXCJi na 8th ccjjim npoi^enTOBi. 

PaaMipi rapaHTHpoBaHHaro npaBHTejn»cTBOM'B xoxo^a ci aRi^ionep- 
Huxi» u oÓJiHrai^ioHHHxi RannxajioBi xocTHraen cjinniRoirB 94 mu. 
pyÓJiefi Bx roATí *)* 

BaaHMHUA o6)i3aTejiLCTBa npaBnrejibCTBa, c% oahoě croponu, h se- 
ji[Í3HOAoposHux'B o6n^6CTB'B, ch xpyroft, BupasaDTCA Vb TOMi, iTo npaBH- 
TOJiBCTBO AonjULHHBaerB npoueHTU h norameHie no rapanTupoBannuifL 
aRi^iiiifB H oóJiHpaiuAifB, poaJiHaoBannuMik caMHMn o6n^ecTBaMH, Bxcjiy- 
?at, ecjiB ne ORaseTca cpe^CTBi na dTH njiaTesH; no oÓjiHrai^ijiiťB se, 
peajiHdOBaHHUMi* caMHMi npaBHTejiBCTBOMi, npoH8BOAHT'B Henocpe^CTBeH- 
nyx) ynjiaTy npoaenTOBi h noramenifl. ffiejoi^HOAoposHUfl o6ni;ecTBa, bi 
CBOK) onepe^B, o5fl3aHU bhochtb wb Řasny cymiH: na Boaxin^enie npons- 
BeAennuxx TaRHM'B o6pa30Mi npannTejnbCTBoifB saTpaTB, bi BOSBpaxi 
npe»Ae npoHSBeAennuxi cb tok) se uíjibk) pacxoAOB^B; na ynjiaTy 
npos^enTOBi* h noramenin no BH^annuMi^ hmi ccy^aMi h, naRonei^i, 
H'&ROTopyK) AOJiio qncTaro Aoxoxfts npH^HraDn^yDCH Ra3H'b, RaRi yqacr- 
HHRy B'B AoxoAax'B sej[ib3HHX'B AOpoPB. Ho Bct 8TH ynjiaTU npoHS- 
BOji^sTca ne b^b tomx paaMipi, b'b RaROHi A^ftcTBHTejiBHo npHqHT&iHCB 
6u, a no pascHexy cb tími hjih xpyrnirB HHCTinťB aoxoaomx xopon, 
npn qeiťB ynjiaTa HHRorxa ne AoCTnraja to& cyMMH, RoropaA ^'bflCTBH- 
TeJBHo cjri^AOBajia. TaRi, no caicoň pocnncH nocryMenifl oitb sej[:&8- 
Huxi Aopon, no coo6pasenÍK) B^poAxnoft hxx aoxoahocth, óiuh 
HCiHCJieHU Bi 41 M. p., a pacxoAU Ha hhxx Ra3HU 6e3i» Majiaro b^b 
69 MHJi. py6jie&. 

3RcnjiyaTai^iji sejiianux^B AopoPB, naxoxAn^Hxcn b'b ofiiisaTejBnHxab 
Vb npaBHTejBCTBy OTHonieHÍJiX'B, oaasajiacB bi 1889 r. Menie 6jiaro- 
npiflTHa, nesejiH 6iiJia b^b 1888 ro^y, xaRi hto ^ncTuft aoxoa^b ot% 
HHXX yvenBniHJicji na 13 V^ m. p. (orojio 96 m. p. b*b 1889 r. h 109 Va m. p. 
Bi 1888 r.), HTÓ oTpasHJiocB neBuro^Ho na htof^ cyiOTB, npHHHTan- 



*) Bi 1889 r. npH^HTajocb MeBBme, hii6hbo 90 x. p. ci HeÓoumim. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKÁ. — OBOPOTH KA3HH BX 1889 T0J17> 399 

mHXca rocjAapcTBeBHOMy KadBaneftcTBy h3i ascnjiyaTai^ioBsiixi aoxo* 
fiowh. Ho ÓJiaronpÍATHuft Bypci KpeAHTBaro py($jiB (wb 1888 r. cpeAHÍfi 
sypcB 6iiA'h 59 Ron. Her. sa Bpex. py5jib, a vh 1889 roj^y—ee bod.) bo- 
Bejcb vh yHeauneHÍi) paaiiipa oóaaaiejibfluxi aáa oÓni^ecTBa BJiareseft 
B*b speAHTHUxi pyOjiBXi Bo 6yvarax'B, p6aiM80BaflBiiii'& caiuiifH oÓB^e* 
CTBaiiH, a Buicrb ch rbwb h cospafl^eBie BpaBBTejiBCTBeBBUxi apH- 
BJiarb flo rapaBTiH Aoxojia. Ha BJiaxesH uo bbi^íahi h otfjraras^ÍBirB, 
peaJHdOBaflBUMx caiiAMu oÓBi^ecTBaMH, im qHeraro j^oxo^a 1888 roAa 
npflqflTajiocB vb ynjiaTi 42 Vs mhji. p., a hsi ^oxcm 1889 ro^a — uewbe 
3S*l2 M« p. Evh KasHU Tasse do rapaHrin 9tkxx asi^ifi h oÓJUHraiut 
BT, 1888 r. H3;(epsaBo 9 m. p., a wb 1889 — uewbe 7Va t. pyójefi. Rb 
o6m,eii%y flpaBBTeJibCTBOMx flpoH3BeAeHO pacxoAOBi aa^acTB^B seji'b8- 
floa AoporH Bi> 1889 roAy 65 xhjl p., a BoeTysBJío oři seiisBuxi 
Aoporb 49V> M. p.; Bexotíopi, ca^AOBaTejDDbBO, cocTaBBjfB 15V2 iihji. py6. 
Bm^ctí ase ci> cyiiMaHH BpBVBTaBmHXca Ba3fl'6 apos^eBTOBi bo spes- 
BEiTb AOJiraMx, AOJU"L eft sejilafluxi Aopon yBeuiHJicji, BaB'B bobb- 
aaao Bume, na 39 mhji. py6j[e& 

KasBi flpBBaj^esarb u ei) HeBOcpexcTBeBBo dscBJíyaTBpynTCB cjii- 
xyK)B(ifl Aopora: jtHseBcsaB, xapBBOBo-BHBOiaeBCBaa h poBAo-xpeMea- 
qyrcsaB, (íacByflvaBCBaB, TaMÓOBo-capaTOBCsafl, esaTepflflHBCBaB, boaíc- 
cbíb, ypaJiBCBaB, MypoMCxaB, paaKCBo-MopmaflCBaB, caiiapo-y<t)BMCBaa, 
flCBOBO-pHSCB&fl H 3aKacBÍAcBaB. Orb BHX'B, flpH pacxoAt Ba dscBjíya- 
TaiuK) OKOJio 17 MHJI. py6ieň« BOCTyBHjio b'b 1889 ro^y obojio 33 V2 m. p., 
6ojrbe bpothbi 1888 roj^a aa 11 m. p. Taxoe yBejiHHeaie o&bacEaeTCK 
rocyAapcTBeaHiíMi B0BTpojieM'B orspurieMi a^ib ;(BHseflÍB bbobb bo- 
CTpoeaBUX'B seji'b3aux'B j^opors: caMapo*y<t)aMCBoĚ, BCsoBo-pascBot 
H caMapsaBAcaaro y^acTKa sasacBiňcBoň seji'b8Hoň Aopora, a Tasse 
BOSBumeBÍeMi aoxoaboctb aisoTopuxi Aopors, ocoóeaao xapBBOBO- 
BHBOJiaeBCBoft, eKaTepHBHBCxoň, ' BOJticcBHXi H ypajibCBoň. BnpoHeM'B, 
BO xaaBKiiťb, aaxoABB^HMCB B'B OT^eri bo HCBOjmeBÍio cwkn, cafkxjerb 
8aBJiH)9HTB, qTO coficTBeHHO sapafioTosi Aoporb Wb 1889 roAy ae apesu- 
maen 29 m. p., a hto 4 h. p. BócTyBHjiH bii cnen aoxoaobi apeA- 
mecTBOBaBmaxrb jiítb. Ex STOiiy aysao apHÓaBHTB, ito pacxoAU Ba3afii 
aa yflOMflflyTHía Aopora ae orpaaHHHBaDTCB yBoaaayTUKH 17 h. p. 
9to coÓCTBeaao pacxoAU dscBJíyaTai^iH, st BoropuHi aysao apHCoeAa- 
BHTB yaxBTy apoi^earoBi a aorameHÍB aa CTpoarejiBBKie RaaHTaJiu, 
BecbMa BaaiHTejBBue ao xoporairB, aepeaieAniHMi bi> sasay otb qacx- 
Bux'B ofin^ecTBi. Bo bcbkomi cjny^ai, flepe^a^y bi sasay TaRHXi 
Aoporb, Bas^ xapBBOBo-BHBOJiaeBCBaB, TaMÓOBo-capaTOBCsaB, ypaiBCRaa 
a APm cjiiAl^Tb apHsaaTB b'b 4>HflaacoBOM'b oraonieaia x^ xasaHí 
($jiaroflpÍBTBOK), xoTB BMicr]^ CB aope^a^efi apHfluiocB caacaTb co cne- 
TOB'B rpoaaABBe AOJra xasa^, lacjiHBniiecB sa aTana Aoporaifa. Ho 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



400 BMTHHBl KBPOIIH. 

AosrH 3TM, caMo C060K) pasyiriteTCfl, HSKor^a He 6ujih 6u jniaqeHU, a 
pocjiH 6u, sas^b pocTyiTb AOJírn óoJiBiiieft ^acra Apynixx Aoporb, npH- 
Ha;(jiesaii^HXi» HacTHum oÓn^ecTBam. 

OneimMíHuxh cčapoeh u nanumoAoeh, coCToanqixi b'b pacnopjiseHÍH 
npaBHTejiBeTBeHHm^b yqpesAemft, hhcjihjioc& r^b 1 AHBapji 1889 ro^a 
282.150.743 py6jiJi, Bi Te^esie 1889 roAa nocTynHJio 51.691.366 p. h 
HspacxoAOBano 45.990.995 p., TaB'B ^to B'b 1890 roxy sanHTajiHí 9TH 
oópasoBajiH cyxMy wb 287.824.525 py($jieĚ. 

Eejí6oAÍe xpynEue pacxoj^u evl cnei^íajniHHxi cpexcTBi b'b 1889 
roAy cjii^yD^ie: a) siiepHTajibHUfl noHCÍH h nocoóia jiHi^aiťB, ocTaBHB- 
mEWb cj[ys6y, h HHsajiHxaMx — CBume Um. p.; 6) ycTpoftCTBo^.H co- 
xepsaHÍe sj^aHÍfi, Aopon h MOHyMenTOBi h np. — xo 11 m. p.; b) co- 
ji,epsaHÍe yqeÓHUxrb saBe^emĚ, crinieHAiH HnocoÓiHna BocnirraHie — jí,o 
5^3 H. p.; r) noco6ífl no cjiyqaK) nosapoBi, Heyposaa, na^esa csora 
H T. n. — AO 5 M. pyÓJieŘ. 

Bi qHejii e^6^iaJe[BHIJX'B KanHiajioBi ocoóenHaro BHimaHia sacjiy- 

XHBaDTl dMepHTaJIBHUA KaCCU, KOTOpHJi CXYXaTh HCTOHHHKOlTb, BOCnOX- 

HflnmiHM^B AU H%ROTop£ix'B BtAOMCTB'B spa&He cByxHuĚ pasM^pi neH- 
cifl, ycTaHOBJíeHHiiĚ no sasoHy hbi otfni^HXi* cpeACTB'B RasHu. 3HaHeHÍe 
BTHXi Kaccb noKasuBaoTca KaB^b pasiri^poicB BUAaBaeMUxi cymrb, Tasí 

H ÓUCTpUlfB HXl* pOCTOlťB. KaSl H8BÍCTH0, Oj^HOK) HS^b nOÓyAHTeJlb- 

Huxi npHqHHi ocHOBaHífl diiepHTyp^ cjiysHJia Bcerxa HeBosMoamocTB 
yBejiH^eHÍA BasenHiixi nenciA, ROTopiui h 6em Toro JiosaTca Ha Kašny 
oÓpeifeHHTejiBHuiťB, eseroAHO 6ucTpo yBejraqHBaDmHMCA, pacxoAOM^B. 
Ho Wb TeqeHÍe Tpex-B M,ivb, cb 1886 no 188d, pacxoA'B Ha RaseHHiia 
noHciH ynejiHqHJica cb 25.868.000 p. jí,o 27.532.000 p.— na 1.764.000, 
T.-e. Menie nesejiH na 6^/0, Tor^a saB'B dnepHraJiBHUfl Biixa^H, cd- 
CTaBJíaBfflia bx 1886 ro^y 9.817.000 py6., wb 1889 roAy aocthfjih 
11.137.000 p., — cjribAOBaTejiBHO, yBOJH^HjracB na 1.320.000 p., na 13*/o 
cjiHmROxx. En^e pasHrasBE^e ynejiHqeHie pacxo^OBi no otx^^humi 
B^AOMCTBaiťB, BaRi HanpHMÍ^pi no BMepHryp^b BoeHHO-cyxonyrHaro nt- 
;^0MCTBa: bi 1886 ro^y oni cocTaBjMjrB 5.306.000 py({., a b% 1889 r. — 
yse 6.563.000 p., T.-e. yBejramcfl eohth na 20^/o. Bi dMepHTajiBHoA 
Racci MopcRoro Bt^ovcTBa pacxox'B 1886 ro;^a b^b 1.070.000 pyójieft 
BOspocB Wb 1889 roAy M,o 1.308.000 p., T.-e. na 23®/o. Ho SMepHTypi 
ropnuxx uBsenepoBi pacxoA'B 1886 roxa, 136.000 pytf., sospocx vb 
1889 r. AO 155.600 p., noHTH na 157o,npHqeMi bi oÓopoTaxi Raccu 
oRasaJicfl BecBva sjíoBin^ifi npHsnaRi: bi 1886 roxy roxHiHHfl nocTyn- 
jienúi npoBHmajra pacxoA^ Ha 21.000 p., b'b 1889 roxy wb oóopoTaxi 
ORaaajicJi yse Ae<t>Hi^HTrB: nocTynHio wb TeneHÍe ro^a 148.000 pyó., a 
HspacxoAOBano 155.000 p. 9to paBHOCHJiBHO 6aHRpoTCTBy RaccH, TaRx 
RaR^B no ocHOBaHÍAVB BMepHTypí paai oÓHapysHBmificfl ^e^^HUHr^B mo- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHESA.— OBOPOni KA8HH Vh 1889 TOfU- 401 

sera TOJiBKO pocTH H wb KopoTKoe BpeMfl norjiOTHTB sanaci saccu, k'b 
TOMj se HeÓoniiiofi, 1.580.000 pydJiež. 

O HeyAOBjíeTBopHTejiBHOCTH Hamero neHcioHHaro ycrasa ne Moseirs 
6uTB XBjxi MHtoit. OcHOBU ero Ti se^ KaKk nojiosenu nepBOHa* 
^aJiBHHifB yeTaBOM^b 3% 20-x'b roxaxi>. Ho SHaieHíe j^enesHot e^n- 
HHi^u TenepL coBepmenHo HHoe. Bo-nepBiix'B, neHCÍH 6ujih HasHáHeHu 
BB paaiišpaxi yxoBJíeTBopHTeAHHXiv — orb 100 xo 4.000 speAHTHHx^ 
(accHTHaiáoHHHxi pyOjiefi), o^^^AÍ^^bo CHHTaBmHxca paBBHMH ce- 
pe(^BU]f'B. Břb coposoBHx^B Fo^axi coBepnnuaeB xeBajtBBaipji accH- 
rnai^iĚ (Tb sa^eToiťB 3Vs p. „accnTHao^LiMH'' sa owwh pyÓJiB ,,cepe6* 
poMi*^ (BupaseHÍe, ne Bumej^mee xo chxi nop'B h8i> yooTpeÓJieHiA, — 
TaiTB CToftsH cjf^ABT nepesBToro nponuiaro). Bi tohi» se paairi^pft Ha 
HOBU£ AonesHUJi eAHHHUu 6ujio oepeqHCjieHO co^epsanie cjiysan^iixi, 
a paBHO u neHCÍH: 100 pyÓJieň nepe^HCJieHU bi 28 p. cb KonMBaiCH, 
4.000 p. Bi 1.143 p. „cepeÓpoiTB^, noJioseHHBíe joihib a^jia BUcmHX'B 

HHHOBHHHOFB (BCBJín^aH OTCTaBHUX'B XHHHCTpOBX, KOTOpUMl* OnpeA'^* 

juuacB neHCÍH no ocoóoiiy HasHa^eHÍio). dro noBjíeRJio sa coÓoĚ HBJíeHíe, 
HM^Dn^ee hícto oco6eHHo TenepB— HasHaneHíe noHCÍĚ „bhí upaBHJii^ 
AJifl Bcixi, o BoiTB ecTB KOMy noxjionoTaTB; BpoM'6 Toro, HHSorAa ne 
ocjraÓ-bBaBniee CTpoMJieHie „ki nepecMorpy'' nencíoHHaro ycTasa, npu 
^enx HM&iacB B-B BHAy ABofiHaH nijLh: Bo-nepeuxi, ycianoBHTB nenciu 
Bi pasM-bpax^B csoJiBKO-HHÓyAB oÓesneqHBaDu^HXi shshb neHcíone- 
P0B'b; BO-BTopuxii, coKpaTHTB pacxoAu KasHU Ha neHCÍH, eseroAno 
pocxyn^ie. Bi HHoroqHCJiieHHUXi rommhccíhxi, ynpesAftBHiHXCH no aroHy 
npe^MOTy cb HHTHAecHTUxi roAOB'B no BOCBHHAecaTuň, bosi npnxoAH- 
jiocB BesTH H n^ysi, h jo^oak); neMyApeno, ^to bosi h nun-b TaMi. 
PimeHÍe HepaapimHMoft saAaHn saBepniHjiocB npeeKTom xaKoro-To 
B^AOMCTBa o6'B H3AaHÍH npa^uA^ AJiA HasHa^enifl nencifl j^bhí npa- 
BHJTB*', HO H dTOTB opHrHHajiBHu& H saManqHBUÉ npoeETB noTep- 
H&ťB ;4>i&CR0 H ne npomejťB. HajudaTHBOiťB, BaRi» 6u npHMnpHK)- 
n^HMi nenpHMHpHMoe, hbhjihcb dHepHTajiBHUH saccu pasHuxx wb- 
AOMCTBi, ocHOBaHHUH 6yAT0 6u na BOMMepqecBHxrB naqajiaxi h 
cyjian^ÍH nencin bi yAOBJíerBopHTejiBHOMi pasH^pt 6esi> oópeMenenÍH 
BasHU JiHmHHifB pacxoAOHB. Ho MU ne paai BUCKadUBajiH, ito sto 
ne óojiie naKi (Í)hbi^íh. YcjiOBid, npn KOTopuxi yqpesAaiOíLh bi> ToifB 

HJIH APyrOMl B'bAOMCTB']b dMepHTaJKBHUH RHCCU, TaKOBU, ^TO Ha HOp- 

Bue roAU (10—15 ji^tb) owí KaKi 6u h paspimaDTi nepaspiniHiioe. 
Ho ne HaAOJiro, a ZB,TbuT> cymnocTB nen^H AOJisna CBaaaTBCH. 9Me- 
pHTypa i^apcTBa noJiBCKaro Aasno yse oEas&iacB necocTOHTasBna, h 
Ra8H'b npHxoAHTCH HJiaTHTBCfl sa dTo RpyuHUifB eseroAnuM'B pacxo- 
AovB. BjiH3Ra Óujia necocTOATejiBHOCTB sMepHTypu ropnuxx nnsene- 
poBi H OTcpo^eHa— HO ne ycrpanena — snaHHTejrBHuiťB coRpau^eníeifB 

ToMi L-fluBAPs 1891. 26 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



402 BftOTHHKL EBPOHU. 

npeAOCTaBJue]fuz'B ycTaBom ea nrorb. On nepcneKTHBU Hecocroa- 
TejibHOCTH He CBOÓoAHa H TaKEfl 6oraTafly 6juiroxaiMi n^eAporairB KaaHii, 
sacca, KaB'B diiepHTypa BoeHHaro Bi^oMCTBa. 

Bob ocHOBy neHciS, no Hameiiy mh^hík), ne Moserb óiitb noioaceHO 
HH BOMMep<iecBoe, HH 4>HJUiHTponHHecBoe Ha^ajio, a xojsho óutb npe- 
ESTO rocyxapcTBeHBoe. AocraTo^Hsirb DÓesneieHiem cjiysau^tro evy 
vb crapocTH h bi 6ojritoHH, a paBHo h ero ceifBH vh cjqrqat CMepni, 
rocyAftpcTBO aojubho oóesne^HTB ee6^ bo3moshocti» mATB ^hhobhhbobi, 
BDOJiHt DpeAaHHHX'b cBOEWb o64i3aHHOCTjnrB, He ^yBCTBynn^Hxi HaAo6- 
HOCTH HCsaTB sanaca Ha qepnuft xenb na CTopoH^. PacxojCb Ha nencÍH 
j^oiseH'B paacMaTpHBaTbCA sasi j^onojiHHTejiBHut pacxoxi na co^ep- 
saHie cji[ysamHX'B. Mesxy Tbu% y naci ne tojkro neHcioHHiie ouaxu, 
HO H o6m\Ř pacxoxi na noHCÍH Meniane, hosojih fb rocyxapcTBaxi sa- 
naAHoft Efiponu, AecrpÍH, ETaiíH, ^pani^H, ne roBopji yse o6i AnriiH. 

Ha ocHOBaHÍH csaaaHHaro, c^HraeirB ne jmniHHiii eni^e paai yno- 
xHHyTB o HOoóxoAHMocTH H3iiiHeHÍH HUHt x^ftcTByDo^aro HeHCiOHHaTO 
ycrasa, npH ^oitb cyii^ecTByi>n(ÍH dMopHTajUHHA Kacen noxxesajni óu 
ynpaaxHOHiK), a noHCÍH bb% npaBHJi'B Morjni 6u Hasna^aTBCJi toibbo 
«L 9KCTpeHHm'b cjiyHa4iX'B, npH tomi b% npex^JuuLx dasoHo^aTenHunrb 
nyreMx onpex^eHHOĚ wh pocnncH o6n;ei cymni h vh nopsAsi xan- 
jíHjuiTyp^.— O. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XPOHBKA. 403 



NHOCTPAHHOE 0B03P%HIE 

1-ro flEBapj 1891. 



BftmHifindii noiETH^ecBÚi coÓhtúi HCTeuiaro roxa.~yxai6HÍ6 kbmm BH«iispia h no- 
lopon vb repiiaHCKoft doihtekí.— iHTOaji xiareiBEOcn BHi&rexuia IL— Ero nociixaia 
pi^H no mKOi&HOMj Bonpocj.— noioseoie x^xi n ABcrpo-BeHrpÍH.— AHriificsLi x^a. — 
napnejju h FjOMiČTOHit— SioynoTpeóiemji híkotophxi aHru^aBi, h ynpesH r-sH Outk 

HOBHKOBOfi. 

HcTesinift roA'B ne óorarb RpynHUMH co($utíamh, ho OHiocTaHercA 
aaMflTHHMi B'B o^HoiCb OTHomeBÍH: vb dTOWb roAY Espona ocbo^oah- 
jacB OTB MHoroji'bTHflro H óeanoKoĚHaro Bjiaj^H^ecTBa shasa BHCMapsa 
Kb oÓJuacTH MeaBAyHapoAHOft dojihthkh. CoBepmnBmafiCfl nepeM^na oKa- 
3aj[acB Bi BucmeĚ CTenenH 6jiaronpúiTHOD ajía HHTepecoB^ otín^aro 
MHpa. IIojiHTHiecide rphshcu h soh<|»jkhrtu, oý4>ki][ío3hha yrposu h 
onaceHÍA, pa8ApaaKai)iii;afl raaeTHafl nojieiiHRa ci <iysHMH rocyxapcTBaif h 
H HapoAaMH, nocTOHHHue TOJiRH o Bpasj(e($Hiix'b aaMucjiaxx h coDaaxi, — 
Bce 8T0 npeRpaTHjiocB caMO co6oi) nocjii orcraBSH kha3a EHCMapBa. 
Mu HMŠeiťB npeA'B coóok) Harjuij^Hoe h nojiosHTejn»Hoe AORasaTejiBCTBO 
Toro, ^To Ta aTMoc4»epa BH'binHeĚ HanpflaseHHOCTH, soTopafl wh Teneme 
UBorisTb jAvb rocnoACTBOBajia esljs.t^ oón^Hicb noJHTHqecBHiTB nojose- 
sdeiTB^ 6wi9k jiHHHHM*b A^JioMi 3HaMeHHTaro BaHD^jiepa h cocxaBJífljia 
HCByccTBeHÉuft npoj(yBTL ero CHCTeMu. BecB 3tot'b BomMaprb „boíhu 
Ha ABa 4>P0HTa'*, no;(AepsHBaBini& TpeBory wh yMaxi h e^sa ne npH- 

BeAinift, FB BOHUi KOHUOBl, Bl j^t&CTBHTeJIbHoft KaTaCTp(M|)t, Hcqe3% nOTTH 

($e3CjitAH0 CB y^ajieníeMii bhash BHCHapKa. TpyAHO óujio 6u npHjijifaTB 
<k)jr&e flpBi& npHM^p^ npeo5jiaAaHÍH ota1^jibho& pyROBOA^n^efi jih^hocth 
Ha;!;^ noJiHTHqecBOK) sh3HBK) napoAOBi; npe^i naMH coBepmHJi&a HHTe' 
pecHHĚ npaBTHHecBít ohiitb ho oÓn^eMy Bonpocy o pojiH jihhhocth bi 
HCTopiH, — onuTi qpesBuqaftHO noyiHTejn»Htí& jifiLT&e cb oTBjíeieHHo-Teope- 
TH^ecBoft To^BH 3P'£híjí. Gi TŠxi Hopi BaBi 6iiBini& repnaHCBÍĚ 
BaHi^iíepi* yAajiHjicH co cs^eHU, oÓn^ecTBennoe xninie bi EBponi ne- 
pecTajio BOJiHOBaTBCA nepcaoBTEBOD rposHUxi co($£Itíě h 3aM'bniaTejBCTB'B; 
caMHífl BTH coóuTifl H saMšmaTejiBCTBa, c^HTasmiHeH HeMHHyeHUHH b:b 
6ojAe HjiH Henie ójihbbomb Óy^yo^eicB, Basyxca yse Majio b^poathume 
H Aase no^TH cobcImi HenpaBAonoj^oÓHUMH vb HacT0Aiii;e6 BpeMA. 
EasAoe rocy;^apcTBO sanajiocB cbohhh BHyTpeHHHMU A^JnaMH, h no- 
BCDAy naTpioTH^ecBÍJi ^yBCTBa naiujm ce6i sasonnoe y^^oBJíeTBopeme, 
óesi yn^epda sjín cocí^ahhx^b crpaH^ Hiiiei^Bie naipioTU yBJíeBauTCA 

26* 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



4 04 B^CTHHBTb BBPOnU. 

Tenepb otrputíjíith npo<}»eccopa Roxa, aHepriei) h CM-bjíocTBK) BHJib- 
rejiBMa 11, pe^^opnaiiH coi^iajibHiiMH, <|»HHaHcoBUHH h yqeÓHUHH; y HacK^ 
nyÓJiHi^HCTU, HeycTaHHO rpoMHBíme BECMapsa h HB036MHyK> HHTpHry 
FE pasHuxi ea bexbxi*, JierRo h csopo HanpasHjra cBoe ycepxie bs 
ApyryH) CTopony, HstfpaBi* ce6i Ao6u^efi BnyrpeHEÚ HHonjieMeHHUfl Ha- 
poAHOCTH, ROTopufl MOSHO TpaBHTB ÓesHasasaHEo. KasAOMy cBoe: hím- 
i^aMi— HayHHUJi otbputía h bcabíji pe^pím, naniHiťb narpioTaiTB — 

TpaBJIJi HHOpOAI^eB^b H HHOB%pi^eB'L,' 663X4 naTpÍ0TH8M'B HaXOAHTX Ce(Jt 
HHIUy, COOTB^TCTBeHHO BKycaMl H HpaBCTBeHHOMy ypOBHK) A*ftCTByE)- 

n^HX'B jHi^i. BH^niHie Mes^yHapoAnue cqeTU otoiujih ea sajKnifl njiafl^b^ 
Aase Wh oTflomeHiflXi* Mes^y niMs^aiiH h (j[)paHuy8aMH, ttó oco<5eHHo 
flCHo BHpasHJiocb no noBOAy pafio^efi KOH<|»epeHi;ÍH b'b BepJiHH^, a TaBse 
Bo BpeMfl 6epju[HCRaro MexHi^HECsaro BOHrpecca h ocoÓenHO nos^^ie, 
noA'B BjdflHÍeMi* oTKpuTÍA Eoxa; BsaHMHoe pas^pasenie Bce 6oiie ycTy- 
naerb xícto yBasenÍK) h conyBCTBii) na noHB-b oóiKHX^b qejioB']kqecBHX'B' 
HHTepecoBi. Bi drom BasHOMi noBopoTi oÓn^ecTBOBHaro nacrpooHifl^ 
vb CBfldH erb oTCTaBBOH) BHABfl BHCMapBa, 3aBJiK)qaeTCA rjukBHiiniee no- 
jnrniqecBoe SHa^eHÍe HCTeBmaro roxa. 

GTapuĚ BaHKJiiepi noTepn^jrb neyxaqy bi Bonpoct o vbpaxi 6opb6ii 
npoTHB^ couiaJiBHo-AeMOBpaTHqecBaro ABHsemfl; HMnepcBlfi ceňM^ 6*^ 
Bac^xanin 25-ro flHBap£, otbjiohhjii npoeBTi nocTOAHHaro hcbad^h- 
TejiBHaro aaBOHa o coi^iajiHCTaxi, BonpeBH nacToft^HBiairb AOBOAaiii^ 
MHHHCTpa rep4>ypTa h o4m{)hi^ío8Ho& neqaTH. B% tom'b se caMoiťB sa- 
ctAaHÍH 6iLia npoqHTaHa TpoHHafl pi^B o 3aBpuTÍH napjmiieHTCBoft 

CeCCÍH, H 06IHÍŘ XapaBXepi BToS P^HH HeCOMH^HHO CBHXtTeJíBCTBOBaJIII^ 

o TOVB, ^To HeyAaqa npaBHTejiBCTBeHHaro npoesTa, npeAycHOTp'bHHafl 
sapaH^e, ne ocoÓenHo oropiHjia BHjiBrejn»Ha n. HMnepaTopi ne pasA^- 

JUiJTB BOBBptHÍft BHfl3fl BHCMapBa H npH3HaBaJIl BBOJIHÍ BOBMOSHUITB 

oóoftTHCB 6e9b oco6mL% penpeccHBHUXi wb^yb npoTHBi coiuajHCTOBi;. 

OWb nuijTb CBOH CO(ScTBeHHIie BSrJlAAU H& COI^iaJIBHUfi Bonpocb, saBX 
dTO BHAHO ÓHJIO H8'B BOflBHBniHXCJi BCJíÍJÍ,^ SaT^VB peCBpHOTOBl 4 4>eBpaJiJi. 

npeACTOfljui Butíopu B^B HOBuft ce&Mi, H HBÓHpaTenHafl BaMnaHÍfl b6- 
jacB CB060AHO, wb nepBuft pasi sa MHorie roAiJ. Bet napTÍH naxoAH- 
jucB noA% CB&BHMi Bn6qaTji']kHÍeM'B BHeprHqecsaro npHSUBa Mo^oAoro 
HMnepaTopa bi cepBesHuifB pe<ÍM)pMaMi na nojnbsy pa6oqaro Bjutcca. 
IIpaBHTejiBCTBo coxpaHAJio BOBMosHoe óesnpHCTpacTÍe h BosAepsHBajiocB 
on BCflBaro AftBiOHÍfl Ha Butíopu; o4mÍ)hi^ío3Hbi6 opránu ho noAHHMaJiH 
CBoero rojioca, h Ayxi bhasji BHCMapBa yxe OTcyrcTBOBaji^B bi npHro- 
TOBJíemaxi vb ESÓpaniK) noBaro ceftua. Buóopu 20-ro (j[)eBpajui Aaju pe- 
syjiBTaiTB ptniHTejiBHo He6jiaronpúiTHfi[& jím Bani^jiepa. HanÓoJite no- 
CTpaAajiH Tt HveHHO napjiaifeHTCBifl rpynnu, Boropuji OTjraqajnicB Han- 
ÓonmeK) npeAaHHOCTBK) sani^Jiepy, — nai^ioHajiB-jiHÓepajra h HxnepcBaA 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHBA. — HHOCTPAHHOE 0B03P*HIE. 405 

vaprúi; 9th napTÍH coRpaTHJiHCB do^ith Ha noJiOBHHy. Hafl($ojiie ybcjih- 

nVLXECh ClAHU ABJX^b FJICaBHIIXl Ofln03Hi;Í0HHUX'b Ppynni, CBO6OAOMBCJIA- 

n^Hxo^ H coi^iajB-AeMORpaTOB^; nepBUX^b Hstípano 6ujio ao 70 qejioB%R'B, 
bmícto npeasHHX^b 38, a BTopuxo^ — 35, bxšcto 11. IIopaaBeHie nai^oHajn*- 
jiH6epajiOD'b 6uj[o AJia hhxi HacTO^n^HMi pasrpoMoifb; hsi spyneoft h 
rocnoACTBynn^eft naprÍH npaB]iTeju»CTB6HHaro óojiBniHHCTBa ohh npeBpa- 
THJiHCB vb He6ojiBinyK) rpynny (okojio 40 qejioBÍKx, BirbcTO npes- 
HHXi 94). Coi;iajiB-A6MORpaTU BupocjíK cpasy na CTeneHB BHyinHTejn>- 
Hofl napjiaMeHTCKoň aaprÍH, no?TH paBH0CHjn>HOĚ Hai];ioHajo[B-jiH6epaj[aM'B; 
<6ínee ^HCjiu fojiocobi, no^aHnux^B 8a RaHAHAaTOB'B cor^iajiBHoĚ abko- 
KpaTÍH, AoxoAHJio Ao nojiyropa MHJUiioHa h sHaHHTejiBEFo npeBumajio 
cyMMy roJiocoB^B Hai^ioHajBHo-JiHÓepajiBHaro Jiarepfl. 

PoBHO qepesi M^car^^B nocjii 3THXI BuóopoBi, a HMeHHo 20*ro Mapra, 
^ÓHapoAoeaHU 6ujih yRasu o6i> oucrsLBťb rhasa BHCMapRa h o nasHa- 
^eniH renepajia KanpHBH HifnepcRHM'B Rasi^JiepoiťB. HeosH^aHnoe co- 
^uTÍe npoHSoniJio wh to BpeMA, Ror^a wb BepjiHHi aacb^ajia yse nesAy- 
HapoAHaa paóo^aa R0H4>epeHi(ifl, cosBaHHafl no JiHHHOMy noíHHy Bhjib- 
rejBMa II, h sorAa Bcb yvu b'b repHanÍH aanaTU 6ujih sejiHROAyniHHMH 
npoeRTaMH 06% yjiy^meniH 6uTa paÓo^HXi. Hhrto ne AyvaJi^ TorAa o 
SHflst EHCMapR^; raseru nepenojHeHu Óujol CB^A^HÍfliiH o ropa^eiTB 
H shbomx y^acTÍH HMnepaTopa b^b coBin^aHiaxi no paóo^eiiy Bonpocy, 
061 HHTepecHuxi paaroBopaxi ci 4>P&Hi^y8CRHMH AeJieraTaxH, ocoóeHso 
^"B SÍDJiewb Chmohomi, RoropuS 6uji'b opeAMeroMi cnei^iajiBHaro bhh- 
KaHÍA co CTopOHU BHJiBrejiBMa 11; b'b raaoTaxi cooón^aJiHCB 5ec%Au HMne- 
paTopa Ch npeACTaBHTOJIJIMH CaMHX'B pa6o?HX'B, H BCe 9T0 npOHSBOAHJIO 

BneiaTiinie lero-To CBÍ»aro h tíoAparo, otftm.aDn^aro xopomie njiOAH 
Bi 6yAynieM'B. HejiBSH 6ujlo BnópaTB xymailk ncHXOJiorHqecRiá MOHeHT*B 
AJHH OTCTaBRH RHJiaii BHCMapRa. B(A cHMnaTÍH 6ujih sapaH^ibe na cto* 
poH'6 MOJioAoro, npeAnpÍHM^HBaro Monapxa, nospoBHTejiH h san^HTHHRa 
HHsniHx^B TpyAJin^HXCH RjiaccoBi. RpHBHcx, ROToput Bx Apyroe BpeM£ 
BoaÓyAHJTB 6i>i o6n^ee BOJiHenie h ÓesnoRoflcTBO, npomeji^B RaR'B-TO ne- 
^M^THO, cpoAH myMa, BHSBaHHaro paóo^et R0H(j[)ep6Hi;ieK>; pasBHSRa 
xM)BepmHJiacB saM-bnaTejiBHO jobro, cx OTAanieMi BceB03M0SHiix'B no- 
iiecTeĚ oTCTaBjíJieMOMy Rann^Jiepy, npH TopsecTBennoMi npesosHecenÍH 
€ro BejiHRHX'B HCTopnqecRHxi sacjiyfB, cb sajiBJíeHiflMH rjiyóORofi npn- 
BHaTejHBHocTH H coHyBCTBifl. ^^jio o6cTaBjieHO 6ujio noAo6aK)n;HM% o6pa* 
BOMi, RaRi> dToro TpeóoBajio caMoe nojiosenie h 3Ha^eHie RHJidfl BHC- 
MapRa Bi* IIpyccÍH H TepnaniH. B'b aroMi* cjyqa^ BnjiBrejiBMi 11 bu- 
sasajTB p^ARífi TaRTi, caMooÓJiaAaHie h p'6niHM0CTB, wb co6ahh6híh c% 
TOHRHMi AHHjioMaTHqecRHMi HCRyccTBOM^B. PecRpHHTi 20-ro Mapra HanH* 
caHi TaRi, ^To Aase ÓJinsafiniie noRJioHHHRH Rani^epa aojishu Óhjih 
qyBCTBOBaTB ce6a yAOBjíerBopeHHHMH. ncAotínux^AORyMeHTOB^BHaflA^rca 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



406 NOTHim EBPomi. 

BOo6mfi OHeHB neMHoro vb eeponeftcsot o4>4»H]^iajibHO& JurepaTyp^ 
ewa-jra npHXOjpuocB saioMyHHfiyxB Monapxy cTOib EpacHopt^HBO h 
BOCTopseHHo BocxBajuiTL MHHHCTpa, Biixo^A^aro Wh oTCTaBKy. nyójnuui 
H6 Morjuk He saAJv&TBca Haxo^ BonpocoMi: ecj»i sacjq^rH BscMapsa Taxi 
BejniKH, DO mhíhíi) HMnepaTopa, to uo^euj se aro nyóiH^iHoe npESHame 
conpoBosAaercA ysaaoMi o&b orcTassi no npomeHii)? Grapuft KaHiu^P^ 

HMOSHJrB MOTHBil CBOOft DpOCBÓil, saKO^ roBopjřTb, Ha ABaAI^aTH CTpa- 

HHiiaxi; yse dTa oÓcTOflxejiBHocTB H8jioseHÍA yiuiaiiBajui na BOdiioaLHOCTB. 
ycTynoKi hjih conameHÍfl no oTA^BHmn^ nynKTaiTB. IIoBHAHMOHy, caM% 
BECMapKo^ 6ujn> tbopao yóixxeH^B, hto ony npe^Jiosarb no Kpaindl 
vbýb ocTaTBCJi pysoBOAnTeieirB Bnimnet noiHTHKH HMnepiHfTaKiKasi 
pasHonacifl othocmhcb toibko ki Bonpocairb BHyrpenHHMi, otbeoto^ 
puxi Jterso 6hjio ocbo6oahtb HMnepcRaro sani^epa. Ho h dToro ne- 
ÓiiJio npeju^oseno BncMapRy, sasi aajiBua cb ropeui) ero aC^Bepo- 
repHancsaii raseTa**; na npocBÓy 061 OTCTansi m^leo 6euo nojraoe h 
óesycjioBHoe corjiacie, cb tpomkhmh cjioBaMH cosajAnU h neqajiH. ^to- 
6h cA^JiaTB cHucjfB nepeiribnu e^e óoiibe achumi, npHHATa bi to se- 
BpeMJi 668% BcaRHXi oroBopoKi OTCTaBsa CTapmaro cuna sani^epa, 
rpa4>a FepÓepTa BncMapRa, orb aojubhocth HMnepcKaro craTCB-cexpe- 
Tapfl no BÍAOMCTBy HHOCTpanHUXi a^jtb. „^BHacTÚi BncMapKOBi", a 
KOTopofi Heaaxojiro npeA'B rtwb paacysxajiH bi anrjiificBHXi sypna- 
jiaxi, BHeaanHo yTpaTHia SHa^enie h oÓpaTuacB bi mhphoí qacTHofi xta- 
TejnbHOCTH. 9toti óiecTan^ift coup ďétat, coBepmoHnuft BHJibrejiBMOMi n, 
nojfosHJTB Bonei^a^ TBsejiOMy rocnoACTny bhasa BncMapKa, ero .ak- 
HacTÍH*' H ero o4kI)hi](ío8ob'b. BonpocB o cy^BÓi FepMaHiH nocjii y^a- 
jtenifl efl Bejusaro saHUJiepa, hbcto saHHMaBmift jiotfpoA^TejiBHUxx h^* 
jifiBT> Bi nocjiixHÍe roAU, noiy^BJíi neosHjiiaHHo-óucTpoe h ÓJiarono* 
jTfHHoe pimenie. HMnepaTopi ocboóoj^bjicji otb cTi^cHHTejiBHoi aBTopn- 
TOTHoft onesH H npiofip^i nojinyi) CBo6oAy ABusenii; ort, ospysuv 
ce6a A^jiBHUiíH coTpyAHHsaMB, sasi Bepjienmo^ h MHKeJiB, h cm-^jio 
Hanajii CBoe caMocTOBTejibHoe i^apcTBOBanie, o6im.aK)n(ee aatb hobu&< 
TOJiHOBi coiuajn»Ho-nojiHTHHecROMy pasBHTÍK) FepMaHíif, a MOseT% 6htb^ 
H Esponti. 

MesAynapoAHaa BOH(i»epeHi^ia bi BepiHHib no pa6o?eMy Bonpocy 
(15-ro — 28-ro HapTa, n. ct.) ne HMÍJia BpynHuxi HenocpeACTBeHHUx^B^ 
peByjiBTaTOBi, ^a, h ne Morjia hmítb hxi no cBoeft nporpaMMÍ; ho bto^ 
6ujn> nepnuft h BecBMa Basnuft man bi ycTanoBjíeHiK) ofiii^HXi npHH- 
i^HnoBi paÓOHaro saicoHOAaTejiBCTBa nyTOMi npHHi^HniajiBHaro corjia- 
menia Mes^y rocy^apcTBaMH. BucTynHTB nepeA'B jihi^omi Bceft Ebpodu 
Bi 8an^HTy ieioBÍ^ecBHx% npaB^B h HHTepecoBi paóo^aro Kiacca h 
noóyAHTB npaBHTOJiBCTBa paajiHiiHHxi eBponeficsHxi A^pautni* BUCRa- 
saTBCA wb TOHi se Ayxi, npoTHBi Moryn^ecTBeHHHxi cHJťB h sjíoyno^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKÁ. — HHOCTPAHHOE OBOdraHIB. 407 

Tpefijiemt RaaHTUHSMa,— sto yse caMa no ee6i nejiHKaA EpaBCTBen- 
Haa sacjiyra co cropoHu Tasoro npeACTasHTejiA sptasofi BoeHHO-MOHap-^ 
xuHecBofi BjuteTHf saKi HMnepaTopi repMaHCKitt h KopoiB npyccRÍí. 
npesxe npHBUBJU AyMaTB, ^to spinsaji BJiacTb xoJisHa HanÓoJite xa-- 
UTB ceCsi qyecTBOBaTB HHsmeMy rpy^flu^eiiycA HacejieHiD, hto jwi 
BiícmHxi osa xoJUKHa 6utb oDesyscKafl h (SxaroTBopHTeJibHafl, a ajha 
paÓo^Hxi MaccB — cypoBaA h pasopHTejiBHaa; MHorairB sasajiocB, hto 
^aj^Ha spinKoft BxacTH — o6y3AaHÍe 6ojiBinHHCTBa, uplyneHÍe ero ki> 
saccMBEOHy cMHpeHHOMy noA^HEeníK), jua nojn»3u bhciiihxx cociobíA; 
npHMibpu BHJiBrejiBMa 11, san h ero x^xa, h nepBaro sani^Jiepa, no* 

KaBUBaKKTB HaiTB, HaCBOJIBBO HSirbEHJraCB dTH CTapUfl naHBEUA nOHflTÍa 

vb coBpeMeHHoft EBpont. Tasí VAVh Macca Hacejienifl cjt^shtl rjuiB- 

HUMl OniOTOMS BjaCTH, TO ^ÍWb TÍCEÍO HpaBCTBeHHafl CBASb BTOtt 

naccu cb vnrepecaini n cTpeiíJienúiHH npaBnrejieft, rbwb cejieh^ h 
sptnqe caMafl sjíacTB; bto npespacno BupasHjrb repnancKiS HMnepa- 
Topnb Bi oxHoi HSi CBOHXi HejMtBHHXi pi^efi, no noBOAy npe^npE* 
EflTot sM^b yqeÓEoft pe4K)p]íii. Ilpn saRpHTÍn B0E4>epeni](in, oÓcysxaB- 
meft BonpocB o pe<|K)p]fft Bucmaro oópasoBania (16-ro AOBaCpA, e. ct.), 
BflJiBrejiBiíi n esasajrb, nesAy npoHEirb, cjri^yDu^ee: ,Mu nepesE- 
Baem MOMesTx nepexo^a e BCTynjieEÍE vb eoboo crojiiTÍe, a npEBE- 
jieriei) Eamero AOMa 6ujio Bcer^a nosEMaEie Ay^^a BpeifeEE. Moh 
npe^BE ESAaBHa orjw^ajiECb rbn^b^ ^ro, ^BCTByji nyjibca^ buoxe, obe 
aapante npexycMaTpEBajiE xoA'b co6uTÍt, e daTivb cTaEOBUECb bo 
riaBi ABEseEÍfl, BOTopoe oee pima^ncb EanpaBJUTb e bočte bi eo- 
Buwh iifbjBu%. ň AyMai), TTO a noE^jrb, sy^a EanpaBJíEeTCE boboo abe- 
sesie E By^a bjiobetca Eame upnÓJiEsaDo^eecji bi Bosi^y ctojiítío, e 
A ptniEJica BCTynETb sa eobuě nyrb, no BOTopoMy Eysno óy^OTi hatě, 
bo BCflBOMi cjiy^ai, bi ^nfbjťb oópadOBasia naniEXi mojioauxi noBO- 
jiiniĚ, ToiEo TaBi se, Bas^b e nocTynnjii npu BoafiysAenÍB coi^íajib- 
EHxi pe^pMi, b6o ecJiE mu ne CA'bJaj[E 6u dToro Tenepb, to bu- 
EysAeEiii 6ujiE 6ii cx^aTb dTo Hepe8'b ABaAi](aTb Jiirb^. CTOflTb ne- 
TOJibBO EaBepxy, eo e Bnepe^E napo^a bo Bctxi ero Bucnraxi e 
oón^BXi EETopecaxi, pyBOBO^HTb oón^ecTBeHBiivb ABEsenieMi, a se 
TopMosETb ero, yxoBjíeTBopBTb BaaptBmÍJi noTpeGnocTE, a Ee 8arjiymaT& 
Exi, 8a6oTETbCE O EysAax'b rpoMa^naro óojibniEECTBa HacejieEifl, a Ee 
TOJibBo o BuroAaxi E npEBEjieriEX'b BepxnExi cjioobi o6n^ecTBa,— Ta* 
BOBa saxana npaBETeucTBa cb tohbe spisÍE BnjibrejibMa n. IIpE Ta- 
mui> BucoBOMi BsrjuiAt Ea pyBOBOxnn^yK) pojib rocyjg^apcTBesEoft BJiacTE 
fle noserb 6uTb yse e p^he o&b EcsyccTBeEEOMi nouepsaniE se- 
jg^oB^pia MesAy sapoxaME, o coa^asÍE noBOAOBi B'b BHÍninEN'b epese- 
CM^h u CTOJiBEOBefliEiíx pa^H i^tjiefi BoeBsaro Moryu^ecTBa e BejiE^U, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



408 vMnanvh bbpoiui. 

saRi dTO II0CT04IHH0 npaBTHKOBajiocB ycepAHHMH naTpioraifH npn BHsaft 
£HCMapvb. 

6'B nvícrb cepi>e8Hiix'b ({^aKTOBi affimnei noiHTincH FepiíaHiH aa 
npomjnifi toa^b cjAj^jerb ynoMAHyrB o coriameHÍE cb ÁHníei) otho- 
CHrejiBHO a^^pHKancBHXi Jkirh (18-ro vaa, h. ct.) h o aaiii^THoirB o<|4h- 
DliajiLHoiťB c(SiHseHÍH cfh PoccieK), B^B CBflSH Cb uoisjoiOfD BHjiBremfa 11 
vh Hapey h neTepro<t>%, no cjiynai) BoeHHUXi icaHespoBi (5-ro — 12-ro 
aBrycTa). IIo cx^jikí cb aHTjificKinrB npaBHTeiBCTBOirB TepiiaHia He 
TOUKO yTBepxHJUi 8a co6oi) rpona^Hyi) TeppETopii) wh A4>PHB'&, ho 
0pio6p4^ en^e oorpoBi* FejiBrojiaHjrB, vh BeJHKoxy y^^OBOiBCTBÍi) BcfccB 
fffciiei^KHxi naTpíoTOBi b% HiniepiH. 

BaAxh sa oóhihphhmh 4«HaHC0BUMH pe<f)opiiai[H, npexJioseHHHiai 
Ha paacMorp^Hie HMnepcRaro cefixa HOBUiťB mhhhctpowb íf^mESLECovb 
lÍHKejieiťB, noAHflorB caMHitB HunepaTopoMi BnjiBrejiBiioirB n BasHHĚ 
Bonpoci o BopeHHoiTB npeo6pa80BaHÍH nmojnbHofi CHcremi. OÓCTOflrejTB- 
Haji H AjraHHaji ýbvh^ iipoH8HeceHHaa hitb npH orspuTÍH BOH^^epenipH 
jUis oócysAenifl aroro npexHera (2-ro xeicaópa h. ct.), npoHSBejia noBCDxy 
CHJEBHoe BneqaTJitHiey saBi no cmí^jiocth h SHa^HreJiBHocTH pe4>opMa- 
TopcBoft nporpamiH, xaRi h no npAMOiymiK) h dneprÍH apryMenrai^iH. 
FoBopfl o HexocTaTKax^B rHMHadHHeesaro oóyqenÍJBí, HiinepaTopi hí^koibso 
pasx ynoMHHajTB o ToiťB, qro oh<b can npomeJTB sypcB rHiraasiH vb 
Kaccejrb h ^to, ci^xoBaTejniHo, oni nošen cyxHTB o jíí^jrb no jnraHOvy 
onury. H&fei^sie ne^arore, no ero cjioBairB, aaÓOTarcA óojome o Kon- 
hoctbí anaHÍĚ, ^m o pasBETÍH yna h xapaBrepa, h novni cobc^itb 
fie oópan^aDiTB BEHManifl aa to, roiflTCHJiH npenoj^anaeMHa SHaniji ajm 
SH8HH Hjra EÍTb. Tpe6oBaHÍJi coBpeMeHHoĚ A'bftcTBHTejn»HocTH yny- 
CKaDTCA HSi BHxy, H noHiiHÍ yji^epsEBaDTCJi ochobh cpexHOBtaoBaro 
xonamecsaro oÓyHOHifl, cb opeo^Jiaj^anieMi jiaTunH h OTqacTH rpe^e- 
«Karo, h% yn^epói poAHOMy adusy, OTenecTBeHnofi jiHTepaTypi h HCTopin. 
^npo^B cfb JiaTEHcsHiii coiEHeHíeM^B,— BupadHJicfl EvnepaTopB, Mesxy 
npo^EiTB, — OHO MimaoT^ HaM^B*^ E oTHEMaerB BpeME y 6ojrte Óxeskhx^b 
E noJieamix^ npejpcoTOBi npenoiaBaHi^. „DpesAe BceroHysnu 5jra3BO 
oanasoKETBCE cb cboemx coóCTBeHEuirB AOMOMi, CB ECTopieiD, reorpa- 
4^ei) E npexanÍEME poj^noň CTpanu, a saT^Mi yse E8yHaTB jtocTonpn- 
ifibwTejn>flocTE BiMyseflxi. Bi rEMfla3ÍEX'B npeno^aBanie ECTopiEocTa- 
HaBiEBaoTCE na Ronni nponuiaro ctojt^tía, na nepioA^ ^^pani^yscRoĚ 
poBOJiDiUE, Torjta RaRi 9Ta dnoxa em^oti nepsocrenennoe, ochobhoo 
BHaneHie fijui noHEManifl Bcett HonUmet e coDpexenEoft ECTopÍE, a 
6oji^ OT^ajieHEUE BpeMena rpoKOBib e peejuih^b Esy^aDTCE ocEoaa- 
TenEO E noApotfeo. OqoBEXHO, neotfxoAEvo 6hjio 6u nocrynaTB BaB'B 
pasi saoóopoTi e yx^i^flTB HaE6ojn»nie ]í'bcTa EsyneEln 6orbe 6jm8- 
KHx^B Rx naiTB E 6oji%e BasEux'B jma nacB anoxi. Hysao hoafotob- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHE^.^— EHOCTPAHHOE OBOdNEIE. 409 

jiaTB jiDAeft Kb cospeMOBHoŘ npaRTmecBoft AtjiTejibHOCTM, a He a^jets 
m% vLWLi> rpesoBi* hjui pmiJiAui*; neoóxoAHMo Tasa^e noo^ajtHTB 4)H3m- 
^ecRÍJi CHJU yqan^Hxca h ee oÓpeMOHar^ nm^h HeDOM'bpHUM'B soíH^e* 
CTBOMi paóo^Hxi ^acoBiB. djieMeirapHiiA Tpe6oBaHÍii rHrienu ne co- 
(SiiDAaiDTCfl y^KTejuiMH H HaqaxbHHsaMH, xoTopHe ^acTo BOBce ee SHa- 
soMu e% BaiBH^&iiiHKH FHTieHHqecBHMH BonpocaHH H npaBHJiaMH; Bypc% 
rHrieHH AOJN&ewh 6utb o6s9htejiewb M^a npeao^aBaTejieft h HacTaBHU- 
Kor&. CTaTHCTH^ecBÚi i^Hcf^pu o ÓjraaopysocTH cpexn yqan^HXCfl npocTo 
ysacHii; bi Bucnraxi Biaccaxi riiMHasift ^hcjio ÓJiHBopyBHXi npeBU- 
nfaerB HHorAa 70 npoii^eHTOB^. MHosecTBO yieeiBOBi BUHys^OHO yno- 
TpeóJJiTb o^BH, H níbsuji noBOJi^Hifl jiH]naK>Teii ycjiOBíi npaBHJirBHaro 
^HBVHecBaro pasBiirÍA. TaKi AaJiBflie hath ee Moserb; jidah ne aojishu 
(SuTb ocysAeHfl na to, qTOÓu qpeai ohbh CMorptTB na idp'B; ohh 

XOJiSHU BHA^TB CBtrB H HaCJiaSAaTBCJI HITB Co6cTBeHHUMH TjiaaaMH, H 

Ki draxy aojubhu 6utb HanpaBJíeHU ycmiifl npH pe4K)p]db mBOJiBHOĚ 
3aMÍHaTej[BHaA pi^B BmiBrejnjia n acho h pisso yBaaajia na 

H3B^THHe BC^ITB H6AyrH BOCOBTaHÍfl BTB BJmCCHqeCBHX'B FHMHaBiflX^B; 

B'B Heft aBTopETOTHo ysaBaHi nyTB, no Boropoicy Óy^en cjrbAOBaTB 
npaBHTejiBCTBO b'b niBOJiBHOMi Bonpoci. Ho noApo6Hiia saaBJíeHifl h 
o&bHCBeEm repMaHCBaro HMnepaTopa sasiD^ajm bi ceói TaKse ho 
xajio TaKoro, ^tó mofjio 6utb nepeTOJBOBano b'b Ayxt sasHXi-HHtfyAB 
o6cBypaHTOB'B, BonpeKH oón^exy cMscjiy h co^epsaHÍD p^hh; Tas^B 
HanpHMipi, H^BOTopHiTB HamHMi naTpioraMi ocoóohho noHpaBHJiHCB 
cjioBa nepenpoHSBOACTB^ ofipaaoBaHHUxi jiD^efi, HenpHroAHUxii b^b 
DOJiesHOHy TpyAy, o pasBarÍH ocoóaro yqeóearo npaierapiaTa h o saH- ' 
jiHjtaTax^B roJiOAa, Vb soTopuiTB no^eny-To npHHHCjeHii sypeajiHCTii. 
To, ^to vb cTpaffb Bceoón^aro oóasaTejiBHaro oóyqeHÚi muieTb cmmcjh 
ytasaHifl Ha BpeAnyo oahoctopohhoctb AaHHofi msojiBHoft CHCTeifu, mo- 
seri 6uTB noHATO btb j^pyroft crpani h npH apT^hx^b ycjioBÍBx^ co- 
BepmeHHO HHa^e. BaB'B BpasAOÓHHĚ otsubi o&b oÓpasoBanÍH BooÓn^e, 
saB% nooH^penie npocToro HesisecTBa h oÓcsypanTHSiia, itó, boho^ho, 
Bcero Mentě cooTBi^TCTBOBajio 6u MucjuiiťB Hi^xei^Baro opaTopa. HtBO- 
Topue naTpíoni ycHOTptjiH Tasaie nivro poACTBenňoe cbohi^b Bjsfiam 
vb 8a]itiiaHÍflX'B BHJiBrejiBHa II o Han^ionaJiBBoft ochobí oópasoBaHÚi, 
npe^nojiaraa o^obhaho, hto h hími^u noHHMaiorB „Hax^ioHajKBHoe*" bi 

ClOICJli ySKOfi H nOBepXHOCTHOft HCKJID^HTeJlBHOCTH, OTpH]](aHÍfl H OpO- 

ciJkxoBaHifl Bcero HEopo^HecBaro, HHonjieMeHHaro h HHOBipnaro. Mesi^y 
rbwb HaipoHa^iBHocTB, EaB'B ByjiBTypHO-HCTopHHecsaii oóieAHHAnn^aA 
CHJia, HHierB o^eHB najio otim^aro cb Hai^onajiHBMoirB, BupasaionuufCfl 

BTi 3JI06hOĚ H ÓeSCMUCJieHHOft TpaBJI'b HHOpOXU^eBl HJIH HHOBÍpi(eB'B. 

noHATHO, ^To BHJiBrejiBMi II odpau^ajiCA bi syjiBTypHOMy n&Mei^icoxy 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



410 jmcTHHra EBPOUfii. 

o6ii^ecTBy h He xon hmítb b^ bhat HamHXi caHoóUTHuxi oficsypaH* 
TOBi, KOTopue AftBHO yase AOAyMaxHCB ao mhcjh o coBepmeHHot • ne- 
HysnocTH oópasoBaHífl mm Hapo^a. 

CaMO C060K) paayifi^eTai, vro o BasHom* npaBTHqecKOM'B aHaHemn 
jnoxHHyTHXi piqefi no mKOjn»HOMy Bonpocy ee MoseT<B 6htb AByxfb 
MHftnift: dTo He npocTHJi ptiH, a HacTOAn^ie npaBHrejibCTBeHHiie asTU, 
AaDu^ie Moryn^ecTBeHHyD npaKTHHecKyi) CHiy tím'b Tpe6oBaHÍaiii», ko- 
Topufl ;^o cHxi nop^ BucisasuBajnicB ota^^humh nHcaTejuiMH h cko- 

pie HyBCTBOBaJUHCB, ^ÍU% COSHaBaJIHCB ÓOMhWEECTBOWb. Sa^BJíeHÚl Ta- 
KHXl BJUtCTHUX^B A')^flT6JI6Í, SaK^L BHlBrOlBlTB II, lSMfbV>Tb BCeP^a ĎOIB- 

myi) CHJiy, Rorxa xacaDTCfl BonpocoBi h noTpe6HOCTeft peajiBHoi xM- 
cTBHTejiBHocTH; dTH saflBjíeHifl, csadaHHua npej;^ iiíjífiui^ uf^oŘ crpaHu 
H oócysAaeMua saxiiTB bo BceĚ EBponi, BcerM npoHSBOXfln CBoe 
jtMcTBÍe, HanpaBJíflfl o6ii^ee BHHMaHie na HHTepecu, Tpe6yi)ii(ie aaso- 
HoxaTejiBHHxi p64k>pm'b h yjiyqaieHift. IIpHTOMi no^oÓHua saaBJíeHiji 
hvídtb Ty 0C066HHOCTB, HTO opaTopu, npoHSHecniie hx'b, Moryn* noA- 
nHcaTB noA'B hhmv: „sic volo, sic jubeo^, Rasi noAnacajii BHjn»- 
rexBNi n Ha CBoeirB nopTpeTt, npHCjiaHHOMS bi kommhccíi) no yietf- 
HOMy jífkjLj Hepesi h^kojbíbko ahoS nocjiib npoHSHecenifl BCTynHTennoi 
p^^iH-nporpaMMu. He na^o TaEse saóUBaTB, hto bi repnaniH cyn^e- 
CTByeTi nojiHafl CBo6oAa mhíhí& h bphthkh; nodToxy Taxi ne xosot^ 
BOSHHKHyTB HUKaROFO HeyAo6cTBa orB OTA^BHUxi oniHÓoRii H ysie- 
qenifi Bi pibqaxi npaBHTejUy oco6eHHo ecjiH caxuji dTH yBJíeieBifl npo^ 
HCTORaDn us^B xopomaro HCToqHHRa. B^b Hixei^RHXi raseTaxi noABM- 
jnicB ({MtRTHqecRifl oonpaBRH H BospaseHifl no noBOAy ccujioki Bha- 
rejiBxa II Ha cnocoóu npenoAaBanifl bi saccejiBCBOĚ rnxHaaiu; yRasu- 

BaJlOCB, TTO OH'B He ÓUJl^h H81 JiyHHIUXl yqeHHROB'B, TpaTHJťB XHOFO 

BpexeHH na nocTopoHnia sanaTifl h ne Aocjnymajii Rypca HCTopix, bcjiIa*^ 
CTBÍ6 qero H OKadaJiHCB npoó^u wb ero SHaninx^. TaRla „pasoÓJiane- 
Hifl^^fHCxoAUBmiflOTiHibROTopuxi ^UBHiHxi TOBapHu^eft HXHopaTopa HO 
rBXHasiu, HaňA6HH 6ujih tojibbo .HexoBapHn^ecRHXH**; ho bi caxoxi npaBŽ 
Kbn&Th nonpaBBH h B03pa»eHÍA hhbto ne coxntBajicji, Raxi bhaho h 
HS^B oroBopRH caxoFo BHjiBrejiBxa II bi ero nepnoi p^hh. Mes^y npo- 
^hxb, npenefipeaHTejiiBHHfi otshb^ o KypnajiHcraxi, Rasi „aaHAHAa- 
Taxi rojtOAa** h ({^aHTasepaxi, nojy^HJi^B CBoeoÓpaanoe ooBtn^enie b% 

TOX'B 4^RTÍ, ^TO B'B nOOJE^AHefl CBOOi p^^H HMnepaTOp*B Cl> ÓOJIBHIHXH 

noxBaJiaxH npoqHTaJi'B CTaTBD oAHoft npoBHHi^iajBHoi rasoTu h Bupa- 
3HJII opH 3T0X'B 6jiaroAapHOCTB HeH3B'bcTH0xy sypnaiHCTy sa pacnpo- 
CTpaneHie B^pnuxo^ bsfjuíaobi bi nyójrasi. Ochobhua H^eu Bhjib* 
rejiBxa 11, vb Rasia 6u ^pxu ohí hh oÓJioRajiHCB, ocraDTCJi Bcer^a 
HAeaxH BejniRaro RynTypnaro napo^a h BusuBaoTi oón^ee co^iyBCTBie 
Aase npH CBoei bhahxoA oahoctopohhocth; HHorAa xoseTi RadaTBca^ 



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ZPOHHKA. — HHOCTPÁ0HOE OEOSPIHIE. 411 

HTO BoeHHafl TOHKa 8pÍHÍji npeo6jMAaerb hoa^b ocTaxbHUMH hjih bht 
cTynaerb cMmwwb pisKo, ho 9to tojibko ecTeCTBeHHaa xanb MHjiHTa- 
pHSMy.co CTopoEU DpyccKaro Bopojui, BOcnHTaHHaro bi BoeHHuxi Tpa- 

JMn,ÍAX%. rOBOpJBE o TOMl, "ITO HHTepeCU H yCIOBÚl COBpeiíeHHOCTH 

j^ojisHU CTOATb Ha HepBOMi DJiaH^ npH onpeA^JieHiH y^eÓHUXi opo<- 
rpaMMi, BflJibrejiBMi n BupasHJii cbod mucjib npH^jiHSHTejiBHO wb Ta- 
Kot 4>op]ít: 9^0 CHxi nopi mu BejiH Mojiojtesb ovb OepMODHJii qepesi 
EaHHU AO Pocc6axa h TioHBHjjifl; ji npe^Jiarai) bccth ee on Cekaná 
H FpaBejioTTa qepesi Jle&TeHi h Poccóax^ naaaA^ s^ MaHTHHe^ k 
OepMOHHJiaiťb**. ^pyrHMH cjoBaMH, npes^e Bcero nysno hmítb bi Bu^y 
HacTOAoiee h ÓJiHSKoe, a sax^Mi yse o6pau^aTbC£ ki 6ojAe oT^ajieH- 
HOMy; HO wb npHBeAeHHoi ^^paai BupasaeTca Tasse ysso-BoeHHufi 
BsrjiflA^b Ha HCTopÍK)> RaRi Ha nocji^^OBaTejibHui pnxb 6iáTWb^ itó ne* 
Mtniaeirb, o^naBo, BujibrejibMy II hm-j^tb Becbica Bucosoe npe^CTaBJíeHie o 
sa^a^axi rocy^apcTBa h o xyxt BpeMenH. Crpeiuenie hath na Bcxpiqy 
6yAyn;6My h y^oBjíeTBopHTB aoTpe6HOCTH hoboA anoxn BCTp'b^aeTCJi bo- 
o6n;e He nacTo cpe^H o4M|>Hi^iajiBHiáxi npexcTaBHrejiefi BucmeA rocy- 
AapcTBeHHoi BJiacTH, H o6n^i& HHTepecB, BoaóysxaeMui julhhoctbi) h 
A^ibaTejiBHocTBi) HUHimHaro repMaHCKaro HunepaTopa, bhojuI noHATen^ 
nocji^ OTCTaBBH BHflSfl BucMapsa, BHJBrejiBMi n npeACTaBJíflen cotioD 
i^eHTpajiBHyv) noJiaTH^ecsyK) ^Hrypy bi» saaaAHoi EBponi, h HepBHaa 
noABHSHocTB H npeAHpÍHMqHBocTB dTOFo ^'bATejui npHSBaHU HrpaTB 
óoibmyi) pojiB B'B oÓn^eHi xoxl eBpone&CBHX'B a^i. KodroMy h E&wb 

npHXOXHTCA, Bl HainHX'B oSoSpiHÍflXl, yA'^ATB TaK'B MHOrO WbCTB, lit" 

CTÚSLWh H saiiBJíeHÚLMii MOJioftOFo HMHepaTopa repNanÍH. 

TpoficTB6HHU& 601)31 Mesj^y TepiiaHieK), ÁBCTpo-BeHrpíeK) h HTa- 
jiiei) coxpanaerB en^e cbok> CHJiy, ho npaKTHiecsoe anaHeHíe ero ocM&bjío 
co BpeMeHH y^ajienia bhasa EHCMapsa. Bninraie HHTepecu yTpaTHJiH 
CBOK) HanpjiseBHocTB, H raseru yse e^aa ynoMHnaDTB o opecjioByToft 
jiHrt MHpa. B:b ÁBCTpo-BeHrpiu, BaB'B h bi repxaHÍH, rjiaBHoe bhh- 
Mánie oópan^eno na BHyTpeHHÍH Aljia; Bonpoci o lemcKO-HJ^Mei^KOMi 
corjmmeHÍHf KasaBmiicji yse pa8p'bnieHHiiiM'B nocjii anBapBCsoi boh- 
4)epeHAÍH Bi» Btni (4—19 flHB., hob. ct.), npoAOJisaeTi hohuhí sa- 
HHMaTB oÓu^ecTBeHHoe MH^Hie, 6jiaroAapfl dnepru^ecKEMi ycHJiÍAM'B 
MJiaAO^exoBi. npecTaptjiiii ^emcBÍi ^'baTejiB, PHrepi, JiHmHJicji ot- 
^acTH cBoei npesnefl noayjiflpHOCTH nocjii sjíonojiy^Hofl caíjibh ch 

H^MI^aMH, — CA^BH, SaBJIDHeHHOft HMl 0TB HMOBH ^emCBOA HBI^ÍOHaJIBHOA 

napTÍH^ 6631 BCJiBaro y^acTia Mjfaj^oHemcBofi rpynnu. Maa^onexaNi 
yAajiocB pascTpoHTB npoeBTi corjiameHÍJi, ne npeAcraBJUBHiifi HHBaBHX'B 
cepbesHKíxi BuroA^ fijia ?exÍH, e BHyTpeHHJiji 6opB6a Mes^y AByMfl 
^emcBHMH napTÍflMH boactca ch neueBhmev) ropfl^HocTBD, h^mi MesAy 
^exaMH H HÍMuiaMH. Hey^a^a b% ?eniCEOMi» Bonpocii noBOJietíajoia noJio* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



412 MOTHHKB EBPOIUl. 

seme aecrpiftcnro MHHHCTpa-npesHAeHra, rpa<f)a Taa<|^, ycniniHo 
npoBo;^HBmaro cbod ocroposHyi) npHVHpHTejiBHyi) nojrarHEy vb TeqeHÍe 
^oítbe jíficaTE Jtbvb. B% xpyroft nojroBHHt HxnepÍH CTapHfi mhhhctpi^- 
Dpe8HA6RTi» EojioMaHi Tncca, yopasjuramii crpanoi) nonra i^'&iux'b 
njrrHaMaTL jAtl^ BUVjxiMfiWb Óujvb noBHHyTb cnoft nocm iíojí,^ Hanopom 

OIin03HI^H, Vb pjiA&X'B KOTOpoft 0C06eHH0I) ptniHTeJIBHOCTBI) OTJfHHaJHCb 

xojioAue BeHrepcRie apncrospaTH, c% rpa4K)irB KapojiBH bo fjuubí. Ila- 
j^eHÍe Thccu ne noBJíeBJío sa coóoi) orcTaBKH Bcero Ea6HHeTa, m a^o 
^rpaHHiuocB TOjnbKo san^Hoi) craparo nepBaro MHHHcrpa hobíimx, 
rpa4>oirB CanapH. 

BeHrepcBÍĚ npaBiiTejn»CTBeHHut BpHSHcrE npoHaomejii noTřH ojs.no- 
Bpeii6HH0 CB oTcraBKOi) KHasa BHCMapRa; wb to me apeiia coBepnrHjntcB 
nepeM^Ha Ea6uHeTa h bo ^paei^iH, — mbehctopctbo Tnpapa ycrynHio 
vbGTo BaÓMHery ^peftcHBd-KoHCTaHa. Bi HcnanÍH MHHHcrprB-DpesHAeHTB 
OaracTa ffiumewb ównt nepe^aTB BJiacTB cBoeiiy soHcepBaTHBHOHy npo- 
THBHHKy, EanoBacy Mfisb KacTHjno. Bi FpeiqH XHHHCTpi-npesHAeHrB 
TpnyiniCB, nocjrik He6jiaronpíaTHaro au nero Hcxo^a napjia]feHTCBHX'B 
BuóopoBi, Bumejn^ bi orcTaBsy, h KtcTo ero sanajii AejiBJíHHCi. HcreK- 
miĚ roA'B, KaBi cnpaBe^JiHBo saM^TEJia napHSCBaa „Temps**, 6£ixb pt- 
niHTejiBHo netijiaronpiaTeHi jí^h nepassi mhhhctpob'b. Tonso EpncoK 
B% HTajEÍH ciyviji coxpaHMTB sa co6oi) penyrai^íD ,Heo6xoAHiiaro qe- 
jioB^Ba'' H spibiiKO AepsHTca sa BJiacTB, iribHaa jramB cbohxi TOBaps- 
n^eĚ no MHHHcrepcTBy, cooTBÍbTCTB6HHo napjiaMeHTCBoiíy h oóu^ecTBeH- 
HOMy HacrpoeniK). 

Bi AHFjriH Ao nocgi^AHaro BpeiieHH rocnoACTBOBajio cpaBHHTeuHoe 
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HHTHBrH, vh poKb cocToaBmaroca 10-ro ;^eBa6pa (h. ct.) bi Thajii- 
rouš; HO e^Ba-JiH cnpaBeAJiBBo HaauBaTB ^nycTofi óojctobhoh)' BecBMa 

yvipeHHHfl p^HH o nOJU»8Í BipOTepDHMOCTH H BpOA^ BJieMeHHOfi 

spasAUy—pi^H, npoHBHeceHHUJBí TaraMH opaTopaxH, saRi repi^ora BecT- 
MHHCTep^ H enHCRoni PaftnoHi, wb co6paHÍH wj^eft aoboaho noireH- 
Huxi, RaROBu apxienHCRonx EeHTep6epificRift, repi^on> AprafijuB, rep- 
i^oFB AfiepRopHi, repi^orb HBDRecTjn^, MapRHSi PaflnoHi, rpa^ CnoH- 
eepi, cdp% JIe6($oRx, Rap^HHajrb MaHHHBrb, enHCRonu JioHAOHCRifi, rjioy- 
^ecTepcRÍĚ, xaHqecTepcRift h xpyrie. Koho^iho, pasBjíSHue otsubh f-sh 
Ojebfh HoBHROBoft O TaRHXi coÓpaHíflxi anrjiificRHxi A^aTeieft, 06% 
HX'B p'&iax'L 'H pimeHíaxi, hhcrojibro ho sa^^BaDTi anrjiHHaHi h 
CB060AH0 MoryiTB 6uTB ne^aTBeifu vb hx^b co5cTBeHHux% raseiaxi bca- 

RHMl HHOCTpaHl](eNl HJIH HHOCTpaHROK); HO eCJIH aHFJIHqaHe nOCTOAHHO 
RpHTHRyDTB H nOSBOMlDTl ApyrHM^B CROJIBRO yrOWO RpHTHROBaTB CBOH 
COÓCTBOHHHe HOpHABH, TO HOCJli BTOFO H6 CJl^AOBaJIO 6u jme y^HB- 
JIHTBCH, HTO OHH HOSBOUDTfB Ce6'b HROF^a BHCRaSHBaTBCfl EyÓlH^BO 
H O AÍJISL1L% HJOMTh FOCy^apCTBl. 



Toitt I.— flHBAPB, 1891. 27 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



418 B«CTBIQ» EBPOIQI. 

PABOMAfl ro;i;iAHAifl. 

IIhCBHO HBl-SA rPA.HHAU. 



... — „Bi FoJUiaHAiK), noiTH keex bi EHTad, en^e He nacTo sarJH- 
AUBaDorB. 6*^ cbohxi 6ojiOTax'B h Top<|)flHBix'B Konaxi mu acHseirB hso- 

JIHpOBaHHO; HHKTO HB OCTaHaBJ]IBaeT'B na HaCl Cl JHOSonUTCTBOMl BHH- 

HaHÍJi Bi jí,ÍJii BHyTpeHHež Hamefi nojiHTH^ecBofi shshh, h oho, ej^Ba 
csoJiBSHyBí no HaniHifB rpaHHi^aM'B, b'b eaux He npoHHKaerB h Jierurb 

npO^B, B'B HHUfl CTpaHU. A MeSAy TtVl FoJIJiaHAiH OTHDAB He CHHTB 

Bi CB0HX'B aMÓapaxi h SHTHHi^axil Goi]^iajiHCTHqecsaA npenaraH^a sa 
nocj^AHÚi AecATB JiÍTB cHjiEBHo HOTpflCJia ee. MaccoBua xBHseHÍfl co- 
ctAHHXi CTpaH'B yse 6ucTpo hphboaati bcd ee b'b coTpflcenie, h ona na 
HHXX rpoMKO OTsuBaeTCA. 3A'i^niHÍfi npojrerapiarB, KaK'B n .(i»paHAy3CBÍň, 
SAeT'B erb HerepninieMi} o^epe^H h npH bcabomi y^oÓHOM^ cjiynat 

SaflBJIfleTl CBOH) COJIHAapHOCTB CB C0AÍaj[HCTaMH-pa60^HHH ApyrHX'B Ha* 

poAOBi Mípa. SI He xoqy npeyBejH^HBaTB, ho cm&io yTBepsAaio, ito 
pa6oHee ABHsenie y naci BupasaeTCA cb TasoH) cejiod, ^to na nee 
Heju>3H ne oópaxHTB BHHHanifl. SI corjiaceHB, ^to Hama paóoxa no- 
ABHraercA MeTOAHiecsH, 6e3i niyny, tíesB ÓJiecsy, ho, niwh Hexen-be, 
Ha Hee ctohitb BsrjiAHyTB no6jiHse!"... 

TaB^B roBopHJii HaH'B na ahhxi* wb cbobmi paóo^eifB saóuHeTi^, na 
Malakastrat, JÍOMejiá HBHBeHresTb (Domela Nieuwenhuis), AenyrarB orB 
Ghoterland b'b reHepajiBHUx^ niTaraxi h rjiaBa coi^iajracTHqecBaro xbh- 
xbbíe vb FojuiaHAiH; TOHsaa yjiuÓRa ópoAHJa no ero ry6aMi», n ro- 
JEOCB ero, o6uKHOBeHHo-Mej[aHxojiHqecBÍft, SBy^ajTB saBi-To nacMinuiHBo- 
Bocéjio. A Ji CHOTpijTB na aToro nójiHTHHecBaro araxaTopa tí^AHHXB 
puóasoBi (i»pH80Bi, BcnoNHHajKT HX^B dHTysíasMi Bi neMy h noBÍpAJi'B 
ero, HacBOJiBBO oh'b npaBi wb to]í'b, qiĎ mh^ coo6niaerB. 

Bi caMOMi MÍt^j BecBMa bojihbo h bco en^e ynejiHqHBaeTCfl ^hcjio ho^h- 
Taxejiefi FoJuanAlH, cxpaHU HyseesB h nepraiieHTOBi, BOTopyi) hosho 6u 
Ha3BaTB FoJiJiaBAieK) MepTBOD, FojuianAieK) npomeAmaro; ho bto anaerB 
FojuaHAÍK) coBpeMeHHyi), HapoAnyi), h ea sh3hb, CTpacTnyi) h BosóyacAen- 

HyD? ^a H HSl TÍXI, bto BHA%JE'B 3Ty SH3HB b6jIH3H, 60JIBniHHCTB0 SHaeiTB 
TOJIBBO, ^TO Vb FoJUiaHAÍn MHOrO MOJIBHHI^B, U TO HOTOMy, ^TO BpUJIBa HX^B 

^snpecTaHHO BepTHTCfl. A Bni^FoJiJiaHAiH o(j|M{)Hi;iajn>Hofi, bto h Bor^a hhto- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHEA. — PABOHAa ro;uiAHAia. 419 

pecoBajiCA FojiJiaHAiei 4>a<^PH^H0Ě h pa6o?ei, h ABHsenieMi e^ napoA- 
Huxi MaccB? Bh']^ He6ojn»inoro spysEa JH)Aefiy c^e^iaJlbHo saHHMaiD- 
n^Hxc^ paóo^HMi BonpocoMi, — soHe^HO, ^hrtoI Ilpae^a, qTo h cpej^cTBi 
em^e 6uJio Majio, ^to6u seaTb, qxd opoHCxo^nrE b-b wíjí,pB,Tb dxoro 
yrojiKa schjih, ^jtb ne saTepiiHHaro b% oBeaH'6; Bceo6n]^e& noAa^H rojio- 
€ob'b'3a^b eii^e se cyn^ecTByerB, a cji^AOBaTejiBHO nojraTH^ecRaro 6a- 
poMeTpa wkT% h cy^HTB o paajUHHHuxi HanpaBJíeHiflxi o6ii^ecTBeHHaro 

MH^Hifl ÓUJIO HeB03M0»H0. 

Oco6eHHo nopasaeTi bb TosneiUjLm to. hto pa6o^aA Dapriii bi nefl, 
pascMaTpuBaeMaa bb ba ochobhuxi sjíeMeHTaxi, cobc^hb ho noxosa 
Ha pa6oqÍH napTÍH ApyrHXx crpani. KoHe^Ho, no no?BÍ h paca; ho 
Bi^Ab BÍpB0 TaKse H to, ^to sasoBU cnoco6u npoHSBOACTBa, TasoBU u 

THnU npOH3BOAUTeJieft. CpaBHHBaA ({»H3H^eCKH H HpaBCTBeHHO ^ejiOB^Ba, 

paÓOTaiDu^aro b'b yeAHHeniH nojiett, hjih pa6oHaro-co6cTBeHHHBa, ot6u- 
BaDH^aro 3aKa3'B cbohmh co6cTBeHHUHH HHCTpyHeHTaMH y ceófl na AOMy, 
CL paSoHHMB HamHxi bojihrhxb npoKuniJieHHuxB o6ii^ecTB%, — bu cpasy 
noflHeTe paaHHiiy MeacAy npoJieTapieMi FojiJiaHAiH h npojerapieHi 
^paHi^iH, FepiíaHiH h Eejn»rÍH. Bi FoJiJiaBAiH Hapo^Haa paÓoTa en^e 
Be HcauTaJia BJíiflHía HexaHH^ecBaro iit)0H3B0ACTBa; ona coxpaHflero, 
TaK^ cRa3aTS, npHMHTHBHyK) pyqnyK) 4>opMy, soropaji, KasB Ras^OMy, 

EOHeqHO, H3BÍCTH0, HaHMOHie CDOCOÓCTByeT^ Rl BOCnpiaTÍK) H pa3BHTÍID 

HOBUXB H^eft. A BonpocB o cpejsfb Bcer^a c^HTaJicji caMiiM'B ochobhumb 
BonpocoMB BB jífbjA coi^lajuHCTH^ecRofl oponapaHAUy h xasHo 3aM'bqeH0, 
qTO aPHTaTopu Bcer^a npHAepsHBajiHCB TaRTHRH ROHqeHTpHpoBaTB ee 
BB npoMHffljreHHuxB i^eHTpaxB,— TaMi, ta* rpynnu y»e cymecTByroTB h 

A'bftCTByK)Tl eAHHOAyniHO, RaEB 9T0 MOSBO ÓHJLO BHA^TB, SanpBM-bpi, 

Ha MaHH4)ecTai](ÍH 1-ro MaA. 

no mh'6hík) BoacaROBB coi^iajiHSMa, dROHOMH^ecRíe 4>eH0MeHii, ea roto- 

PUXX SHSAeTCA HXB TOOpifl, HHÍ1DTB B^B HOAOÓHUXB I^CHTpaXB CB06 He- 

H3M'bHHoe sHaqeHie, TaRB CRasaTB, aoctohhctbo aÓcoJiDTHaro AORasa- 
TOJiBCTBa, H caHoe yqenie hírotopum^b oópasoMB MaTopiajiHSHpyeTCJi; 
Tor^a RaRB bb M'6cTax'B, rjí,i MexaHHqecEoe hpohsboactbo en^e ho bhao- 
hsm^hhjio ycjioBift TpyAa, pacnpocTpaHeHÍe n^eft Bcer^a c^HTajiocB 
noiTH HeBOSMosHUHB. TaRHMi) oópasoMB, Hanp., Bo ^paHi^ÍH coi^ia- 
jiHCTu A^JiHJiH HtRorAa ropoAa h mícthocth pecny6jiHRH Ha abí 
RaTeropÍH: Binepsys) — obh sanocHjiH bcí ropoAa h mícthocth, b-b ro- 
Topux'B eni^e coxpaHHJiacB HHAHBHAyajiBHafl ({^opMa najieHBRaro pyqnoro 
npoHSBOACTBa u npeoÓJiaAajiB dJieueEVb MOJiRaro Óypsya h RpecTBffHHHa; 
a BO BTopyn RaTeropÍH) or^ncjiajiH Bct ropoAa h MtcTa, faí yse yTBep- 
SAajiacB ROJiJieRTHBHaH 4>op>fa MamHHsaro npoH3BOACTBa h npeotfjaAajiB 
3eMjieAÍJiBqecRÍA h ^dLÚpymnuŘ npoJieTapiarB. IIo aTOity noBOAy na 

OAHOMB H3'B HXl EOHrpeCCOBB TOBOpHJlOCB RaTeropEHOCRH: „BB OÓH^e-^ 

, 27* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



420 BftCTHHRl EBPOnH. 

CTBaxi H ropoAAx^b, Tjífk 9eujiefl,iJLh^ecKÍŘ h pa6o?ift npojnerapiaT^ en^e 
ne cyn^ecTByeTi, bjih tojibro HaqHHaeirB noABJATbCfl, mh ne HaxoAHiťt 
nOAXOjtJini^HXi dJieMeuTOBi, a ecjH TaROBue h ecTb, to mu BUHysAenu 

ttTb HFHOpHpOBaTB H npeAOCTaBJTHTB nOKa Bl Bij^eHÍe aBTOHOMHCTOBl H 

paAUEajioBx; dTH nocjiÍAHÍe Jiyqine eaci Bupaa^aDTi co6ok) HysAH b 

HHCTHHKTU HOAoShUXI MÍCTHOCTeÍ; HanpOTHBl, TOpOJHa H 06U(HHN, Bli 

ROTopuxi npoMunueHHufi h seMJieA^iJiB^ecEiň npojieTapiaTB oópasoBajicfl,. 
np^HaAJieacarB Ham; bi HHX'b — y»e noAroTOBJíeHHuxi KaoRTajiHCTH* 

^eCKHMl npOHSBOACTBOMl — HaMl CySA^HO 6opOTBCfl H paSMHOSaTbCfl'... 

TojuiaHACsíe co]i.iajiHCTii, KOHeqHO, ne uornu 6ei óysBajibHo cji^AOBaTb 
noAOÓHUHi coo6paseHÚiMi, — hjh, unave, hmi npHmjiocb ($u OTKasaTbca 
OTTB caMaro CBoero cyn^ecTBOBaniji; ho ohh oÓoiilih nperpa^u bjiíjihíjí cpe^u 
M saTpyAHeHía, Boropua BcxptTHJiH B'b TeMnepaMeHrt napoj^a, Heno- 
ABHSHaro HyTb ne co BpeMeH'b BojibTepa h ne HMÍH)u^aro ckjiohhoctk 

„HH Kb BaBHMl HOBOBBeAeHÍilMa^ H HH Kl BaRHVl nepeM^HaHl^. TOJIbBO 

HeAOBiBb^ npoHHBHyBmifi canx Bb thxíh HHSMeHHOCTH FojiJiaHAiH, nocjii^ 
npe6HBaHÍA b^b Mpannux^b, MHorojiK>AHuxa^ i^eHxpaxi $paHii;iH, BeJibrÍH h 
repManiH, HoseTb cocTaBHTb ce6i acHoe noHATÍe o TOMb, BaB'b ipyABO* 
ÓHJio coi^iaj[HCTaM'b 9js!bch ?T0*Htf6yAb cx&iaTb, h saByiD dHeprii) h nacTofi- 
HUBocTb npHmjiocb npHjoa&HTb nepBimi fiíbaresawh^ nTo6u CA^JiaTb MHoro. 
Ha BceHi* npoTflseHÍH 5e8ROHeHHo-njiocKHXb nojieft ho BCTp']bqaeinb 
HH oAHofi 4>A6pHqH0& Tpy6u, hhfaí ne cjiuniHnib myMa MamHHb, wvLvsík 
ne BHAHmb bh nujiaou^exi o^aroBi RysHHi^i, hh pasHOi^BŽTHHXi oraeft 
niaBHJibHiixb H CTajubHiiixi fle^eĚ; hh pasy ne sacjiiimHnib CTyRaupn- 
AHJibHuxi HjiH TRai^RHxx cTRHROBb; HH pasy HO AoxHemb nporopRJlUHb. 

BOSAyXOlTb 4>&<^PHRb. 7X0X2 H81 BH^R, CTOJIDTCfl Ty^HUJI HaSHTH, HO- 
RPUTUH BeJIHROJlinHOfi SOJieHblD, no ROTOpUMl naCyTCH COTHHMH TOJICTO^ 

6oRÍH RopoBU. MfiorojiHCTHiifly apRO-sejieHiiji xepeBba noiycRpuBRDiYb 

»HBOnHCHUfl 4>^pHUÍ, Cb AepeBAHHHMH RpaCHBUHH MOCTaMH, HOpeSb 

pBu H RaHajiH, noxosHMH Ha RaRÍ2-T0 onepHUH AeRopa^ÍH. CaAU h oro- 
poAu BosA^JiaHu Cb Heo6uRH06eHHUH'b HCRyccTBOMi. A Bi raBanaxs 
ropoAOBb, BORpyrb Roropuxb, paspisan BosAyxb, Hamyirb rpujikamh 

B'bTpjlHUJE[ MOJIbHHI^U, BSAUMRDTCfl uMue Jťbca Ma^Tb H CHaCTOň TOp- 

roBUX'b (i»jiOTHJiifi; RopB^HOBiiie napyca HXb npoóiraDTb noHHHyTHo 

np0BHH]](ÍH BO BClxi HaDpaBJíeHÍflXb. 

BOTb, Bl BTOň-TO CTpaH^, TA^ H^Trb BHAHVOfl Ó^AHOCTH, FA^ BCe 

HHCTO, onpHTHo H DopasaeTb cBiacecTbK), fa^ noBepxnocTHan naÓJíK)- 
AaTejibHocTb He BHAHTb HHiero, RpoMi „Tpexb pa6oB%, CHAflniHxs na 
u/bnji: BOSAyxa, bohah h boau**— B'b aroifb Rpai) (ecjiH B-ibpHTb TypH- 
CTBM%) „npocToft SH3HH H THxaro c^acTba'', patíoiaa coAiajuHCTHqecRas 
napTÍH MOAJieHHo noApuja CTapuA ochobu o6u^ecTBa, h Bb nacTOflo^ee 
BpeMH, ROHeqnOi oponopi^ioHajibHo bojih^hhí CTpaHu, ona TaRi sro CHJibBa, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA, — PABOHAH TOJJAHAIfl. 421 

saK'L coiúajiHCTEi repMaHÍHl Sna^HTejiBHoe ^hcjo 8eHjieAÍjiBii;eB'b, paóonie 
'Top<|»flHux'b 6ojiorb, rpysHJiBii^HSH cyj(OB'b, jioaohhheh, sjíocHaCTHue 6epe- 
roBHe puóasH,— -BOTB dJieiieHTU, h3*b KOTopHX'b OHa cocraBHJiacb. Ha^o 3a- 
vbmTh, HTO DTO BJieMeHTH — o^eHB Tpyj^Ho nojwaDmieca BJiianiK), — TaRÍe» 

SOTOpse BO BCJiROĚ APyroft CTpaH^ yTOMHJUI 6U CaHUXl HaCTOi^HBUXl 

opraBHsaTopoBx. Ho aro-To h jífiíerb roJiJiaHACKoiiy eon;íajni8Hy totl 
CBoeoiSpaaHuft xapasTepi, o soropoMi mu yse ynoiuiHyjin. 

reorpa({)HHecKoe nojios6HÍe crpanu TaKse nosBOJiABT^ CA^aTb ne 
<$e3XHHTepecHoe HaóiDA^HÍe. Bi> ^eft, sasi h bosa^i c^Beprb h dpi 
pasjíHqaDTCji TeiinepaMeHTOifb sHTejeft: Dsane BocnpÍHH^HB^e h T&nwke. 
Ho DPb B^ ro;iJ!aHAÍH — HC^0B4;^aHia BaTOJiH^ecsaro, a cisep-B — npoTO- 
CTaHTCsarOy h Dra oBasusaeTCA soHcepBaTHBH'6e. TyreHOTCEift cí^Beprb, 
BanpoTHB^b, npHCTajťb vh ABHseHÍD HeHe^JUL) to^ho no BJieneHiiD. Tas%* 
HTO sA^cb, B% seHJii 4>P^30B'B, HaHH4>ecTaiiÍH npHHHMaDrB Bcer^a niHpo- 
sie paSMipu, H coi^iajiHCTHHecRa4i napxifl OBJía^^Jia do^th bcímh ropo- 
j^aiiH. 

FoBopa BooÓn^e, Hapo^nocTH h c^Bepa, h Dra FojuiaHAiH o^apeau 
Topasj^o óojibnieD BnenaTjiHTejibHocTBD, ^tiťb t5 bbsa^ noj[araDT'b; ohh 
TopsecTByDírB n jiHsyDTi npH HaJi^ftmeiťB BOJiHenÍH; Hanp.i 1-ro ubm 
vb Tarb 6ujio 6.000 HaHH^^ecTaHTOB^B; b% JIebopabe^, ctojihd^^ 4>PH30B'b — 
12.000. B'B Leewoulen, ropoAs^i^ coBciiťB MajieHBBoiťE, HX'b naópajioob 
Mfi AByx'b TUCA^i. Ohh npHÓUBajiH rpynnaiiH hbo bc^xii ospecTHocToň, 
OAHH ntniKOiťb, Apyrie na jioABax'B. Mys^HHH, seHnuHHH, aíte, cjio- 

BOITB, JIDAH O^OHXl. n0JI0B'B H BC^Xl BOSpaCTOBl, BXO^HJIH B'b ropOA'B, 

BMBniHCb 3a-pyKH, no neiBepo, ch passtBaDii^HiiHCA Hanepe^H kojíohht* 
SHaMeHaiiH, h hijih cb BUCoso-noAHATuni HOJioM^b, saKi no6ÍAHTej[H. 
,9^ npHvbpa ynoH^iHeHi emfi o bjiíabíh jiohaohckoř cxansH na paóo^ee 
BacejieHie Porrep^aMa h ÁHCTepj^aMa: npo^JiHCb rphshcb na Teif3CRHX'b 
A0Rax'b en^e neiiHoro, h bi ropoAaxi dTHX'B paspasHJiacb 6u BceoÓn^aa 
-cTaHRa; dTo Tbm> xapaRTepHCTHiH']be, ^to jís) CHX'b nop'b pa6o^ie nop- 
TOBi H raBaneft BupasajiH BecbMa MaJio crjiohhocth r^b cojiha8phocth. 
EporpauMa, npHHATaa coi^iajiHCTaHH-peBOJiDaíoHepaMH rojiJiaH;^iH, bi 
rj[aBHux'B nyHRTaxi TosAecTBenna cb nporpaMMOD coi^iajiHCTHqecRoft 
AeMOEpaTiH Apyrnx-B cxpaHi. 3Ta Toa;íecTBeHHocTB Tpe6oBaHift, A*JiaD- 
n^aji ABHseeie iie»AyHapoAHUMrB h AaDmaA eiiy o^hectbo HanpaBJíeHiji 
H lítjiH, cocTaBjraex-B BHjíaDmyDca CTopoHy coapeMennoft paío^ett arH- 
TaAiH. ^i líjifii TenepB Bcb ohh corjiacHu; tojibro orjiijihEUA cjioBa, ^p- 

MyjU, TepMHHOJlOríA — HSHtHJiDTCA, CHOTpA DO CTpaHt; HO OpE dTOMT* TH- 

oH^ecRÍA H RpaeyroJiBHUfl Bapasenia noBTopaDTóa Óeai H8HÍHeHÍĚ na 
BC%x'B asuRaxi. Paóo^aa AeMORpaTia FoJiJiaHAiH, hoxoóho bc^m-b ApyrHiix 
<x>uiaj[HCTH?ecRHMi napriflifB wb EBpou']^, np6CJi']^;iyeTB uj^jih: rojlior- 
THBHaro BjiaAÍHÍa hohbod, opy^iflHH TpyM h bc^mh cpe^CTBaMH npo- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



422 BI^CTHHRl EBPOnU. 

HSBOACTBE, T.-e. j^BoňflyH), nojiHTHqecKyH) h 3K0H0MH^ecKyK>, 9Kcnponpia- 
H\K) 6ypsya3ÍH. Ho, cxo^^cb ci ;^pyrHMu cxpanaMH b% nporpaMM^, ona 
OTJiH^aeTaa oti hex^b vb jifbjíi BHyTpeHHeň opraHHsai^H H^KoropuuH 
nyHKTauH, Koxopue HHiepecHo otmíthtb. 

KaK-b BO $paHi;ÍH, Bejitria h ocoóeHHo Bt repManiH, — b-b roJurae^iH 
b:b ochobí jífkjíSL, cocTaBJifl.a Kas^B 6u ero aepHO, JiesHT'B rpyooHpoBRa 
no Bopnopai^iflifB. HaifB xotíjiocb 6u o^epxHTB vb híckojibshx'b cjio- 
Bax'B Ty opraHH3ai;ÍE) peMecjii, KOTopoň couiajiHCTHHecKaA naprijai npe^- 
HasHanaeTi TaByi) BasHyio pojiB b'b js^ijila pasBiiTÍA h npeo6pa30BaHÍa 
HeHMyn^aro BJiacca, e Boropafl bo BCAsoiťB cjiyHa'& cocTasjíAOTi* bi ea. 
pyBax'B ojLEO E31B cauBixi Horyin.ecTfieHHUXT* opy^ift 6opB6u. Bimbicjih 
paóoqaro cocjiobíji oprasflsaAiJi peMecji'B AOJisHa 6utb e HaiiioHajiBHO&, 
fl MesAyHapoAHoň; cospeMeenue cEHAEKaTU — ne 6ojAe Kan-B ea sapo- 
AUIHe; HaKOHei^i, ona AOJisHa em^tb t^íjibk) bo o^sy tojibso coaiE^ap- 

HOCTB paÓOHEXl fl e^EHeSÍO ÍEHH0CTeft, BaSEMaBDU^EXCA OAEElťB E T^VB 

se peMecjBLOMi. Topesohitb, ropas^o óojite o6mEpHU&, pacKpuBaercfl 
npe^i Hero. 

Bt* FojEJiasAÍE coi^iaiECTU nojiaras)!!!, qxo peMecjenHUH opraHEsai^ÍE^ 
AocTErnyBTi e3bíctho& CTeneHE pasBETÍJi, óyAyx^B eu^tb Bcb a^heuji a^a 
CTaTECTEKE paóo^Fo KJiacca: KOJiEiecTBO pa6oHEx% Ba»A&ro peMecjia; ex'b 
pacnpeA'bJieHie no pasjíE^sBíM^B MacTepcKEifB cxpasu; oTHomeBíe sapa- 
6oTsa Kh i^isaMii upoaobojibctbía e ApyrHX'B npeAMeroBi nepBofi seoó- 
xoaemocte; EBoÓEJiie e HeAocTaTOKi xpyAa e t. n. Oh4 óyAyr^b Batíjii)- 
AaTB sa nepeH^imieBijiEE paóo^nx^; óyAyr^B sanpaBJíJiTB exi na nynBTU^ 
TAt oKasercA TpeÓOBaflie na xpyAi; óyAyn npenaTCTBOBaTB em-b no- 
naAaxB B'B M-bcTa cTa^OB^B e xyAa, rA'b 3apa6oT£E HesnaqETejiBnu, bcji^A* 
CTBÍe EsGuTBa pyBí, e t. a- Owk yqpeA^i^ noH^n^esiJi jíjih naSHa; 6y- 
AyT'B BUAaBaTB otb ce6ji paóoHEMi* ÓEjieTU na nyTemecTBÍA, c^b boto* 
puME cTpaHCTByDu^ie pa6oqíe, noAOÓno TOHy, KaBi wb ApeBni^ BpeHesa,^ 
nafiAyTOb BesA^ Ha nyTE TOBapEu^efi, roTOBUxi bpehhtb exi, npíECBaTB- 
jíwb pa6oTy e noMOHB npaBCTBeHBo e MaTepiajiBBO. RpoH^Toro, peiieC' 
jieBBUJi opraHEsai^iE saňMyTCfl CTaTECTEBOH) nponsBOACTBa, qToÓu esbao^b 
flsii BOA BCOBOSMosHUA BUFOAU A^A pa6oqaro BJiacca, A&Ban MicTa 
cTaHBavi TOJiBBo B-B MOMOBT^ ycEjienHoĚ pa6oTu E nuTancB saiieAJíATE 

npOE3BOACTBO, BaBl TOJIBBO TOBapH BaBOBATCfl. 

OABaso, dXE yHpesAenÍA bx rjiaBaxi rojuiaBACBEXx con;iajiiECTOB% — ne 
Coxbe BaBx nepexoAHan ^opiia. 

npEAen MOMeETB, no;iaraH)T'B obe, BorAa paóo^ift ne 6yAerB BaHBsyrB 
BX OABy BaByiD-BEÓyAB cnei^iajiBBocTB pa3BETÍeHx ManiEHnaro npoE3BOA- 
cTBa, padA^JneBÍeiTB TpyAa e npo<|)eccioBajiBBUHx oóyqesieMx, BorAa obx 
fiyAOTx nepexoAETB otx oahopo peMecjia bx ApyroMy;— TorAa peMecjienBea 
opraBEsai^ÍE yTpaTJiTx CBoe sBa^OBÍe, bo CTaTECTE^ecBia bomhhccíe h 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — PABO^Afl rOJIJIAHAIfl . 423 

cosAaBHUA HMH aAMHHHCTpaiiiH H jHTpexjí,ema ocTanyTCfl, bují^oezu^uetcíi^ 
H HMi CjjsfiTh nopyneHo perjiaiieHTHpóBaTB npoHSBOACTBo h pacnpe^i- 
jEflTb npoAyKTU coo6pa3Ho oÓn^ecTBesHuiTL HysAaiTB. TasHirb oópasoii^, 
peiiecjieHHiiiA opraHH3aii;ÍH BHpaóoraDn aAMBBHbTpaTHBHHe opraHHdMii 
óyAyn^aro paóonaro Mipa. 

TaKOBa nAesL. Mu hsjioshjih ee co cTposaimei) to^hoctbe), vb toitb 
BH^t, Basi coii;iajiflCTi]i c^pvyjiBpoBajiH ee caus na oABOifE soBrpeccb. 
Ha npaKTBst osa Aaxeso en^e ne isui&i% Tasoro oómEpsaro BpHirb- 
HeBifl. 

&b FojuaBAiH, vb BacToan^ee Bpeiui, pa6oqiA accon;iai^iH pocTyrB bi 
BospocTaDB^eň BporpecciH. Hasp., CBBABsaTB »eji']^3BOAoposHux'B hhbob- 
BHKOB^b BacíHTHBaen y«e 2.000 HJieBOBi, xoth cyB^ecTByerb Bcero 
wbcRouhzo M^caneBx. Ho caiia BaprÍB cocroarb Be viwb oAsi^xrb boao6- 
Buxii accoi^iai^id, — oaa peKpyTflpyeTCB b ctopobbbmb BH^BBBAyajiBBo- 
CTBVB, — B 8T0 oBflTirTaBB HBCTO TOJuasj^CBaB Hepxa; Kas^uA, BTO corjia- 
ceBT^ Ba uporpamcy, AOBycRaerČH bi napriD, TaB'^ tto Jisra coAÍaJibBO* 
AeHOBpaTB^ecBoft rojuaflj^csoA sapTÍB BM^erB b ceB^iB, b ^JieBOB^b Bpe- 
MeBfluxx; ceBiiiB coctobte m^h cBBABsaTOBi, mrb seacBBxi b paaxB^- 
Biixi ApyPHX^b accoiúai^iA, b yspaBJíBnTCB iťJbcTBUirb BOXBTeroki Bjra 
coB^TOiťB; Kasj^an Mi^cTBaB rpysaa BM^beri Baccy, b'b Boropyio BOCTy- 
naDTTb B8B0CU HJ[eflOB'B, B3M']^flflDB^íeca coo6pa8Bo cpex*]^. 

I](eBTpajiBBaB Bacca BaBOJBAOTca pasi BaBcer^a ycTasoBjeBBinfB 
eseBex^bBiiiťB bsbocoiix vb ABa casTBiia ch Ras^aro ^JieBa. Kasi* bo 
^paBiúB, B'B 6ejn»rÍB, Tasí b vh rojiJiaB;uB A^Jia napTÍB pa3CMaTpBBaK)TCJi 
pa3'B Bx roA'B Bai^ioBajibBUMi KoarpeccoBT*. HaKOBen;^, pysoBOAHBtíft 
ii^eflTpajiBBiii& BOMBTerb Bpyrjiuft roA% sacJ^Aaerb b'b Part. Ho opra- 
BflaaiÚB dToro BOMBrera— coi^iajiBCTBqecBaji BapTifl ' FouaBAiB Tasse 
OTJiB^aeTCB B^BOJibBO OTi flOAO($Bi>ix'b yqpe»AeBÍA ApyrBX'B CTpaBi. 
I](eBTpajibBue BOMBTeru ApyrBxx cxpaB^b bh^tx bi pysaxi BHCBiyi) 
cToneBb BjiacTB, obb oT^aDrb BpBBasaflíji b canoBJíacTBo Bexyn A^a; 

B^b FoJUiaBAiB M^TBHA rpyBBU aBTOBOHBH; AJia San^BTU CBOBXX JífbjTh 

B BBTepecoBrb owb A^ftcTByK)rb bo CBoeiiy ycMorp^BÍD b Ba cboA CTpax'b; 
i^eBTpajibBiiiA BOMBTeirb Be Moserb Aase BpBBBTb BBBasoro osoB^a- 
TOJibBaro pimeBÍB bb b% qeifb, bo BpeAJiosBBrb ero CBanajia Ba pas- 
cMorpiBíe MicTBHiTb rpysoaiTb nocpeACTBOB'b pe(|)epeBAyBa. 3to b^hto 
Bil ^OA^ ^^A^paTBBBaro coDsa. 

Tasoro po^a BOJibBaa opraBBsai^iB, bboíibí cprjiacflafl erb TeHflepa- 
MOBTOirb rojiJiaflACBaro Bapo^a, KaseTCB, BUTesaerb sA^cb bbi Bai^io- 
BajibBiixa^ TpaABipft. Bo BCBKOirb cjiyqa^, jiH)6BTejiD bctopbhocbbx^ 
coBocTaBJíeBifi oBa o^eBb bcbo BanoBBBaerb aP6bbh)d BOBCTBryi^iiD 
HBSBe-PežBCRBXo^ npoBBBi^ift, vjsík resepajibBue mTaTS ae mofab Aa- 
BaTb p^bmeBÍfi bo sasBuirb A^^aMi, ae bmíb aa to corjiaciB qacTBuxi* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



424 BfiCTHHRl EBPOnU. 

mraTOBi, a sasA&fl bhobb npHCoexHHHBinaflCfl k'e rocyxapcTBy npoBHfi^ 
i^ía coxpaHfldia bi» dojihohi o6ieMt cbod BJiacTb h npio6pÍTajia ^acTB 
BjiacTH KOB(|^eAepa^iH. 

Coi^iajiHCTHHecBafl naprin FojiJiaHAiH imi&rh ao četl nopi TOjn»BO 
OAHoro npeACTaBHTOJiA b^b reHopajibHuxi nrraTaxx: dTo ynoMAHyTut 
yse HaMH — ^oMejiá; ho 6yxB s^tcb Bceoón^afl noxana rojiocoBi, ^hcjio 
co^iaJlHCTOB'B-Ae^yTaTOB'B yAecATepHJiocb 6u HeiieAJieHHo h onpeA&iHJio 
6u CB 65jiBnieH) tohhoctbd cuy pa6oHeft roJiJiaHACKOĚ j^eMospaTÍH. 



n. 

^H^epÓ, OTJIHHaBmiftCA B^pHOfl OD^^ESOfi H^bCTHOCTeft, BHA^HHUX^B 

HiTB, cKasajiik o Tart: ^3to caMoe xpacHBoe cejieme bi Mipil** Ho onpe- 
A^eme ero,— BOHenno, Hiť^Bmee sHaneHie vb CBoe Bpeiui, — ne AaerB 
TO^Haro noHATÍA o coBpeMeHHOHii cocTOflHÍH CTapHHHaro ropová, ero 
yjiHn;i>, nepeyjiBOB'B h ujron^aAefi. Para, ecjiH xoTHTe, Bce en^e no- 
xosa Ha cejienie, h b'B neŘ cpaBHHTejiBHo mbjio mnioncTBa u cujiereH^, 
KOTopufl Tas^B BOSMyn^ajiH <|)fljioco4)a; BCTpinaiOTCA b'b Tarb h TenepB 
yrojiBH, qHCTO ^epeseHCsie no BHxy, o6oco6jieHHue h HenpEKOcHOBesnue, 
Vb pojs^i snaMeHHTaro ABancsaro apxnnejiara ^), r^^ npiiOTHjiacB 6ora- 
Tafl EOJioHiajiBHafl Óypsyasúi; octpobbe nojiHH pocBomHoft aejBíeHE to- 
nojieft, 3ej[eHux'B Esropo^eft h jiyauteKi, aohb spacHBo pacEpamens, 
sasajiu sEBonHCEu; ho, homemo dTofi cejnbcso-Becejioft hotu, BCxpiqaD* 
n^eftcji, BnpoqeMO^, bo Bctxx ropo^ax^B FouiaHAiE, Fara, ch ero cto- 
TUcaHEuwb HacejeHÍeiTB e ECKycHofi CEMnerpieft yjisi^-B b'b <)>j[aMaHx- 
CK0H'B Bsyc^, míiěTb bea^b HacToirni^eft ctojiei^u. 8to — CTOJiEi^a rpycT- 
saE, cyHpa?Hafl e JiEmeBEaA x^a: ea óesjíDABUE, MepTBBifl yjiEi^u 
HanoMEsaDrB 4>o5yprE ap^beexi napjlaileflTCKEXi ropoxoBi, tojibko 

BB KpynHOlTB pa8H']bp% E nepEGÓUTSOITE BeJIEBOJlinÍE, JífiL c% npEÓaB- 

KOD pasBt qyBCTBa sacHni;eHsocTE sojiOTOiťB, o soropoifB saícb tbb^ 

ECHO rOBOparB, CÍJÍA CnOROfiHOD pOCBOmBI), BCb 9TE SaBpUTHe CTBB- 
HEME AOVa. 

Faí se 3jLÍCh K>TETCE Ó^ABEKE? — copaniEBaeniB ceÓE. 

Bci <|)acaAu bcíxo^ yjinm bo bcid A^iEHy flX'B saHETU peaoh'B oře- 
jiei, pacnEcaHEuxi cb^tjiume spacEaME, BUHEm.esHuxi, BHXOJieHsuxi, 
eseAEeBEO oiiUBaeiiux'B CEapysE, CBepBaK)n];EX'B na cojmi^t, cb OKsaiiE, 
BOKerjEBO y6paHHUHfl 6tjiocB'&ss£iME saHaBŽCBanE, cb p^akeee n^wk- 
TaME E pacTeBÍEME, xasi qTo xasAoe ebi hex'b, h8'b oboe^, noxose 
Ha CBoero po^a MajíeHBsiŘ xpaHi. Ho 8Ta HeoÓusHOBeBHaE Bs^msEE ^e- 



^) TaEi HasHBftDTL oxHy H81 ÓoraTHxi ^ukcreft ropoxa, pacnoJoseHEjD na ocrposazi. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHRA. — PABOlAfl TOJLIAHÍia. 425 

CTOTa MacBHpoBajia, bo BpeMeea ^HAepo, BHyTpeHHDK) rpA3b sHTejiefi. H 
vh Hamn ahh cejiLCBaH BHtmHflH djieraHTHOCTb Fara Tose JiHn;eHÍpHo 
HaópacuBaeri no&puBajio na oÓn^ecTueHHyK) HHii;eTy, soTopyK) no ^ys- 
CTsy CTU^a xotatb Aepsaxb b-b CBpuTOMrb coctoíihíh. IIosaAH bc^x^b 
pflAOB^B nHmHHxrb orejieĚ BejiH^ecTBeHHaro BH^a, — j^o tofo BejiuiKOJi^bn- 
Huxi, qTo noAyMaeniB, 6yAT0 b'b Eas^oMi hsx hhx% sHByirB npesH- 

MfiBTU CJJÍfiBl, H HHUe BaSHHG CaHOBHHSH,— Ha SaABOpxaXl BCefi 8T0Ř 

Heo6HBH0BeHH0Ě BpacoTu H iHCTOTu HaxoAHTCA Apyrofi ropoA^B, 6edrb 
CB^Ta H Boaxyxa, h ao Hero BSTjLa]í,i> HHocTpaHi^a ne npoHHsaeri. TyrB 
BHCATCA óesBOHeqHo-sajiBie h rpoMaAHue pa6otie KBapTajiu h31 nepnoBa- 
Taro BHpDHHa, c% yseHBBHvn oropomann, TOHyn^HHH b^ rpasHoft noHB'6, 
H BHj^o^ Hxi BaBi HeJbSJi óojrbo HanoMHHaen rpasHua noMÍii];eHÍH Ha- 
inHxrb MHHepoBrb H Boo6ii;6 BBapTajiu paÓOHHxi) óojiBinnxi npoMHiD- 
jieHHUxx i^eHTpoB'b; TyrB pBanaa MOBpaa o^es^a pasBtmeHa js^na npo- 
cymBH Ha npoTAHyTHxi BepeBBaxi h passtmeHa Ha fhhíiuxi ^ocsax^; 
Tyrb 6e3AHa nojiyHarHX'B pe6ATHniex'B; b% i^eHxp^ ABopa BOHH)?aji 
BJioasa, B'B BOTopyi) sasAoe yxpo CBaiHBaiDTCH bc% HeqHCTOTU, h t. n. 
3aícb-to teí^j^btcji 6tAH0Ta FarH h oTCDAa-TO CTpeMHTCJi ona, o6opBaH- 
Haa, Ha yjiHii^, Bor^a spacnoe snaMa pasB-bBaeTca na^i ropoAoiťB, npH- 
SHBaa B^b HapoAHOŘ Mann^ecTaiÚH. 

Ho caMa coi^lajiHCTH^ecBaji napria b^b FojuaHj^iH ho 6%AHa h sh- 
BBTb ORHaHH Ha yiHi^y. Bo-nepBHX^, ona HMien CBoe BoonepaTHBHoe 
oón^ecTBO, saTŽMi cbod THnorpa({)ÍK), BOTopaa BunycBaerb Bas^oe yxpo 
ÓHCTpsi H BOHHCTByK)n^ift JiHCTOBii noA^b sapojioBBOiťb „Recht voor 
Allen'' (IIpaBo Bcix'b)y h, HaBOHen;^, ona npio6pÍJia CBoe o<|)4>Hn;iaju»Hoe 
noHin^enie, Walhalla, BOTopoe cjiysHTi* efi h míctomi npasAHHBOBb, 
H BOH^^epeni^ift, h nepioxH^ecBHiťb osHBJíeHHUifb ueHTpoiťb 6ojibniHX'b 
pafio^HX-b co6paHÍft. Bce 9to, ycxpoennoe Ha mepoByK) nory, 4>yHBiiio- 
HHpyer^ B'b npeBOCxoAHOirb nopflAB'6 h Aaerb naprÍH BHA'b CHjni, oboh- 
^aTejibHo opraHHSOBaHHOň. 

8to BOonepaTHBHoe o6uiecTBO ocHOBaHO bi 1882 ro^y, fijiaroxapa no- 
MoniH Domela Nienwenhius, BOTopufi AaJi%, BpoMi Toro, vh pacnopa- 
^KeHíe naprÍH 32.000 4>P&hbobi xaa npioóp^bTeHÍa Walhalla, a TBBse 
BHeci BecbMa sHa^HTeJibHua cyiiMH B'b saccy nponaranAU h wb koh- 
TpajibHyD Baccy j^jia nojuepsBH cTaqeBi. 

Go3AaHie BoonepaTBBHaro o5n;ecTBa 6iiao noApasaHÍeH'b Tony, ^tó 
npoHcxoAHao bi coi^iajiHCTHqecBOMi ABHseHÍH coc^XHei BejibrÍH. Foht- 
«BÍft „Vooruiť' (BnepeA'B), o BOTopoifi padCBasunaiDirb A^aa qyxb 
ne óacHOcaoBHHa, h BOTopuft x^ficTBHTeabHO HMÍ^a'b saMiqaTeabHue ac- 
HesHue pesyabTaTU, ntcBOJibBO on'baHHa'b uiťb yMU. H botb, no npH- 
Hipy cBOHxi reHTCBHXii TOBapnu^efl h no nxx ca^^aHi, oÓHiaTeau Fara 
noseaaafl BCTynHTb b^ oó^TOBannyH) 36HaE) Roonepai^ift. Ho bto BpeneH- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



426 BfiOTHHBl EBPOnU. 

Hoe ysjíeHeBie npH])tipoH'B ;(pyrHX'B Bcsopi orpaHHHHJiocB BecBifa He- 
mHpoRHMH paMKEMH. 6b rjiTÓHH^ xapaKŤepa CBoero rojuiaHj^CBie coi^ia- 
jiHCTU oÓHapysHBaK)!^ Majio HaBJíoHHocTH KB Koonepai;ÍH; hosho 6h 
Aaace cRasaTB, tto ohh BUBa3iiBaK)T& k^b nefi 3aM'6THoe orepainieuíe. 
RoHe^Ho, BupaiRaflCB TasB, mu noApasyM^BaeirB ajieHeerB nsmiúojrbe 3Ha- 
qHTejiBHufi no ^HCJiy h nepe^oBoň. 

Bo $paHi;ÍH H repMaHÍH Mes^y coiúajiHCTaMH BCTp-b^aerca no otho- 
ineHÍH) KB Koonepai^iH anajiorH^ecBoe ^yscTBo, ho ropas^o 6ojiie onpe- 
AtjieHHoe. Goi^iataiHCTu sthxb CTpaHB ne tojibko ne bhaatb b^b soone- 
paTHBHUxii oóniiecTBax^B opy^i^ cnaeemA, ho CMorpaTB Ha hhxb sax^B 
Ha ^HCTO pasBpau^aDu^ifl, 3a to cocto^híb Ayxa, ROTopoe ohh pasBH- 
BaiDTB BB pa6o?eft cpeAl^. Ecjih b^phtb hmb, TasÍA o6n^ecTBa cos^aDrs 

KaJieHBKHXB COÓCTBeHHHROBB H, CJI^J^OBaTOJIBHO, yKp']bnJDUiX)T^ (tOJIBRO B'B 

HOBOft 4>opM%) AYXB co6cTBeHHocTH H 6ypsya3ÍH, a ero ohh c^nraoTB 
HysflUMB HCKopoHHTB BO ?T0 6u HH cTajio. A HOTOHyACtse, BasB cpe^- 
CTbo 6opi>6u BB nepexoAHUJi dooxH, Boonepai^ÍA RaasercA hhb oneHB 
onacHOH), H OHH ee oTBepraDTB, xaRB xaRB ona tojibko OTCTpaHner^B 
HpoJieTapiaTB ovh ero hcthhhoA js^íjívi, cocTOflnieŘ bb HeycTaHHoŘ 6opB6i 

CB RaOHTajIHCTHqeCRHHB CTpOOMB OÓ^OCTBa. 7to6h ORaH^aTeJIBHO BUflC* 
HHTB dTOTB HyHRTB, MU AOJISHH HpH^aBHTB, ^TO H BB BejlBrÍH, ^OJlrie 

roAU Bupa^aBHieft npHBepseHHocTB, ho^th nCKJiD^HTejiBHyH), kb Koone- 

paTHBHOMy HpHHHjHDy, MHOríO HaHHHaK)TB CB 6e3nOKOŘCTBOMB COpaHIH- 
BdTB Ce5H o nOJie3HOCTH A^a, KOTOpoe ohh TaRB TpyAOJIlDÓHBO B08- 

ABHrajiH. 

Bce TO, ^To MH cRasajiH o rocnoACTByDn^HXB B3rjiflAas:B na Roone- 
pai^ii), npHM']^HAeT&fl h rb coBpeMeHHot FojiJiaHj^iH, h Mo»erB BaMi xaTB 
HOHHTÍe, BB RaROMB pa3MÍpi H CB KaRHMH orpaHHHeHíflMH HpaKTHKyeTca 
BB Hefi huhí KoonepaTHBHafl cHCTOMa. 

O^HaKO, 6e3npecTaHHo pacniHpHHCb, bb Tfí^eníe bociiMh ji^tb co Bpe- 
MOHHCBoero ocHOBanÍH, coi^iajiHCTHqecKaji Roonepai^ífl bb Fari npHHAjia^ 
HaROHeuB, BecBMa BnyniHTejiBHue pa3M']^pH. ^aca^u qeTHpex'B j^omob^b bb 
jxviisíb Eoninginne i^íjihkomb saHATU pasjíH^HUMH cjiy»6aMH 6yjioHHoft» 
KOTopaa cocTasjíHOTB KopeHB npeAnpiflTÍA. IlenH no o5pa3i^y h^moi^bhxb^ 
TaKB-nasuBaeMUH neqn cb ropanefi so^ofi, CBAsans Mes^y 006010 rpo- 

Ma^HIlMH Ry6aMH HSB RHpnH^a, cb OTBepCTÍaMH B^B BUCOTy qejioB^He- 

CKaro pocTa, h ^rpubrdtch MerajuHHecRHMH sacjioHaMH, noj^HHMaoMUMH 
BBopxB npH noMon^H n;i^nefi. JIh^hrh jí,jia M-bcHBa T^CTa, Tose H3b mo- 
TajiJia, naxoAATca bb rjcyÓHHt noM%n];eHÍA orojio naponoro ABRraTejifl; 
poA^B Bpan];aK)n(arocA tiapatfana cb HSorHyTKiMH jionacTHMH npoxoAHT^ 

CRB03B BCH) A^HHy HXB H MOXaHH^eCRH M^HT^B T^CTO. ?T06h CSnaTB 

BB HHXB Myxy, hítb HaAotínocTH H naxBi^eMi moBeJiHTB,— ona caMa, npH 
noMon^H ocoóaro MexannsMa, cHnjiercH bb flni;HRH bb neofixo^HMOMB 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — PABOqAfl TOXlABAIfl. 42T 

KOJiRHecTBi. TaKUMi oópaaoiťb, BCjiKaii noxepA epeaíeHH ycxpaneHa, h 
Bce paacqHTaHO Ha to, m:o6u saxpaHHBaTb HaiíMenie qejioB^HecROĚ CHjm. 
Sjíjkch He cjluinHmB 6ojiidHeHHuX'B ctohobi wh poA^^^ahaii!", soTopue 

nOAHHMaOTCA no HOqaM'B HSl nOAQOJlifi napHSCKHX'B 6yjI09HBIX'B; 3A'&cb 

paóo^ift ecTB bmíctí h npocxoft HaACMorpmHK-B: cxajiBHHe MycKyjiu 

ManiHH'B CaMH JÍ,ÍJlB,V>Th jí.-bjío. 

BepxHie axasH, cjiysan^ie csjutAO^HUHH narasHHaHH, cxoHyxob noA'B 

XaseCXBK) MÍIUBOBI CB UJKOfO^ pa3JI0SeHHUX'B COXHAMH Vb CHMMexpH- 

qecRÍA ROJiOHHU. Ha ABopax^ 3anacii saMOBHaro yrjA, sax^ifB KOHDmHď 
Ha xpH Jioma^H e, naKonei^i, capaH, bt, Eoxopuxi cxojirB Heo6xoAHMiia 
js^JH pa3B03RH xjiib6a xa^KH H pa3Hue dRHuasH. HyxB CB^Ti noyxpy 
AO ABaAuaxH pyqHux'B xa^eRB óucxpo opofitraiyrB ropoA'B bo Bcbxi. 
HanpaBJíeHijixi: ÓyjioqnaH ese^nesHo CHa6a;aexi xjA6oitb ao 3.000 ce- 
MeftcxBi, Roxopufl cocxaBJíflDTi eji npaRXHRy. RoonepaxHBHoe oón^ecxBo 
cocxouTi b:b pacnopuseoiH Bu({HpaeHaro 'iJieHaMu yopaBHxejiA h Aaexs 
pa6oxy xpH^i^axH BosqHRaM-B h pafio^HMB, BuópaHHUMi xaRse h3% 
cpe^H HJieHOBii o6n;ecxBa. IIocxopoHHHXi hhrofo bx óyjuo^HOŘ eítl: 
caMH paóo^ie cbohmh co6cxBeHHUMH CHJiaMH Be^yn CBoe aíjío na cbo& 

CXpaXX H OXBixCXBeHHOCXB. 

Hxo6h AftTB HiROTopoe HOHaxie o ii.H(j)pax'B Aoxo^a, yRaaeMi, hxo 
Bi^ 1889 roAy ROonepaxHBHoe o6in;ecxBo peajiH3HpoBajio 60.000 4>paHR0BS 
qHCxoft npHÓujiH. Tpexb axoft cyMmi nonuia na yBeJHHeme o6n];ecxBeH- 
Haro 4>0HAa, a ocxajiBHUA abí xpexH 6ujih po3AaHU yqacxHHRani aohb* 
raMH, CROJiBRo BascAOMy npnxoAHJiocB na aojbk). PeayjiBxax^ neiypEoft^ 

HO 8AÍCB OHI HHROrO HB yAHBJIJieXl. O^OBHAHO, qXO JÍ,Jlfl BCÍ1ÍT> dTHXS 

yótsAeHHUxrb JWAeft BonpocB Aonesnufi ne 3aHHMaexi rjiaBHaro M'6cxa. 

"Roggeveenstraat... Mh b-b peAaRn;ÍH „Recht voor Allen" (IIpaBo 
AJiH Bcj^xi). no cx'JbHaM'B rpaBK)pu, nopxpexu h BCARaa npoqaa paóoqaa 
HROHorpa<j[>ÍA. SCypnajii neqaxaexcH bi 15.000 9R3eMnjijipax'B; oh'b ese- 
AHeBHui; peAaRTHpyexi ero noqxH BecB i^^jihroh'b caMi J(oifejiá. Tnno- 
rpa4>ÍH 3aHHiiaexi oxA'i^JiBHuft naBHjiBOHii, pacnojio»eHHiifi na cepe- 
Ahhí ABopa Ha yjiHi^y, h nepeA'B hok) noAHHMaexca BpuxaA b'b BeHJiio 
Maqxa, na Roxopofi BUB']bniHBaH)xi RpacHoe 3HaMii b'b ahh coi^iajiHcxH- 
qecRHX'B Qpa3AHHR0B%. Bi HHsneMi axast neqaxHue cxaHRH; b'b Bepx- 
HeiTB — Kaccu AJia Ha6opa; Bce oqoHb xopomo ycxpoeno; MHorie h3x na- 
pHSCRHxi asypnajiOBi MoryrB xojbro Moqxaxb o noAOÓHOft oficxaHOBR^b* 

H saícb Bce noMimenie h opyAÍa xpyAa — xoae coficxBeHHOcxB napxiH. 
RpoMt sypnajia, xHnorpa<{)ÍH neqaxaex'B óponiDpH no coi^iajiBHOHy bo- 
npocy H pasjíHqHUA HS^anifl, RoxopuH eft xaayxcH noJiesHumi B-BdxoiCB 
HanpaBJieHÍH. TaRi, nanpHM^pi, wb BHxpHsaxi RHHSHaro MarasHHa 
BU Bcxpibqaexe óÓorx cb xpaRxaxauu no coniajiBHoft aROHOMÍH hjlih)- 
cxpBpoBaHHoe HSAanie „Germinal"'a 3ojiá, nepeBeAenHaro na ^JiaiiaHA- 
CRifi flsuRx Anseele, h mh. Apyr. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



428 BftGTHHB'B EBPOim. 

Ho sypnajTB h óponnopu— cpe^CTBa nponaraej^u tojbro ji^jisí ^xe- 
BÍa; B% Fari h óojibidhxi i^eHrpaxi, r^^ bc^ napTÍH hmídtb oasBufi 
KOHTHHreHTB CBOHX^b CHJi'B H CBOH FjiaBBue BiTa6u, Bi ne^aiH npH- 
xojsjíjioch npaóaBHTb nponarasAy ycTBys). OrcDjta haba o nocTOABHoicb 
nou^n^eBÍB ^nn coniiajiBCTB^ecKHxi KOB4>ep6Bi^iĚ, fa^ opaTopu naprÍB 
voFJiH 6u Bnojfli^ 6e80Bacflo pasBasaib ce&b bsubi, bh^^ dom^xh h 
BiftoaTaiBCTBa KopojieBcsoĚ bojihi^h. Tasoe noM^n^esie BanuiH h sy- 
HEJia; OHO HocHrb hma Walhalla — cjíOBa, saHMCTBOBasHaro mrb csaflAH- 
BaBCBOĚ MHeoJioriH; 6yRBajii>soe ssaqeHie ero — „^ojiHsa cnacrJiHBii^eBi^. 
^Bajirajjia*' coi^iajiHCTOBi TarH — xpeBEaa i^epBOBB, b^b BoropoŘ spe- 
BpaxHjiH cjiysóy. HsEst b7» Beft Bce en^e roBopHTb o ea nepBOHanaJib*- 
HOMi Ha3Ba^eHÍH; Bsyrpn c^^JiaHU ESM^HeBia, aeoóxoAHMua jsfia ho- 
Báro poAa cjiys6u; npu bxoa^ — KOHTopsa, na soTopofl B'b ahh co6paHÍft 
<íTOsiTb BpysEH BHBa, a B-B rjiyÓHH^b, noAi* CBOxaiiH, Bce en^e ocB^ni;eH- 
HUiiH ABoftHUMH roTH^ecBHVH OKHaMH, pacHOJioseHu HacTOAiiiifl xeaTpajik- 

HUfl aOAMOCTKH, CB paMKOD H BaHaB^bcOlťB, H TyrB» Wh AHH SaCTOB B-B 

flOjiHTHB-b, xaDTCB HajieHBBÍii TeaxpajibHiifl npe^cTaBJíeHiji. Han^e Bcero, 

BOpO^eM^B, nOAMOCTKH CXJXiSLTb TpBÓyHOK). S^tCb H^BOrAa AasaJirb SOH- 

<Í)epeHi^ÍH BoJibiiap-B, coiiiaJiHcrB-AenyTaTi H^Mei^Baro pefixcrara. nepeA'B 
ci^eHOD— CTyjibA, CTOJiH, CBaiiefiBH. Ha o^Hofi ct^hí bi noApaautHie 6a- 
pejibe(j[>y HapHCOBaH'b cipuMH RpacsaHH JIaoBooHx— chmboji, xojixeH- 
CTBy]Dni;iĚ upeACTaBJUiTb aroHÍK) iipojieTapiaTa, a ea Apyrofi, bi bha^ 
pendant si Heny, non^n^aeTCA snaiíeHaTejibHaH rpa4>HqecBafl 4>ii^7Pa9 
H8o6pasaE>niafl ^epnuMH spysRaiiH h KpacHbíUH jiHHÍaHH Becb renesHCB 
saDHTajia. 

Walhalla — nacToan^ifi yKpinjie'HHEi& jiarepb rojuaHACEaro coiua- 
jiHSHa; TyTB ohi qyBCTByerb ceÓA HenpHsocHOBeHHUiťB h sac^^aerb 
bdojihí caMOBJíacTHo. Bi ^acH arHiai^ÍH h bphshcobi, Kor;i;a yjiHi^a bi 
jiBxopaj^o^HOiťb coctoahíh, TOJinu, KaRX 6u no MOJi^aJiHBOiiy corjíameHix), 
<^TeRaDTCfl CK)Aa. Bi btoiix po^^ yHpesx6HÍji ^^yHi^^^ioHHpyDTi* TaRse 
3% ÁMCTep^aH-b, PoTTepAaiit, PpeHEHreHt h t. a- CRopo hhh no* 
RpOéTCfl BCA FojuiaHAiJi. 

Mh yse yRasajiH na oóu^ia hábe e TeExesi^iB rojuiasj^cRaro coiua* 
jiESMa, Ha dJieiieHTu, es^b ROTopuxi* oh'b coctoetb, e Ha npEHHTue emi 
€noco6ii rpynoEpoBRE. J[,eTajiE Haní noMoryn flCH^e o6pECOBaTb ero 

<}»E3Í0H01IÍI) H BCe, ^TÓ ÓUJIO 3A'Í^Cb C03AaH0 B'b RaRÍa-HE6yAb AB^HaA- 

i^aTb nirh coi^iaJiHCTEqecRoio naprieH). 

Cxasji CAOBo: „naprk*', mu, uoserrb 6uTb, ynoTpetfjifleMi BupaseHÍe 
ejiHniR0M'b niEpoRoe js,jui dToro nepio^a acÓdtob^, TaR'b RaR'b bo bcomii, 9tó 
8AÍcb cA^jiaHo, BUCRaanBaeTCfl B'b oco6eHHocTH JíH^HOCTb noRa OAHoro 
nejioBtRa, EJiE, jiyqme CRasaTb, Bce sa^cb cA^jiano oahoh) jiehhoctbd 
— JíoNejiá. }lfi nero coi^iajiECTEHecRaa FojMaHAia ne cymecTBOBajia, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKA. — PABOHAa TOMkŮfl^lSl. 42 9 

a ecjiH n cyn^ecTBOBaJia, to vb bha'^ He^TU bi jwk BecBMa HesnanH- 
TejiBHaro no ^hcjuj aBanrap^a, ROTopuĚ osH^ajii bo tbm^, pasópocaH- 
Huft B'B TOJini. Jlfiuejík jsfiLJii* tíjio h atxi sToft rpés^; 00*6 Óujii h 
opraHHsaTopoifB, h opaTopom. 

MosHo 611 ysasaTb na soHrpeccb bi Vsurk em,e vb 1872 roAy, ho> 
9T0 Ana MÍcTHaro coi^íajiH3ua bobco ne HCXO^naA To^Ka, Koerpeccs 
1872 roAay^na EOToponi* HHxepHai^OHaji-B, npecJiiAyevHft co bc'6x'b cto- 
poH^b, BCQUXHyjvb nocnij^EEUT, cbítomi^ Vb pacnpt Rapjia MapRca ci 
BaKyHHHUM'b, 6ujn> npHHJirb bi Part Taaii HOAOBipqHBO bc^mh, ?to 
Aase senu caMHxrb pa6oHHX'b, aocujoaA Aonepeft vb bibojih, OTtinpajiB 
y HHXii ceptrn hsi 6oji3hh, ^to hxi AHeifb na yjiHi;^ ofioKpaxyT^ 

BOMMyHapH. 

MicTHufi coiUaJiHSirL orapuTo saABHJťE ceóji bo^ paóoqexx iiaccax^b 

rOJUaHAÍH TOJIbBO HiCKOJIbSO jAvb CHyCTA, R BaROfi se nOXHAJICA CBaH- 

Mfijn>, Kor^a ysHajra, htO pobojedi^íobhoc cjiobo hcxoahti f3'b ycrb npo- 
TecTaHTCKaro nacTopa! UacTopal Jl^a, nacTopoM'B h Gujii, bi caMoiťb 
][,ÍJL% — ^oHOJiá. nacTopx caMi, h cuhx nacTopa, h BHysi nacTopat 
06jiaAaTejii> o^eHB dHa^HTeJibHaro ju^aro HMyn^ecTBa, ohi ci ceiieĚ- 
CTBoiťB óujii BnojiH^b He3aBHCHMi>. TaK^b-HTo, sasajiocb, HH9T0 ero ae npe^- 
HaaHa^ajio ki ero hoboř pojiH, hh ero úpoBCXosAeme, hh ero nepBO^ 
Ha^ajibHoe BOcnHTaHÍe, hh ero nosAHiimia 88HflTÍfl nacTBOD. 

Bx pe4>opiiaTCBoft i^epsBH, wb IIlBei^iH h Hopaerín, 6ujio yse hí* 

CBOJIbEO npHM^pOBTi TOFO, ITO npOnOB^AHHKH DORHAaJIH SaoeAPy H H^- 

maJiHCb Vb TOJiny, nponoB'6Ayfl con^iajiHaiirb h peBOJiDi;ii). 

Jífiuejík CBasajirb h naiirb, tto KHHroD, npocB-bTHBinei) ero« 6ujío 
EBanrejiie. 

Ho eBaHreJibCRifi coiiiajiH8M'B, Roroparo OH^b npHxepsHBajicA vb to* 
qenie XByxi* jrbvb^ 6ujvb jsjísl eero tojibro nepBuifb dranoiii na j^ajib- 
H^fimeHi nyTH. Osrb npoHejrb sai^MX 4>paHii^y8CRHX'b coipajiHCTOBi. Fou- 
rier h Victor Gonsiderant bm^h na eero piniHTejibHoe BJiÍBHie, ohb 
ero noBopHjra ce&b. SaTim nacTajia onepe^B JlaccajiA h Kapjia Mapaca^ 
H Tor^a nacTaJTb caMuĚ nojiHUŘ paspsBrb cb npo4)eccÍ6Ě. ^oiieji& 
noRHHyj['B xpaHii n yse HHBorj^a vb hom^ ho noBasuBajicfl: oh^b 
craJTb coi^íaiHCTOM^ - peBOJiBDAioHepoirB vb nojiHTHBt h iiaTepiajiH- 
CTom Vb (j[>Hj[[oco<|)ÍH. TyTB-To OHo^ npe;(npHHiijrB Ty npoAOJíSHTejtíBHyi) 
BaMnaHÍD vb roJuaHACRBXx iipobbh]^íax'b, Boropaji noBpujia ero nony- 
jupHOCTBD, H orBeHHUH^ cj[OBOM'B 0H'B B3B0JiH0BajrB pa6oqia naccu, no- 
rpyseflHUB b^b FojuiaBAiB vb b-^boboě noBoft. BoapyrB šero coa^ajiaoB 
naprÍB. Ohi ocHOBajix „Recht voor Allen** h, saB^B HejoBŠBi* CTpo- 
rofr qecTHOCTH, jioruHecBH npHmejii bo^ BUBOAyi hto oh'b AOJiseHs 
HOsepTBOBaTB Ha odn^ee a^o CBoe Hiiyn^ecTBO. UapTiji oocjiiAOBa- 
TOJiBHo nojiy^BJía ovb nero Bce, htó mu yse onncaJiH: Baccy BcnoMon^e* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



430 B^CTHHBl EBPOnil. 

<;TBOBaHÍA H xaccy CTa^eR'B, Walhalťy h, naKOHei^i, KoonepaTHBHoe 
ofin^ecTBo. DponoetAHEBy He^ocTaBajio tojibbo npecji-bAOBaHÍft; h ohh 
He 3acTaBHJiM ceóa acjn;aTB. 3a oAHy h3'b CTaTefi bi> „Recht voor AUen'^ 
«ro npHBjíeKJiH b'b cy^^B h npHroBopnjiH kl ro^H^HOMy TK)peHHOMy sa- 
BJiiDHeHiK). Bi TK)pBHÍ^ c^b HHii'B o6paiiptJiHCB »ecTOBo; ero — HejIOB^Ra 
€1 caMHifB BucniHMii HayqHUMi o6pa30BaHÍeiix, ^ejioB^sa cb xapaRTe- 
poM'B np^iiimi, qejioBtKa 6e3rpaHH9Ho necTHaro — nocaAHJiH b'b cpe^y mo- 
meHHHROBii H 3JioAteBi», oÓpHTaro h wb o^esA^ saTopsHHRa, h npH 3toh'b 

nOABeprJIH CaHUH'B yHH8HTeJIBHUH'B paÓOTaMlk. OtÓUBI CpORl*, OH^B BHinejiii 

ji3'B TK)pBiiu, H, RasajiocB, BupocB B'B rjia3ax'B TOJinu. IIocpeAH óesqu- 
cjieHHBix^B OBai^iň npoAOiiacajiii ohi CBoe js,iJio, to roBop^ tojlu^ hst* pu- 
<{a^Bett'jioARH, TO CB BucoTU napaneTa MocTa, to noA% CBOAaHH xpaMa, 
RaRT* dTo cjiyMHjiocB, Hanp., HexaBHO wb ^epeBeHBRi^ Sainte-Anne-Paro- 
chie, r^^ (j^aÓpHqHuň cob^ti caMi npHrjiacHJii coi^iajincTa-opaTopa na 
i^epROBHyiD RaeoApy h npe^^ynpeAHTejiBHO 6pócHjic« oTnapaTB nepexb 

HHlťB H TOJinofi ABepH. 

nOMHHO Manepi, CRpOMHUXl H H^XHUXT^, B% ^OHeJlá He OCTBJIOCB 

HH MajiMmaro cjii^a ÓuBmaro nacTopa. Mu cb jiH)6oniiTCTBOii'B npo- 
6%rajiu rjia3aMH bójirh ero ÓEÓmoTeKvi; sa hhx'b ne BH^aTB hh oahož 
RHHrH no TeojioriH, h, Hao6opoTB. na-jiHi^o Bct coi^íajiHCTH^ecRiji HS^a* 
mn H TpaRTRTu, pacnojio»eHHue RaRi ne^BSii 6ojrbe iieTOAHHecRH. 
Ot^hu ero paóo^aro RaČHeeTa yRpameeu peBOJiioiiioHHUHH HJUiH>CTpa- 

lÚHMH, Ha^HHaH CB PpaBEOpi ROMMyHBI H ROH?afl oopTpeTaMH HiMeí^- 

BHxii AeJieraT0B'B roTCRaro ROHrpecca. Ho Ha óiopo, nocpe^H Bopoxa 
^ynan, ctoht'b úI^jisíh CTaTydTRa XpHCTa, wb nost nponoB^AHHRa, cb 
pacnpocTepTHMH r-b nápory pyRaiiH. H to «e caMoe— b-b naJieHBROHrb 
BpacHOM'B cajioHÍ: eme rojiosa XpHCTa b^b TepnoBOMiB BtHi^t, a HaA'B 
Hen na ctíh^ BejiHROJiinBaji rpaBnpa RapTHHU MyHRaccH: „XpHCTOCB 
iiepeA'B BÍHJiaTOMi)". 

H3'B 3Toro-To RpacHaro cajiona h BUTeRJia pa6oqaa MaHH^ecTauia 1-ro 
Maa, coBepmoHHa^ cb TaRoio ^HCi^HnjiHHOK) peBOJiroiíioHepaMH cTaparo u 
HOBaro Cbíte: b-b hom-b, nepe;í'B XpHCToiii MyHRaccH, — na ROToparo TaR'B 

CTpaHHO nOXOaCB CaiTB ^OMeJlá, H ÓtjlORypUMH BBninHMHCa BOJlOCaMH, H 

KyApaBOK) RopoTROH) 6opo;i;Rofi, — cocToajiacB ROH^epeni^ia wb Tar*, Ha 
BOTopoA 6ujiE Bupa6oTaHH ocHOBU uHTepnai^ioHajiBHaro napHscRaro 
ROHrpecca npeAnponiJiaro ro^a. Ha-JiHi^o 6hjih 3a4cb npoACTaBHTejiH 
con;iajD[H3iia, coÓpaBmieca co bcíxi rohi^obi Ebpobh. Be(Jejib h JIh6- 
KHexTi sa repMaHÍK), Anseele h Volders otb BejiBriH, BepHioTeňH-B 
OTTE» JIoHAona, Reichel orb Bepna h Dlepepi, npesH^eHTi Gruth-Verein 
Bn V.Goll. 

e. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IHTEPATyPHOB OBOSPMIE 

1-ro ^iHBapx 1891. 



— HwKOAaú BAodtuáipoeum CmmKeeuHz, GTHxoTBopeHiji — xpare^ia — nposa. M. 
1890. (Ob oopiperoxi). 

Bi ídhí^ 1890 roAa HcnojiHHJiocb uATh^fiCAVb Jitrb co aha kohhhhu 
H. B. CTEHBeBH^a. HacTOAn^aa SHHra ABJíAercH npeKpacBUM7» nanoMH- 
HaHÍeHi 9Toi roAOBiniHHu. Hs^aTejii), r. AJieKC^ft CTaHKeBHq'B, othccch 
K^b cBoeň sa^a^t Becbua BHHMaTejiBHo. Owb co6paji'B Bct, BaBÍa BHajii), 
<50HHHeHÍJi H. B. CTaHKGBHHa — cocToamia HSt CTHXOTBopeHift, TpareAÍH 
„BacHjiifi myflcKift^ h h']^ckojibbhx'b cTaTeft ({>Hj[oco<|>CBaro co^epsaHÍA, — 
H Bi npHJ[oseHÍflX'B noM^CTHJťB: coBpeMeHHufi 0T3UB'B o Tpare^ÍH ^niyfi- 
csifi**; DHCBMo GTaHKeBH?a Bi pe^aKTopy „Mgabu^ (o tom'b, ^to cthxh 
€ro noMio^eHu 6iijih, Óos-b ero B^xoMa, bx sypeaji^ ByjirapHHa u 
Fpeqa); saH-^TBy hbx „GoBpeiieHHHBa^ 1847 r. o toh'b, tto cthxotbo- 
peHÍA GTaHBeBHHa CTajii npHCBOHBaTB ce&b CTHXODJierB Toro BpeMOHH 
A. GjiaBHH'B; HaB0Hei^'B, cdhcobi ^ypnajioBO^ h raserB, vb KOTopux'B 
nenaTajiHCB coqHHeHÍA H. B. GTaHBeBHHa. 

HacTB cTHXoTBopeHifi epo, BaB^B H CTaxefi nposaMqecBHXi, 6ujib, co- 
<5paHa Bi H3B%CTH0Mi» 6iorpa(]>HqecKoii'B co^HneniH n. B. ÁHBeHBOBa; 

HUH-bniHifi HSAaTeJIB yMHOXHJIl HHCJIO CTHXOTBopeHift, CA^JiaBl) nOHCRH 

vh coBpoMeHHuxi sypHajiaxi, — ho cosajiterB, hto ne mopb pasHcsaTB 

H'6B0T0pUX'B CTHXOTBOpenift, ynOMJSíHyTUX'B AHHeHBOBUMTi, a TaBse 

CTaTBH ^0 B031I0SH0CTH (|^HJioco<|^ÍH BaBi [flayBR**. Bi pacnojioseHÍH 
HBecB HaAarejib npHHajii, BaBi h cjii^AOBajio, oopAAOBX xpoHOJiorHqe- 

CSift,— XOTA Bl Hi^BOTOpUXl CJiyqaflXrb OnpeA^HTB 9T0TI aopAAOB'B CT> 

TO^HOCTBK) 6uJio Tpy^Ho. Bonpoc!B o npaBonHcaHÍH, bi BOToponrb HSAa- 
TeiB Hif^^b HeAoyMteiA, ne ctojib Baseei. 

B% OTA&i^ nposu HanpacHo npooyiiieHa yHHBepcHTercBaji pa6oTa 
GTaHBeBH^a, hmobho CTaTBA ero „o npHHHHax'E oocTeneHaaro bosbh- 
meHiA Mocbbu ao cifepTH loanna III**, noMÍii];eHHaa vh .Y^eHiix^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



432 MCTHHBrS EBPOnBI. 

SanHCsaxi" MocBOBCRaro yHEsepcuTeTa (t. Y, 1834). dxa CTaTbA, uh* 
caHHaH ABamaTBJďJ^THHMi DHomeĚ, Óujia saiitqaTejiBHinťB asjíeHieicB 
TorAameeň HCTopHqecRoft JiHTepaTypu h ne norepajia h aohuh'6 caoefi 

JiHTepaTypHoe Hacji-bACTBO H. B. CTanseBEHa 6ujlq hobojihko: ne- 
6ojihmoŘ c6opHHR'B CTHXOTBopeHÍft, cocTaBjiflBniHX'B TOJiBKo HaqaJio no9- 
THqecBaro pa3BHTÍA, HtcKOJibBo cTaTeft, oco6jihbo <{)hjioco4k^khx'b, bo- 
Topuji TaBse 6uj[H jiHinB npHCTynoMi* k^b 6ojrke cepBeaHOŘ A'i^Tej[B- 
hocth; TÍM'B He uenie, ero hma yse Bonuio b:b HcropÍH) yvcTBeHHofi 
u JiHTepaTypHoft shshh pyccRaro oÓn^ecTBa, BaKi Rpynea^ BejiH^HHa* 
HcTopuqecEoe SHaneHie ero cos^ano 6eijio ero rjiy6oBHM'B jtH^HinrB bjiíji- 
HÍeiťB: TO coAepsaHÍe, BaRoe obi* HOCHJirB b:b ce6i, ero 4>HJioco())CBO-no9- 
TH^ecsifi HAeajiHSMi, cTajio BosóysA&Dn^eĚ CHJioft ma^ i^tjiaro pjiAa 
co6paBiDHXCfl oBOJio aero shbux^b yicoB^B h A&poBanifi TorAaniHflro mo- 
jiOAoro noBOJi^BÍA. Ero co^epsasie cTajio hx'b saB^bTOM^B; ohh pasBBJíH 
ero AaJiBine — h B086ysAaK)iii;ee sepBoe BJiiflBie GTaHKeBHia nvbjío cbod 
AOJii) jyb TOM'B paci^B^Tb pyccKOĚ jiHTepaTypnoŘ h o6n];ecTBeBsoŘ uucjíe, 
RaRHiTB oTM^^eBu copoROBHo ro^H. Hma CTaHROBEHa, yvepoiaro boith 
DoomeŘ vb 1840 ro^y, noBTopfliiocB ao Rosi^a cb jidĎobbd jyHinHHH 
npeACťaBHTejMMH copoROBuxi ro^OBi, RaRi hma nepsaro xpyra-pyRO- 
BOAHTejui. Co6paB'B ero TpyAu, hobuS Hs^aTOJB oRasan Heiiajiyi) 
ycjiyry cnei^iajiHCTaiirB h JiDÓHTejifliťB HCTopÍH jiHTepaTypii. 

El H3AaHÍD npHJiosesa ({^tothbíjí c^b rtfncoBaro MexaJiBOHa, pa- 
60TU 9fixj[epa Bx BepjiHH^. „IIo OTSUBy poACTBenHHROBib, ovb otjih- 
qaercA HaHÓojibniHiťB cxoactbomi, Tor^a RaRi Apyrie, JiHTorpa^^H^e- 
CRÍe, nopipoTH ne HoryrB c^HTaTBca yAOBjeTBopMTejiBHUMH*'. 

BH^mnee HCoojiHeHie HS^aniA npoRpacBoe. 



— PacKOA^ u eio nymeeodumeAU. llsjuknie h coíHHeHie K Ilonoea. CapaTosi, 
1890 (253 crp., óojBm. Q^). 

Ohobb opnrHHajiBHaA, jiD^onuTnaE, ho OTqacTK h ^ypnaa RHHra. 
npH Heft Eirb npej^HCJiOBm, ms^b ROToparo mosho 6ujio 6u bha^tb, b% 
RaRHX^B ycjioBiflxii aBTop'B Hsyqajii npexiieTi, noneMy oh'b xaJVB BveHHo 
ary 4K)piiy h toh^b cbohm^b HaÓJiiDAeHiflifi; ho wb torctí RHHrH ne 
oxHasAEi ynoMHHaeTCA, wb TpeTbeMi jiHiit, E. IIonoBrB (crp. 144), hjih 
aBTop^B roBopHTB O ce6% npiíMo (exp. 177), Hjni HaueRaercA o hoitb 

(CTp. 197), H, COnOCTaBHB'B 9TH ynOMHHaHifl, MOSHO SaRJIDHHTB, HTO 

aBTopi, K. IIonoB'B, 6uji% b'b mojioaocth, eo^e neoqeHB a^bhoř, CTapo- 
oópsiXujdwhj 6ujrb npHCjysHHRniTB • b'b MOJiejiBHi npH „aBCTpiftCROiTB*' 
noni, B'B CapaTOBi, a HaBOHei^'B, „ÓJiaro^apa CBoeiiy HayqHOMy pas- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHBÁ. — jniTEPÁTyPHOE 0B03P*HIE. 433 

BHTÍi)'', nepemejťB bi npaBOCJiaBie h cx^aica opaBocj[aBHUMi» hhccío- 

HepOM'B. nOHlITHO, HTO, Bpan^aACB Cl A^TCTBa H AO SptjIUXIi JLÍTTí b% 

cTapoolSpAA^ecKOMi mpí, to ero ^JieHOMi*, to ofijiH^HTejieMii, r. IIo- 
BOB^b npio6p^rb 6ojn>moe BHanie dTHXi noH^Tift h npaBOBi; CBoe sBaHÍe 
OHI npHM^HHJi^ TenepB bi HSoópaseHiio ,pacBO^a h ero nyTOBOAH- 
TOjieft'. KHHra CBHA'i^Tej[BCTByeTB o 6ojiBnio& Ha5ju)AaTejiBH0CTH aBTopa, 
o doJiBinoHi omiTt, TaB'B 9T0 KHHra npoACTaBJíAeTi ne Majio BecBHa 

JIDÓODUTHUXrB CBÍA6HÍt. KpyrB Ha6j|lDAefiÍfi eCTB nO^H HCBJWqHTeJIBHO 

CapaTOBCsift spafi, HSj^aBHa oÓHJiBHuft caMUHH pasHooÓpasHUMH ces^ 
TanH, H aBTopi nepeÓUBajii b'b pa3Hux'B yrjiaxTi dToro spas, r^^ cy- 
mfiCTByvyrb pacsoJiBHHqecBie QOHTpu. Knara ne octb hh HCTopLi m^ct- 
Haro paCBOJia, hh onBcanie ero coBpeMOHHaro cocToanÍA h pacnpo- 
crpaneHÍfl; bto — sapTHHa pejiHriodnaro 6uTa, noHATifi h npaBOBB, Bas-B 
ohh cyn]^ecTByK)TB b^b pacBOJi^ bb nacToimee BpeMa; bto — CBoero po^a 
paacBasu „nai* napoAHaro 6uTa", dTHorpa(j[>HqecBÍe o^iepsH bsb toS 
oÓJiacTH, KOTopaa Bcero MeHbme 6ujia aarponyra nameft óejLieTpHCTHKoi; 
HO dTH pa3CKa8ií H onepKH uwbnrh o^ny oco6eHBOCTB, saBaji oóbikho- 
BeHHO HO BCTpi^qaerca bi doaoÓhuxi opoHSBeAeHÍJixi: r. IIonoBi h3o6* 
paacaerB ne tojibro thhu hjih THOH^ecsÍA, oóu^hua lepru 6uTa h npa- 
BOBB, a oqeHB nacTo HBienno onpeA^jieHHUA jiHi^a, BOTopux'B nasusaerb 
HO HMenaMB, h onpeA^JieHHue coÓutíjí h cjiyqaH... 3THorpa(i)La nepe* 
xoAHTi TaRHMi oSpasoMB BB noKasaHÍe penopTepa h bi hpotobojib. 

BjiaroAapfl SHanenHOMy oauTy, asTopB AOCTaTO^Ho naciioTp^jiCA na 
pacB0JiBHH9Í& 6urB, HO Bpafinefi Mibpt, GapaToecsaro Kpaji, saŇ^qa- 

TOJniHO OBJiaj('blB H3IIB01IB, BB HOAPOÓHOCTH BHaeTB o6liqaH MOJieJIBHH, 
BCAKÍA HOB-bpBJi H CyeBÍpifl, OTHOmeHÍA KB „HHKOHiaHaMB*' H T. A* 

CfiOH Ha6jiK)AeHÍA ohb nepeAaexB bb <{)opH^ neÓojiBinHXB óutobuxb 
pascBaaoBB, KOTopue iibjihk)tch, RasB mu CRasajiH, p^^ashmh bb namefi 
jHTepaTypi dTHorpaij^HqecRHifH RapTHHRaiiH pacROJiBHHqBJiro 6uTa. TaRB 

RaRB no CBOeĚ HHCJieHHOCTH CTap006pHAI^U COCTaBJUIK)TB BeCBMa SHa^H- 

TBJíBHyK) AOJii) pyccRaro napoAa (oón^ys) i^Hij^py Bcero pacROJia c^HTajiH 
Ao 11 hhjuíohobb), to hohatho, ^to 8TH OHopRH npio6pÍTaK)TB oco- 
6eHHoe BHaveHie, RaRB H3o6paseHÍe 6iJTa o^eHB 6ojiBniofi aojih i^ijiaro 
pyccRaro napoAa. Ohh nepecTauTB Óbitb aneRAOTHqecRHMB HCRiio^e- 
HieMB, a, nanpoTHBB, yRasuBaeoTB Rpynnyi) qepry bb oÓ^eiiB xa- 
paRTep^ Toro napoAa, na ROTopbifi TenepB BosjíaraDTB ctojibro na 
AesAi» HapoAHH9ecRÍe naTpioTu, nojiarafl, tto otb dToro napoAa no- 
seifB MHoroHy nayqHTBCH b kh, „HETeuHreni^La". Ho OAHHHaAAaTB 
MHJiJiioHOBB dToro HapoA^, H HMOBHo RopeHHoro BOJuiRopyccRaro (RaR^B 

H8BÍCTH0, BB HOMB HCRJUD^HTejlBHO COCpeAOTO^eHBI Bci <)>OpilU CTapo- 

o6pjiA^ecRaro pacROja, RpoMi tojibro HoaMmefi, eni^e neMHoro^HCJieH- 

HOft, MaJlOpOCCiftCROfi HITyHAU)) 06pÍTaK)TCA, 3a p^AKHMH HCRADHenklIR 
ToMi I.— AiiAPb, 1891. 28 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



434 BftCTHHSl EBPOmi. 

co3HaTeJii>Hi>iX'b xpaHHTejiefi cTaparo npe^aHÍA, bi Tasofi yncTBeHEOft 

TBMt H BMiCTb CB T^Hl Bl TaROfl 0»eCTOqeHHOft HOHaBECTH R^ „HH- 

. KOHiaHaMi'', To-ecTB K'B ÓojiBniHHCTBy Bcero HapoAa, xaise ^ys^aflCb 
oodTOMy ero spynHiimHxi HCTopH^ecRHxi HHTepecoBi, — ?to cocToanie 
dToĚ Maccu He aojesho 6uj[o 0u ocraTbCA HHAH(H^epeHTHi»i% mas. 

HapOAHUXli naTpÍOTOB'B H He OSaÓOTHTb BOnpOCOlTb, SaSl C^HTaTBCH Cb 
HUCJIflUU H SeJUtHÍHMH 8T0ft AOJIH HaceJieHÚI. A'&ÍCTBHTej[bHOCTb paCBOJIb- 

HHqburo 6uTa bobco ee ecTk xa hahjliía, wb Basyi) HHorxa BnaAaen 
H3o6paseHÍe e^, eaopHifbpi y MejibHHKOBa; ecjiH ecTb vb než ^pru, 
BOTopuMi oTAaDTb cnpaBejiJiHBOCTb Aame cypoBue oóJiH^HrejiH pacsojia, 
KaK'b HanpHM'bp'b saóora o rpaMOTHocTH, xota 6u CBoeA, HcsjíDqHTejibHO 
pacROJibHiiqbefi, TpeBBocTb, Tpy^ojiDÓie, BsaHHHaa noMon^b, oxpaaa npe- 
j^aHÍft H T. n., TO, cb Apyroft CTopoHU, caMa£ ocHOBa pacsojia, wb ero 
Hi]iH'6iiiHHxa^ (j^opvaxi, npeACTaBJUierb Tanoft danacb ynpuMofi kochocth, 
ftOTopaa HO xaerb, sasercH, HHRaRoĚ Ha^esi^u na to, htoóu coAep 
autnie pacKOJia hofjio sorAa-HHÓyAb Bypa6oTaTbca bo qro-jraóo 6ojr6e 
<X)Bep(neHHoe, noroiiy qro 6ojvbe paiúoeajibHaa nocTanoBRa caHHX'b npHH- 
i^anoBik pacKOJia, Bo-nepBHX^b, oroaja 6u on eero HHoriA cneii^H<|»H^e- 
<^RÍfl ocoČeHHOCTH, a BO-BTopuxi), ÓOBB coMutHÍfl, npoHaBejia 6u HOBoe 
pa3A'&jEíeHÍe bi* caiioMi pacROjrb; npoTHB'b jnoAeft, Koropue aaxoT&iH 6u 
j(8Tb wb AorMaTax'b pacROJa óojibme MJMrra npaBairb HacTOJin^efi HCTopÍH 
jf Booóiue dJieiieHTy HayqHony, Boacxajia 6u Hacca cji'bnux'b npHBep- 
seiiueB'b 6yEBu h Heno^BHacHaro oóuqaa. Crb Apyroi cropoHU, hto vb 
pacROJi^, cb ero CTofiRHirb fijiaro^ecTíeMi, ynopnoi B^pHocTbD npe^aHÍD, 
cb ero 6UT0BUMH HpaBaMH, xpaHHTCJi 6ojibniafl aojui caMoA HacTOnnieft 
pyccRoA CTapHHU, 9T0 ho noAJiesHrb cohhíhíi). KaK^b cocHHTaTbca co 

BCtMl BTHMl? 

06uqHue opothbhhrh pacBOJia, K'b aaRHirb Moserb ÓHTb opu^H- 
cjiOHi H aBTopi HacToaii];eft xHHrH, noJiaraDTi, qTO OH'b npocTo aoji- 
seH'b 6uTb yHuqToseHi, Raxrb „^SBa**. Bi npesnee BpeMA npoTHBi 
9Tofi asBii ynorpeÓJiJiJiHCb, Rax^b usb^ctho, caMua aHepruqecRía uipu 

aXMHHHCTpaTHBHUA H A^Se BOeHHUA; H3BÍCTH0 TaBSO, TTO dTH VbfU 

ocTajiHCb BnoJiH^ ÓesycniniHU. B'b nocjťbAHee BpeMa oTHomeHie siacTH, 
rpasAaHCRoA u i^epaoBHoft, srb pacROJiy crajio BOo6iii.e ropas^o HJirqe: 
opoTHBi Horo npHHHnaDTCA M']^pu yó^JKAOBÍa, yqpesxoHO MHCcioHep- 

CTBOr npOHSBOAATCfl ,C0<5eCÍA0BaHÍfl", H T. O.; He BHaeMX, HaCBOJbBO 

ycntonu bth Mipu b^ oÓn^eHii cqerb, ho ne cjiuniHo, qroGu oh^ 
HH'&iu RaRoe-HHÓyj^b niHpoBoe A^ficTBÍe, h naapoTiiBT*, npHXoxHTCJi 

qHTaTb AftSe o BHOBb BOBHHRaDIE^UXl CORTaXl, EaSl HanpHVtpii 9TH 

ysacaiDiAÍe „AupoMOJiaH**, o ROTopux'b ne^aBEo ABHJiHCb CB^xenia wb 
neqaTH. B'b OTqeTax'b o „coóeciAOBaHiaxi**, Raaie nepÍAKO apHxo- 
j^HTca Tenepb ^HTaTb, mh nocToanHo HaxoAHirb, qro MBCcionepi no- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHSSA. JHTEPÁTFPHOE OBOSnHIE. 435 

<íij(OHOCHO o(SiH^aen cbobxi npoTHBHBion — h He vyxpeHo: owh 
HMteTL. BtpoaTHo, asueviqecKoe oópaaoBaHÍe, a npoTHBHim nierB 

TOXBSO CBOD paCEOJbHHlIBD rpaVOTHOCTb', HO DO(HflXH OCTaVTCfl ($68- 

ojiojihh; TWHoe oÓMm^eiňe HaopaBuercA ea raajD no^By, vm^ oho 
ffpocTO HenoHaTHo. a norovy ocraercii tie» peoyjOiTaTa. OqeauHo, AJia 
Toro, TTOÓH apryveHTaiiu fqesaro necioHepa npHBojpua rBT^taxeHiD, 
Heoóxoxno, qrotfH xpynui cropoHa 6Hja oparoroBjeHa rb nomi- 
vaHÍK> T^eHoft apryMemipii, ro-ecrb miia flnoij, o6pa30BaHÍe. Rl 
■9T0M*b nocjtjiHeví 1 sauD^iaeTca oxho h3% nepBOcreoeeHHXi* q)excTBi», 
Kasia j^ojDKHH 6u 6uTh ynorpefiieau Dporaeib ,a3BH'; vh yAHBieHii), 
o6i& SToiTb-To cpexcrrt Mjmtjom scero Mesbine. He roBopHirB o toitb, 
^To vHccioHepeTBj cjrtAoaaJO 6iá AUcTBOBan He oahíhh xontaTH^e- 
-CKHXH H oópaxoBsm oapoBopseHÍaira-. 

ABTopi HacToaniet EHHni, wb laiecrvi ÓUBmaro erapeoiSpajma n 
Vb aaqecnrb nejtoBisa, noiyqHBmaro .naT^Hoe o6paaoBaHÍe' (jidóo- 
iiHTHO, nrb owh 1^olJ^mJ% 9to oópasoBame — ocraBaacb jh vb pacsoit^ 
Hjui noKHHTBi ero), OTHocHTca Kh crapooÓpaACTBy spalné neApyse- 
jn>6Ho H HpeHeópexHTeabBo: crapne ycTaBoiHaH« losrae nonu, (k>ra- 
Tne HOKpoBHTeiH Hsi BiTHaoBi H EyHHHn, fioTOMOJBHiia CTapyxH, Bce 
^To HSot^MLxaeTca wvh wb HespaeuoMi cbítí HepasBHTOCTH, ^MtBaTHSva, 
o3Jio6ieHia nponm npaBociaBHuxi*, apatnaro cyesipía ■ lenoBtpia 
H T. X. Bce 9T0, Moxen 6im, h ran; aecLHa vkpaaTHo, tto nojio6- 
amiH cBoSeTBan orjnraaerca orpovnui npoueHTB crapooÓpaACTBa; ho 
j(u Toro, ito6h Hao6paseBÍe ne oaaaajiocB BevkpHmrb no oxhocto- 

POHHOCTH, HJXHO 6UMO 6u HpHHaTb TaiSe Vb COOÓpaseHÍe CBOfiCTBa Ha- 

poxHoft iiaceiá He-pacKonHH^Left, ho topo me jpoBHa iBaníf h HOHarifi. 
no nacTH cyeBikpu h aeraostpU 9Ta ocranBaa Macca ejiaa jn ycTj- 
HHn crapooépajniavb: Aocrarono orxjiHyTbca apyroMi ce6a, vto6u 

BCTptT HT B CIOJIbKO JTOXHO HpHHtpOB^ Ho TOAIO OÓHUa CyeB§pÍiI, HO 

H cannnovL, xaxe HCKiDurreiBHO, sniaiHee noBHvaHie penrÍH, hhcto 
o6pHj(O0oe fijttitHiecTíe coeraBjuers ^6pTy ne ojihhxi erapooópajmeBi, 
HO H rpoxajiHoft vaccH pyccaaro Hapoxa, oópiraDn^eicii vb narpiap- 
xaiBHOHi HeBtxecTBt H He HOjr^aDHief npaBHjn>Haro o^bacHenia 
eaoeft vkps h cbohxi xpwrríaHccHxi oóaaaHHOcreft. 6% tmmíA noj(ib 
HaaiiameiTB: .PacioJibHHKi, xtjai>nUfi ÝaaBniHBue pytiuiH", asropi paa- 
«ia9HBaen Hcropii) ^annnniaro MOHerviia, soropirt vb ro me BpeHa 
BioasHBan 6oiBHioe 6aaro?ecTÍe, h saajfD^aen: ,Bon h cxorpHTe 
Ha pacEOAHHBOTB cb 6aaro<ieeTHBoft eropoHii! JIdah, votb, Bory ho- 
jUTca no erapuHi KHHraH%, SHRyn ce&k nxo, cnosotno, wse rpeaso, 
a Buxoxnn, tto vb thxomvto oaept h nuBojunta lepreHara, mjbl emfi 
uudel!* (crp. 120). JíjMůevb, hto yrojOBBaa jrbroflHCfc vosen xocra- 
wam H BH^ pacKOJU jtocraro^iHoe lomecTBo BOiuro poxa oÓHannui* 

23^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



436 BftOTHHSl EBPOmi. 

KOBi nojí^^b BHAOMi 6jiaro^ecTÍ)i. Bi rjiaB% „OTen;^ Ap^aJiíoBi'', aBTop^ 
pascRasuBaeTB 061 oAHOiťB npoxoAHin^'^, BOTopnfi, BUABBaji ceÓA 3a 
c6opn];HBa nosepTBOBamlt jkJiJi saKHX^B-To cbatheb, coÓHpajii n^expua 
sepTBu iiesAT CTapootfpflAn;&MH, saT^Mi nonajicji vh TpaBTHpHuxi Byxe^ 
saxi, ÓHJťB saxBaqeH^ nojiHn;ieĚ, ho CByir&ii CKpuTbCji. 

^DoAOÓHue oÓiiaHii^HKH, — roBopHT'B aBTopi, — BUAaBajiH ce6& npí'i^«' 
SHMH, TO H3^ TypiUH, TO Hdi ABCTpÍH, PyMunÍH: OHH HasHBajiH ce6& 
iepoMOHaxaMH, apxHMaH^upHTavH h npocTo iiOHaxaMH, nocjiaHHUiiH oTh- 
CBOHXi AP6BHe*6jiaro^ecTHBux'L enHCBonoBi b'b Poccíd sa cóopoMi Ae- 
HerB, H cotfHpajiH hxi oahh'b na yBpameHÍe MOHacTupa, Apyrofl — Ha^ 
bojoroji^, TpeTÍfl — Ha oÓJta^enie CBoero enHCKona. GTapooÓpflxi^u hh- 

CBOJIbKO HO COMH^BaJIHCB B^b HCTHHHOCTH dTHXl JíllWh H COBepniaeMUX'^ 

HMH no6opoBx; oxotho b^phjih hxi cjioBaM^B H npHHHiiajiii HXi CB no* 
HeTOMi H yBasenieK^B, yron^aa Basi* h ^ími mofjch no CBoeify coctoa- 

HÍK). ^epTBU JIHJIHCB Bl HXl RapiiaHU P'bBOK).o ^aBafl A^EBrn BC^Ml 

dTHMi npoxoAHMniaiťB, CTapoo6paAUU npocHJKH sanncaTB hxii HMena h 
BUJiHTB Ha KOJioKOJ['b, HJiH BHniHTL Hxi vb Ho^uBjíaAPt iiepKOBHaro oÓJia- 
qeHÍH, TTofiu sepTBa hxi 6uJia na BH^y y bcíxi. npoxoAHMen;'L sa* 
nHCUBajťb HMena hx^ b'b cbod BHHSKy h AaBaii 06'bn^aHÍe buhoji- 
HHTB Bce, corjiacHo BOJii H npocBÓ'^ sepTBOBaTejiefi'. 

Ho coBepmeHHo to ace ÓuBaerB h bt> caMoiťB npaBOCJiaBHOMi nace- 
jtenÍH, KOTopoe ^'i^aeTCJi JierBOB^pnoĚ Ao6uqefi TasHXi se npoxoAHM> 
aoBi, BHAai)n^HX'B ce6fl sa aeoncRHXx, iepycajiHMCRHxi h hhuxi Ma- 
HttXOBi h iepoMonaxoB^, h en^e ne^asno radeTU pascRasuBajiH 06% 
OAHOiťB CBATom qej[OB'bR^ noj^o6Haro poAa, ROTopufi ORasajica npocTa 
nepciiiHHHOirb h MaroMeTanHHoiťB. 

O^HasAU aBTopi RHHrH aa^aerB ce6'b Bonpoci o tomi, OTBy^a 
H^exi TBKa paCROJa h rto 3A'í^cb BHHOBarB, h OTBiqaeTi na dTO cjit- 

„npe»Ae Bcero BnnoBaTU naHernuRH ^pacROJia, 9th racHJBHHRB 
CB^Ta, 3TH dRcnjioaTaTopu AOB']bp^HBaro RpecTBflHHna. HMenno TaR'B. 
ObH) BUMBaji ce6fl sa nanernEROB^B h óopocjiobobb bi cBflm^ennoifB 
nncaniH, tohho ninBRH, npHCOcajiHCB n% ero xyAOCoqnoMy (?) T^y h 
cocyro EVh nero ocTaBmiecA py6jui h rouMrh, nasHTue RpoBHUiťB 
M030JIBHHMI Tpy^oifB. rQnH TOJiRyiDrB iiyacHRy BCiiRyiD neóujiHi^y, nox- 
AepsHBaDTi Wh HeMi cyesipie h npeApa3cyARH cb HCRjiio^HTejunoft 
i](%jiBD, HT0611 cosABTb ce6'b nocjiiAOBaTejiiefi, a qpedi bto bosmos- 
hoctb cyn^ecTBOBaTb ÓeBi Tpy^a. ?to5u othatb 'dTHxi bíabor^b otb 
MysHRa, BMy neoÓxoAHiio AaTB niROJiBHoe pasBHTie, ne cvoTpx na sce 
ero ynopcTBo h nesejianie, TaRB RaR'B nocJi'bAHee BUTORaerB orb Tora 
MB nay^eHÍJi HaciaBEHRa. 

"^ ^Pa3BÍ Mošno BB HHRoniancRHXB mROJiaxB oóynaTB cbohx'b 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XPOHHBA. — JIBTKPiTyPHOE 0B03P*HIE. 437 

^^tTefi? Kasofi «e tu xpHCTÍaBHH'B nocji'^ aroro! — roBopHTi Ha^erHHRi. 
& MysHBi B^pHTB eMy, BipHTL, ^To Bce dTO rp-bxi, epecb H noFHÓejib. 
A sjíOMy HaqeTHHBy dToro h Hysno. Bi* noTeMsa^b eny jiyqme patfo- 
TETb H DponoB^AUBaTb CBOD 7enyxy... Hcthhho, hto pacBOJii Haiii'B 

«CTB AOfiHaH KOpOBa^ ;^OHTb KOTOpyD H6 p^maeTCfl TOJIbBO ^eJlOB^Kly 

iiOMHfliii,ift Bóra h míiv>mtL coBicTb" (exp. 90). 

ÁBTOpS He otipaTHJIl TOJIbBO BHHMaHÍA Ha OAHO OÓCTOATeJlbCTBO. 9tH 

Ha^erHHBH hjih HaqerHHBH cocTaBJíADT^ opraHH^ecRyi) npHQaAJiesHocTb 
pacBOJia: ohh 6biBaDT% ero nopoasAeHieMx, CTaHOB^TCA ero npoACTaBH- 
TeuiiH R pysoBOAHTejiflMH, H noTOMi caMH noMepsHBarorb h pacnpo- 
'CTpaHflH)rb ero vb tomi bha^^, Rasi oh^ caM'b BocuHTajii hxi. Ea- 

B0B'b nOOl, TBBOBl H npHXOA'b; HO H CaMl noni SaBHCHTl 0T% npH- 

xoAa. EcjiHÓu MOSHO 6ujio saRHifb-HHÓyAb ofipasoMi ycTpaHHTb Bjiifloie 

OJ^HHXl yCTaBE^HROBl H Ha^eT^HROBl, SaBTpa Ha HX'b HibCTO flBHjIíHCb 

•Óu Apyríe Tasie se. Ecjih caMi aBTop'b pascBaBUBaen (crp. 192), ^to 
AuBpocifi, HMeHyDíuíft ceón Tenepb y pacROjeíbHHROB'B enncRonoM^b h 
^BflTHTejieMi capaTOBCRO-acTpaxaHCBoft RaeeApu, óujtl ao dToro ne bto 
HHoft, RaRi aumjiK^ cejia HBaHrJbeBRH, HHsojiaeBCRaro yts^a, h coAep* 
T&sjvb no^TOByi) cTaHi;ÍK) BT> cejrb, cjitAOBaTeoibHO SHajii TOJibRo &HyT^ 
H B03SH; a noA^HBeHHuft ero, HUHt JseiepeĚ bi rop. BojibCRi, FpH- 
ropifi nonoBi, ecTb RpecTbAHHH^b oAHoro h3i noAropoAHUxi ceieHÍft BOJib- 
•CRaro ybsAA, ycn^Bniifl cbohmi nonoscTBoifb y pacROJibHUROBi Ha»HTb 
ÓoJibmia A^HbFH, na Roropufl OTRpujii 6aRajiefiHyK) JiaBsy bi ropoA^ 
BoJíbCB^ H Teoepb baboUhí HasHi3aeTi» Aeebru, ysejiHqHBaA cboř Rann- 
^tajii; ecjni cam aBTop'b hphboahtti npHMtpu RpafiHflro h, ROHe^Ho, 
He BecbMa paayMHaro <{»aHaTH3Ma npocTi)ix'b o6i)iRHOBeHHUX'b pacROJib- 
HHROB'b, ecjiH, HaROHen;^, TaROBa wh cyn^HocTH bca cpeAa, to oohatho, 
^To ycTaBn^HRH h „njTeBOAHTejiH", ROTopne HafiHpaioTCA npHMO hs^ 
Toft se čpeAU, He Moryrb óun hhumh, wbuT> ohh ecTb. 

Be3'b comh'6híh, oAHa mnojia Morjia 6u CMarqHTb dTorb 4>AHaTH3irb, 

nOBUCHTb ypOBOHb DOHATifi, B'b TOMl HHCJI^ H peJEUríOSHUXi; HO eABa JIH 

OAHH pyROBOARTejiH pacROJEía BHHOBaTu T^Mi, qTo CTapooÓpHAi^ii He 
HAyrb B'b o6uRHOBeHHyH) mROJiy. BpasAa Ri gHHROHiaHaM-b*"— oóm^afl bo 
Bceifb pacROJi*]^; CTapooópaAi^u no6oHTCii nycTHTb cBOHx:b A'i^Tefl b% 

IHROJiy, TA* OHH HJIH pHCRyOTb yTpRTHTb „CTapyi) Btpy", HJIH Mopyrb 

<^TaTb npeAMOTOM^b HacMimeRi. He snaeMi, Moseri ah ^ílxb Boo(5n;e 
MajibqHRi*CTapoo(5pHAeAi» nocTyoHTb B'b niROJiy. EABa jih; MesAy tím% 
-oqoBHAHo, qTO j(JíH npHBJíeqeHia CTapoofipAAAeBi) bi* o6uRHOBeHHyK> 
iHROjr^ npesAe Bcero nysHo Óujio 6u npeAOCTaBHTb hmi CBOÓoAy ocTa- 

BaTbCH Bl> CBOeiťb HCnOBÍtA&HÍH, — Cb yB^peHHOCTbK), qTOy HeBaBHCHMO 0Tb 

SToro Bonpoca, niROjibHoe oópasoBanie caMo no ce6']b pasoBbOTi noHHria 
H^(5yAeTi> cnoco6cTBOBaTb ycTpaneHiD HaH6oAbniHxi sojii pacROJia. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



438 WhOTEHKh EBPOnU* 

H0| saB'B HH jiDÓonuTHo (5uTOBoe, 9THorpa4)HqecBoe co^epsaHíe 
RHHrH r. noaoBa, oHa npoHdBOAUTi HeopÍATHoe BneqaTji'bHÍe co CTopoHu 
o6ii^ecTBeHHofi, a& h jiHqHoft HpaBCTaeHBocTu. AsTopi Bumejii* hbi 
cpe^u CTapooÓpaACTsa; BCjťfaACTBÍe CBoero „HayqHaro pasBuria', obi- 
oópaxHJicji vb npaBocjaBÍe h ctbjtb nponoBÍbAHHKOM'B ero Mezxy npes* 
HHMH eAHHOB-ibpi^aMu. 0(5a BTU o6cTOBTejii»CTBa AOJisflu 6u3LSL 6u no6y- 

AHTb ero OTHeCTHCB eCJIH HO CB JIK)60BI>K), TO Cb HtsOTOpofi TepOH- 

MOCTBD B'B BaĎJiys^aion^HMCfl npesHHifB coÓpaTLJUfL: bto noBejtBajvB^ 
6u npHTOMi ee tojilko xpHCTÍaHCKÍft AOJirE, o soTopoMi He cji'bAOBaio 
6h 8a6uBaTb MHCcioHepy, ho h npocTofi BOcnHTaxejibHufi npieMi. BM'bcTO' 

TOrO MU BHAHM'B BO BCeft BHHr'6 O^HO FJiyMJieHie HaA'B HeB'bseCTBOM'B 

CTapoo6pflweBi, hxi <|)aHaTH3M0Mi, Hepa^yMHUM^ cyes-j^piem (soTopoe^ 

BaBl MU BHJCi^JH, paSA^JfllOTl* H He-CTap006pBAUU) H T. A- ABTOpi H6 

AOBOJbCTByeTca o6mHMH HsoópaseniflMu; obi BOHMeHHO HaauBaerB 
M^CTHUxi pyKOBOAHTejiei H xiaTei^ pacBOJia, xase (yb yKa3aHÍeM'b^ 
aApecoBi, BTo TAt sHBerb h aopshtb MoiejibHK). 9th noHMesHUA ysa* 
saHÍA A^aexi, Bopo^eMi, ne nepBuft r. IIobobi; hx'b CTajiH bboahtj^ 
paHBme h Apyrie, xesAy dpo<ihm'b, Óojt&b yqenue, H'bM% r. nonoB^B^ 
oÓJiH^HTejiH pacBOJia; b'b soppecnoHAeHi^iAXi o pacBOJi']^ et> npoBHHuiaJiB- 

HUX'B HdAaHÍlIXl MU BOCTOBHHO BCTpt^aJIH Bl> BOCJť&AHee BpOMB TaKÍA 

se HMeHHUB ysadamB. Mu nojiaraeMi, 9to, no Bcei b^poatbocth, 3T£l 
yBaaaHÚi wh AaeHOMi* cjiyqat ne hmíjih hT> bhaj noJiui^eflcKaro aoho- 
ceeúi: B'&poaTBO, noJiHi^ifl He roHHTCfl TenepB 3a TaRHMH cbía^híamh; 
rbwb ne Mentě, oni ocTaK)Tca He6jiaroBHAHu. PacKOJTB bo bcakom'b cjiy- 
qat Be DOJiBsyeTCfl Ao6po& cjtasož wb o4M})HuiajiBHOM'B cMucjit, h dTH 
HOHMeHOBaHia CTanoBATCJi CBoero poAa Au4Hl)aMauieň. Ecjih6u aBTop'B- 
nojiarajTB, qTO sto ecTBTOJiBBo grjiacHocTB^^faroonpoBeprajiocB 6u tím'b^ 
qTo HacToan^aji roiacHOCTB npeAnojaraJia 6u xasoe se npaBO h m^ms 
ApyroĚ cTopoHU, HO 9Toro npaBa, sas^ H3B'bcTH0, He cyn^ecTByen.. 
TaBHM'B otfpasoMii, BTO „rjtacHoe** o($jiuqeHÍe noxose na KaMOHB, (5po- 
caeMutt H8i-8a yrjia. He 6ujio 6u yAHBHTejBHo, ecjiu6u MesAy crapo- 
o6pBAAaMH hm'6jio Ma^o ycn'bxa MHCcioHepcTBO, nojfbsyiDni^eecji TaKHM'B^ 
opyaúeM'B. 



— SpuAamuA CAoea. He cnpocrk ■ ue coýcra cjobo moibhtcji ■ i6 bíkj ee cjo* 
MHTca. no ToiKOBaBÍD G. MaKCUMOsa. Cii6. 1890. 

r. MaKCHMOBi DpHHaAJiesHTrB £!» qHCJiy HaniHx:B CTapifimux'B btho* 
rpa4>0B'B noKOJitHÍfl óO-xi roAOB'B, BorAa MBorHX'B saBJíesjía s'b nscjit- 
AOBanii) HapoAHofl shshh ne Ta HayqHajaí noTpeÓHocTB, Boropajai Mo- 
šen 6uTB BocHHTaHa npocTO SHHrofi, TeopoTHqecKHMi aanpocoMi, a 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKá. — JDITEPATyPHOB OBOSP^HIE. 439 

XHoaji norpe^HOCTB oón^ecTBeHHaa, sorAa he nepsoe Bpeiui CMyTHUft, 
HO tími He neniče riyóoKifi HHCTHHm noACRasuBaji'^, hto HapoAy* 
TíJťb AOJiro opeHeÓpeseoHoiiy, npeACTOHTi scBopi sehatb HOAo5aDU]^ee 
uicTo, ecjiH nÓBE He na eaMoft apaBTHB'b, to bi> o6mecTBeHHOirs h 

OpaBHTeJILCTBeHHOlťB HHTepeci, H HTO HapOAHaJI MAefl AOJiSBHa BHOCTH 

HOBue dJieMeHTU b% sh3hb caMaro o6ni;ecTBa. 8to 6iiIjio en^e wb pas- 
rapi KpuHCBoft boíhu, Bor^a ne 6sjia en^e saBBJíeHa BpecTBdHCsaa 
pe4K^Ma. Hhcthhbtb Óujvb BtpeH'B: yse Bcsopi ooroifB noAHaJiHCB 
TOJiBH o HapoA'^ H HapoAOJiK)6ie cTBJío He TOJiBBo cepBeaHUMi HBTepe- 

COITB XMH HeXHOPHXl, HO H MO^Oft. Ha^BTUfl B'B OOJIOBHHÍ^ 60'Z'h TO' 

AOBi dTHorpa<i)ii9ecBU usy^eHÚ r. MaseHMOBa npoAOJtasujiHCB noTOM'B 
na Aec4iTKH jíti, b'b TeneHÍe soTopLixi ohi no6HBaj'B bo bcíxi koh- 
Aaxi pyccBoft aeiijiH, otb aenTpajiBHUxi ryóepniĚ, Basa^a h c&Bepa, 
jsjo ry6epHÍŘ dshhxi h ao AMypcBHX'B oKpaHHi Ch6hph. Beuerpncrb 
no nepBUMi onuTam, ohi nepeneci cbod BaÓJiDAaTejiBHOCTB h ach* 
BOCTB (xoTA Hep^ABo vaHepnyi)) paacicasa na HBJíoseHie cbohxi cTpan- 
CTBÍfi H 4>aBTHHecKoe oHHcaHie HapoAHaro 6iiTa. H8B'bcTeH'B ajihhhu& 
pBA'B TpyAOBi, soTopuJk óuJKi pesyjiBTaTOMi ero HsyqeHifi: 3to ho 6ujh 
cnei^iaJiBHUfl Hsy^eHia tíx'b hjih ApyrHX'B cTopoHi Óutb, npeAaHÍ&» 
HapoAHoft nod3ÍH, a HMenno naÓJiDAeHiB HaA'B A'bjiuv'B cbabaovb sh8hh» 
HaA'B ocoÓBHHOCTBMH HpBBOBi, HapoAHaro npoMUCJia, HapoAHoft pi^BK> 

H T. Am — CJIOBOMl, HaA'B TbWby Ht6 COCTaBJILfleT^ <|)H3Í0H0]IÍK) H3BÍCTHarO 

spaa H ero nacejieHifl. Majio-oo-Majiy HaBoajiAJicA 6ojiBQiofi onuT^ 
npaBTH^ecBaro 9THorpa4»a, Me»Ay npoqHifB HaKOUHJiocB snaBÍe HapoA- 
Haro asusai H HÍCBOJnso itrb Ha3aA'B r. MaRCHM0B'B nanajii novt- 
n^BTB wb raseraxi He6ojiBniÍA ctbtbh, sasjíDHaBnríA b'b ce&k oóiucne* 
HÍe MHosecTBa Tbx% ocoóeHHUxi cjiobi h óÓpasHUxi BBipaseHiĚ, ro* 
Topufl hmíiu cBoft onpeA'^eHHu& h BcbifB noHBTHufl cMucjii, HO oep • 
BÓHB^ajiBHoe 3HaqeHÍe BOTopux'B Óujio hoith ajkh bcíx^b saTepflHo. 6*^ 
HacTOiiniee speMB r. M&viciiuowb coápajii dTH pasfipocaHHUii ctbtbh, 

AOOOJIHHJIl HX'B H OH'b COCTBBHJIH I^^JiyK) BOCBMB JIDÓOHUTHyD BHHFy. 
8tH CJIOBB H OÓOpOTU HaBODHJIHCB H3X CaMHXl pa3H006pa3HBIX'E 

nepioAOBi HapoAHoft shshh, cjoeBi napoAnaro 6iiTa, oóu^aeBi h npo- 

]fUCJiOB'B. „Otíl^fCHeHÍH OAHliXl BUpaseHÍfi U CJIOB'B, — roBopHTi» r, MaB- 
CHMOBl, — CJliAyeXX HCSaTB Bl DpHAH^eCROlťB 6UTb ApOBHOft PýcH, B'B 

npieMax'B posucRHoro npon;ecca cb oTBpaTHTOJLBHuiťB nojiocoBanieirB 
HejiOB'&qecRHX'B chuhi (cjiobb „noAJiHHHuft'', „noAHoroTHuft**, .mockob* 
CRifl upaBAu** H T. aO« TojROBaHÍe ApyrHx:B supasenift h oocjiobhi;'e 

MOSHO 6UJI0 HafiTH Vh MHpHO-HBJíaseHHOft H COOROĚHO-TeRyn^eft CTpyi 

cejiBCROfi 2RH8HH, CBo6oAHofi B'B eji fiuTOBuxi opoBBJíeHÚixii: 8e]ueA'i^B- 
qecRHX'B, npoMBUHjieHHUxi, peMecjieHHux'B H T. A* (tbrobbí Biipasenia: 
,6aRji[yHiH ÓRTB**, ,nonacTB vh npocaR'B^, ^juaicu to^htb*, »HysAa sa* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



440 BI&CTHHBl EfiPOmi. 

CTaBHTB EaJiaTO iCTB**, „HH KOJia— HH ABOpa", ^KaHHTeJIB TanyTb", 

^y lopra ea KyjiH^Eaxi", „cHJia cojiOMy jnoiiHrB*). Cmucji'l TpeTbHX'B 
noACBasuBaeTCfl h BoscTaHoojifleTca Aocejii coxpaHHBmHMHca (h JLKjah 

OT^aCTH HCqeSHyBIUHMH, ho naMATHUlIH) HapOAHUMH oÓuqaflMH h b%- 

poBaHiflvn (cjiOBa: „^epesi-qyprb", „nyp^ Měna", Bupaseeifl: „ceMb naiv 
HHiíi Ha He^tj*", „ropox-B npH Aoport", „na yjrni^* npasj^HHK-B", h 
npo?.)* Mnorífl h3'b ^utobhxi hocjiobhi^i onpaBAUBaDTCA ^HBajniifH 
co6uTÍAMH, ycn'6BniHiiH o6jie^n»CH b'b ^^piiy npHrqeĚ h vh H^Boropiix^ 
cjryHaAX'B aHeBAOTOB'B („coóasy cbíjit,*, „Ha Bop^ manBa ropsTB^^ 
„Bopa Bu;i;ajia ptqB*', „oroHb h nona sserB^, „ceMH-njAC^Buft nniHB'L*, 

„XOTB TpeCHH** H Xf.). QtEWB HOCJTÍ^AHHII^ CHOCOÓOIII CT> HOIHOK) OT- 

BpoBeHHOCTbD HapoAi* nocntmHjrL oó^achrtb h oapaB^aTb cboh hoao- 
cTaTKH H xapaETepHHJi cBoŘCTBa: a3a;^HiŘ yMi", ^pyccEift Ayxi", „pyc- 
cKia CBaH*, iTÓ Booóme SHaHHTi — A^JiaTB H HocTynaTB no-pyccKH, 
„npHBÍqaTb, yrocTHTb**, h t. a- Cpe^H B(ATb nojí,o6n}AZ% BupaseHÍft 
(Boo<5ii(e cpaBHHTejiBHO Heóojibmoro BOJiH?ecTBa) wb saMt^aTejibHo pix- 
sHxi cj[yHaAX'B aoboahtca HCsaTb TOJiROBaHÍft jyh xsHsaxi cociA&mjiTh 
ťh HaMH HHopoAi^eKb (bi ^ofiík: „RaBap^aRi^, „ajiajia**, „hh 6ejibMeca"), 
a noHCBH sa cjioBaMH, BKpaBmnMHCJi b'b pyccRíft mws.T> h»'b eBpooeft- 

CRHX-B flSSROBl, COCTaBJIADTb yse OCOÓeHHUft CaKOCTOATeJlbHtift TpyA'b, 

npexcTOAn^íft b% óy^yn^eMi. Tenepb npeACTaBJuiiD RCTaxn jíHOib nt- 
CROJibRO oópasHHROBi („rajiHiiaTba", „bi Mat poahtbch^, „RaiieHb wh 
BOAy", H np.). 

„YrjryÓJMflCb B'b ApeMyqifi h pocRonraiifi Az% po^Horo asuRa, 60- 
raTaro, CHJibHaro h CB^bsaro, EpaTRaro h acnaro, na drorb paax, ro- 
He^Ho, AOBBJíocb npotfpaTbCfl jiHmb no onymR^ ero. SA^cb jierne óujio 
ocMOTpiTbCfl, nepec^HTaTb Bce, ^tó 6ujio HarjAAHUMi, h npoHSBecTH 
H3CJ[%A0BaHÍfl H AaTb oHHcaHie (oAHOMy H3% nepBUX'L) Bcexy mhofo- 
qncjieHHOMy pasHooópasii) póaob-b, BHAOB'b h nopoA'b ao BajiesHURa 

BRJUOqHTOJIbHO*'. 

npH RasAOMi cjiynai, ta^ ORasuBaiDTca nyaRHU otf'bi[CHeHÍfl h8'b 
dTHX'b pasHooÓpasHUXi oÓJiacTeft CTapofi HCTopÍH h coBpeMeHHaro 6uTa, 
aBTopi ne orpaHHqHBaerca rojiuifB yRadanieiiii a, naopoTSB^, bxoahtb 
B'b noApoÓHocTH, TaBi HTO nepeA'B naMH ^bjiadtca neóojibmie dCRHSU 
ci HCTopnqecRoft hjih coBpeMennoft 6utobo& HaTypu. Bcero noM^n^eHO 
Vh RHHrt 129 noAotíHUX'L oqepROB'L. Borb ji^a npHirbpa H^bcROJibRO 
BupaseHÍĚ, EOTopua nocjiysHjiH aBTopy TeMoft ajka ero ofi^bacHemt 
ASHRa: oroHb nona xacen*; wh npocaRi nonacTb; na yjHi;'^ npa8AHHR'b; 
ÓaRJiyniH ÓHTb; jiacu To^HTb; ROJioROJia jibDrb; y qopTa na RyjiHHRaxi; 
cevb nflTHHi^'b; ABa AeBflHocTa; vocrobcría npaBAu; 6eĚ B'b AOCRy, no- 
MHHaft MocRBy; RasancRiĚ cnpoTa; noABysbVHTb h noA'BeropHTb; vjíík 
pyRa, TaMi h rojioBa; vjíjk paRH SHvyDTb; co6aR'b roHATb; Ráma caMa 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHKÁ. — JHTEPÁTyPHOE OBOSraHIE. 441 

ce6s XBajiirb; ?ypi uensi; h3i Kynsa vb porossy; xypycu Ha xojie- 
caxi; Bpacearo ntxyxa nycTHTt; yjiHxa tjifirb, KorwTo óy^en, h t. n. 
Bce dTO oóu^BUE Bupasemfl, ho hotth bcí ohí 6esrb HCSJíD^eHÍa 
ocTaDTCfl nenoHHTHU rtu^b, kto hx'l ynorpeáuen cnjiomb h paaomi: 
BTO 6berb 6aBJiymH, to^htl jijicu, noaaMer& b'b upocasi, ronnerb co- 
óaKi H T. n., ne DOHHiraerB, ttó ohi ;('&jiaer&, Ras^ ne sHaion aroro 
H o«ieBH;(i^i dTHX'B Aisimň; tohho TaKse hhkto ne snaerL, xy^^a ijk&n 
yjiHTa, vMÍb 3HMyDTi paRH, vxb HaxoAHTCfl MicTHocTb y Hopra Ha sy- 
jiHiKaxi, H T. ;i;. IIo oObncnemau^b r. MaxcHifOBa, mhofíh hsi 9thx'l 
BspaaceHift CTaHOBUTCfl coBepmeHHO hohjithu, h OHi^aerb, HanpHM^p^, 
HOApoÓHoe OHHcaHíe paaHuxx poAOB^ HacrepcTBa, oTKy^a ({epyrcH 6a- 
KJiyaiH, Jiflcu HJiH 6aucu, saHHTejib h t. n. H3i otfH^aeBi crapHH- 
Haro cyxonpoHSBOACTBa, KOTopuMi Tasí* o^eApo npHirbHfljuiCB HHTsa, 
OH'B o&bHCEa&n cjiOBa „iioj^jihhhuě' h „noAHoroTHufi^, cjiaóuvH boc- 

nOVHHaHÍAMH H31 ApOBHOt MBOOJlOrÍH H 6UTa OHI OÓlJICHHeirB CJlOBa 

„qyp%" H „«iep68i-qypi*, hbi napoxnoft ajihcxh ohi otfiflCHHen cjiobo 
„CKaHAa^Ba", h t. h. 9to noojrl^Hee KaseTCH nairB, Bnpo^eiťb, ne 

BHOJIHÍ AORa8aHHI2M'B, KaR'B H H'&ROTOpfiIH APyiÍH OÓ^HCHeHÍA, HaapH- 

M^pif oói^cneHÍe nenoHHTHUxi cjobi vb i^tcboA ntcnb o Toirs, xaicB 
i^apb »Typy nory nHnier&". BupaseniH SToro nocjiibAHHro po^a cocxaB- 

JHDTB Wb HaSRi KA&b 6u OKaMeH']^jrOCTH, HHOFAa oqoHB TpyAHo 061HC- 
HHHSil HJIH noxa COBC%M'L Heo6lHCHHMUH, H, MOS^y DpOqHlTB, AU HX'L 

HCTOjtROBanifl Haxo (paTB hxi B'b conpoBosAaBDH^eMi hxi xoHTexcTi: 
vb AaHHoiTb CJíJ^B,% HanpHMtpi, rosopHTCH, HTO i^apb HHmerb „na 

BOJlOTOM^b tfjDA^**; dTO BOJIOTOO 6ň¥}JIS> HO 06^HCHHeTCH TOJIROBaHÍeM'B 

r. MaxoHMOBa. Bi HbROTopsx'L ApyrHX'B cjiy«iaHX^ oh'l Mor'B AaTb 
TOJiBKO o6iHCHeHÍe cHHCJia AaHHaro supasenÍH, HCTopH«iecBoe npoHC- 
xosAOHJe KOToparo ocTaercH HeHCHUM'B; ho BOo6ni(e HHTaTOJib nažAon 

Bl KHHri r. MaBCHMOBa VHOSOCTBO HHTOpeCHUXl 8nH30A0B'b H81 HCTO- 

píH HapoAHaro Hsuxa, xaxi h H3'b caMaro napoAnaro 6uTa. 



— H. n. OcmpoyMoeh. Capmu, 9THorpa4>H^ecKÍe MaiepiaiH. Bimycsi nepsuft. Tam* 
seHn, 1890. 

Brb JlHTepaTypnoiTb OÓosp^bHiH óuBajiM yse om^HeHU TamBeHTcxin 
HBxaHÍH; HacTOJin^ee HB^anie Taxse CA^JiaHo wb TamxeHi^, h, na^o 
cxasaTb, CA^aHo aecbva HcnpaBHo, na xopomeĚ 6yvari, cb xoponnnni 
mpH4>TaMH H Aase c% H^xojibRHMH xopomo HCHOJiHeHHUMH HoprpeTaMH 
Ml^CTHHxi SHTejieĚ. ChwJ^qaeiTb bto o6cToaTeJibCTBO noroMy, hto npo* 

BHHAiaJIbHliJI HBAaHÍfl H AO CHXl HOpi Hep^ABO HOpasaDTb CBOHlTb 

c%po6yMasHHMrb bhaom^ h hjioxhxh nipH<|>Tai[H, Raxi 6yAT0 npx ocho- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



'442 B%CTSBKh BBPOmi. 

BaHÍH THnorpa(])ÍH b'b npoBHHiúH HenpeiiiHHO nyseHi AypHOĚ mpa^rb 
H AypHafl 6yMara. 

ÁBTopi sHHrH yse usBtcTeHi Bi jHTepaTypt cbohmh xpyAaMH o 
TypsecTaH^. MesAy apoHHMi, 3% 1883, TaMi* ase, bi> TamBeeT']^, HS^aHa 
Óujia HMi KHHSRa: „?to TaKoe BopaH'L?*' B:b HacTOJiii^eM^b cboomi TpyA& 
r. OcTpoyiioBi npeAnoj[osHji'B, noBHAHMOMy, o5iHHpfloe dTHorpa4)Hqecsoe 
H3Cj[']^A0BaHÍe o BecBMa pacnpocTpaHeHHOMi> m^cthomi octAJioM'B ue- 
MeHH, capTaxi, ^hcjo soTopuxi bi» oahovi TamjLeHTi nojiaraercfl 
CBHme CTa thcahi. „PeAaKTHpya ci 1883 ro^a TypKecraecEy© TyaeM- 
Hyi) raseTy, — roBopHT-B oh-b, — a HaxoAHJicji b-b boctoxhhkíxi neno- 
cpeACTBeHHUxi CHOineHÍflX'B cb capraHH ropoAa TamBeBTa h ApyrHXs 
MtcTHocrefi TypKecTaecBaro spaA, zubjíouvijich c% hx^l shshbk) h co6h- 
paji'B pasHue aTHorpa<|)HqecKÍe MaTepiajiu: nocJioBHuu h noroBopsH, 
ntcHH, saraAKH capTOBi», u t. n.^. HacTOJimifi Bunycsi vafifiiWb wh 
BHA^ BCTyiuenia no noBOAy HcnojiHHBinarocji jelítomi apomsaro roA& 
ABaAi]iaTHnaTHJi'bTÍA „pyccBaro ynpaBJíeHiA ropoxoHii TaniReHTOiťB*' h 
no noBOAy cejbCEo-xoaffflcTBeBHO& u upoHunuiennoft BUcraBBH, ROTopaa 
ycTpoena 6ujia b% TamKenT^ npomJioK) ocensK). HacToani.ifi BunycK'B 
3aBJiE)?aeTi cjAjí,^K>m,ia rjiaBBi: HCTopn^ecsÍA h 3THorpaýHqecBÍa CB'bA6- 
Hífl o capTaxii; oóma^ xapaKTepHCTHRa capTOBi; c6jiHseHie caproBi es 
pyccBuvH n pyccKoe BJiixnie na capTOBs; BocnoMEHanix GaTTap'B*xa0& 
A6Ayjii-ra(i>apoBa; onucanie no']k3ABH caMapRanACRaro 2-fi rnjibAiH Ryni^a. 
Mhpbu ByxapHHa Mupsu AÓAyjuiHHa b-b XapbROB'B, MocRBy h Ilerep- 
6ypn>; TypRecTancRa^ TyseNna^ raaexa, saRJio^eHie. HajioaRenie RHHrs 
ne coBC^m poBHo: aBTopi hjih yrjíy(^jifleTCA b'b cnei^iaJiBHyK) jrarepaTypy 
npeAMexa, nepe^ncjiflfl quiarejiE) MHteifl y^enuxi* h nyTemecTBeHHH- 
ROBi, xoTA Hep'bARo HaxoAUTi Hxi BecbMa HeocHOBaTeJibHUMu, a TaRse 
npHBOAA i^HTaxu npflMo na bocto^hiixi AauRaxi; hjih Aaeirb npocToe 
nonyjiflpHoe ESJíoseníe; hjih npHBOAHTb o(t)<|)Hi^iajibHUA raseTHua hsbí- 
ctía, a wb aaRjiGDHHTejibHofl pyÓpnRt noM'bniae!rb n;%jiHBbH'B AJiHHHyiy 
TOJierpaMMy TamReHTCRofi ropoACRofi AyxH ri renepajiy PosenSaxy no 
noBOAy OTRpuTÍA saRacnificRofl sejiisnoft Aoporn, rotop&h npH6j[H3HJia^ 
H caiiufl TamRenrb ri Bnyrpennefi Poccíh. Bce 9to ne cobc^hi ba- 
acercA, xoxa, roho^ho, ne M']^mae'rb RHHri^ npej^CTaBJíaTb HETepecHua 
AaHHUA o Rpa%, Ao CHXx nopi Bce en^e Hajio H3B']^cTH0]i'b. }í,Jia o6ur- 
HOBennaro ^HTaTeifl nanóojiie jiH)6onuTQii dTHorpa4)HHecRaA xapaRTO- 
pHCTHRa capTOBS H FJiaBa o c6j[HseHÍH capTOBi) <yb pyccRHMH H pyc- 
CR0M'B bjiííihíh Ha HHXi. IIo BTOMy noojiŽABeMy Bonpocy aBTop'b coo5- 
n^aeirb H'&CR0J[bR0 opnrHHajibHUXi noApoÓHocTeft o tomi, xaRoe BneqaT* 
jitHÍe npoHSBOAHJiH Ha TyseimeBi pasjíHHHue 4K)piiii h oóuqaH pyccRoi 

aCH3HH, HOy Rl COaCRJltHÍK), ePO Ha6jlK)AeHÍA ho C06paHU Wh RaR0Í-HH6yAb 

níkjibEui BUB0A'b H noRa ocxaiOTCJi Jinnib aHeRAOTHqecRHMH 3aMÍTRaMH. 



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XPOHHSA. — JHTEPATyPHOE 0B03P«HI£. 44^ 

Eujio 6u sejiaTejiBHO, hto6u wh ApojioJiseBÍH CBoero Tpyj^a r. OcTpo- 
yiiOBi eiu.e pasi uosepaTMJicii bi oTOMy opeAMexy u, ne aa^aDa^cB 06- 

H^KMU CJHniKOMl^ MyApeHUHU BOnpOCaMH (fAÍ, SaM^TUMl MUMOXOAOMl, 

asTopHTeTOMi A^A Hero ^BJiiieTCJi bm^ctí cb OcnapoicB QeinejieM^B 
A. A. FajiaxoBi), ohi> coópajii opocxua ToqHua xannuA o TOiťB, icasi^ 
OTHoaiTOH £*& pyccBHM'B pasiH^Bue cjioH TyaeMHaro HacejieHia, npocToň 
HapoA^t pa6oHÍe, Bynuu, jih>ah yneeue, nycyjiBMaHCBoe Ay^oseHCTBO^ 
HaEOHei^i JHi^a o4H{)Hi^íaJibHUfl, RaaÍH, h t. d.; ht5 iíu% HpaBHTCA hjik 
He BpaBHTCA Bi* pyccRHXi yqpesAeHÍflX'B h HpaBax'B; qxd h3i stexi^ 

HpaBOBl H ÓUTOBUXl npHBUHeiCB Ha^HHaeTB npOHHKaTB SI HHM'B H B^ 

saBofi <|)opMÍ; HacBOJiBKO HaqHHaeTB pacnpocTpaHaTBCA pyccKÍi azuvh 
H T. A* Koe-Basifl nepTU dioro poAa npuBeAeHH h wb ero nacTOflnieM^ 
pascsast, ho npHBeAOHS orpuBO^Ho h HHorAa, Mosen 6uTb, He coBC'bM'B 
AOsaaaTejiBHO. HanpHM^pi, BorAa aBTopi*, bi* o6pa3ei^i> BoeHaTJiiHia 
pyccBHxi oÓuHaeBi na M']kcTHaro SHiejia, npuBOAHrb cthxh TyseMHaro 
no3Ta, vxb OHHCuBaeTca ero nepsoe nocbn^eHíe rHMHaaÍH h 8aTtM'B ro- 
AHHHUĚ BBT^ wb TEMHasiH, TO aocTopoHHeMy qHTaTejiio, HO snaDiAeMy 
dToro TyaeMHaro nodTa, TpyABo cyAHTb, BUcicaaaHo jih 3a^cb a^&ctbh- 
TejiBHoe BneqaTii'bHÍe nodTa hjih npocTo BOCTOHHaa jiecTB pyccKOMy Ha- 
qajibCTBy. Boti, HaDpuM'bp%, OTpuBOBi* Hai* dioro CTEXOTBopenin bi^ 
pyccBoifB nepoBOA^: »B% aaji'^ 6ujlo paacTaBjíeHO oqeHb mhofo CTyjiBeB^B. 
3eieHb oTpasajiacb na CTyjibaxi, h ohh HMijm nfiivb EsyMpyAHaro- 
6apxaTa... Jl^tTE HaAynuuiE cboe bojioch AyxaMH... He to sto 6ujia poao- 
BaH BOAa, He to bojiocu ex'b naxyqH, Basi poau... Bi aajiy opnÓujiE 
OTAU yqeHHBOB-B E qaAOJiDÓEBUH Mareps, a TaB»e tocte— nys^EHu h 
seHoíHHU, — noAoÓHue IIJiaTOHy cbood MyApocTÍE) (?1). Taifb Óujie e na- 
qajDíBHHBE paanue... Ilpn BUAaq^b narpaA^b ErpajiE MyauKaHTU h secejiEJiH 
AyxTi. CepAue ycjia»ABJiocb aBysaMH, BocToprajiocb saBi bi ahe npaaA- 

HEK0B'B... BuJIH Ha aSTi E HtCKOJn>SO Mycyjn>]iaHCBEX'B BOCHHTaHHEBUBl^ 
CBpOMHUe JIH)AH. OhE CTOAJE HB OAUOMl M-^CTÍ, CMOTp^E E ptnU- 

TOJibHO HEqero ne roBopnJE, BpoM'& cjiob'b OAo6peHÍfl. YqeiSHoe f,ÍJLO 

CB TaKEME HOpHABaME E ApaBEiaNE BUdUBaOTb yAEBJteHiO. Mipi OCB']^- 

H^aeTca jiyqaMH anaBÍJi, cepAAe oqHoiaercH hectotoh) anaHÚi. Y Bora 

eCTb Bl pyBt CBÍTHJlbHEB'B, TOTB H B'B TOMHOrb HO BCTp^TETl OHaCHOeTB 

"Ha nyxE. Bosel npocB'bTE xeiiHoe cepAi^e ^EpBBTa CBÍTOM'b anaHÍa^ 
(cTp. 69 — 70). ^EpKaTB — EMU caMoro nodTa. 

ToTi se TyaeMHuft nodTi 6ujI'b, BipoaTHO, cobcími EcspeneHi, sorAa. 

ODECUBaJI^ CB I^B'&TECTbIM'B BOCTOqHUMl KpaCHOptqíeMX HepBUft KOH- 

i^epri, Ha BOTopoMi eMy npHBejiocB 6utb bi TamKeHTt e soTopuA 
npHBeji'B ero 3% nojiHoe BocxHU^eme; ho oqeBHAHO, qTo noAoónua npoEa- 
BeAeHÍH, nojiBJiHíom,iaca, tbbi CRaaaTb, o4)4)Ei^iajibHO, Tpe6yK)rb E3B']kcT- 



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444 B^cmuneh bbpoiih. 

Hoft apoBtpRH, npesAe ^l^u^b A^^aTb H3'b eiilx% buboau o pyccKoiťL 
BjdflHiH Ha mí^cthhx^b SHTejieĚ. 

Bi BOHi^t KHM3KRH aBTop^ cooÓn^aeTB CBijífima o TypBeCTaHCROft 
TyaeMHoft rasei^. IlepBOHaqajiBHo OHa cocraBJíflJia ,npHjioseHie* vb 
^TypBecTaHCKHMi WbAOUocrawb^; 9Th ^QP^JK^^^^í^" buxoahjih c% 
1870 roAa ^eTupe pa3a b'b wbcawb^ j^Ba pasa na capTCROM'B h ji^Ba paaa 
Ha BHprHdCROirb ji3URaxi>; a cb 1883 ro^a r. OcTpoyvoBj nopy^eno 
6ujio HBAaaaTB eseHOA^bJíBHyBD raaeTy tojilro na caprcROMi asuRib, a 
daT%M'B pjíxowb CB TeRCToiTB capTCRUMi cTajTB noM^^ii^aTbCA H ero pyc- 
CRift nepeBOA'B. Fasera npeAHasHa^iajiacb rjiaBHUMi* o^pasom* Mjia Ty- 
BeMHUXi j^ojisHocTHUX'B jiHi^'L, ROTopuxi* SHaROMHJia CB pacnopflaReHÍflMH 
iiAMHHHCTpan;ÍH, cooón^afl TaRse h pasHua nojiesnux npaRTHHecRÍA cb^- 
jífiuia. PojiB Hd^ank 6ussl JK)6oiiuTHafl, h mucjib ocHOBaTB rasery ajui 
]rlcTHUx'B acHTejieft 6ujia o^eHB yMHafl. ]í^ capros-B h rbpfhsobi aro 
<!ujia Beo^B HecjiuxaHHafl; pe^aRi^ia, no cJiOBairB r. OcTpoyiroBa, Rpoici 
aAMHHHCTpaTHBHUx^ coo6ii^eHÍft, cTapajiacB SHaRoiiHTB tyzeuuidwb cb 
Pocciefi H pyccBHMi HapoAOMi, oÓiflCHflTB nojiBsy Hsyqenifl pyccRaro 

JISURa H pyCCROĚ rpailOTU QnpHM'&HHTejE[BHO RB nOHATÍAin capTOBi, 

<$0JBiniiHCTB0 ROTopfiix'B cMoxpHTB 611^6 Ha eBponetcRoe oópaBOBaBÍe 
RaR'B Ha H-i^HTo HecoBM^CTHiioe ci MycyjiBMaHCRuirB MipoBoaapi- 
HÍeifB*. K'B cosajrbHÍH), h sa^cb r. OcTpoyiiOBB ne AaJTB, RaR'B vopb 
^Uf oAHaRO, AaxB, caMaro jiK)6onuTHaro: HMeHHo, no;i;potfHo nepej^aBafl 
nporpamiy raseTU, ho yRa3HBaeTB, RaR'B ona opHHHMaercA MtcTHUMH 
qHTaTejiflMH. Owb x^jiserh tojibro otín^ee, h BecBMa opsrHHajiBHoey sa- 
vbqanie: ,?to($bi ycTaHOBHTB opaBHJiBHUĚ BBrjiAA'^ na TyseMHyD rasery, 
He A0JI9KH0 ynycRaTB h3'b BH^a, tto xota ona HSAaercu b% rohují 

XIX B^Ra, HO HS^aOTCA AJIA CaprOBl (h RHprH30B'B), ROTOpue Vh OTHO- 

menÍH yMCTBOHnaro CBoero pasBHTÍfl HanoMHHaDTB co6ok) pyccKuarb 
XTII cmoAfbmijf. Kas^ufi snaROMUĚ cb shbhbd caproBi MoaRero 6e8B 
Barpy^Benifl npHSHaTB, hto MHoria CTopoHu sh3hh capTOBB 3a BpeMfl 
pyccRaro ynpaBJíeHiji hmh MoryrB 6utb nocTaBieHU bi, napaiJiejiB cb 
íioao6bumh cTopoHaMH SH3HH pyccRHX'B ROHn;a XYII H Hanajia XVIII 
B^Ra^ (cTp. 132). H Bi noATBepsAeníe aBTop'B (iiHTHpyii IleRapcRaro) 
opHBOAHTB HspeqeHÍfl pyccRHxi jiK)Aefi, ójiaroqecTHBO oTpHAaBmHX^B 
HayRy bi XYII ctoji^tíh, cjEHHaa 3th Hspe^enifl co BsrjiflAaMH coape-* 
MeHHuxB MycyjiBMaH^B TypROCTaHCRaro Rpaa, hjih (ujsmfjH CojiOBBeBa) 
roBopHTB o 8HaqeHÍH nepBux'B pyccRHXi „M^oMOCTeĚ" npH Ilerpi B., 
CB ROTopuKH cjiH^aeTi CBOD TypRecTaHCRyi) TyseiiHyi) rasexy. ^yiiaeMi, 
^TO jDÓHTOJiflMB CTaparo MocROBcaaro n;apcTBa ne noHpaBHTCA dTo c6jíh- 
jReHíe, HO BB cTeneHH RyjK»TypH ecTB A*ScTBHTej«»Hoe cxoactbo. — A. H. 



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XPOHHKÁ. — jraTEPÁTyPflOB OBOSP^HIE. 445 

— Mejriop&QÍOHHHi spexHn h cocrojiHie cejbcsaro zoBjíficTBa m» Pocdi h HHOorpaH* 
HBzi rocyxapcTBftxi. HscjrtxoBame K C, BMoxa. Cii($., 1890. Orp. XT, 250 h 10» 

TpyAi» r. Biioza npeACTEBJíAeTB Óojibmoft npaRTHqecRíft HHTepecb 
Bi> HacTOAiii,ee BpeMA, m> bha7 o5ii^aro xasejiaro BpHdHca, nepesHeae- 
Maro HaniHMi cejibCBHMi xoaaficTBom. BonpocB o cos^amH y nacB 
coeAiajibHaro npe^HTa ;(jia yjiyqineHifl seMJieA^jiífl uocTaBJiieH'B y nacK 
o4)4>H^iaJlI»Ho npH y^pesAOHÍH XBopaHCKaro 6aHBa, h cavufl h3Cjiíao- 
BaHÍA r. Riioxa iBíwívyt^ HenocpeACTBeHHyD cbji3b cb sa^a^aMH cyo^e- 
CTByDu^efi npH hhehctopctbí BHyTpesHHxi jí!^t> kommuccíh no noBOxy 
na^enia i^wh ea ceiBCKo-xoBaficTBeHHHA opoHSBeAenifl. Sa^a^eft aBTopa 
(5ujio coópaTb B03M0SH0 6ojibinee KOJiH^ecxBo mhhuxi o coctojihíh 
aeifjieA^bqecRofi npoMumjieHHocTH h Mejiiopai^ioHBaro Epe^HTa bi pas- 
Hux'B rocyAapcTBaxi, a saT^M^b conocxaBHTb 8tb CBt^OBk cb nojiose* 
HieMx cejibCRaro xosaficTBa b^b Poccíh, ci i^iibD yBaBaeifl Toro nyra, 
no ROTopoMy nysno cji^AOBaTb ajia noAn^TÍa nameft seMJiextjibqecRoi 
RyjibTypu. 

Bi RpaTRofi BCTyaHTejibHO& CTaxbi (exp. 1 — 8) aBTopi A^&errB 
,»o6n^ifi oósopi nepeBopora vh ceibCRo-xoBAficTBenHoirB noJtosenÍH jyh 
EBponif BUSBaBmaro norpeÓnocTb b% Me^iopai^ioHHOMi RpeAHTÍ". IIpesAe 
Bcero, yoaAOR'b aoxoahocth seMieA^JiiA, bcjiíACtbío noEnsenúi 1^'bE'b 
na npoAyRTU, Racaerca tojebro H3BÍCTHaro poAa xosaficTBi h BOBce ne 
H]r&eT'b o6oiaro sna^enia; TaR^b, B'b o6íafiWh HTort oóoporoBi ci» cejibCRO* 
rosaficTBeHEUMH npoAyRTaMH bi Espon^ h C^Bepnoi AMepHR']^ sa no- 
cjribAHÍB ABa aochtuji^tía óajiancb HSMtneHifi bi* i^^saxi noRasuBaerb 
ne noHHsenie, no npHpan^eHie na cyímy cBume Tpexi VHJiJiiapAOBi 

MapORl. A^O B'b TOMl, qTO ,»npOAyRTU CROTOBOACTBa BO TOJIbBO HO BO- 
HH3HJIHCb B'b TiíbWÍy HO HaOÓOpOTb, I^ÍHU Ha HHXl B3AOpOSaJIH H npH- 

TOMi» vh óojibnieiii Aase pasMipi, nfbvh HacROJibRo ynajiH i^íhh na 
wfí noHTH BHAU sepna". Poccin-se „ne BocnojibdOBajuu^b dTHMi nepe- 

ABHSeHiOM^b HÍÍWh H HO MOSeTb HM'b BOCnOJU»80BaTbCfl*', HO npH^HHaMi, 

ROTopuii yRasuBaDTCfl aBTopoMi. IIpHToirb ,caMUJi ycji0BÍH BRcnjiyaTaiUH 
sevjíH, %% óoJbrnEHCTB*]^ eBponeficRHxx rocyAapcTBx, coBepmeHBo hsm^- 
HHJHCb. BjiaroAapfl pasBHTÍH) h yjyqmeHiK) cpoACTBi coo6ni(eHÍJi, a TaRse 
ycnixaMi Hay^Haro snania, dOHjeA^biiie, mosho CBasaib, cobcími npe- 

06pa3UJI0Cb**. H3M']kHBJIHCb OpyAÍH 06pa60TRH, BOABHJLHCb MamHHU, yBO- 
JIHHHJlOCb qHCJIO COAOpSUMUXl SHBOTHUX:b, yMHOSHAHCb nOHBeHHUfl 

yjiyqmeHifl; ,cj[OBOM'b, RyjbTypa, CTanoBBCb Bce 6oji^ h 6ojrie hetoh- 
3HBH0K), Tpetfyen Bce 6oj'be o5niHpHuxx saTpaTb", YnoiuiHyBí o6i 
ycHjiHBnieftca norpeÓHocTH RpoAHTa, aBTop'b vhmoxoaomi saMiqaeirb^ 
HTo, „BCjri^ACTBÍe npoHcmeAQiaro wh ceMHAecaTux^ roAaxi noBumenLi 
jJitni na 3eHiK), saAOJiseBHOCTb seMJtesjíaA^HLi ORasajacb HecooretT- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



446 IřbCTHHB^ EBPOnU. ' 

<5TByiDmei), a aro cjty^Hjiocb He tojbeo y nacL". BnpoqeirB, r. Bjiíoxi ro- 
BopHT'B o cejiBCRoirB xo3JificTB% H spe^HT^ ci cjiHmROH'B <|^opirajiBHoft 

H OTBJíeHeHHOft TOHBH Sp^HÍH, nOHTH He OCTEHEBJIHBaflCIi BOBCe HE UepBO- 

•€TeaeHHUX'B Bonpocaxx o xosHficTseHHOMS nojiosenÍH 3e]íj[ej|'bxbYecBaro 
Bjracca h o noftjrbjsfiTB\HXi» npesMipeoft BaAOJiseHHocTH. 

Bi KEEvi cooÓn^aeTCfl Msoro CB-b^eHÍft o Hejiiopai^ioHHOirB Bpe;i;HT% 
wb 6uBineM'b iiapcTB'^ nojibCROHnb, wh ÁHrjriH, FepMaHiH h oT^iJihEuxit 
H%Men;EHxi rocyAapcTBaxib, bo $paHn;ÍH, HTaiiH, HcuaniH, DopTyrajtriH, 
ABCTpin, PyMUHÍH, Typi^iH h c^Bepo-aifepHBaHCKHX^b CoeAHHeHHiiix'B 
niTaTax^b. OTHOCHTejiBHo TypuiH mh yanaeitB, Meat^y npoqHni, q-ro 
„OTTOMaHCKoe npaBO BocnpemaeT^ aaxsarB (cy;^e6HHfl apecTB) h npo- 
j^axy 3eNj[eA'i^JiB?ecBHX'B opy^ift Wíí norameHiif AOJira saeMmHsa-BeMJie- 
X&jibi^a; cyn^ecTByerb TaKste npaBHjio, HCRJUD^aiDni^ee hsi apo^asH abh- 
a^HMocTeft A0ii»HHRa-3eMjieA']^bixa napy bojiobt. h crbMena; ho npaBHJio 
dTo He Bcerjia coóJiiDAaeTCA^. Br& nocjitAHie ro^u, „^'h yqpesAeHieMi 
MHHHCTepcTBa sBUJíejsíbma h HasHaqeHÍeifb bi hhhhctpu eBponefin;a- 
^pani^yaa, npeAupuH^TU Óujih pastnufl uipu ^jia noAHflTÍa Typen;Karo 
<^eJIECKa^o xosxficTBa''. He coBctHi to^ho h cjihoibomi BpaTRO roBO- 
pHTCH o noJioaceHÍH jifbjn, bi C^Bepnoft ÁMepHR^, ocoóeHHO o6i oxpaHH- 
i^ejiLHuxt saROHaxTb— homesteadlaws. „HosaROHy JíyH3ÍaHH, homestead— 
roBopHTB aBTopi — H3taT'b orb BCjiRaro aaxBara (t.-c. otb HajfOJReniH 
itpecTa no cy^y). SaRoni ne 3aRjiH>«iaeTi b^ ce6i HHRaRHX^ orpaHH- 
qeHÍft „homesteaďa" h ne ;i;onycRaerB npoAasH (npHHyAHTejibHofi, no 
-cy^y ?) HJiH ceRBecTpoBaHia ero. DpH cymecTBOBaniH TaRHXx aaROHOBi, 
jierRO, RoneHHo, onpe;i;']tAHTTi CTeneHb pncRa, ROTopufi necyrB RanHTa- 
jtHCTH (?) Wh BToft CTpant. Bi BHAy npH3pa^H0CTH rapaHTÍH, npeACTaB* 
jiiieMOŘ nnoreROR), hhrto ne pi^maeTCA pHCROBaTb cbohicb RanHTajiovb, 
HecMOTpfl Ha AOBOJibBo BucoRÍft npoiieHTB, ROTopult paspi^meni rpasR- 

AaHCRHMM BaROHaMU HÍbROTOpUX'B HITaTOBl^. HaiTS RaseTCA, HTO SA^Cb 

ji^onyu^eHo aBTopoirb BiaareHbRoe HeAopadyirbHie: BJiaA^bn;airb ne sa* 
npemeno npo;i;aBaTb h saRjiaAUBaTb cboh HMym^ecTBa; caiiafl oxpana no- 
'Cj'b;i;HHX'B orb cy^e^Hiixi BducRanift AaJieRo ne 6e3ycjioBHa, a cyn^e- 
•CTBOBaHíe Hnore^Haro AOJira na yqacTR% 0TirbHaei*b A'bfiCTBÍe npHBHJieriH 
no oTHomeHÍD ri 3T0My AOJiry, xaR-b ito rapanTÍa, npeACTaBjweiiafl 
HnoTeKOH), ;i;oji»Ha 6uTb npHSHana bhojih^ AocTaTO^HOio. HesnaHHTejib- 
HocTb noseMejibHaro Rpe;(HTa b'b Ci^BepnoĚ ÁMepiiR^ib saBHCHTb ne orb 
eTeneHH pncRa h ne OTb 6o«3hh RanHTajiHCTOBi, a oirbApyrHXiycjioBift, 
o ROTopuxTb ynoMHHaeTB caM'b se anrop^: těmi, „ÓJiaro^apa n;iJioMypBAy 
accoi^iai^ift, mapoRoe paBBHTÍe nojiyqHjťb TOJibRo jiHHHuft Rpe^HTb; peajib- 
Hufl se RpeAHTB A<iA cejibCRaro xoBaficTBa bo^th ne cyn][ecTByeT'b, u 
eh HSMh MOÁO Kmo xyQiedaemes^ (cTp. 115). 

Bropan qacTb rhrpe, RacaR)ni(aacA Poccíh, BaRjtDqaerb B-b ce6i 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHSA. — .THTBPATyPHOE OBOSP^HIB. 447 

npe«Ae Bcero „nepeqesb rjiaBHUxi Mtponpiniifi, HanpaBJíeflHUxi ri 
jjiyqmeHii) ce^ftCKaro xosíiftCTBa"; saTtm noApofino o6cy«AaeTca bo- 
npocTb o&b ocyii^ecTBHHocTH y nacB npHHUHnoBi Mejiiopai^ioHHaro spe- 
AHTa, H HaKOHei^i B^ nocjr&Aneft rjiaBi^ A'&JUieTCfl o6cTOflTejibHaH „cpaBHH- 
TejiBHaA oi^iHBa cejibCRo-xo3i[ftcTBeHHofi AOXOAHOCTH ovb aaTparB na 
yjiyqffleHia b-b Poccíh h ApyrHXírocyAapcTBaxi**. ysensi drorooósopa 
coAepsaHifl RHHni mo»ho bh;('6tb, ^to xpy^i r. fijiíoxa sacjysHBaerB 
aojiHaro DHEMaHÍA no BasHocTH npexiieTa h no otíHJiÍK) co6paHHUxi Ma* 
rrepiajiOB'B. HtsoTopuA Hero^nocTH asjíoseníji MoryrB 6utb lerRo HcnpaB- 

JieHU BHHMaTeJIBHUMH ^HTaTeJIillíir; HHOCrpaHHUe TepHHHH npHBOAATCil 

wb opurBnajit, TaK'B qro neBi^pnaji nepe^a^a hxi bi» pyccsoMi* nepe- 
BOjit ne H^maeTi noHRManiio rescTa; HanpHV,, H^Mei^Kíe aeMCRÍe 6aHRH 
HasBanu ^wujiejí/kjLh^ecv,HVE TOBapEmecTBaMH** (Landschaften); seMCRÍfl 
B o6n^HHBU£ ccyAocÓeperaiejiBHUfl Raccu npHBHMaiDTCA aa ,npoBHH- 
i^iajiBBUA Raccu, coctob^íb boa^b ynpaBjeaieMi míctboS aAVHHHCTpa 

I(ÍH* (CTp. 40 — 1); peHTBUA CBMX^TeJIbCTBa BaSBaHU ^peBTOBUMH**, a 

nLandeskultur-Rentenscheine** — „ÓBJíeTaMH RyjibTypu aemiH" (exp. 43). 
9th MejiRÍA BeToqaocTH ne yiieHbmaDT-b, ROBeqso, nojiosHTejEbHuxi* 
JíocTOHHCTBT* H3CJi*A0BaBÍft V. Biiioxa. — JI. C. 



— B. JI, BeAUHKO, BocTOHHue xothbu (h xpyrúi CTHxoTBopemii). Gn6. 1890. 

r-fli BejiHHRo — CTHXoTBopei^i no npHSBaBÍD, Bi ero rbhsr'^ BHxeBi 
eecoMBtBBuft Tajiasrb, Roropuft, mosho eaA^TbCB, en^e padOBbOTCH h 
oRp^DBOT^. FjiaBByK) ocoÓeBBÓCTb c6opflHRa cocTaBJíflerb ota^jib boc- 

TOHBUX^ ]f0THB0B^, paspafiOTaflBllfl aBTOpOMl Cl JIlDÓOBblD H B^ o6n^eM'b 

XoBOJibBO y^a^Bo. BÓjrbmyE) noJioBEny aioro 0TA'bJia cocTaB;iBH)rb úpHTqH 

H8% BOCTOqBOA »H3BH H HCTOpÍH, paSCRasaBBUA OqOBb SHBO H XOpO- 

mHMH CTHxaMH. Booóoj^e 3T0 ecTb eAHBCTBeBBafl, bíksmvl ocBan^eBBafl 
^pHa, ROTopaA MoserB cooóoiHTb AHAaRTHqecROMy co^epautEÍR) hšro- 
Topoe noaTHHecRoe aoctohbctbo. Hb^ BOCToqBHxi» npirrqeft bi RBHSRt 
r. BejiHqRo BaMÓojii^e yj^aqnuiiH noRaaajiHCb navi: „Bjioxh*', „Axmoti* 
Ha MHHapeTi* m ^Gjrkuen^h". Btoti nocji^ABifi paacRasi, apoRpacaufi 
no coAepacaBÍK) h cthxv, sBaqHTejibHo BUMrpajťs 6h, ecjiH6u 6uJi'b 60- 
jiie cacaTB. En^e wb ÓÓJibmei viipi sto saMtqaaie othochtcb ri crbsr^: 
,XaBi, cBHBbfl H TpH jqeBHX^'', ROTopaB BenoMtpno pacTAHyra, xoth 
H B'b Hefi ecTb npeRpacBUH H'fccTa. BooÓn^e se, roBopa bi BocroqnoifB 
CTflJii, RpaTRocTb ecTb B'bpBafl noApyra nod3ÍH. IIodrB aojisob^ nociy- 
naTb TaRi, RaR^ apaói wb npHxqi r. BejinqRo — „^br My;^pe^a": 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



448 B^cnusKb ebpohu. 

ycran, cxpini h cxojui Óojoiei^, xysi y^easfi; 
Ho Hmero bi oretrb apa6i se npoH3Heci, 
A BCiaji H, nouoHJiCB, syBiiraHi ci Boxoft CTyxeHoi 
Cbítbij 3anaxa noxneci. 

MesAy MejRHMH nLecaMH BOCTo^naro OT^^a cjti^nyen otm^thtk 
H^sojibKo jiH)6oBHUX'B CTHxoTBopeHÍi HBi Fa^Hda (flaup.: 9KpacaBHi](a» 
npHMH 6jKQTb AyniHCTiix'B pos^") H caTHpH^ecRHXi H3X Caa^H, Hanp.i 

JI BHxiji Tyqnaro riyni^k 
Bi 0X6XAÍ sHaTHaro Bej&Moxv. 
Cújo na npoTHBHoft posi 

CaMOXOBOJBCTBO 6631 KOHqa... 

BOTB dTO H RpaiBO, H flCHO, H DOyHHTeJIBHO. 

Uzrb COfiCTBeflHUX^ JIHpH^eCBHXl CTHXOTBOpeHift r. BeJIH^KO CJli- 

Kjerh oco5eHHo noxBajmrB: „Ho^b ycTajiufi uiph aaBoposHJia*, ,»BajiBcrb'', 
,J[%TO]ii^. 9to nocjitAHee, bi* cosajiHÍH), HcnopneHo oahhitb npo3aH* 
^ecKHVB BupaseBieMi: 

n wb jnmo noB^en Heootcudanuo 
ApoMaTB nojTHHH H rpeuxH. 

9to sHeosBHAaHHo'' TaBi se ptnceTB no3THHecBÍft cjiyxi, BaB'B h cjií* 
Ayi)mee: 

H zoTb HesHaD Tafiei cjab^h en ÓHioft, 
Si ^yv: vb sBTb cenpefm en owpoBaH&fl. 

BnpoqeMi, oTh ooaoObux^ rpixoBi* aBTopi, BOHe^Ho, caiťB H86a* 
BHTCA npH 65jiBmefi jiHTepaTypBoft oduthocth. 



— Eócpeeíi-Feií/Hne. Hcropíji BOBoft <i>HJioco<t>ÍH bi csaTom o^epsi (Grandriss der 
Gescbicbte der neuen Philosopbie). Ilepeseii ch cexBxoro nixei^Karo ■axanit 
&, Rojiy6oBCKÍ<l. B-B npiuoxeBiH oiepra <í>hjioco<|>íh y cjaBuni h xsa ysasaTexA. 
Gn6. Hsx. IlaHTeieeBa. 1890. 

KHHra HSepBera ne Hyas^aeTCH bi pesoiieHAai^iH. IlepeBOAi r. Ro- 
jiy6oBCBaro onesB xopomi. Mu saM^THJiH tojibbo o^ny h to BecBMa 
npocTHTejiBHyK) omHÓsy. 7 acTpojioroB'B h HHCTHqecKHxi HaTypB-^^HJio- 
co(|k)B'b aoA'B CJI0B0M'B Gestirn pasyifiDTCH ne eo3efh3diji, a ,»acTpajiBHoe 
nanaJio^ hjih „acTpaiBHUJi chjiu', A'&fiCTByK)iii(ÍA bo bc^xi He6ecHux'B 
r&iaxi H npesA^ Bcero wh cevH naBHUxi cBtTHjmxi acTpojioriE 
(cojiHi^e, Jiyna h batb H8B'bcTHUxi b'b ap^bhocth nAaHeim)^ Boropsa 

HaSUBaTB C03B%BAÍaMH H6yj|05H0. BOT^B eAHHCTBeHHafl BaH^THajI HeTO^- 

HOCTB BT> nepeBOAi r. Eojiy6oBCBaro, Ecjih ecTB ;(pyrifl> to pasBt jihiiib 

Tasifl, BOTOpUXl B6 CTOHTB FOBOpHTB. 

f^ňSL pyccBaro Hs^aHÍa HóepBera r. 3a6a HanHcajTB BpaTBifl oqepB'B 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XPOHHBÁ. — JIHTEPÁTyPHOE OBOSP^HIE. 449 

^HJK>co4)iH y qéxoBi, a r. MaceraiycTi — y nojiasoBi, a cairB nepeeoA' 
nEKii npHCoeAHHHjTb oónrapnuĚ h BecBMa Tn^aTejiLHO cocTaBJíeBHuft 
TpasTarB o pyccRHXi aBTOpax^B no (j[)Hjioco<j[>iff. CymiHocTB hx'b Bsrjifl- 
AOB% HSJíoseHa cb 6ojibinoiD o6'BeRTHBHOCTBK), a 6H6jriorpa4)H^ecKÍ4i yM- 
zsmsi OTJHHaDTCA nojuoTOK). PasyMierca, arorB no^veHEuft Tpyx^B 60- 
jcbe sasenib mm HCTopHsa pyccBaro oÓpasoBaHÚi h ajui <te6juorpa4>a, 
HesejiH cotfcTBeHHO jtM ^HJiococ^a, ho TyTB yse npH^HHOD ne r. Ko- 
xyóoBCRÍĚ. CaiTB owh CTOHTB Ha cOBepmeHHO B']kpHo& Toqsi spima, 
H vosHO óesycjioBHO corjiacHTBCA c^ aaiuiDqHTejiBHHMH cjiOBaiui ero 
TpasTaxa: 

„Uojífiojiíi uTorH HacTOJm^eMy onepsy 4^hjioco4»íh bi Poccíh, mosho 
csaaaTB, qxo pyccxie Bcer^a óujivl otsub^hbu Ha wA (j[)hjioco<j[>cbíjí to- 
«ieHÍii| rocnoACTBOBaBnrifl na Sanaci. OAnaRo, pesyjiBTaTii axoft ot3ub- 

HHBOCTH He 0TJIH9aH)TCa BUCOBOft 4^HJI0C0({»CK0ň npo6ofi, H TOJEBKO B'B 

caMOe nocjťl^AHee apeMJi abhjiocb hícbojibro xiicjurrejieí, BaHivaTejiB- 

HUX% rjy<ÍHH0ft H CHJlofi MUCJIH... Me^TU CaM06llTH0& 4^HJI0C0(Í>ÍH 

BucRasuiaDTca yse^asHo, hoohI TaR'b h ocraiOTca Me^TaHH*. — B. C. 



Bi Te^enie AeKaópa Mi^ciin;a bt> pejutRiUi) nocTyuHJiH cjitj^ynn^iii 
hobua RHHru H 6pomi)pu: 

Andpeeeoiciú. C. A.— JIsrqMTypHHx htohm: BapaTHHCRii, AocroeBCRiff, Fap- 
HiHH^b, HeRpacoFB, JlepxoHTOBi^, X ToiCToA. G116. 91. CTp. 285. !(. 1 p. 

AnucuMoez^ A., cn6. Horap.— Ai^BVTHHfi YsadaTeib coBepmeHHOiiTHHXi 
iHoaiTb, orpaHUHeHHLUii Bi opaBocnocoÓBOCTH. Cn6. 90. U. 5 p. 

Bexemon^ A. H.— HcropHqecRÍt onepRi 25\r6THeft a^tcibhocth Hms. Boib- 
Haro dBOBOMHqecKaro 06iAecTBa cb 1865 ao 1690 r. Cn6. 90. Orp. 200. 

BeAopoah^ A.— EUeaiHCTS Hamixi ARefl. Gd6. 91. Orp. 216. !(. 1. p. 

JJpem»-ra|>m&.— BeepoxHHft, noB*CTb. Cn6. 90. Crp. 174. H. 60 b. 

JBameOH%, 8. K.— A. IIIoneHTayepb, «ro srshb h (^Hioco^cRaji x^TeiBHOCTb. 
Ca6. 91. Crp. 98. !{. 25 r. 

TaúMb^ P.--PoMaHTHqecR8fl niROda. BRiajTb bi Kcropiio BiiieuKan) yiia. 
nepeB. ci HtM. B. HeB'bAOiicRifi. M. 91. Crp. 774. JI. 5 p. 

ramuyKh, A.— Kaienjíapb KpecroBHft Ha 1891 r. CTp. 49. D;. 15 k. 

FamtccKiú^ A. C— HRJieropojíCRitf C6opHHRi, HBJíaB. ryÓepBCR. ciaTHCTn. 
KOMHieroM*. T. X. H.-HoBr. 90. (irp. 414. U. 1 p. 50 r. 

rputopoeuKb^ A' B— naxapB. Hbjí. Cn5. RouHrera rpaMOTHOCTH. Cn6. 90. 
Orp. 41. 11. 9 R. 

7k)uo, M. BocmnaHie h HacrJbACTBeHBOCTb. Ol npeAHCi. h upnu. uepeB. ci 
<ftpaHu. K. TojcToff. Oi5. 91. Crp. 329. O;. 1 p 50 r. 

IIpoHCxo»AeHie BpeMesH. TTchxoi. ^h)x^. TlepeB. ct 4>paHK. A. Bí. 

£— Ba. GxojeecK-b. 91. Orp. 128. H;. 75 r. 

Jlod9^ AjwJ).— ílopn TapacROHi, nocxfeAHee HpHRiDHenie ciaBHaro Tapra- 
peHa. nepeB. ci <|)paH^. M. 91. Orp. 314. D;. 1 p. 25 r. 

Seapnuu/KÍú^ X H.~Bojii»hocth aanoposcRHXb RasaicOBb. Ob 3 Rapi. CbO* 
90. Orp. 384. H;. 2 p. 50 R. 

Toin, I.-Hhbapl, 1891. 29 



Digitized by 



Gooole 



450 nonoDA bbpoioi. 

3Áamo6pamcKÍu^ H.— GoÓpaHíe co^BeHÍi. Ob noprperom EBT^fia. T. I ■ II. 
M. 9a Crp. 437 h 491. I^ sa XBa t. 3 py6. 

HÓ^peen-FeiUme.—^c^V'^ hoboí 4>hioco4>íh vh csaTom oiepst. flepee. cw 
HtM. &. KojiyóOBCKitt. Ob npiurox. o^epica y ciaBflHi h xBa yKasareja. Gn6. 90. 
Orp. 630. A. 5 p. 

Komckíú, a.— Ontrrb oóiflCHeHÚi sByKOBUxi HacitAOBaBÍĚ pin fl3xtHeHieM% 
pationi opranoBi. BopoB. 90. Orp. 120. 

EMmon, A. A.— OTien no bscjtMobahíi) bojdkcboě xiiÓHoft ToproBiH, vb 
1889—90 r. TBcpB. 90. Orp. 115. D;. 70 k. 

EopetMi-EpyKoecKtú^ T. G., ropa. hhs.— SanHc&a no noBOAy osBxaeiiaro 
nepecKorpa ycTasa dMepHTajibHofi saccu ropn. HHseuepoBi. BaiKa. 90. Orp. 32. 

Socuhckíú, B. a.— o npieiiaxi Baynaoft paspaÓoTRH craTHCTnqecKHzi xas- 
HHxi. M. 90. Crp. 71. SsA. Mocbob. jBHBepcHTera. 

Jlamumen^ Ú., Bpa^i.— ^AopoBBe. Rh. 1: BeciAH o tomi, Kasi ycrpooBO 
qeioBinecEoe rbjío m h'^u% oho SHBerB. Cocrasjí. jua nusoii h rpaMornaro Ha- 
poxa. Ob npBJíos. Ta&i. pscysicoBi. M. 90. Crp. 101. I^. 25 a. 

líécoecKiú^ A. H. OnHTB HayqeHU naJiopyccKHx^ xyui. UoiraBa. 90. Cíp. 52. 

«7io<^.'~HjjiB)CTpHpoBaHBaji HCTopia HcsyccTBrb. ApzHreKTypa. Gayibirrypa. 
^HBonHCb. MysHBa. Ob 140 pac. b ooprp. KOxno3BTopoBi XIX b. Ilepea. O. H. 
EyjraaoBa, onepai HCiopia nysuBK M. H. HaaHOBa. Gn6. 90. Orp. 304. lí. 2 p. 50 a. 

MaKcuMoe^y Ear.— TepcKoe aasanbe Boficso. BiaAHEaBB. 90. Orp. 166. !{. 1 p. 

MapKoe^^ JBereHiff.— nyTemecraie no Ob. Seiui. lepycaiHMi b IlaiecTBBa, 
OaMapia, FaiBjea h Oepera Majoft Asix. Cn6. 91. Orp. 523. I^. 2 p. 25 a. 

Meúep^^ Mopnm, A-pi.— FjiaBBiia Teneulfl B'b coBpeiieBBoR noJiBTBqecaoí 
dBOBOMÍfl. Cn6. 91. Orp. 379. I^. 1 p. 50 a. 

Mu3UHoe^, EL.— H. A. FoBHapoBi bi ero naBHsncb npoBSBexeaiax^ Apoci. 
90. Orp. 54. 

MuponoAhCKiu, O.— YneÓBHai rpaMOTH xia xojoxuxi coMarb. Eza- 3 (Ileji^ar. 
Mysea BoeHBO-yneÓB. saBOA.)- Onó. 91. Orp. 111. H. 15 a. 

HacraBieBie jua oóyHann^axi no yneÓHExy rpaxoTH xia xoioxuxi 

<M)iAarb. Hba. 4. Gn6. 91. Orp. 30. H;. 15 a. 

MuíUKemoeiy H. B.— BtpseHcaoe seiueTpacoBie 28 Maa 1887 r. Ci 4 aapr. 
■ 43 noiHTHnas. Cn6. Orp. 154 (Tpyw reoioranecaaro RoxHTera^ t. X, J^ 1). 

H. ^.— rocy^apcTBO fl HapoAU BajaaHcaaro noiyocrpoBa, bxi npomexmee, 
HacToamiee h óyAymee b Bojrapcaaa apxBAa. Hcropa^., noiOMBH. x BTBorpa<t>a9. 
craTbB, nocBan^. aocTo^eoMy aonpocy. M. 90. Orp. 161. A. 1 p. 30 a. 

Ocunosh^ H. G. — daoHOXBHecaift 6uvh rocyxap<5TBeBHHx'b apecTBaH'B Rypras- 
caaro oapyra TOÓojiBcaofi ry6. T. 1. Ca6. 90. GTp. 506, ci TaÓJiBii. 

naeAoecKiu^ R. $.— HcropH^ecait onepai IlerpoBcaaro IloiTaBcaaro aaxer- 
caaro aopnyca (1840—90 r.) llojrr. 90. Orp. 113. II. 1 p. 50 a. 

JIap(lM0H06^, Hb.— GraxOTBopesia. Cn6. 91. Cíp. 63. I(. 50 a. 

Jlecomiií^ H.— ATiacB nepieseft ai co^BEenix): GacrexaTaqecaoe oóy^esie 
opaaTBqecaaxi npíexaxi crojiapsaro pexecja. Gn6. 90. JIbct. 36. 

GBcrexaTB^ecaoe oóy^esie npaaTBHecaaxi npiexaxi cioiapnaro pe- 

xecia. Gn6. 90. Orp. 37a l(. 1 p. 50 a. 

^empoe^^ H. — MexiyxBqecaia xaTepiaiasaiuB. Hepea. cb aarx. a axepxa. 
H8H. Gn6. 91. Orp. 338. H. 3 p. 75 a. 

CcudúAemOy BoiOAflXBpi.— 31* nodsift. Ríobb. 90. Orp. 47. I^. 20 a. 
OaM(>Kum^^ H. — Haópocaa bs^ shsbb rsapAetcaoR aaBaiepia. Bhb. II. 
6 aaprani.